WorldWideScience

Sample records for existentialism

  1. Existential Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social…

  2. Existential Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Richard H.; Leech, Shirley

    1974-01-01

    Present psychological assessment stems from a philosophy of science that values objectivity but fails to comprehend the existence of the person being evaluated. A humanistic-existential model shifts the focus from omnipotence to encounter and encourages client responsibility. Some pertinent assessment issues are formulated and specific instruments…

  3. Existentialism in New Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmia, Shikha

    In 1977, John C. Merrill, a mass communication scholar, found that many scholars believed that the sixties movement of new journalism is in some way related to existentialism. To find this out, a study identified six main themes of the philosophy of existentialism (as espoused by Jean-Paul Sartre) and looked for the presence of these themes in the…

  4. Kierkegaard, Despair and the Possibility of Education: Teaching Existentialism Existentially

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Ada S.; Kinaschuk, Kyle; Xing, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Written collaboratively by two undergraduate students and one professor, this article explores what it would mean to teach existentialism "existentially." We conducted a survey of how Existentialism is currently taught in universities across North America, concluding that, while existentialism courses tend to resemble other undergraduate…

  5. Existentialism in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Leona E.

    1971-01-01

    The counselor, in working with students, can make each choice a means through which the person clarifies his purposes and designs his own future. Every commitment of time is a serious undertaking. This, the author sees, is the fundamental message of existentialism for counseling. (Author)

  6. Existentialism and Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Mary P.

    Because the term feminism linguistically narrows the essence of woman's existence when it is used consistently to describe female writing that deals with individual freedom and considered choices, it is essential to distinguish between feminism and existentialism. While feminism is primarily concerned with women in the context of a dominant male…

  7. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  8. A Primer of Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Gordon E.

    1961-01-01

    Although no set of principles can apply uniformly to all existentialists, certain basic characteristics of existentialism are central to both the nonreligious writers like Sartre and Camus and the theistic existentialists like Kierkegaard, Maritain, Marcel, Tillich, Berdyaev, and Buber. These characteristics are (1) an insistence that human life…

  9. The existential way to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laurie Jo; Goldner-Vukov, Mila

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores the essential features of recovery and the need for an existential approach in psychiatry. The biopsychosocial model often fails to sufficiently validate the existential suffering of patients. We review the major principles of recovery and the philosophical and psychiatric principles of existentialism. The ontological or intrinsic existential issues of death, isolation, freedom and meaninglessness are described and their manifestations are explored in clinical syndromes. When ultimate existential concerns are recognised, patients have an opportunity to understand their life on a deeper level that is not defined as a medical disorder but as a part of human existence. Understanding that existential concerns underlie a great deal of human behaviour helps to free patients from the stigma of psychiatric labels. An existential approach is a humanistic way toward recovery.

  10. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2014-01-01

    patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  11. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  12. Existential Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Krill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The existential impact upon social work began in the 1960’s with the emphasis upon freedom, responsibility and a sense of the absurd. It affirmed human potential while faulting the deterministic thinking that was popular with psychological theorists at that time. It was open to the prospects of spirituality, but was less than optimistic concerning great progress among social institutions. It was a forerunner to the strengths-based social work programs of our present day.

  13. Pragmatism and Existential Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lipps

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French.  He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy.  While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.

  14. Indigenous Existentialism and the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Hokowhitu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

  15. Existentially Oriented Training for Mental Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Carl

    1976-01-01

    The author presents an overview of the role of existentialism in the training of counselors and mental health practitioners. Exercises and skill development techniques are also presented for existentially oriented training of psychotherapists, using a workshop format. (HLM)

  16. The Existential Dimension of Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood...... as referring to the existential condition of plurality and uses this insight to draw up a theoretical ground for further phenomenological analysis of right....

  17. The Existential Dimension of Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    2017-01-01

    for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood......The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... to the ontological and existential question of how we come to express ourselves as individuals in a plural world. While this question is phenomenological in nature, it is not treated within the otherwise diverse field of phenomenology of law. The author therefore looks outside this tradition and develops a framework...

  18. An Existential View of Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Bill

    2005-01-01

    In clinical work with adolescents there is a stark similarity between what they experience and the concepts of existentialism. However, surprisingly very little has been written in terms of how the concepts of existentialism can or should be applied to this age group. Rather, existentialism seems to be a concept reserved for its application to the…

  19. Existential Authenticity: A Foundational Value for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miars, Russell D.

    2002-01-01

    The author challenges the view that adopting an existential perspective in counseling is inapplicable or a luxury for most clients. The concept of existential authenticity is presented as an organizing ethic that can bring out the positive side of existentialism in counseling. Specific values and conditions are presented that can be adopted to…

  20. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  1. The Essentials of Existential Psychoanalysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    phase of existential psychotherapy. Method. The qualitative ... psychotherapy. In order to gain this soft information, a specific sampling technique clearly came to the fore. The logic of purposive sampling was apparent, as this investigation requires the ... or the Association for Humanistic Psychology (2002). However, not all ...

  2. Kierkegaard, Seduction, and Existential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeverot, Herner

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at making a case for the role of seduction in existential education, that is, education that focuses on the pupil's life choices. First, the article attempts to show that the relationship between the teacher and the pupil can be understood as a form of seduction. Secondly, the article examines how such a relationship functions in…

  3. Logical and conceptual problems of existential psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, C

    1985-05-01

    The author has argued that existential psychology and psychiatry are not consistent with existential philosophy, from which they derive their basic concepts. Existential philosophy treats consciousness as an epistemic and ontological absolute while existential psychology and psychiatry acknowledge the existence of unconscious mental processes. It is not possible to base a viable concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the nature of transference, or the efficacy of interpretation upon the radical concept of freedom, which is basic to existential philosophy. If psychiatrists wish to experiment with nonpsychoanalytic dynamic psychologies, then it is the author's opinion that the advancement of knowledge would be better served either by using existentialist concepts and principles consistently or by explicitly altering them in clearly defined ways for stated reasons, or by formulating psychodynamic hypotheses that do not lay claim to any foundation in existential philosophy.

  4. On the Philosophical Evolution of Transcendental Existentialism

    OpenAIRE

    Omotoyinbo, Femi Richard

    2014-01-01

    Either methodologically or ideologically, philosophical development remains incessant. In virtue of this, the paper focuses on the ideological formulation of a synthesis from the remains of Existentialism and some of its inherent themes. This work looks at the possibility of Existentialism, as a philosophical enterprise, progressing into the transcendental realm. It opines that Transcendentalism is surreptitiously imbedded in many existential weltanschauungs and it is dubbed to have some cruc...

  5. Existential and Phenomenological Influences in Educational Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald

    1979-01-01

    Existentialism, methodology, phenomenology, and hermeneutics are defined as they apply to philosophy of education. A chronological presentation of the literature outlines the contributions of each. (JMF)

  6. Birth Experience through an Existential Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2017-01-01

    Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...

  7. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne

    2017-12-01

    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Existentialism and Humanism: Humanity--Know Thyself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    At times, an individual in modernity can feel dehumanised by work, by administration, by technology, and by political power. This experience of being dehumanised can take the individual to an existential awareness of the priority of existence over essence. But what does this existential experience mean? Are there ways in which this experience can…

  9. Why Adoptees Search: An Existential Treatment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago Krueger, Mary J.; Hanna, Fred J.

    1997-01-01

    Frames the adult adoptee's search for biological roots in an existential treatment perspective. This perspective is proposed as a practical approach to understanding the complexities of the adoption experience and an adoptee's desire to search. Reviews adoption practices, existential perspectives (e.g., death), and clinical implications. Provides…

  10. The existential dimension in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergård, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette

    2016-01-01

    or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. CONCLUSION: GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers...... ways. Cultural barriers such as shyness and lack of existential self-awareness seem to hinder GPs in communicating about issues related to the existential dimension. Educational initiatives might be needed in order to lessen barriers and enhance a more natural integration of communication about...

  11. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objective to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. Design......: The review follows the approach of a scoping review. Systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were combined with manual and electronic searches for related references. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 examining dimensions of existential meaning-making in transition......) outcome measures, and (g) results. Measurements: The studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt, Mitwelt...

  12. Self and its anxieties in existential psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Mircea Adrian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.

  13. Client Information in Counseling: An Existential View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Gerald J.

    1975-01-01

    An emphasis on existentialism as a dynamic philosophical force with significant implications for vocational guidance in the use of information to help clients, followed by a Comment by Lee Isaacson. (Author)

  14. Motherhood transition through an existential lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way...... existentially among Danish first-time mothers, and whether they differ among mothers of full-term children (FT) and mothers of preterm children (PT). The thesis consists of three individual, still interrelated papers, first a scoping review among mothers having given birth at full term, identifying existing...... research about the significance of motherhood transition through the lens of existential psychology. For the second and third study, a nationwide questionnaire survey among Danish first-time FT and PT mothers was conducted. In the second study attitudes about making meaning of life existentially...

  15. The existential dimension in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design: A qualitative methodology with semi...... and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious...... or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion: GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers...

  16. A Humanistic Existential Perspective on Career Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloland, Paul A.; Walker, Betty A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an approach to career counseling based on humanistic existentialism (HE). The philosophical and psychological background of HE is reviewed with implications for various counseling dimensions including diagnosis, process, outcomes, interview techniques, test interpretation, and occupational information. (RC)

  17. An existential approach to risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ian H

    2002-02-01

    Existential, or existential-phenomenological philosophical approaches to the social psychology of risk perception provide a novel framework for understanding issues that are common to all humanity, such as fear of death, freedom and responsibility, isolation and meaninglessness, as these anxieties are a function of existing, or being-in-the-world. These fundamental anxieties can be related theoretically to the ways people perceive risks within social and cultural milieus, and can also be used practically within case studies, as demonstrated in the three examples presented, which examine perceptions of climate change, food-related risks, and environmental awareness via a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The discussion focuses on the possible insights that can be gained from taking an existential perspective on risk perception, and relates notions of contemporary technologically-oriented societies to the existential challenges faced by individuals and societies in the contemporary world.

  18. Systematic Review of Existential Anxiety Instruments. [article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, V.; Vos, J.; Westerhof, G.; Bohlmeijer, E.; Glas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Existential anxiety (EA) is an expression of being occupied with ultimate concerns such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. Philosophers and psychologists have claimed its importance for the study of human thinking, emotion, decision making, and psychopathology. Until now research

  19. Systematic review of existential anxiety instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Vincent; Vos, J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Glas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Existential anxiety (EA) is an expression of being occupied with ultimate concerns such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. Philosophers and psychologists have claimed its importance for the study of human thinking, emotion, decision making, and psychopathology. Until now research

  20. Bereavement and heightened existential awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalom, I D; Lieberman, M A

    1991-11-01

    "Ask not for whom the bells toll; they toll for thee." John Donne's admonition, though written 350 years ago, endures with astonishing freshness; it speaks to something self-evident, to a truth that is well known to many who have experienced bereavement--that the death of a significant other has the potential to hurl the survivor into a confrontation with his/her own death. A confrontation with death--should we seek it? There is evidence in the clinical literature that in terminally ill patients such a confrontation may lead to pronounced positive psychological changes. Research (Yalom 1980) has documented that terminally ill patients may undergo a series of positive personal changes; they communicate more openly with family and close friends, they experience fewer fears, they rearrange their life priorities, they are less preoccupied with the trivialities of life, they live life more immediately rather than postpone experience and pleasure into the future. Does spousal bereavement in our culture confront individuals with their own personal death? Does it cause some widow/widowers to regard their existence in a different manner? If so, might it be possible that those bereaved individuals who examine their life deeply may have a different course of bereavement than those who do not look within? Might it even be possible that bereavement, for some individuals, results in psychological shifts analogous to the positive changes reported by terminally ill patients? These are the basic questions of our research inquiry. We designed a project which would allow us to determine, in a nonclinical sample of bereaved spouses, differences in the degree of existential awareness and the consequences of such awareness on the course of bereavement. We also attempted to determine which subjects were more likely to develop heightened existential awareness. The participants studied were part of an intervention project on bereavement in which we studied a sample of widows and widowers

  1. The Philosophy of Existentialism and a Psychology of Irreversible Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This paper shows that a relationship exists between existentialism and homosexual behavior. The writers suggest that for obligatory homosexuals, who remain well adjusted and continue to make wholesome contributions to society, their behavior is existential in nature. (Author)

  2. The existential realities of grief and bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte

    Our poster outlines the basic analytical and methodological strategy of a pending 3-year investigation into the existential dimensions of grief. The project is divided into two main foci: 1) a retrospective investigation into how bereavement of a parent in childhood/adolescence shapes the various...... experiential modalities of personal existence in adulthood; 2) a prospective focus investigating the process of initial adjustment after bereavement and how the person gradually achieves a reflective appropriation of the new existential situation after the loss of a parent.     As such, we are both interested...... in attaining an understanding of the pre-reflective and embodied dimensions of grief as it sediments and manifests throughout personal history, as well as how this dimension gets narrativised in transitions towards a more reflective stance on the existential modification instituted by bereavement...

  3. The existential realities of grief and bereavement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    Our poster outlines the basic analytical and methodological strategy of a pending 3-year investigation into the existential dimensions of grief. The project is divided into two main foci: 1) a retrospective investigation into how bereavement of a parent in childhood/adolescence shapes the various...... experiential modalities of personal existence in adulthood; 2) a prospective focus investigating the process of initial adjustment after bereavement and how the person gradually achieves a reflective appropriation of the new existential situation after the loss of a parent.     As such, we are both interested...... in attaining an understanding of the pre-reflective and embodied dimensions of grief as it sediments and manifests throughout personal history, as well as how this dimension gets narrativised in transitions towards a more reflective stance on the existential modification instituted by bereavement...

  4. Existential Design Applied in Universal Design Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsby, Anne Britt

    2016-01-01

    The critical design method aims to discuss ways of opening up the (design) brief when planning, designing, building, operating and maintaining the future of the built environment - public as well as private, indoor as well as outdoor. Focusing on "designials" (fundamental forms of design being), the methodology intends to illustrate the fact that objects; including buildings, parks, transportation systems, etc. may directly encroach upon certain "existentials" (fundamental forms of human being) - thus shed light on how a design process is normally conducted, and furthermore, how that affects people's existential well-being.

  5. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  6. Beyond Nature and Culture: Fromm's Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carveth, Donald L

    2017-08-01

    Though commonly seen as a member of the so-called "culturistic" school of psychoanalysis that rejected Freudian drive theory and embraced an "oversocialized" conception of human nature, Fromm's qualified essentialism and neo-Marxist existentialism significantly transcend both biological and social determinism (although he succumbs to the latter in regard to his theory of the Oedipus complex). His existential Freudo-Marxism contributes to the integration of psychoanalysis and social science. In place of the authoritarian superego and the pseudo-objective stance of the classical Freudians, Fromm offers conscientious, egalitarian, personalistic, and humane values.

  7. [Palliative sedation for psycho-existential suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaumer, Eva; Weixler, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    Sedation in palliative care is generally considered as an important therapy in terminally ill patients with refractory symptoms. However the sedation of patients with intractable psycho-existential suffering is still under discussion. This paper discusses the case of a 56-year-old patient in the final phase of carcinoma of the ovaries, who required palliative sedation for refractory, mainly psycho-existential suffering. It describes the course on our ward and the difficult process of decision-making. We discuss our approach based on literature.

  8. An Existential Framework for Understanding the Counseling Needs of Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillers, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To offer an existential framework for understanding some of the emotional and grieving issues that can accompany communication disorders. Method: A narrative review of selected existential psychology literature is provided. I. Yalom's (1980, 1986) model is used as a foundation to explore the 4 existential issues of death,…

  9. [Anxiety as an existential phenomenon. An existential analytic approach to understanding and therapy of anxieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1997-07-01

    From the existential analytical point of view, anxiety is considered to be a basic theme of existence. The experience of being threatened is most commonly related to the physical and material aspects of life. But on a deeper level anxiety deals with the search for foundational and supporting structures for existence. When one loses the sense of safety of being held and of having shelter in a world that does not offer ultimate securities, one is prone to anxiety. Anxiety can therefore be perceived as a subjective parameter of feeling threatened in the existential structures. This paper gives an outline of an existential analytical approach to the understanding of fear and anxiety, a basic classification of anxieties, and an overview of the following specific methods of an existential treatment search for foundational structures of existence, personal position-taking, dereflexion (Frankl) and paradoxical intention (Frankl).

  10. Waiting for the Existential Revolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    the ill fate of Havel’s existential revolution. The attempts of some European constitutionalists to reform individualistic emphasis of the integration project are problematic for the same reason: they turn attention away from politics, where real solutions need to be found. This relates to the third...

  11. Using Cinema and Literature to Explore Existentialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Jennifer; Tucker, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the book "When Nietzsche Wept: A Novel of Obsession" and the movie "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind" can be used to help counseling graduate students understand existential theory and its application to clients. Yalom's Four Givens of Existence, which consists of freedom and responsibility, meaninglessness,…

  12. Existentialism and Open Education: Divorce American Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibadeau, Gene

    This paper attempts to provide an insight into a possible relationship between open education and existentialism. The first section of this paper broadly defines the concept of open education as a search for a more meaningful approach to learning. This section then defines open education more specifically through the use of the following six…

  13. Existential psychotherapy of students as learning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  14. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Malan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The kingdom of God was a central theme in Jesus’ vision. Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God’s patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God in opposition to the temple ideology of exclusivist covenantal nomism. The analogies of father and king served as the root metaphors for this symbolic universe. They are existential root metaphors underpinning the contextual symbolic universe of God’s patronage in reaction to the collapse of the patronage system which left peasants destitute. Jesus’ paradoxical use of the metaphor kingdom of God had a therapeutic value and gave the concept new meaning. The initial motivation for proclaiming God’s patronage originated in Jesus’ primary identity formation by Mary as single parent and was reinforced in his secondary identity formation by John the Baptist. From these results can be concluded that kingdom of God was not meant to be understood as utopian, but existential. In order to clarify the meaning of kingdom of God and God’s patronage for the 21st century, emythologisation and deconstruction can be helpful especially by highlighting the existential meaning of the kingdom of God.

  15. An Existential Psychohistory of Frantz Fanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the life and philosophy of Frantz Fanon as he changed from a pseudo-Frenchman to an existential critic of European society to an anticolonial revolutionary. His development shows definite periods of ideological change and an intensity of belief in the philosophies he accepted and created at various times. (VM)

  16. The concept and relevance of existential issues in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Camilla

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate and clarify the concept of existential issues in relation to nursing research and nursing practice. This article is a theoretical analysis of existential issues in relation to nursing. Existential issues are becoming more commonly discussed and investigated in nursing research. Thus, it is important to clarify the concept. A clarification of existential issues may contribute to health care quality by increasing awareness of what existential issues are and drawing attention to the importance of discussing and reflecting on these issues, since practitioners in a caring profession will most likely encounter them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    as an entity likely to cause damage to such a degree that it terminates one’s existence. When determining an existential threat, political and...technological gap caused by years of neglected modernization, limited strategic mobility adversely impacts Russia’s traditional warfare capability...main problem for the Russian defense industry and the root of its inefficiency is corruption . Russia’s chief military prosecutor estimates that

  18. Existential support needs following cancer treatment with curative intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerdahl, Anna; Moynihan, Manus; Stollery, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Aims Research in recent years reveals that people can experience a range of existential difficulties following the end of cancer treatment. However, few studies have examined how to best support people with these needs. The aim of this study is to explore what support may be required to help people manage their existential concerns following the end of treatment. It is the second part of a study that examined the existential concerns of the same participants (Lagerdahl, Moynihan and Stollery ...

  19. Existentialism and organizational behaviour : How existentialism can contribute to complexity theory and sense-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Bornebroek te Lintelo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to develop a conception consisting of insights from complexity theory and additional notions from Weick's sense-making theory and existentialism for examining organization behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: This paper carries out a literature review of Karl Weick's theory of

  20. Irony, Deception, and Subjective Truth: Principles for Existential Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeverot, Herner

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes the position that the aim of existential teaching, i.e., teaching where existential questions are addressed, consists in educating the students in light of subjective truth, where the students are "educated" to exist on their own, i.e., independent of the teacher. The question is whether it is possible to educate in…

  1. An Existential Meditation--"Being" a School Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Irwin K.

    1976-01-01

    Existentialism emphasizes not only man's responsibility for fashioning his own nature but also the importance of personal freedom, personal decision, and personal commitment. The author explores the concept of an existential school administrator and how he can be "someone for himself". (Editor)

  2. An Existential Approach to Cross-Cultural Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1988-01-01

    Defines existentialism, culture, and cross-cultural counseling and explains how various existential concepts can serve as guidelines for cross-cultural counseling. Advocates finding approach to help counselors and counselor trainees understand how their own cultural identities affect their ability to help culturally different clients. (NB)

  3. Feelings of Existential Fulfilment and Burnout Among Secondary School Teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonstra, B.; Brouwers, A.; Tomic, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Teacher burnout is recognized as a serious problem. In research it has been related to many person-specific variables; one of these, the variable of existential fulfilment, has received very little attention thus far. The present study focuses on the relationship between existential

  4. Tell Me Why? Existential Concerns of School Shooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Birgit; Ganzevoort, Ruard

    2017-01-01

    One of the few recurring characteristics in school shooters' stories is their expression of existential concerns. Many discuss their hatred of the world and existential loneliness in their manifestos, suicide letters, or social media updates. These expressions--called leaking--are made during the planning period preceding their deed. They are not…

  5. Corporate culture and its existential meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Dmytrenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems of existential sense of corporate culture, in particular, threat to the conservation of an existential individual in the increasing processes of alienation. The purpose of the publication is to define the communicative turn of corporate culture that promotes the creation of a new subject of the communication space of a corporation, establishing symmetrical communication and overcoming the spiritual crisis of the modern society. The author points out that the communicative aspect of corporate culture, creating a network of vertical and horizontal connections, turns into intercultural communication. It is emphasized that this communicative turn in the study of corporate culture provides stimuli to symmetrical communication renewal and establishment as well as overcoming the areas of misunderstanding. The author states that the processes of globalization, corporatization of the society and multiculturalism have caused the spiritual crisis of European culture. At the same time the possibility of overcoming spiritual crisis within corporate culture is emphasized, as it reveals the capacity for transformation and convergence of humane forms. The author comes to the conclusion that philosophical­anthropological approach to corporate culture problems leads to further research which will enable to detect the human potential meeting the needs of modern mobile and active society.

  6. PHENOMENOLOGY AND MECHANISMS OF THE SOLUTION OF EXISTENTIAL INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilnikov Igor Aleksandrovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article sights of founders of existential psychology at phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of intrapersonal conflicts are considered. It is underlined, that the basic internal conflict is connected with existential anxiety, human life-death. Experience of the existence in the modern social world often has tragical character for the person. The solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts is defined by how the person could realize in itself deep «Me» connected with feeling of finding of internal and external freedom, creative and spontaneity. It is emphasized, that freedom is the main quality of social human life, but the way to it demands from the person of the responsibility, courage and honesty. The authorship of own destiny, personal identity are a source of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Not each person is capable to keep authenticity in the life. Integrity «Me» cannot be restored, ignoring cultural mental-moral values. Purpose. To study phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Methodology. The qualitative theoretical analysis and synthesis of literary data. Results. In the article general concepts of leading scientists-psychologists of existential orientation to phenomenology and mechanisms of the solution of intrapersonal conflicts are presented. The significant attention is given R. Meya's to sights, as one of the main representatives of existential psychotherapy. Practical implications. Preparation of psychologists in the field of psychotherapeutic consultation.

  7. A bit of existentialism for what ails you

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Forget about mindfulness and clean eating – at a time when we appear to be experiencing rising levels of anxiety, narcissism and unhappiness, existentialism may be the philosophy to adopt to improve your mental well-being.

  8. Greene's Dialectics of Freedom and Dewey's Naturalistic Existential Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This article attempts to develop the Deweyan naturalistic existential metaphysics which underlies Maxine Greene's diverse dialectics. Also included are reflections on the implications of the dialectic of freedom and Dewey's metaphysics for education and the arts. (IAH)

  9. The Educational Dimension of Existentialism: From Existence to Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazzali, A.

    1978-01-01

    Considers changes which extentialist educators would make in order to reorganize the elementary and secondary school along existential lines. Discusses modifications in subject matter, group environment, and role of the teacher. (AV)

  10. Business Goals, Existential Damage and Violations of Workers' Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saulo Cerqueira de Aguiar Soares; Ivna Maria Mello Soares

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to analyze the limits of the employment authorities in developing business goals and controls that constitute existential damage, as opposed to the employee's protection of his rights...

  11. Existentialism and organization behaviour : How existentialism can have a contribution to complexity theory and sense-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Bornebroek te Lintelo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to develop a conception consisting of insights from complexity theory and additional notions from Weick’s sense-making theory and existentialism for examining organization behaviour.

  12. Towards an Existential Archeology of Capitalist Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout his career, Michel Foucault sustained a trenchant critique of Jean-Paul Sartre, whom he accused of arguing that the subject “dispenses (all significations”. In contrast to existentialism’s interests in subjective consciousness, Foucault pursues an archaeological method which he later develops into a genealogical approach to discourse that emphasizes the institutional practices and forms of knowledge/power that undergird historical epistemes. Taking contemporary networked Capitalism, the discourse of “workplace spirituality”, and the life history of one management reformer as its case studies, this paper turns to the cognitive linguistics of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in an effort to historicize experiences of neoliberal “spirituality”, as an archaeology of knowledge might, while also attempting to account for intentionality and biography, as existential approaches would. Turning to work in contemporary critical theory, which associates strident anti-humanism in social theory with the rise of neoliberal discourse, I argue that sustained attention to the ways in which personal and social history always entail one another and are mutually arising makes not only for better phenomenology but makes for better critical scholarship as well.

  13. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  14. A cognitive-existential intervention to improve existential and global quality of life in cancer patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Pierre; Fillion, Lise; Robitaille, Marie-Anik; Girard, Michèle; Tardif, François; Cochrane, Jean-Philippe; Le Moignan Moreau, Joanie; Breitbart, William

    2015-08-01

    We developed a specific cognitive-existential intervention to improve existential distress in nonmetastatic cancer patients. The present study reports the feasibility of implementing and evaluating this intervention, which involved 12 weekly sessions in both individual and group formats, and explores the efficacy of the intervention on existential and global quality of life (QoL) measures. Some 33 nonmetastatic cancer patients were randomized between the group intervention, the individual intervention, and the usual condition of care. Evaluation of the intervention on the existential and global QoL of patients was performed using the existential well-being subscale and the global scale of the McGill Quality of Life (MQoL) Questionnaire. All participants agreed that their participation in the program helped them deal with their illness and their personal life. Some 88.9% of participants agreed that this program should be proposed for all cancer patients, and 94.5% agreed that this intervention helped them to reflect on the meaning of their life. At post-intervention, both existential and psychological QoL improved in the group intervention versus usual care (p = 0.086 and 0.077, respectively). At the three-month follow-up, global and psychological QoL improved in the individual intervention versus usual care (p = 0.056 and 0.047, respectively). This pilot study confirms the relevance of the intervention and the feasibility of the recruitment and randomization processes. The data strongly suggest a potential efficacy of the intervention for existential and global quality of life, which will have to be confirmed in a larger study.

  15. A cognitive–existential intervention to improve existential and global quality of life in cancer patients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAGNON, PIERRE; FILLION, LISE; ROBITAILLE, MARIE-ANIK; GIRARD, MICHÈLE; TARDIF, FRANÇOIS; COCHRANE, JEAN-PHILIPPE; LE MOIGNAN MOREAU, JOANIE; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    Objective We developed a specific cognitive–existential intervention to improve existential distress in nonmetastatic cancer patients. The present study reports the feasibility of implementing and evaluating this intervention, which involved 12 weekly sessions in both individual and group formats, and explores the efficacy of the intervention on existential and global quality of life (QoL) measures. Method Some 33 nonmetastatic cancer patients were randomized between the group intervention, the individual intervention, and the usual condition of care. Evaluation of the intervention on the existential and global QoL of patients was performed using the existential well-being subscale and the global scale of the McGill Quality of Life (MQoL) Questionnaire. Results All participants agreed that their participation in the program helped them deal with their illness and their personal life. Some 88.9% of participants agreed that this program should be proposed for all cancer patients, and 94.5% agreed that this intervention helped them to reflect on the meaning of their life. At post-intervention, both existential and psychological QoL improved in the group intervention versus usual care (p = 0.086 and 0.077, respectively). At the three-month follow-up, global and psychological QoL improved in the individual intervention versus usual care (p = 0.056 and 0.047, respectively). Significance of results This pilot study confirms the relevance of the intervention and the feasibility of the recruitment and randomization processes. The data strongly suggest a potential efficacy of the intervention for existential and global quality of life, which will have to be confirmed in a larger study. PMID:25050872

  16. Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Development of an existential support training program for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to describe the developmental process of a training program for nurses to communicate existential issues with severely ill patients. The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions was used to develop a training program for nurses to communicate about existential issues with their patients. The steps in the framework were employed to describe the development of the training intervention, and the development, feasibility and piloting, evaluation, and implementation phases. The development and feasibility phases are described in the Methods section. The evaluation and implementation phases are described in the Results section. In the evaluation phase, the effectiveness of the intervention was shown as nurses' confidence in communication increased after training. The understanding of the change process was considered to be that the nurses could describe their way of communicating in terms of prerequisites, process, and content. Some efforts have been made to implement the training intervention, but these require further elaboration. Existential and spiritual issues are very important to severely ill patients, and healthcare professionals need to be attentive to such questions. It is important that professionals be properly prepared when patients need this communication. An evidence-based training intervention could provide such preparation. Healthcare staff were able to identify situations where existential issues were apparent, and they reported that their confidence in communication about existential issues increased after attending a short-term training program that included reflection. In order to design a program that should be permanently implemented, more knowledge is needed of patients' perceptions of the quality of the healthcare staff's existential support.

  18. Towards an Existential Types Model for Java with Wildcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Wildcards extend Java generics by softening the mismatch between subtype and parametric polymorphism. Although they are a key part of the Java 5.0 programming language, a type system including wildcards has never been proven type sound. Wildcards have previously been formalised as existential types....... In this paper we extend FGJ, a featherweight formalisation of Java with generics, with existential types. We prove that this calculus, ExistsJ, is type sound, and illustrate how it models wildcards in the Java Programming Language. ExistsJ is not a full model for Java wildcards, because it does not support...

  19. Existential Measurement: A Factor Analytic Study of Some Current Psychometric Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauberger, Patrick C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Research in existentialism and ontology has given rise to several psychometric instruments. Used both exploratory and confirmatory principal-factor analyses to study relationships among 16 existential scales. Exploratory factor analysis provided some support of the theory that the avoidance of existential confrontation is a central function of…

  20. Development of an English Education Course from an Examination of the Existential Concept of Authentic Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ernest Wright

    Since the central concerns of existentialism are the same as the central concerns of education in a democratic society, namely the fullest and freest development of the individual, existential thought was examined for the help it could give educators in more fully realizing this aim. Specifically, the central existential concept of authenticity…

  1. Sartre's Existentialism and Education: The Missing Foundations of Human Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamida, Khemais

    1973-01-01

    This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the relationship between education and Existentialism, specifically, to point out some misinterpretations which are easily made in educational discourse with respect to the notion of human relationships as it is expressed in Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy. (Author/RK)

  2. Existential well-being : Spirituality or well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  3. Existential Well-Being Spirituality or Well-Being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality

  4. An Existential-Phenomenological Investigation of the Experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents an existential-phenomenological investigation of the experience of being accepted in individuals who have undergone psychiatric institutionalization. Written protocols of narrative accounts were collected from nine individuals drawn from a partial hospitalization programme, with the analysis of these ...

  5. Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context…

  6. Existential challenges in young people living with a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odh, Ida; Löfving, Martina; Klaeson, Kicki

    2016-10-01

    In Sweden, approximately 500 people between the ages of 15 and 39 are diagnosed with cancer each year. When someone is diagnosed with a life-threatening disease, existential issues are easily triggered. Young adults are in a developmental phase of life and are exposed to an extra amount of pressure. The Internet and social media are a daily part of the life of young adults and the use of blogs is common. The aim of this study was to elucidate the theoretical framework of Yalom and his four 'givens' expressed in blogs written by young adults living with various cancer diagnoses in Sweden. This study used a qualitative method in which written stories from six public blogs were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings offer valuable in-depth knowledge about the existential issues in this population. The results can be described as a journey with several existential challenges and with death as an impending threat. The bloggers' awareness of their mortality was described as creating a sense of loss and existential loneliness. This study shows that young adults are empowered by the writing of blogs and that blogs can play an important part in increasing wellbeing and a sense of coherence within this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential? | Malan | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God's patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God ...

  8. Dating Violence: Counseling Adolescent Females from an Existential Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…

  9. An existential analysis of genetic engineering and human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic engineering for purposes of human enhancement poses risks that justify regulation. However, this paper argues philosophically that it is inappropriate to use human rights treaties to prohibit germ-line genetic engineering whether therapeutic or for purposes of enhancement. When also looked at existentially, the ...

  10. Existential fulfillment and burnout among principals and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.; Tomic, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of burnout in primary education teachers and primary school principals and to explore the relationship of existential fulfillment to self-reported burnout scores. Random samples of 215 teachers and 514 principals participated in

  11. TECHNOGENIC EXISTENCE AND JUSTICE PROBLEM IN ETHICS OF RELIGIOUS EXISTENTIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics of religious existentialism interprets a category of Justice from humanistic positions. The problem of Justice takes a great significance under modem conditions. Kierkegaard’s philosophy considers this problem in relation to Luther’s theology. Karl Jaspers develops “freedom philosophy” in context of the technogenic existence.

  12. TECHNOGENIC EXISTENCE AND JUSTICE PROBLEM IN ETHICS OF RELIGIOUS EXISTENTIALISM

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2007-01-01

    Ethics of religious existentialism interprets a category of Justice from humanistic positions. The problem of Justice takes a great significance under modem conditions. Kierkegaard’s philosophy considers this problem in relation to Luther’s theology. Karl Jaspers develops “freedom philosophy” in context of the technogenic existence.

  13. Informational Existentialism! Will Information Ethics Shape Our Cultures ?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Gonçalo Jorge Morais da; Silva, Nuno Sotero Alves da

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of philosophy and physics seem to acknowledge that ―informational existentialism‖ will be possible. Therefore, this contribution aims to comprehend if Heidegger existentialism can enrich the bound between information theory and the intercultural dialogue as regards to information. Even so, an important query arises: why specifically Heidegger‘s philosophy? Because it highlights an intercultural dialogue namely w...

  14. An existential-phenomenological investigation of the experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents an existential-phenomenological investigation of the experience of being accepted in individuals who have undergone psychiatric institutionalization. Written protocols of narrative accounts were collected from nine individuals drawn from a partial hospitalization programme, with the analysis of these ...

  15. The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…

  16. The Essentials of Existential Psychoanalysis | Soggie | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... professional therapists, three essential themes have been identified: convenience (that is, having a script that will allow the therapist to reach a rapid understanding of the nature of the client's existential being), mythic familiarity, and an emphasis upon imaginal techniques. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume ...

  17. The Multistream Self: Biophysical, Mental, Social, and Existential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod D. Deshmukh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Self is difficult to define because of its multiple, constitutive streams of functional existence. A more comprehensive and expanded definition of self is proposed. The standard bio-psycho-social model of psyche is expanded to biophysical-mental-social and existential self. The total human experience is better understood and explained by adding the existential component. Existential refers to lived human experience, which is firmly rooted in reality. Existential living is the capacity to live fully in the present, and respond freely and flexibly to new experience without fear. Four common fears of isolation, insecurity, insignificance, and death can be overcome by developing a lifestyle of whole-hearted engagement in the present reality, creative problem solving, self-actualization, and altruism. Such integrative living creates a sense of presence with self-awareness, understanding, and existential well-being. Well-being is defined as a life of happiness, contentment, low distress, and good health with positive outlook. Self is a complex, integrative process of living organisms. It organizes, coordinates, and integrates energy-information within and around itself, spontaneously, unconsciously, and consciously. Self-process is understood in terms of synergetics, coordination dynamics, and energy-information–directed self-organization. It is dynamic, composite, ever renewing, and enduring. It can be convergent or divergent, and can function as the source or target of its own behavior-mentation. The experience of self is continuously generated by spontaneous activation of neural networks in the cerebral neocortex by the brainstem-diencephalic arousal system. The multiple constitutive behavioral-mental streams develop concurrently into a unique experience of self, specific for a person at his/her developmental stage. The chronological neuro-behavioral-mental development of self is described in detail from embryonic stage to old age. Self can be

  18. The Existential Experience of everyday life with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Jacobsen, Søren; Birkelund, Regner

    2018-01-19

    To explore, from the perspective of women the nature of basic existential conditions while living with systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus has an unpredictable disease course and is documented to cause an existential rearrangement of life. The significance of changes in existential conditions and related experiences are unclear in the context of nursing and women with systemic lupus erythematosus. A qualitative design guided by Van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Individual in-depth interviews with 15 women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and of various ages, disease durations and severities were undertaken from September 2013 - October 2015. Data were analysed following van Manen's phenomenological approach and using drawing as an interpretive tool. The main existential experience was interpreted as a person "moving with the waves of systemic lupus erythematosus" constituted by the themes "oscillating between presence and absence of systemic lupus erythematosus", "recognizing space and bodily possibilities and limitations" and "being enriched through relationships and activities". When systemic lupus erythematosus was flaring, well-being was threatened and a laborious time to escape the feeling of a setback-in-life persisted long after the disease was medically under control. Daily life with systemic lupus erythematosus is conditioned by a prominent need to be in existential motion, related to the absence and presence of systemic lupus erythematosus. The experience of a setback-in-life by illness might challenge well-being and indicates that periods of disease flares or disturbing symptoms are critical time points to provide support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Astronomy and Existentialism in Albert Camus' ``The Adulterous Woman''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, D.

    2013-04-01

    Camus' short story “An Adulterous Woman” from his collection Exile and the Kingdom narrates the experience of Janine, wife of a French Algerian cloth-trader, who accompanies her husband on a business trip to the Saharan interior at mid-20th century. The desert landscape and its weather play an integral role in the plot. Blending realism and fantasy that borders on science fiction, the narrator characterizes the sky as an animate cosmological energy whose virility is masked by sunlight during the day. Released after sundown and portrayed as a liberator at the climax of the story, the shaman-like night sky descends upon Janine as a shower of stars that leaves her with an existential sense of self. This paper explores themes of astronomy and existentialism that Camus develops through Janine's “adultery” with a cosmological force, supplemented by visual imagery related to the aesthetic and scientific cultural contexts of the story and Camus' era.

  20. Overactivity and boundary setting in anorexia nervosa: an existential perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warah, A

    1993-03-01

    Excessive motor activity in anorexia nervosa has been variously described as a symptom of a wider perceptual disorder, as the cause of anorexia, and as a neurologically based compulsive behavior. It is also considered a secondary symptom used to burn calories. In this paper, this symptom is considered from an existential perspective. It is first shown that the anorexic's mode of being is overly rational and not irrational as claimed by cognitive-behaviorists. It is then hypothesized that overactivity may help the anorexic person achieve a sense of existential permanence by dynamizing her static and too rational mode of being. It is also advanced that over-activity may play an adaptive role and should not be indiscriminately deterred in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.

  1. Sitting with the Demons – Mindfulness, Suffering, and Existential Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan VÖRÖS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, I critically evaluate some common objections against contemporary approaches to mindfulness meditation, with a special focus on two aspects. First, I consider the claim that de-contextualized contemporary approaches may have serious ethical consequences (the so-called problem of “mindful sniper/zombie”; second, I investigate the suggestion that it may be misleading to construe mindfulness meditation as (simply a relaxation and/or attention-enhancing technique, as it is sometimes accompanied by unpleasant, even terrifying phenomena (the so-called “dark night of the soul”. In the last two sections, I weave the two narratives together by putting forward the following claim: traditionally-minded criticisms of contemporary approaches are ultimately correct, but for the wrong reasons––the historical context is not important in itself, but because of the role it plays in confronting the practitioner with the fundamental existential questions. In this sense, mindfulness meditation can be conceived as an important, but not the only element of a broader process of overcoming existential angst, whose ultimate goal is not relaxation or enhanced attention, but rather a radical existential transformation.

  2. Back To and Beyond Socrates : An Essay on the Rise and Rhetoric of Existential Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Sohlman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This essay concerns itself with the historical background to what it refers to as existential pedagogy, which designates the way in which existential literature presumably seeks to affect the reader so that he experiences his existence as isolated, and how this is done through the employment of harsh and uncompromising language and rhetorical devices. The assumption underlying this project is that there is a pedagogical purpose to the existential manner of de-livery, and this essay traces thi...

  3. Existential anxiety as related to conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S

    1992-12-01

    82 students completed a questionnaire which measured their existential anxiety as described by Yalom, conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity. For these students, scores on existential anxiety correlated with identity confusion, feeling responsible toward others but fearing emotional closeness with them, seeing people as fundamentally different and not seeing oneself as living on in one's tasks or projects. Their existential anxiety scores were not related to a particular concept of death, but death was more likely to be seen as cold and denied. Their existential anxiety seemed symptomatic of adjustment problems for which religiosity was not helpful. Specific suggestions for further research are made.

  4. Unintended consequences of existential quantifications in biomedical ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeker Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO Foundry is a collection of freely available ontologically structured controlled vocabularies in the biomedical domain. Most of them are disseminated via both the OBO Flatfile Format and the semantic web format Web Ontology Language (OWL, which draws upon formal logic. Based on the interpretations underlying OWL description logics (OWL-DL semantics, we scrutinize the OWL-DL releases of OBO ontologies to assess whether their logical axioms correspond to the meaning intended by their authors. Results We analyzed ontologies and ontology cross products available via the OBO Foundry site http://www.obofoundry.org for existential restrictions (someValuesFrom, from which we examined a random sample of 2,836 clauses. According to a rating done by four experts, 23% of all existential restrictions in OBO Foundry candidate ontologies are suspicious (Cohens' κ = 0.78. We found a smaller proportion of existential restrictions in OBO Foundry cross products are suspicious, but in this case an accurate quantitative judgment is not possible due to a low inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.07. We identified several typical modeling problems, for which satisfactory ontology design patterns based on OWL-DL were proposed. We further describe several usability issues with OBO ontologies, including the lack of ontological commitment for several common terms, and the proliferation of domain-specific relations. Conclusions The current OWL releases of OBO Foundry (and Foundry candidate ontologies contain numerous assertions which do not properly describe the underlying biological reality, or are ambiguous and difficult to interpret. The solution is a better anchoring in upper ontologies and a restriction to relatively few, well defined relation types with given domain and range constraints.

  5. Conciliating the Existential Minimum and the Possibility Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo José Casali Bahia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has the scope to analyze the concepts of “existential minimum” and “Possibility objection” in the context of the enforcement of fundamental rights. Subverting the already established doctrinal order, it is suggested that these theoretical assumptions do not conflict in their confluence, but can perfectly coexist in favor of the maximum constitutional effectiveness, facing the problem of scarcity of resources in an analysis that goes beyond the simple question of efficiency financial decisions, but seeks the best result in the realization of fundamental rights.

  6. Exploring Existential Coping Resources: The Perspective of Koreans with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Park, Jisung; Kim, Kyung Mee; Ahmadi, Nader

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to explore the use of meaning-making coping (existential, spiritual, and religious coping) among cancer patients in Korea and to investigate the impact of culture on their choice of coping methods. Thirty-three participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Four different kinds of coping resources emerged from analyses of the interview transcripts: (1) belief in the healing power of nature; (2) mind-body connection; (3) relying on transcendent power; and (4) finding oneself in relationships with others. The findings of this study suggest the importance of investigating cultural context when exploring the use of the meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

  7. An Existentialist in Iqaluit: Existentialism and Reflexivity Informing Pedagogy in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on the personal experience of teaching human resource management in the Canadian Arctic, the author explores the utility of an existentialist approach to pedagogy. The author outlines select aspects of existentialism that are pertinent to the teaching and discusses the implications of using reflexive existential thought as guidance in a…

  8. Development of the EMAP tool facilitating existential communication between general practitioners and cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Ammentorp, Jette

    2017-01-01

    dimension. The tool utilized the acronym and mnemonic EMAP (existential communication in general practice) indicating the intention of the tool: to provide a map of possible existential problems and resources that the GP and the patient can discuss to find points of reorientation in the patient's situation...

  9. Existential Theory and Mental Health Counseling: If It Were a Snake, It Would Have Bitten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Waldo, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A sound theoretical orientation is essential to the professional integrity of mental health counseling. Existential theory is congruent with the values of mental health counseling and offers a useful theoretical framework for explaining interventions. The basic concepts of existential theory as a basis for practice are delineated. (Author/EMK)

  10. Existential Correlates of Burnout among Mental Health Professionals in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu-kee, Chan; Tang, Catharine So-kum

    1995-01-01

    Mental health professionals (n=132) living in Hong Kong were surveyed about existential aspects of burnout. Purpose in life and motivation to seek purpose were found to be significant existential correlates of burnout whereas the former correlated with personal accomplishment and the latter with emotional exhaustion. Results varied by professional…

  11. Existential distress among healthcare providers caring for patients at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, Hayley; Fenn, Natalie; Hendriksen, Ellen; DeRosa, Antonio P; Applebaum, Allison

    2015-03-01

    Existential distress is well documented among patients at end of life (EOL) and increasingly recognized among informal caregivers. However, less information is known about existential concerns among healthcare providers working with patients at EOL, and the impact that such concerns may have on professionals. Recent literature documents five key existential themes for professionals working in EOL care: (1) opportunity for introspection; (2) death anxiety and potential to compromise patient care; (3) risk factors and negative impact of existential distress; (4) positive effects such as enhanced meaning and personal growth; and (5) the importance of interventions and self-care. EOL work can be taxing, yet also highly rewarding. It is critical for healthcare providers to make time for reflection and prioritize self-care in order to effectively cope with the emotional, physical, and existential demands that EOL care precipitates.

  12. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood-A scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    . Without an integrative approach, where personal meaning-making issues are discussed, the potential for growth during existential authenticity is not utilised. Transition to motherhood raises existential questions about mortality and meaning of life, and we should explore this field in research......OBJECTIVE: to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. DESIGN: the review follows...... the approach of a scoping review. Systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were combined with manual and electronic searches for related references. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 examining dimensions of existential meaning-making in transition to motherhood were...

  13. World, Time And Anxiety. Heidegger's Existential Analytic And Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencio, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential but also criticized philosophers of the XX century. With Being and Time 1927 he sets apart his existential analytic from psychology as well as from anthropology and from the other human sciences that deny the ontological foundation, overcoming the Cartesian dualism in search of the ontological unit of an articulated multiplicity, as human being is. Heidegger's Dasein Analytic defines the fundamental structures of human being such as being-in-the-world, a unitary structure that discloses the worldhood of the world; the modes of being (Seinsweisen), such as fear (Furcht) and anxiety (Angst); and the relationship between existence and time. In his existential analytic, anxiety is one of the fundamental moods (Grundbefindlichkeit) and it plays a pivotal role in the relationship of Dasein with time and world. The paper firstly focuses on the modes of being, underlining the importance of anxiety for the constitution of human being; secondly, it shows the relationship between anxiety and the world, and anxiety and time: rejecting both the Aristotelian description of time, as a sequence of moments that informs our common understanding of time, and the Augustine's mental account of inner time, Heidegger considers temporality under a transcendental point of view. Temporality is ek-static, it is a process through which human being comes toward and back to itself, letting itself encounter the world and the entities. The transcendental interpretation of time provided by Heidegger may give its important contribution to psychopathology.

  14. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.

  15. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  16. Existential perspective in the thought of Carl Jung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelburne, W A

    1983-03-01

    It is argued that there is a significant existential perspective in the thought of Carl Jung. Similarities and differences with some of the views of Jean Paul Sartre are explored as a way of developing this perspective and to show how a philosophy of a man might be developed drawing from both sources. Jung is shown to be in disagreement with Sartre in defending an idea of a determinate human nature, describing the self in a developmental way, and in not claiming that human freedom is absolute or unconditioned. Nevertheless, the Jungian concept of individuation is similar to Sartre's ideal of authenticity, in that both focus on the goal of achieving meaningful existence through development of inner resources, creative exercise of freedom, and overcoming self-deception.

  17. Towards an Existential Pluralism: the Philosophy of Etienne Souriau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Noske

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various academics have, over the last five years, challenged practices of criticism in Australian cultural studies. Paul Carter, Ross Gibson and Stephen Muecke have all offered transgressive and dynamic practices, engaging with speculative and experimental ways of thinking. But how can such speculation be supported and contextualised in critical debate? Muecke in particular draws from a background of Continental philosophy in constructing his critical practice. He is influenced by the work of Bruno Latour and Etienne Souriau. The latter is a largely forgotten French philosopher, untranslated in English. He offers a theory of existential pluralism, suggesting the multiplicity of modes of existence and exploring the nature of relation between them. Developing an understanding of his philosophy can help contextualise Muecke’s work, and potentially contribute to this critical movement more generally.

  18. Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jesse D

    2003-05-01

    This article is an effort to integrate contemporary psychoanalytic and existential perspectives on intentional therapist self-disclosure. It offers a two-stage decision-making model that considers self-disclosure from the vantage points of style and internalization. Clinical and research findings are presented to support the notion that the meanings a patient attributes to a particular self-disclosure, and its power to move him or her towards greater health, is the product of a fluctuating matrix of interpersonal and intrapsychic variables. Special consideration is given to the challenges that arise during the early and termination stages of treatment and to the psychotherapy of therapists. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Existential Anxiety in Diagnostic Process of Genital Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hallac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to have a cancer diagnosis is a concrete threat and a stressful life experience for individuals. Cancer is interpreted as fatal, painful, frightening and scary disease by the patients and makes them realize the presence of death and their own mortality. Facing the reality of death brings an existential questioning of self. This questioning is directly related to the interpretation and biopsychosocial characteristics of the individual and clearly influenced by the patients’ previous experiences and type of cancer involved. The occurrence of a genital organ cancer would lead patient to evaluate the meaning of being human and review his life, his values and his routine habits. This process has significant effect upon the patient’s response and coping mechanisms with cancer. Nurses have a unique position among medical team members for helping such patients to find a meaning in their life by providing necessary support at every stage of the cancer.

  20. Sports agon and death: the existential nature of correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Mogileva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examines implicit relationship between sports agon, athlete’s psychophysical subjectivity and problems of understanding the constant presence of death in life. Preference is given to sport of greatest achievements such as the type of agon, in which a man who is extremely involved and who constitutes himself through his own efforts, realizing his personal vocation, and is the author of his own fate and his own physicality. In referring to the philosophy of existence and achievements of relevant studies in philosophical problems of death, it is proved that between the practice of sports and death problem exists not only cultural and historical connection, but the correlation of existential nature. It is shown that this correlation is due to several factors. The main among them are: the impact of the awareness of death motive to choose sport as a sphere of human self­actualization and the degree of involvement in this process; the possibility to transcending provided by agon sports practice; the possibility of slipping out of conditioning any discourses, including the discourse of death in the agon; author essence of athlete’s physicality, that’s why agonistics can be regarded as «an exercise in dying.» It is noted that the identified relationships between psychophysical subjectivity of an athlete and the death are existential and more natural than the displacing death to the periphery of consciousness, beyond the social space and removing the death and the deads beyond symbolic turnover, as it is in modern societies.

  1. Existential Dimensions in the Socio-Legal Sphere: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Lippens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This introduction addresses the relevance of existentialist philosophy for understanding the indeterminacies and instabilities of late-modern society. Whilst existentialist thought is often misunderstood and subsequently unexplored, all the contributors to this special edition accept the basic premise that human existence is inescapably contingent and indeterminate. This introduction provides a short overview of the articles and reflects on themes such as destabilization and reintegration. All the articles are based on contributions to the workshop 'Law, Jurisprudence, Governance and Existential Indeterminacy', held at the International Institute for the Sociology of Law, Onati, Spain, 23-24 May 2013. Esta introducción aborda la relevancia de la filosofía existencialista para comprender las indeterminaciones e inestabilidades de la sociedad tardía. Aunque a menudo el pensamiento existencialista se ha malentendido y por consiguiente, no se ha explorado, todos los participantes de este número especial aceptan la premisa básica de que la existencia humana es ineludiblemente contingente e indeterminada. Esta introducción ofrece un breve resumen de los artículos y reflexiona sobre temas como la desestabilización y reintegración. Todos los artículos se basan en las presentaciones del workshop 'Law, Jurisprudence, Governance and Existential Indeterminacy', celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica, Onati, España, los días 23-24 de mayo de 2013. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2619387

  2. On the Existential side of the Eternalism-Presentism Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Orilia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current analytical debate on time is full of attempts to adjudicate from a purely theoretical standpoint among competing temporal ontologies. Little attention has instead been devoted to the existential attitudes -- emotional or ethical -- that may lurk behind, or ensue from, the endorsement of one of them. Some interesting opinions have however been voiced regarding the two most prominent views in the arena, namely eternalism and presentism; it has been said that the former is nourished by a fear of death, or more generally by a desire of preservation for whatever we find precious and valuable, and that the latter is fuelled by a propensity to reap whatever fruits the present brings, as enshrined in the carpe diem motto. This paper explores such a territory by focusing on the reality of past sentience, whether joyful or painful, and on the open future. The first part contrasts the reality of past sentience that comes with eternalism with the denial of this reality that follows from presentism, and argues that from an emotional, or perhaps even moral, standpoint the latter is preferable to the former. The second part clarifies why the eternalist must renounce the open future, whereas presentism is consistent with it, and considers how its rejection or acceptance, as the case may be, could be emotionally, or even morally, significant for our conception of ourselves as free agents. The conclusion offers a tentative proposal regarding which temporal ontology is superior from an existential perspective and some ruminations on the impact that all this may have on the theoretical side of the issue.

  3. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP-patient encounter. A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. General practice setting in Denmark. Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients' multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key points Although integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs' understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP-patient encounter. The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects. The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life-threatening diseases, life crises and unexplainable patient

  4. A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Existential Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    the lived experience of the learning outcomes of these approaches. The study also clarifies the differences between existential psychotherapy as an art of learning directed at existential learning of authenticity and cognitive- behavioural therapy as a learning-based medical treatment technology directed...... of the outcome of psychotherapy through qualitative research. The precise aim is to draw attention to the special characteristics of this outcome in terms of learning outcome. This regards both existential therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy and to clarify the possible differences and similarities between...

  5. The Lurking Wolf: Qualitative research of existential experiences with lupus in female patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth

    for existential uncertainty. Patient experiences are scarcely researched, and studies do not emphasize existential themes at stake during the illness trajectory and this leaves a knowledge gap important for evidence-based nursing support. Purpose: The purpose of this PhD study is to explore the meaning...... to withdraw their consent, and to choose time and place for the interviewing. Results: Interpretation on the existential meaning is in progress. Preliminary results document that the chaotic time of the diagnosis gradually changes over the years, leaving a mark on their existential life. Experiencing...... of Copenhagen, Department of Rheumatology, Denmark. (3) University of southern Denmark, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark. Background: Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease, affecting mainly women, potentially lethal and quite unpredictable which exposes them with a constant life-threat; thus exposes them...

  6. Terror management theory applied clinically: implications for existential-integrative psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Existential psychotherapy and Terror Management Theory (TMT) offer explanations for the potential psychological effects of death awareness, although their respective literatures bases differ in clarity, research, and implications for treating psychopathology. Existential therapy is often opaque to many therapists, in part due to the lack of consensus on what constitutes its practice, limited published practical examples, and few empirical studies examining its efficacy. By contrast, TMT has an extensive empirical literature base, both within social psychology and spanning multiple disciplines, although previously unexplored within clinical and counseling psychology. This article explores the implications of a proposed TMT integrated existential therapy (TIE), bridging the gap between disciplines in order to meet the needs of the aging population and current challenges facing existential therapists.

  7. Shared decision-making as an existential journey: Aiming for restored autonomous capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbrandsen, P.; Clayman, M.L.; Beach, M.C.; Han, P.K.; Boss, E.F.; Ofstad, E.H.; Elwyn, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the different ways in which illness represents an existential problem, and its implications for shared decision-making. METHODS: We explore core concepts of shared decision-making in medical encounters (uncertainty, vulnerability, dependency, autonomy, power, trust,

  8. Existential concerns about death: a qualitative study of dying patients in a Danish hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that addressing dying patients' existential concerns can improve their quality of life. We aimed to illuminate dying patients' existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semistructured interviews with 17 patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the imminent death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Some patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. They wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life. We argue that the patients' existential concerns could not be fully captured by Yalom's existential psychology or by Kübler-Ross's theory about death stages. Patients' complex concerns could be more fully explained taking an outset in Heidegger's phenomenological thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Existential therapies: a meta-analysis of their effects on psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Joël; Craig, Meghan; Cooper, Mick

    2015-02-01

    To review the evidence on the efficacy of different types of existential therapies: a family of psychological interventions that draw on themes from existential philosophy to help clients address such issues in their lives as meaning and death anxiety. Relevant electronic databases, journals, and reference lists were searched for eligible studies. Effects on meaning, psychopathology (anxiety and depression), self-efficacy, and physical well-being were extracted from each publication or obtained directly from its authors. All types of existential therapy for adult samples were included. Weighted pooled mean effects were calculated and analyses performed assuming fixed-effects model. Twenty-one eligible randomized controlled trials of existential therapy were found, from which 15 studies with unique data were included, comprising a total of 1,792 participants. Meaning therapies (n = 6 studies) showed large effects on positive meaning in life immediately postintervention (d = 0.65) and at follow-up (d = 0.57), and had moderate effects on psychopathology (d = 0.47) and self-efficacy (d = 0.48) at postintervention; they did not have significant effects on self-reported physical well-being (n = 1 study). Supportive-expressive therapy (n = 5) had small effects at posttreatment and follow-up on psychopathology (d = 0.20, 0.18, respectively); effects on self-efficacy and self-reported physical well-being were not significant (n = 1 and n = 4, respectively). Experiential-existential (n = 2) and cognitive-existential therapies (n = 1) had no significant effects. Despite the small number and low quality of studies, some existential therapies appear beneficial for certain populations. We found particular support for structured interventions incorporating psychoeducation, exercises, and discussing meaning in life directly and positively with physically ill patients. It is important to study more precisely which existential intervention works the best for which individual client

  10. EXISTENTIALISM OF M. HEIDEGGER AND J. P. SARTRE ABOUT JUSTICE AND PROBLEMS OF TECHNOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of existentialism puts a question about development of a creative person in the context of a Justice problem. Philosophical heritage of M. Heidegger and J. P. Sartre is very important nowadays. Application of existential methodology, uncovering of value Justice aspects with the help of this methodology permit successfully to solve technogenic problems which have become rather acute at the beginning of new millennium. 

  11. The True Master of Death : An Existential Reading of Harry Potter

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlbäck, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of a comprehensive character analysis of the protagonist and antagonist in the Harry Potter series, on the basis of existential psychology. It is argued that the outlook of this branch of psychology provides a thorough framework for the interpretation of characters and objects in Rowling’s fictional world. Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort are not only the protagonist and antagonist of the series, but also represent two sides of the spectrum of existential psychology. By ma...

  12. SARTRE’S CONCEPTION OF ART GROUNDED ON HUMANIST EXISTENTIALISM AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL ONTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    BAL, Metin; Sökmen, Sema

    2012-01-01

    This presentation would be considered as an attempt to introduce a new bridge between philosophy and art. The main problem of this presentation is “how can a conception of art grounded on humanist existentialism and phenomenological ontology be possible?” For the answer, this presentation concentrates on Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy. Existentialism and phenomenology are the two influential concepts of contemporary philosophy. Sartre brings these two concepts together and develops a new type ...

  13. The Lurking Wolf: Qualitative research of existential experiences with lupus in female patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth

    THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital of Copenha......THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital...... for existential uncertainty. Patient experiences are scarcely researched, and studies do not emphasize existential themes at stake during the illness trajectory and this leaves a knowledge gap important for evidence-based nursing support. Purpose: The purpose of this PhD study is to explore the meaning...... of existential experiences over time in female patients suffering from Lupus. Method: Three 3 qualitative indept interviews with 15 women is planned during 1½ year. First and second round is performed, and third is planned during spring 2015. Interviews are guided by Van Manens life world existentials (time...

  14. Miss B Pursues Death and Miss P Life in the Light of V. E. Frankl's Existential Analysis/Logotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice; Lützén, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Ms B's in United Kingdom and Ms P's in Finland choices in life when dealing with acute ventilator-assisted tetraplegia were analyzed by means of Viktor E. Frankl's existential analysis/logotherapy. The freedom of will to existential meaning and to worth in one's suffering realizes in the attitudinal change the person chooses or is forced to adopt when subject to severe circumstances. Life becomes existentially meaningful relative to inescapable suffering by the completion of three values: creative, experiential, and attitudinal values. If the search for meaning on these paths is frustrated or obstructed, a person's will to meaning transforms into existential frustration along with an existential vacuum and feelings of despair emerge and harm the person's will to survive. However, a person's frustrated meaning in life, when subject to unavoidable severe conditions, can be averted and redirected by applying the basic tenets in an existential analytic/logotherapeutic approach to the extreme situation.

  15. Existential Well-Being: Spirituality or Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad Jjm

    2017-03-01

    Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality and of well-being among patients with cancer, by determining a) the divergent validity of the subscales of the SAIL compared with a well-being questionnaire and b) the differences in their associations to changes in pain and fatigue, and the occurrence of negative life events. Our findings suggest that a sense of trust that one is able to cope with difficulties of life belongs to the realm of well-being, instead of spirituality. Other aspects, such as a sense of meaning in life, seem more similar to spirituality than to well-being. These results can bring researchers a step further toward constructing "pure" spirituality and well-being measures, which will allow them to investigate the (causal) relationship between these constructs.

  16. Existential field of J. Huizinga’s games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Lysokolenko

    2014-09-01

    A comparative analysis of understanding of the game by J. Huizinga, H. Hesse, E. Berne and L. Wittgenstein is being held. The result of this analysis is the assumption that H. Hesse and J. Huizinga are united by the fact that they both seek to ensure that the games remained appolonian element as a harmonious start in their understanding of the game - is a cultural universal. The position of the L.Wittgenstein differs significantly from the above indicated. For him the game - this is a language game that does not always harmonious, is not always clearly constructed composition typical for the games by H. Hesse. Playing field for L.Wittgenstein are «forms of life», which may indicate that his game as well as J. Huizinga, existential, the difference is only in the position of the interpreter, in a shift of emphasis from meaning to the action. J. Huizinga focuses on the classification of games that are played by the representatives of different cultures and L.Wittgenstein focuses on communication, without which it is impossible to play as such.

  17. Journeying with a musical practice. Existential mobility and transnational labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Miranda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between migratory processes and the diffusion, appropriation and hybridisation of cultural practices has been systematically documented in the scholarly literature. Within these processes there are highly mobile people whose frequent travels and short stays make them less visible as agents of cultural circulation. They often do not see themselves as migrants, nor they are classified as such by national bureaucracies. Therefore, their participation in the diffusion of cultural practices has not been fully considered. This article focuses on the ways in which journeying with a musical practice entails forms of informal transnational labour and, simultaneously, meanings of diffusion, promotion and cultivation of regional cultures that are valued by geographically dispersed communities of practitioners. This account is based on an ethnographic study on the circulation of a traditional musical practice between Mexico and the US. It specifically focuses on the case of a musician, workshop facilitator and luthier who travels several times a year between these two countries performing, teaching and selling handmade instruments. Although his journeying with a musical practice represents a way of making a living, a job, he does not perceive himself as a labour migrant, but as a teacher, performer and cultural promoter. Differing from the experiences of international migrants, this article shows how the meanings of his mobility exhibits a distinct form of existential mobility.

  18. The Existential Concerns Questionnaire (ECQ)-Development and Initial Validation of a New Existential Anxiety Scale in a Nonclinical and Clinical Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Vincent; ten Klooster, Peter; Westerhof, Gerben; Vos, Joël; de Kleine, Elian; Bohlmeijer, Ernst; Glas, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Existential anxiety (EA) is a construct that refers to fears that are provoked by core threats of human existence, such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. The objective of this study was to develop an EA measure that can be used in research and clinical practice.

  19. An exploration of the existential experiences of patients following curative treatment for cancer: reflections from a U.K. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerdahl, Anna S K; Moynihan, Manus; Stollery, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The existential experiences associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment are well researched, but the posttreatment phase is relatively underexplored. Using semistructured interviews and theory-led thematic analysis this qualitative study investigated the existential experiences of eight cancer survivors who had successfully completed curative treatment. Being in remission had led to deep existential reflections (i.e., death anxiety, freedom, isolation, and meaning making), and some participants faced considerable challenges that affected their emotional well-being. Understanding cancer survivors' existential challenges should enable health care professionals to engage with the emerging shift from the predominantly medically focused posttreatment care to a more holistic approach.

  20. Longing for ground in a ground(less world: a qualitative inquiry of existential suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boston Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existential and spiritual concerns are fundamental issues in palliative care and patients frequently articulate these concerns. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of engaging with existential suffering at the end of life. Methods A grounded theory approach was used to explore processes in the context of situated interaction and to explore the process of existential suffering. We began with in vivo codes of participants' words, and clustered these codes at increasingly higher levels of abstractions until we were able to theorize. Results Findings suggest the process of existential suffering begins with an experience of groundlessness that results in an overarching process of Longing for Ground in a Ground(less World, a wish to minimize the uncomfortable or anxiety-provoking instability of groundlessness. Longing for ground is enacted in three overlapping ways: by turning toward one's discomfort and learning to let go (engaging groundlessness, turning away from the discomfort, attempting to keep it out of consciousness by clinging to familiar thoughts and ideas (taking refuge in the habitual, and learning to live within the flux of instability and unknowing (living in-between. Conclusions Existential concerns are inherent in being human. This has implications for clinicians when considering how patients and colleagues may experience existential concerns in varying degrees, in their own fashion, either consciously or unconsciously. Findings emphasize a fluid and dynamic understanding of existential suffering and compel health providers to acknowledge the complexity of fear and anxiety while allowing space for the uniquely fluid nature of these processes for each person. Findings also have implications for health providers who may gravitate towards the transformational possibilities of encounters with mortality without inviting space for less optimistic possibilities of resistance, anger, and despondency that

  1. Existential encounters: nurses' descriptions of critical incidents in end-of-life cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browall, Maria; Henoch, Ingela; Melin-Johansson, Christina; Strang, Susann; Danielson, Ella

    2014-12-01

    Nurses working with cancer patients in end of life care need to be prepared to encounter patients' psychosocial and spiritual distress. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of existential situations when caring for patients severely affected by cancer. Nurses (registered and enrolled) from three urban in-patient hospices, an oncology clinic and a surgery clinic and a palliative homecare team were, prior to the start of a training program, invited to write down their experiences of a critical incident (CI), in which existential issues were featured. Eighty-eight CIs were written by 83 nurses. The CIs were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Two main themes were found: Encounters with existential pain experiences, which concerned facing death and facing losses; and Encountering experiences of hope, which concerned balancing honesty, and desire to live. This study points out that health care professionals need to be aware of patients' feelings of abandonment in exposed situations such as patients' feelings of existential loneliness. That there are some patients that express a desire to die and this makes the nurses feel uncomfortable and difficult to confront these occurrences and its therefore important to listen to patients' stories, regardless of care organization, in order to gain access to patients' inner existential needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The epidemiology of lost meaning: a study in the psychology of religion and existential public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Melder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existential dimension of spirituality has proven to be of great importance over the last two decades when it comes to studies of self-rated health and quality of life. We see the positive effects it has on blood pressure, depression and life expectancy for chemotherapy and HIV patients, to mention just a few examples. In the public health sector, it is interesting to note that this existential/spiritual dimension had already been present in the early years when the term public health first came into the Swedish language. In the year 1926 public health was defined as ‘a people’s physical and spiritual health’. During the intervening years of major medical and scientific technical improvements in the field, the existential/spiritual perspective had been put aside, but now once again this dimension has come into focus. The central question is, how does the existential dimension of health, understood as a person’s ability to create and maintain functional meaning making systems, affect the person’s self-rated health and quality of life? The working theories and basic perspectives in this article are drawn from health research with attention to the existential dimension, public health from the perspective of the psychology of religion, and object relations theory.

  3. Practical care work and existential issues in palliative care: experiences of nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsberg, Elizabeth; Carlsson, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest in palliative care, little focus has been given to the role of nursing assistants, nor to research on existential issues. To investigate nursing assistants' experiences of existential issues in palliative care. An explorative study using focus group discussions as data. Seven nursing assistants working in a palliative care unit and a nursing home participated on three occasions. Data were analysed using a content analysis approach. Two overlapping domains were extracted: practical care, interpreted in themes as meeting others, the patient's body and organisational boundaries; and existential issues, interpreted as the difficult part, the valuable part and death and dying. Communication seemed to be a theme central to both domains. The results indicate that nursing assistants may give existential support in addition to practical aspects of care. The intimate interactions inherent in practical aspects of personal care create opportunities for meaningful conversations. Such conversations may constitute existential support for patients and a meaningful task for staff. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relieving existential suffering through palliative sedation: discussion of an uneasy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Boston, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a discussion of the use of palliative sedation in response to intractable (not responsive to treatment) existential suffering. Patients suffering from a terminal illness are often faced with severe symptoms at the end of life. Although palliative sedation is sometimes used when no other options are effective in relieving unbearable pain or suffering, its use in response to intractable existential suffering in terminal illness remains controversial. A literature search was conducted for published articles addressing the use of palliative sedation between 1996 and 2009 using established databases. Palliative sedation remains an uneasy practice. The debates have centred on ethical issues surrounding decisions to use sedation and on separating the intent of palliative sedation (relief of intolerable symptoms) from the intent of euthanasia (hastening death). There is lack of consensus in defining existential suffering. Consequently, there is limited understanding of how decisions are being made when using palliative sedation to treat intractable existential suffering. Given the confusion and uncertainty about ethical and clinical justifications for palliative sedation in treating existential suffering, we argue that a better understanding of the controversies and decision-making process is needed. Greater understanding is required to prevent palliative sedation from becoming a substitute for intensive treatment of this kind of suffering. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An existential perspective on meaning, spirituality and authenticity in athletic careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkainen, Noora; Tikkanen, Olli; Littlewood, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This research examines athletes’ career paths and reflections of meaning in their sporting practices through an existential psychological lens. Through notions of spirituality and authenticity, we examined how competitive sport practices and bodily movement gain meaning, and often fundamentally...... shift meaning, in athletes’ lives. Reflective writings with a follow-up from 10 athletes were interpreted through an existential-narrative analysis. The results suggest that while the early years of sport practice are most often characterised as highly enjoyable experiences, for some, the later career...... development involves existential challenges such as value conflicts, losing a sense of authenticity, fear of failure and anxiety. The ways in which the participants related to their sport in mature years varied considerably from sustained love for competitive sport, to developing a personal philosophy built...

  6. The impact of advanced heart failure on social, psychological and existential aspects and personhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Amy; Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure is a common cause of death and causes significant morbidity in its advanced stage. As the illness progresses, lack of physical health may overshadow psychological, social and existential distress. To explore the impact of advanced heart failure on other aspects of the patients' lives. We undertook a secondary analysis of interview data generated for a qualitative longitudinal study looking at the experiences of patients with advanced heart failure, and their family and professional carers. A sub set of patient, family and professional carer interview transcripts was selected for thematic analysis. The sample was chosen to reflect a range of age, gender and social situations. Eighteen transcripts from five cases were examined. Three key themes were identified: 1) social isolation; 2) psychological issues and coping strategies; and 3) existential concerns. Psychosocial and existential issues are important aspects of the lives of patients suffering from heart failure. Holistic management should encompass an awareness of exploration and support for these dimensions.

  7. Existential experiences and needs related to induced abortion in a group of Swedish women: a quantitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria Liljas; Makenzius, Marlene; Tydén, Tanja; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of existential experiences and needs among women who have requested an induced abortion. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 499 women who had requested an induced abortion. A principle component analysis resulted in three components of existential experiences and needs: existential thoughts, existential practices, and humanisation of the foetus. These components were analysed in relation to background data and other data from the questionnaire. Existential experiences and needs were common. For 61% of women existential thoughts about life and death, meaning and morality were related to the abortion experience. Almost 50% of women reported a need for special acts in relation to the abortion; 67% of women thought of the pregnancy in terms of a child. A higher presence of existential components correlated to difficulty in making the abortion decision and poor psychological wellbeing after the abortion. Women's experiences of abortion can include existential thoughts about life, death, meaning and morality, feelings of attachment to the foetus, and the need for symbolic expression. This presents a challenge for abortion personnel, as the situation involves complex aspects over and above medical procedures and routines.

  8. Existential Attitudes and Eastern European Adolescents' Problem and Health Behaviors: Highlighting the Role of the Search for Meaning in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassai, Laszlo; Piko, Bettina F.; Steger, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of existential attitudes in adolescent health-related behavior has received increased attention recently, historically it has been underinvestigated in the field. The present study focuses on existential attitudes related to meaning in life and hopelessness. Relations of presence of meaning, search for meaning, and hopelessness…

  9. Older people with incurable cancer: Existential meaning-making from a life-span perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; DeMarinis, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of older people in Western countries are living with incurable cancer, receiving palliative care from specialized healthcare contexts. The aim of our article was to understand how they experience the existential meaning-making function in daily living from a life-span perspective. Some 21 participants (12 men and 9 women), aged 70-88, were interviewed in a semistructured framework. They were recruited from somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. We applied the model of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) from life-span developmental psychology in a deductive manner to explore the participants' life-oriented adaptive strategies. A meaning component was added to the SOC model. The participants experienced the existential meaning-making function on two levels. On a superordinate level, it was an important component for interpreting and coordinating the adaptive strategies of SOC for reaching the most important goals in daily living. The existential meaning-making framework provided for a comprehensive understanding of resilience, allowing for both restoration and growth components to be identified. The second level was related to strategy, in that the existential meaning-making function was involved in a complex interaction with behavioral resources and resilience, leading to continuation of goals and more realistic goal adjustments. A few experienced existential meaning-making dysfunction. The modified SOC model was seen as applicable for palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. Employing the existential meaning-making framework with its complementary understanding of resilience as growth potential to the SOC model's restoration potential can help older people to identify how they make meaning and how this influences their adaptation process to being incurably sick.

  10. Reflections on the Existential Philosophy of T.S. Eliot's Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Pani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a ground that the chosen philosophers share. It will address man’s existential crisis - his confusion and despair over his existence. T. S Eliot believed that his insight could pull humanity out of the despair and hopelessness of modern era. The paper emphasizes the self transcending character of human existence. The eternal human situation offers liberation of mankind which starts with a total knowledge of man by himself. Through philosophical and existential exploration we can enter into, in effect, another state of consciousness, where we reconnect with each of our will at a deeper and satisfying level.

  11. Religion, Spirituality, or Existentiality in Bad News Interactions: The Perspectives and Practices of Physicians in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2015-08-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to identify the role of religion, spirituality, or existentiality in clinical interactions. Grounded theory design was used to generate narrative data from 27 physicians working in four teaching hospitals in Karnataka, India, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Physicians reported that they explored religious, spiritual, and existential beliefs and practices of patients, along with other psychosocial and disease aspects, to assess their tolerance to bad news, to make decisions about delivering it, and to address the distress that might emerge from receiving bad news. They also reported taking recourse to religious or spiritual practices to cope with their own stress and feelings of failure.

  12. Walking the line. Palliative sedation for existential distress: still a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Sophie; Radbruch, Lukas; Masel, Eva K; Weixler, Dietmar; Watzke, Herbert H

    2015-12-01

    Adequate symptom relief is a central aspect of medical care of all patients especially in those with an incurable disease. However, as an illness progresses and the end of life approaches, physical or psychoexistential symptoms may remain uncontrollable requiring palliative sedation. Although palliative sedation has become an increasingly implemented practice in the care of terminally ill patients, sedation in the management of refractory psychological symptoms and existential distress is still a controversial issue and much debated. This case report presents a patient who received palliative sedation for the treatment of existential distress and discusses considerations that may arise from such a therapeutic approach.

  13. A prospective study of existential issues in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Two studies with single-group design (Study 1 N = 18, Study 2 N = 28) addressed whether horticultural activities ameliorate depression severity and existential issues. Measures were obtained before and after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program and at 3-month follow-up. In both studies, depression severity declined significantly during the intervention and remained low at the follow-up. In both studies the existential outcomes did not change significantly; however, the change that did occur during the intervention correlated (rho > .43) with change in depression severity. Participants' open-ended accounts described the therapeutic horticulture experience as meaningful and influential for their view of life.

  14. An exploration of caregiver choice through the lens of Sartrean existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kristin L; McCurry, Mary K

    2017-10-01

    There are innumerable social and ethical factors which affect one's decision to become an informal caregiver for someone with chronic illness. The existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre provides unique insight into human motivation and choice. The purpose of this paper was to examine the social and ethical influences on the individual's decision to become a caregiver through the lens of Sartrean existentialism and discuss how this unique philosophy can advance nursing knowledge. The factors affecting one's choice to become a caregiver were considered using the Sartrean existential concepts of The Other, human freedom, choice, bad faith, shame and authenticity. When explored through the perspective of Sartrean existentialism, the choice to become a caregiver is strongly influenced by fear of judgement from The Other and the resulting sense of social obligation and shame. However, the interaction with The Other often results in the loss of authenticity through the pursuit of bad faith. To avert bad faith, potential caregivers must act authentically by exercising their freedom to choose and by choosing an action for its own sake and not for some extraneous purpose. The results of this philosophical inquiry contribute to nursing knowledge by providing a unique, alternative perspective by which nurses may understand the choices of potential caregivers and support them in making authentic decisions. This perspective may provide a foundation for theory development and promote further nursing knowledge which will improve caregiver health and well-being. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effectiveness of Existential Psychotherapy in Increasing the Resiliency of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z rezaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many problems are associated with infertility diagnosis, especially for women. Resiliency is one of the strategies which may reduce psychological distress of infertile women. The aim of current research was to study the effectiveness of existential psychotherapy in increasing the resiliency of infertile women. Method: The design of the present study was a semi-experimental research with pretest and posttest with control group. Statistical population consisted of all infertile women of Dehdasht, Iran, in the summer of 2014. Samples were selected at first by available sampling method and after completing resiliency questionnaire, and obtaining score for enter to research, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N = 8 per group. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of group counseling based on existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results showed that significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group existed. This difference was significant at the level of 0.01. Therefore, it seemed that existential psychotherapy increased the resiliency of infertile women. Conclusion: The results revealed that existential psychotherapy increased resiliency of infertile women and interventions based on this approach will lead to the improvement of the mental health.

  16. The Existential Effects of Traumatic Experiences: A Survey of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Mark; Coulon, Carissima; Yanez, Alejandro P.; Lasota, Marcus T.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between exposure to trauma and attitudes toward existential issues. Participants were 504 undergraduate students (average age = 19.67) who answered questions on exposure to trauma, fear of death, overall distress, and meaning in life. Results indicated that those with a history of trauma exposure had higher levels…

  17. "In Situ Didactics" - creating moments of universal and existential quality and beauty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenderup, Mogens Larsen; Nørgaard, Britta Kusk

    2016-01-01

    “In Situ Didatics” - creating moments of universal and existential quality and beauty. Written by: Senior Lecturers Mogens Larsen Stenderup and Britta Nørgaard, ( UCN ) University College of Northern Denmark ( mls@ucn.dk; bkn@ucn.dk), published April 2016. Læs den på www.academi.edu "Il existe...

  18. Activism as a Heroic Quest for Symbolic Immortality: An Existential Perspective on Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elad-Strenger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Excellent research exists on the conditions that generate political and social activism. Yet a central issue has remained perplexing: how does the personal need to stand out as unique and heroic interact with the concern for the positive image of the group, and the desire to protect and bolster its status, goals and shared values, in propelling collective action? Inspired by existential theory and research, this paper proposes an existential perspective on activism that identifies the human desire for a sense of meaning and significance as an important motivation underlying individuals' choice to engage in collective action. This study outlines an integrative model of collective action, combining insights from existential psychology with insights from the social identity perspective, to bridge together needs and concerns associated with both personal identity and group identity into a single model of collective action through the concept of death-anxiety buffering mechanisms. This model suggests that collective action is an effective means to satisfy existential needs through bolstering and protecting group interests and values on the one hand, and realizing the activist's heroism project on the other. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. On the Mandarin Possessive and Existential Verb "You" and Its Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, One-Soon

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the possessive, existential, and locational usages of the Mandarin Chinese verb "you3," arguing for the formulation of a single lexical entry of the verb within lexical-functional grammar and demonstrating the similarities between English idiom chunks and you3 expressions. (20 references) (Author/CB)

  20. Moral Dilemmas and Existential Issues Encountered Both in Psychotherapy and Philosophical Counseling Practices

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    Beatrice A. Popescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.

  1. Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant Teachers as Cognitive Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    In light of recent specific liberalizations in drug laws in some countries, I have investigated the potential of entheogens (i.e., psychoactive plants used as spiritual sacraments) as tools to facilitate existential intelligence. "Plant teachers" from the Americas such as ayahuasca, psilocybin mushrooms, and peyote, and the Indo-Aryan…

  2. Effectiveness of cognitive Existential Group therapy on quality of life of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jalili Nikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: With an aging population, considering the factors affecting the quality of life more than ever is necessary. The aim of current research was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive existential therapy on quality of life of elderly people. Methods: The current research is semi experimental with pre and post test with control group. Statistical population of research consists of all elderly people in Kahrizak nursing homes. In the first phase, the participants were selected through purposive sampling method and after responding to the quality of life questionnaire and obtaining score for enter to research they were divided in two groups of experimental and control (N = 12 per group using random sampling method.  The experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group counseling based on cognitive- existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: There was no difference between pre-test and control groups, but the mean scores of post-test experimental and control groups were statistically significant. and cognitive group therapy improves quality of life is (p=0.001. Therefore it seems that cognitive-existential group therapy increase quality of life of elderly people. Conclusion: Cognitive Existential Group therapy utilizes concepts such as death, meaning, cognitive distortions and responsibility could increase the level ofquality of life of elderly people. Thus interventions based on this approach could be useful in improving the quality of life.

  3. Existential Motifs in Medieval Poetry: Insights on Therapeutic Practice from Dante's "Divine Comedy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Examines the four existential realities of isolation, meaninglessness, death, and freedom as a framework for understanding Dante's "Divine Comedy." Argues that studying this text and its metaphors offers an enriched understanding of the dilemmas of human existence which can refine the understanding of the therapeutic relationship.…

  4. The Lurking Wolf: Qualitative research of existential experiences with lupus in female patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth

    THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital of Copenha......THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital...... of Copenhagen, Department of Rheumatology, Denmark. (3) University of southern Denmark, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark. Background: Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease, affecting mainly women, potentially lethal and quite unpredictable which exposes them with a constant life-threat; thus exposes them...... of existential experiences over time in female patients suffering from Lupus. Method: Three 3 qualitative indept interviews with 15 women is planned during 1½ year. First and second round is performed, and third is planned during spring 2015. Interviews are guided by Van Manens life world existentials (time...

  5. POSTCOLONIAL ARABIC FICTION REVISITED: NATURALISM AND EXISTENTIALISM IN GHASSAN KANAFANI’S MEN IN THE SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Saleh Neimneh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks into the postcolonial Arabic narrative of Ghassan Kanafani to examine its underplayed existential and naturalistic aspects. Postcolonial texts (and their exegeses deal with the effects of colonization/imperialism. They are expected to be political and are judged accordingly. Drawing on Kanafani’s Men in the Sun (1963, I argue that the intersection among existentialism and naturalism, on the one hand, and postcolonialism, on the other, intensifies the political relevance of the latter theory and better establishes the politically committed nature of Kanafani’s fiction of resistance. In the novella, the sun and the desert are a pivotal existential symbol juxtaposed against the despicable life led by three Palestinian refugees. The gruesome death we encounter testifies to the absurdity of life after attempts at self-definition through making choices. The gritty existence characteristic of Kanafani's work makes his representation of the lives of alienated characters more accurate and more visceral. Kanafani uses philosophical and sociological theories to augment the political nature of his protest fiction, one acting within postcolonial parameters of dispossession to object to different forms of imperialism and diaspora. Therefore, this article explores how global critical frameworks (naturalism and existentialism enrich the localized contexts essential to any study of postcolonial literature and equally move the traditional national allegory of Kanafani to a more realist/unidealistic level of political indictment against oppression.

  6. Mindfulness: existential, loss, and grief factors in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacón, A M

    2011-01-01

    Although a plethora of studies exist as to the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions with cancer patients, existential, loss, and grief factors are absent. The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to add to the literature by exploring the pre-post effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention on existential well-being, summed self-identified losses, and grief scores as well as assess mental adjustment to cancer; also, 6-month follow-up data as to intervention maintenance were obtained. Sixty-five women, all of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 12 months, participated in this study. The data indicated significant improvements for existential well-being, number of self-identified losses, grief scores as well as three mental adjustment styles. Six-month follow-up revealed that of the 58 responding participants, 88% were maintaining mindfulness strategies at varying schedules on a weekly basis with mindfulness-based walking as the preferred strategy. This is the first known mindfulness-based intervention study to investigate existential, loss, and grief factors in those with cancer. Further investigations earnestly are needed in this area to provide full psychosocial care to those confronting cancer.

  7. Shared decision-making as an existential journey: Aiming for restored autonomous capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Pål; Clayman, Marla L; Beach, Mary Catherine; Han, Paul K; Boss, Emily F; Ofstad, Eirik H; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-09-01

    We describe the different ways in which illness represents an existential problem, and its implications for shared decision-making. We explore core concepts of shared decision-making in medical encounters (uncertainty, vulnerability, dependency, autonomy, power, trust, responsibility) to interpret and explain existing results and propose a broader understanding of shared-decision making for future studies. Existential aspects of being are physical, social, psychological, and spiritual. Uncertainty and vulnerability caused by illness expose these aspects and may lead to dependency on the provider, which underscores that autonomy is not just an individual status, but also a varying capacity, relational of nature. In shared decision-making, power and trust are important factors that may increase as well as decrease the patient's dependency, particularly as information overload may increase uncertainty. The fundamental uncertainty, state of vulnerability, and lack of power of the ill patient, imbue shared decision-making with a deeper existential significance and call for greater attention to the emotional and relational dimensions of care. Hence, we propose that the aim of shared decision-making should be restoration of the patient's autonomous capacity. In doing shared decision-making, care is needed to encompass existential aspects; informing and exploring preferences is not enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leading with "Emotional" Intelligence--Existential and Motivational Analysis in Leadership and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual and practical paper is integrating the work of Viktor Frankl (1985) and Steven Reiss (2000, 2008) into a model of Existential and Motivational Analysis (EMotiAn). This integrated model and approach may provide scholars, educators, consultants and practitioners alike with an innovative and meaningful framework for leadership and…

  9. Personal Meaning, Optimism, and Choice: Existential Predictors of Depression in Community and Institutional Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the unique, combined, and interactive contribution of existential variables and traditional measures as predictors of depression in institutionalized and community-residing older adults. Results show that choice-responsibleness, social resources, and physical health predicted depression in community elderly; personal meaning, optimism,…

  10. State absolutism and the future of man: A historico-existential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversely, in the later part of the modern period Hegel proposed a state that seemingly made life and existence "no longer at ease for man‟. This was manifest in the emergence of the Hegelian absolute state. This paper attempts a historico-existential analysis of the nature of man in the absolute state and it was blatant ...

  11. Research on meaning-making and health in secular society: Secular, spiritual and religious existential orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian; La Cour, Peter

    2010-01-01

    cultural basis for research in secular society. Reviewing the literature, three main domains of existential meaning-making emerge: Secular, spiritual, and religious. In reconfirming these three domains, we propose to couple them with the three dimensions of cognition (knowing), practice (doing...

  12. Oganihu Ndiigbo : through the social-existential forces of Ikeoha and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the parochial city-states which had little or no socio-political connection with each other. With the colonial arrangements, this microcosmic consciousness bloomed into a pan-Igbo drive for the social welfare of Ndiigbo. The post-war Igbo experience brought forth yet another dimension of this existential character of the Igbo ...

  13. Defensive or Existential Religious Orientations and Mortality Salience Hypothesis: Using Conservatism as a Dependent Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Oner-Ozkan, Bengi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the defensive versus existential religious orientation and mortality salience hypothesis in a country where the predominant type of religion is Islam. It was predicted that the mortality reactions of participants would not differ in accordance with their religious orientations within a Muslim sample. The…

  14. Between altruism and narcissism: An action theoretical approach of personal homepages devoted to existential meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.J.S.; Selm, M. van

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to examine existential meaning constructions from an action theoretical perspective in a specific Internet environment: the personal homepage. Personal homepages are on-line multi-media documents addressing the question ‘Who am I?’ Authors of personal homepages provide information

  15. Violence Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Treatment by Integrating Existential and Narrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an integration of existential and narrative therapies with current evidence-supported approaches to treating the aforementioned population. First, she briefly defines interpersonal violence, then provides a history and review of the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which frequently…

  16. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  17. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  18. Existential issues among nurses in surgical care--a hermeneutical study of critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Camilla; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2013-03-01

    To report a qualitative study conducted to gain a deeper understanding of surgical nurses' experiences of existential care situations. Background.  Existential issues are common for all humans irrespective of culture or religion and constitute man's ultimate concerns of life. Nurses often lack the strategies to deal with patients' existential issues even if they are aware of them. This is a qualitative study where critical incidents were collected and analysed hermeneutically. During June 2010, ten surgical nurses presented 41 critical incidents, which were collected for the study. The nurses were first asked to describe existential care incidents in writing, including their own emotions, thoughts, and reactions. After 1-2 weeks, individual interviews were conducted with the same nurses, in which they reflected on their written incidents. A hermeneutic analysis was used. The majority of incidents concerned nurses' experiences of caring for patients' dying of cancer. In the analysis, three themes were identified, emphasizing the impact of integration between nurses' personal self and professional role in existential care situations: inner dialogues for meaningful caring, searching for the right path in caring, and barriers in accompanying patients beyond medical care. Findings are interpreted and discussed in the framework of Buber's philosophy of the relationships I-Thou and I-It, emphasizing nurses' different relationships with patients during the process of caring. Some nurses integrate their personal self into caring whereas others do not. The most important finding and new knowledge are that some nurses felt insecure and were caught somewhere in between I-Thou and I-It. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  20. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Existential Crisis—Life Crisis, Stress, and Burnout

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    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The triple and parallel loss of quality of life, health, and ability without an organic reason is what we normally recognize as a life crisis, stress, or a burnout. Not being in control is often a terrible and unexpected experience. Failure on the large existential scale is not a part of our expectations, but most people will experience it. The key to getting well again is to get resources and help, which most people experience with shame and guilt. Stress and burnout might seem to be temporary problems that are easily handled, but often the problems stay. It is very important for the physician to identify this pattern and help the patient to realize the difficulties and seriousness of the situation, thus helping the patient to assume responsibility and prevent existential disaster, suicide, or severe depression. As soon as the patient is an ally in fighting the dark side of life and works with him/herself, the first step has been reached. Existential pain is really a message to us indicating that we are about to grow and heal. In our view, existential problems are gifts that are painful to receive, but wise to accept. Existential problems require skill on the part of the holistic physician or therapist in order to help people return to life—to their self-esteem, self-confidence, and trust in others. In this paper, we describe how we have met the patients soul to soul and guided them through the old pains and losses in order to get back on the track to life.

  1. Absurdity and being-in-itself. The third phase of phenomenology: Jean-Paul Sartre and existential psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A

    2001-08-01

    Existentialism and phenomenology are closely linked philosophies. Existentialism preceded phenomenology and is not considered a single philosophy but several schools of thought, both theist and atheist in thinking, which grew out of a reaction to traditional philosophy. The development of phenomenology is divided into three separate phases ultimately merging with existentialism. Following Second World War, the phenomenological movement gained momentum in France and encompassed many of the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merlieu-Ponty and, notably, Jean-Paul Sartre established a 'third phase' of phenomenology. This paper explores some of Sartre's ideas related to being and later applications through Medard Boss and R.D. Laing, and offers a short illustrative case vignette that shows the concepts as they might apply to nursing practice. Consideration is finally given to existential psychoanalysis as an applied research methodology

  2. Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching; when working with the ethical and existential dimension in professional bachelor education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper will in an overall and outlining way describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimensions of entrepreneurship teaching....

  3. Meaning and existential givens in the lives of cancer patients: A philosophical perspective on psycho-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Joël

    2015-08-01

    Many cancer patients report changes in how they experience meaning in life and being confronted with life's limitations, understanding themselves as being vulnerable, finite, and free beings. Many would like to receive psychotherapeutic help for this. However, psychotherapy for these concerns often either focuses primarily on meaning in life (e.g., meaning-centered/logotherapy) or on existential givens (e.g., supportive-expressive therapy). The relationship between meaning in life and existential givens seems relatively unexplored, and it seems unclear how therapists can integrate them. The present article aims to explore the relationship between meaning and existential givens. Martin Heidegger was a founder of existentialism, inspiring both meaning therapies and supportive-expressive therapies. Therefore, we systematically apply his understanding of these phenomena, elucidated by four elements in his central metaphor of "the house." (1) Walls: In everyday life, we construct ordinary meanings, like the walls of a house, to protect us from our surroundings, wind, and rain. (2) Surroundings ("existential givens"): Confronted with cancer, the meanings/walls of this house may collapse; people may start seeing their surroundings and understand that they could have built their house at a different location, that is, they understand the broad range of possibilities in life, their responsibility to choose, and the contingency of current meanings. (3) How to design, build, and dwell: People may design, build, and dwell in their house in different ways: they may lock themselves in their house of impermeable "ordinary meanings" and deny the existence of existential surroundings; they may feel overwhelmed by all possibilities and be unable to experience meaning; they may build the house as their true home, use life's possibilities, and listen to their true self by building permeable "existential meanings." (4). Navigator: People may experience inner guidance to navigate in

  4. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

    OpenAIRE

    Kapustin, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a) I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human bein...

  5. The Courage To Be Anxious. Paul Tillich's Existential Interpretation of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Bolea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The similitude between anxiety and death is the starting point of Paul Tillich's analysis from The Courage To Be, his famous theological and philosophical reply to Martin Heidegger's Being And Time. Not only Tillich and Heidegger are concerned with the connection between anxiety and death but also other proponents of both existentialism and nihilism like Friedrich Nietzsche, Emil Cioran and Lev Shestov. Tillich observes that "anxiety puts frightening masks" over things and perhaps this definition is its finest contribution to the spectacular phenomenology of anxiety. Moreover, Tillich has some illuminating insights about the anxiety of emptiness and meaninglessness, which are important for the history of the existential philosophy. It is interesting how the protestant theologian tries to answer to Heidegger: while the German philosopher asserted that we must avoid fear and we have to embrace anxiety as a route to personal authenticity, Tillich notes that we should transform anxiety into fear, because courage is more likely to "abolish" fear.

  6. "To Thine Own Self Be True": Existentialism in Hamlet and The Blind Owl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Farahmandfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the key concepts of Existential thought in two masterpieces of the world literature, namely, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Sadeq Hedayat’s The Blind Owl (Buf-e Kur. Freedom, free will, authenticity, self-realization, self-becoming, and awareness of death are among the main concerns of both writers. Shakespeare depicts authenticity in the character of Hamlet, and it is in contrast to him that the reader finds many instances of inauthenticity. The Danish prince has no tolerance whatsoever for inauthentic or self-deceiving. The same thing is visible in The Blind Owl in which the narrator-protagonist feels himself above all the low, petty desires of mankind. All in all, both characters’ main challenge is to live authentically. Keywords: Existential philosophy, authenticity, angst, death, being, existence, self-realization

  7. My experience with psychotherapy, existential analysis and Jungian analysis: Rollo May and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, Philip

    2011-08-01

    This article describes my initial psychotherapy experience with a psychologist who combined a client-centered/rational-emotive approach, my existential analysis with Rollo May, and then concludes briefly portraying my current Jungian analysis. I explain how I came to each of these experiences, what I learned from them, and the limitations I have recognized in them. I elaborate on the existential analysis with Rollo May, as it marked a major turning point in my life and thinking. I have been able to describe that experience with the benefit of hindsight, which I do not have with the Jungian analysis. In closing, I offer some suggestions about the role of therapy/analysis in the training of the psychotherapist. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An Existential Perspective on Death Anxiety, Retirement, and Related Research Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, John W

    2017-06-01

    Aspects of existentialism relevant to existence and death anxiety (DA) are discussed. Included are the "thrownness" of existence, being-with-others, the motivational influence of inevitable death, the search for meaning, making the most of existence by taking responsibility for one's own life, and coping with existential isolation. The attempted separation of DA from object anxiety is a significant difficulty. The correlations among age, gender, and DA are variable. Personality and role-oriented problems in the transition to retirement are discussed along with Erikson's notion of "generativity" as an expression of the energy and purpose of mid-life. Furthermore, methodological and linguistic problems in DA research are considered. The article suggests qualitative methodologies as an interpersonal means of exploring DA within the contexts of psychotherapy and counselling.

  9. The complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism as a philosophical perspective for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, L; Wheeler, S

    2001-02-01

    The focus of this paper draws on the thinking of Husserl, Dilthey and Heidegger to identify elements of the phenomenological movement that can provide focus and direction for qualitative research in nursing. The authors interpret this tradition in two ways: emphasizing the possible complementarity of phenomenology, hermeneutics and existentialism, and demonstrating how these emphases ask for grounding, reflexivity and humanization in qualitative research. The paper shows that the themes of grounding, reflexivity and humanization are particularly important for nursing research.

  10. The relevance of the insights of existential thomism to analytical phylosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Oniščik, Marija

    2004-01-01

    The article presents one of the most important trend in 20-th century philosophy - Existential Thomism - as being of great relevance to contemporary analitycal Thomism in its ontological and epistemological investigations. Šis straipsnyje pristatoma viena įtakingiausių XX amžiaus filosofijos krypčių - egzistencinis tomizmas kaip analitinio tomizmo pirmtakas, turėjęs lemiamos reikšmės šiuolaikiniams ontologijos bei epistemologijos tyrinėjimams.

  11. Aphasia - an existential loneliness: A study on the loss of theworld of symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the existential consequences of aphasia and the struggle to regain the ability to communicate. Data were collected by means of interviews, published books and diaries from four women and five men, who varied in type of aphasia and time since cerebral lesion. Data were interpreted in accordance with a lifeworld hermeneutic approach. The findings led to six interpretations, which serve as a base for a comprehensive understanding and which indicate that the i...

  12. ECONOMIC-UTILITARIAN AND SPIRITUAL-EXISTENTIAL BASES OF FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN MOUNTAIN DWELLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Moskalets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.

  13. The Courage To Be Anxious. Paul Tillich's Existential Interpretation of Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Bolea

    2015-01-01

    The similitude between anxiety and death is the starting point of Paul Tillich's analysis from The Courage To Be, his famous theological and philosophical reply to Martin Heidegger's Being And Time. Not only Tillich and Heidegger are concerned with the connection between anxiety and death but also other proponents of both existentialism and nihilism like Friedrich Nietzsche, Emil Cioran and Lev Shestov. Tillich observes that "anxiety puts frightening masks" over things and perhaps this defini...

  14. Between altruism and narcissism: An action theoretical approach of personal homepages devoted to existential meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Hijmans, E.J.S.; van Selm, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to examine existential meaning constructions from an action theoretical perspective in a specific Internet environment: the personal homepage. Personal homepages are on-line multi-media documents addressing the question ‘Who am I?’ Authors of personal homepages provide information on both their personal and public identity. These identity constructions sometimes include reflections on the meaning of life. Answers to questions on the meaning of life reflect the way in which i...

  15. Feeling and Time: The Phenomenology of Mood Disorders, Depressive Realism, and Existential Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic subsyndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410

  16. Aliens and existential elevators: absurdity and its shadows in Douglas Adams’s Hitch hiker series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. van der Colff

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available According to twentieth-century existentialist philosophy, the universe as we know it is steeped in senselessness, and the only possible means of survival is the construction of subjective meaning. Douglas Adams’s fictional universe portrayed in his “Hitch hiker” series reflects the arbitrary nature of existence, and the characters dwelling in this narrative space are faced with two existential choices: the one is defiance in the face of senselessness, the other is bleak despair. This article explores the existential choices made by prominent characters in the “Hitch hiker” series. The article distinguishes between and analyses the Sisyphus characters and their polar opposites (or nihilist shadows in Douglas Adams’s “Hitch hiker” series. Adams’s characters, be they human, alien or sentient machine, all face the same existential choice: actuate individual meaning, or resort to despondency. Characters who choose the first option are regarded as Sisyphus figures, whereas characters who choose the latter are referred to as shadows or nihilist nemeses.

  17. Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.

  18. Existential struggle and self-reported needs of patients in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsdottir, Jonina; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to increase understanding of patients' experience of rehabilitation and their self-reported needs in that context. Nurses need to be able to recognize patient needs to plan effective and individualized care. Needs-led nursing care is emphasized in the nursing literature, but few studies in rehabilitation have explored needs from the patient's perspective. The sample of this phenomenological study was purposively selected and the data consisted of 16 in-depth interviews with 12 people aged between 26 and 85 years. The data were collected in 2005. The findings showed that being a patient in rehabilitation involves existential struggling, as the reason behind patients' rehabilitation, accident or illness usually leads to trying to cope with existential changes while needing to adapt to new characteristics of life and self. This makes patients vulnerable and their self-reported needs include individualized caring and emotional support from family, peers and staff. Participants also reported a need for a sense of security in a stable and homelike environment, with assistance, help and presence. Finally, they reported needing goal-oriented and progressive care in which realistic and achievable goals were established. Individualized patient education enhanced their independence and empowered them towards a new and progressive lifestyle. A new emphasis is needed in rehabilitation nursing, involving assessment of existential well-being of patients by means of skilful interpersonal relationship based on individualized caring and emotional support and recognition of each patient's own hierarchy of needs.

  19. Impact of Death Work on Self: Existential and Emotional Challenges and Coping of Palliative Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Tin, Agnes Fong; Fong, Agnes; Wong, Karen Lok Yi; Tse, Doris Man Wah; Lau, Kam Shing; Chan, Lai Ngor

    2016-02-01

    Palliative care professionals, such as social workers, often work with death and bereavement. They need to cope with the challenges on "self" in working with death, such as coping with their own emotions and existential queries. In this study, the authors explore the impact of death work on the self of palliative care professionals and how they perceive and cope with the challenges of self in death work by conducting a qualitative study. Participants were recruited from the palliative care units of hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 palliative care professionals: five physicians, 11 nurses, and six social workers. Interviews were transcribed to text for analysis. Emotional challenges (for example, aroused emotional distress from work) and existential challenges (for example, shattered basic assumptions on life and death) were identified as key themes. Similarly, emotional coping (for example, accepting and managing personal emotions) and existential coping (for example, rebuilding and actualizing life-and-death assumptions) strategies were identified. This study enhances the understanding of how palliative care professionals perceive and cope with the challenges of death work on the self. Findings may provide insights into how training can be conducted to enhance professionals' self-competence in facing these challenges.

  20. RETRACTED: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice With Film: How to Use Fight Club to Teach Existential Counseling Theory and Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peoples, Kat; Helsel, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    ... concepts could operate in a therapeutic practice. By providing a detailed explanation of Fight Club, educators assist students in grasping the philosophical underpinnings of existential counseling theory concretely...

  1. Existential Damage: The Specificity of the Institute Unveiled from the Violation To The Right Of Labor Disconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Barbosa Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of labor disconnection underlies on a constitutional and fundamental prerogative of the entire working class. Rest periods from the laboring environment are protected by law and have the objective to provide workers with recovery of their physical and mental energies. They also assure moments of delight, of family, communitarian and political insertion, for the fulfillment of personal plans. The violation of these disconnection periods can jeopardize projects or life habits, as well as social relations, resulting in existential damage. From these premises, this article aims to analyze the characterizing elements of existential damage in order to evince its peculiarities in relation to moral damage and to defend the accumulation of damages to provide just atonement to the victims and to their dignity as human beings. Thus, this research supports itself on legal dogmatic principles, since it considers that the internal elements of legal order are sufficient to establish a distinction between moral and existential injuries. The main problem relies on the typifying elements of existential damage. Due to their extra-patrimonial nature and relationship to personal rights, they are mistakenly considered by labor courts as moral damages, and, therefore, given limited possibilities of indemnification to the victim. Under this perspective, the contextual complexity above presented is overcome through deductive reasoning, as it indicates in the open norms of the national legal system the possibility of an interdisciplinary and comparative investigation which attests the specificities of moral and existential damages.

  2. The interaction of existential concerns and psychoanalytic insights in the treatment of contemporary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly patients have been shown to respond to psychoanalytic treatment, but they present certain characteristic problems not typical of young patients. I discuss these and offer a brief case presentation followed by a general discussion of the role of existential concerns and of their intertwining with psychoanalytic insights and interpretations in the treatment of older patients from our contemporary culture. The particular case of a relatively mild narcissistic personality disorder is used as an example of the kinds of difficulties contemporary psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychiatrists run into in the current treatment of the aging patient population. The analyst's beliefs and personality are seen as more important than in classical Freudian psychoanalysis, and deliberate attention to the patient's existential concerns and cultural milieu cannot be avoided. A great deal of correction of what Gedo called "apraxias" is necessary, but I argue that in this situation each person must develop one's self in one's own way and without education and intrusion by the analyst. This self development in the face of one's inevitable future is seen as a vital aspect of contemporary psychoanalytic treatment of aging patients, regardless of which of the five orientation channels (that I have discussed elsewhere) are employed. The patient is seen as dealing both with his or her own infantile neurosis that is interfering with adult functioning and at the same time with universal existential human problems that become increasingly pressing as one ages. I contend that the current biological orientation of psychiatry is insufficient to address these difficulties, regardless of what advances we make in psychopharmacology and neurobiology. An exclusive neurobiological orientation can represent what existentialists label an "inauthentic choice" and a retreat from the spirit of humanism.

  3. Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy: A Proposed Theoretical Integration Model for Pastoral Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental Christianity and psychology are frequently viewed as incompatible pursuits. However, proponents of the integrationist movement posit that pastoral counselors can utilize principles from psychology if they adopt the premise that all truth is God's truth. Assuming this perspective, Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy (CEFT) - a theoretical integration model compatible with Christian fundamentalism - is proposed. The philosophical assumptions and models of personality, health, and abnormality are explored. Additionally, the article provides an overview of the therapeutic process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Exploring Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Existential Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    This is a presentation of a research project, which explores lived experience of psychotherapy in terms of learning outcomes. This includes both Existential therapy (ET) and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and their possible differences and similarities. I can describe learning as any...... experiential change that occurs in the participants understanding as result of the therapy in which they participate. Learning outcomes are concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the intentions of the educator, as expressed in the objectives of an educational effort. This research points...

  5. The Soul's Legacy: A Program Designed to Help Prepare Senior Adults Cope With End-of-Life Existential Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Current innovative psychological therapies have made great progress in addressing existential suffering in dying patients but are often begun to late in the end-of-life process and often ignore religion, which for many is a major component in the meaning-making process. Therefore, this article explores how chaplains (who are familiar with various religious traditions without promoting them) can help prepare senior adults effectively cope with inevitable end-of-life existential issues. The project described in this article provides tools for chaplains to address the real issues that terrify us all, but particularly the elderly: death, isolation, and meaninglessness. It is proposed that the addition of a spiritual will or legacy of the soul added to end-of-life planning can help ameliorate existential suffering at life's end.

  6. Fear of self-annihilation and existential uncertainty as predictors of worldview defense: Comparing terror management and uncertainty theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark

    2017-06-14

    Terror management theory (TMT) proposes that thoughts of death trigger a concern about self-annihilation that motivates the defense of cultural worldviews. In contrast, uncertainty theorists propose that thoughts of death trigger feelings of uncertainty that motivate worldview defense. University students (N = 414) completed measures of the chronic fear of self-annihilation and existential uncertainty as well as the need for closure. They then evaluated either a meaning threat stimulus or a control stimulus. Consistent with TMT, participants with a high fear of self-annihilation and a high need for closure showed the greatest dislike of the meaning threat stimulus, even after controlling for their existential uncertainty. Contrary to the uncertainty perspective, fear of existential uncertainty showed no significant effects.

  7. Existential dynamic therapy ("VITA") for treatment-resistant depression with cluster C disorder: matched comparison to treatment as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsett, Gry; Gude, Tore; Rønnestad, M Helge; Monsen, Jon T

    2012-01-01

    Existential suffering may contribute to treatment-resistant depression. The "VITA" treatment model was designed for such patients with long-standing depression accompanied by existential and/or religious concerns. This naturalistic effectiveness study compared the VITA model (n = 50) with a "treatment as usual" comparison group (TAU; n = 50) of patients with treatment-resistant depression and cluster c comorbidity. The TAU patients were matched on several characteristics with the VITA patients. The VITA model included existential, dynamic, narrative and affect-focused components. The VITA group had significantly greater improvement on symptom distress and relational problems during treatment and from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up. Patients in the VITA, at follow-up, were more likely to be employed and less likely be using psychotropic medications.

  8. Existential and Religious Dimensions of Spirituality and Their Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhangri, Gian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Spiritual aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been fully assessed. This study described the religious and existential dimensions of spirituality of patients with CKD, provided evidence to support construct validity of the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale, and examined the relationship between constructs of spirituality and HRQoL. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a prospective, cohort study of 253 predominantly white (81.5%) prevalent patients with stage 4 or 5 CKD or receiving long-term dialysis. Participants completed the Kidney Dialysis Quality of Life Short Form, the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale, and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale. Results: Three subscales of ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale were highly correlated with other measures of religiosity and weakly correlated with existential well-being. Mean of three subscales of ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale and overall Spiritual Perspective Scale scores were 8.8 to 9.9 and 3.3, respectively. Mean ± SD existential and religious scores of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale were 42.9 ± 8.8 and 38.8 ± 11.4, respectively. Negligible correlations existed between religious scores and HRQoL. Conversely, existential well-being was moderately associated with several domains of HRQoL. Conclusions: Our study supports construct validity of the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale as a measure of religiosity. It did not seem to capture the existential dimension of spirituality. The existential domain of spirituality was more clinically relevant to patients in this study and had a greater impact on HRQoL compared with measures of religiosity. PMID:20651152

  9. Existential and religious dimensions of spirituality and their relationship with health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sara N; Jhangri, Gian S

    2010-11-01

    Spiritual aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been fully assessed. This study described the religious and existential dimensions of spirituality of patients with CKD, provided evidence to support construct validity of the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale, and examined the relationship between constructs of spirituality and HRQoL. This was a prospective, cohort study of 253 predominantly white (81.5%) prevalent patients with stage 4 or 5 CKD or receiving long-term dialysis. Participants completed the Kidney Dialysis Quality of Life Short Form, the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale, and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale. Three subscales of ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale were highly correlated with other measures of religiosity and weakly correlated with existential well-being. Mean of three subscales of ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale and overall Spiritual Perspective Scale scores were 8.8 to 9.9 and 3.3, respectively. Mean ± SD existential and religious scores of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale were 42.9 ± 8.8 and 38.8 ± 11.4, respectively. Negligible correlations existed between religious scores and HRQoL. Conversely, existential well-being was moderately associated with several domains of HRQoL. Our study supports construct validity of the ESRD Spiritual Beliefs Scale as a measure of religiosity. It did not seem to capture the existential dimension of spirituality. The existential domain of spirituality was more clinically relevant to patients in this study and had a greater impact on HRQoL compared with measures of religiosity.

  10. Living through a volcanic eruption: Understanding the experience of survivors as a phenomenological existential phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. A phenomenological-contextual, existential, and ethical perspective on emotional trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolorow, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    After a brief overview of the author's phenomenological-contextualist psychoanalytic perspective, the paper traces the evolution of the author's conception of emotional trauma over the course of three decades, as it developed in concert with his efforts to grasp his own traumatized states and his studies of existential philosophy. The author illuminates two of trauma's essential features: (1) its context-embeddedness-painful or frightening affect becomes traumatic when it cannot find a context of emotional understanding in which it can be held and integrated, and (2) its existential significance-emotional trauma shatters our illusions of safety and plunges us into an authentic Being-toward-death, wherein we must face up to our finitude and the finitude of all those we love. The paper also describes the impact of trauma on the phenomenology of time and the sense of alienation from others that accompanies traumatic temporality. The author contends that the proper therapeutic comportment toward trauma is a form of emotional dwelling. He concludes with a discussion of the implications of all these formulations for the development of an ethics of finitude.

  12. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning.

  13. Experiences of Gynecological Cancer through Perspectives of Existential Philosophy: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozen Kulakac

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to re-interpret qualitative studies that examined life experiences of women with gynecological cancer through the perspective of "existentialist philosophy". In this meta-synthesis study, a theoretical sampling method was used. Thirty-five studies that were accessible in full text, published in Turkish and English, were included in the meta-synthesis. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s 2011 Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument and Weed’s meta-interpretation approach was used, respectively, to evaluate and interpret data. In this study, data pertaining to women’s experiences with cancer were re-interpreted based on five fundamental concepts of existentialist philosophy: (1Angst: In cancer’s shadow, (2Despair: I'm sorry for my losses!, (3Authenticity: Towards a new existence, (4The Absurd: Lives confined to the short distance between joy of life and existential crisis, (5The “Other” and the “Look”: Cancer: It's so hard to say! In this meta-synthesis study, it was found that women with gynecological cancer continuously bear the heavy burden of uncertainty and the threat of existential angst, and require expert, knowledgeable, and authentic care that focuses on their existence.

  14. Existential neuroscience: self-esteem moderates neuronal responses to mortality-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    According to terror management theory, self-esteem serves as a buffer against existential anxiety. This proposition is well supported empirically, but its neuronal underpinnings are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present neuroimaging study, our aim was to test how self-esteem affects our neural circuitry activation when death-related material is processed. Consistent with previous findings, the bilateral insula responded less to death-related stimuli relative to similarly unpleasant, but death-unrelated sentences, an effect that might reflect a decrease in the sense of oneself in the face of existential threat. In anterior parts of the insula, this 'deactivation' effect was more pronounced for high self-esteem individuals, suggesting that the insula might be of core importance to understanding the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem. In addition, low self-esteem participants responded with enhanced activation to death-related over unpleasant stimuli in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that regulating death-related thoughts might be more effortful to these individuals. Together, this suggests that the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem might be implemented in the brain in the form of both insula-dependent awareness mechanisms and prefrontal cortex-dependent regulation mechanisms. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The development of urban renewable energy at the existential technology research center (ETRC) in Toronto, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Steve; Harris, Isaac; Harris, Joshua [University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents new forms of urban renewable energy, in particular, the integration of solar and wind power into the industrial and commercial buildings with flat roofs which populate a city's downtown core. This combination of renewable energy passively adapts to pre-existing structures and exploits them to their full advantage. The working prototypes presented aim to introduce an element of multi-functionality to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), creating systems which produce energy while meeting required needs and desirable features of urban buildings. We also explore the combination of wind energy and various energy efficiency initiatives with BIPV designs. Our energy efficiency initiatives include a new method of generating the perception of natural sunlight from artificial light and brainwave controlled lighting that dims automatically when occupants' concentration is lowered. These efforts result in an environment that celebrates the existential notion of self-empowerment through reducing energy consumption and having control over one's own energy production. Our discussion follows into market considerations of our BIPV designs and how project costs are lowered and space is conserved, assets when designing for urban locations. The test site for the development of urban renewable energy is the Existential Technology Research Center (ETRC), located in downtown Toronto, Canada. (author)

  16. An Ontological Vindication of Darl’s Existential Authenticity from a Heideggerian Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Asadi Amjad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many existential theorists have discussed the contrasts between the notions of authentic and inauthentic lives, among whom Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 is very influential. The present paper aims at proving William Faulkner’s (1897-1962 main character, Darl, in his novel, As I Lay Dying (1930, authentic from a Heideggerian point of view. Once the theoretical grounds are laid in detail, the analysis begins with focusing on the individual character, goes on by ontologically individualizing him, and finally proves his existential nonconformity with emphasis on the affective side of his Being rather than its rational side. After unveiling his nonconformity, it will be revealed that this nonconformity is unique to him, and this fact is among the factors making him authentic from a Heideggerian point of view; for what Heidegger calls authentic existence is achieved only when a means is discovered to rescue the individual from doing “as One does” to doing as he chooses to do himself. Freedom and responsibility, which are expanded upon, are the means by which Darl proves himself authentic.

  17. Existential Postdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pernecky, Tomas; Munar, Ana Maria; Wheeller, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Postdisciplinarity makes claims on ontological, epistemic, and methodological levels, but it is inevitably a personal philosophical stance. This article represents an existentialist approach to the discourse on postdisciplinarity, offering reflective narratives of three academics. Tomas Pernecky ...

  18. Existential Postdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pernecky, Tomas; Munar, Ana Maria; Wheeller, Brian

    2016-01-01

    discusses creativity, criticality, freedom, and methodological and epistemic pluralism; Ana María Munar reveals her journey of epistemological awakening; and Brian Wheeller underscores the importance of researchers’ subjective and emotive voice. Jointly, the authors depict postdisciplinarity...

  19. Locatives and Existentials in L2 Spanish: The Acquisition of the Semantic Contrasts among "Ser", "Estar" and "Haber"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñán, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the expression of locative and existential predicates elicited through an oral production task in the speech of two groups of learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) (first language English, n = 18; first language Moroccan Arabic, n = 14), and a native control group (n = 18). A total of 25,000 words were analysed, with…

  20. The impact of a religious opera on a secular audience : The existential and religious importance of art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, T.H.; Alma, H.

    2005-01-01

    What role does art play in the life of contemporary, secularized people who are looking for existential and spiritual meaning? This was the leading question in our empirical research on the opera ‘‘Dialogues of the Carmelites’’ by the French composer, Francis Poulenc. First, we will sketch the

  1. Egzystencjalna interpretacja Tomasza z Akwinu koncepcji bytu w ujęciu Étienne Gilsona [Étienne Gilson’s Existential Interpretation of Thomas Aquinas’ Concept of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kunat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to present Étienne Gilson’s approach to Thomas Aquinas’ existential interpretation of being. The French thinker’s apprehension of Aquinas’ system is characterized by accentuating existential perspective within the framework of the analysis of the structure of being. Gilson supported existential Thomism and, consequently, strongly emphasized the role of existence (esse for being real. The French philosopher was of opinion that the existence of being should be depicted by means of existential judgments that affirm real and specific existence of beings. According to Gilson, the existential judgment of the affirmation-oriented being is the starting point for metaphysics.

  2. Schizophrenia as a temporal mode of being: an existential "ante-festum" impatience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, Dominique Jean Marie; Kohl, Frantz Samy; Schwartz, Michael Alan; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2003-01-01

    We suggest in a phenomenological perspective to consider schizophrenia as a special form of human temporality. From this perspective, we view the symptoms of schizophrenia as actions undertaken by subjects to stabilize themselves in existence. From this vantage, we describe the clinical expression of the disorder as a type of "existential impatience", characterized by a painful and elusive "now". This present time posits the prime moment of the constitution of the person. Existential impatience reflects from our patients the persistence of excessive efforts towards individuation. Schizophrenia. In human life in general, individuation consists in an unceasing dynamic process of building up of the self. This process starts with the non-self and particularly with the other. Therefore, the emergence of any relation within the self is grounded in the relation with the other and is based on the relation the other establishes with himself. Schizophrenia distinctly displays the two constitutive moments of "being oneself." These moments are generally linked for all of us: an "unending coming to oneself" (difference of identity), and a "continuous maintenance of being a self" (identity of difference). Existential impatience is not only an irritability of a formal order. Existence itself is impatient in the schizophrenic experience as it hastens to reach human goals while trampling on an "ante-festum" temporal mode. This "before-the-feast" temporal structure is dominated by the shiver before an unknown future, a sign of a basic quest for a task. Schizophrenic "ante-festum" is both a constant fear of being unable to come to oneself and a desperate effort to reach this unknown future. If psychopathology claims to settle [establish] that "order" and "measure" would constitute the two fundamental anthropological bases of human being, impatience of existence draws the emblematic figure of the disorder of measure as a referential motion of the birth of any temporalisation. Such

  3. The dream of a twenty-four-year-old graduate student. Existential and Jungian considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuscher, J E

    1976-01-01

    There are dreams that portray with unusual clarity critical junctures in a person's life. Inasmuch as the realm from which the images of a dream emerge is of the same nature as the source of genuine fairy tales, it is intuitively perceptive of the latter's deeper meanings. Thus suitable fairy tale themes can enhance the experiential insight into dreams. The young student's dream that we discussed indicates a sharp awareness of several existential disharmonies. He confuses the messages originating in his innermost self with external demands against which he still rebels blindly; he is incapable of metamorphosing creatively the numerous disorganized urges within himself; and he thus cannot achieve a positive relationship with his deeper potentials which are set aside. The comparison of the dream with an analogous, charming Romansh tale portraying a harmonious solution of the young man's impasse proved to be of crucial help.

  4. Existential Meaning Among First-Time Full-Term and Preterm Mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    mothers who gave birth at full term and those who gave birth preterm. All first-time mothers who gave birth in Denmark in 2010 before the 32nd week of pregnancy and twice that number of full-term mothers (randomly sampled) were invited to participate in a national cross-sectional survey. Five core items...... meaning intensified to the same degree among mothers of full-term and preterm infants, with no statistically significant differences in terms of age, marital status, educational level, or birth method. Danish first-time mothers' attitudes related to existential meaning measured in 5 core items were...... intensified and almost similar, regardless of whether they gave birth full-term or preterm....

  5. Existential Absence: The Lived Experience of Family Members During Their Older Loved One's Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jenny; Higgins, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    When older people develop delirium, their demeanor changes; they often behave in ways that are out of character and seem to inhabit another world. Despite this, little is known about the experiences of family members who are with their older loved one at this time. This article reports a phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 14 women whose older loved one had delirium. Analysis and interpretation of the data depict the women's experiences as "Changing family portraits: Sudden existential absence during delirium," capturing the way family members lose the taken-for-granted presence of their familiar older loved one and confront a stranger during delirium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Embracing humanity in the face of death: why do existential concerns moderate ingroup humanization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Jeroen; Bain, Paul G; Bastian, Brock

    2014-01-01

    People humanize their ingroup to address existential concerns about their mortality, but the reasons why they do so remain ambiguous. One explanation is that people humanize their ingroup to bolster their social identity in the face of their mortality. Alternatively, people might be motivated to see their ingroup as more uniquely human (UH) to distance themselves from their corporeal "animal" nature. These explanations were tested in Australia, where social identity is tied less to UH and more to human nature (HN) which does not distinguish humans from animals. Australians attributed more HN traits to the ingroup when mortality was salient, while the attribution of UH traits remained unchanged. This indicates that the mortality-buffering function of ingroup humanization lies in reinforcing the humanness of our social identity, rather than just distancing ourselves from our animal nature. Implications for (de)humanization in intergroup relations are discussed.

  7. A study of the main ideas in Beauvoir’s works from perspective of existentialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Simone de Beauvoir is one of the main representatives of existential philosophy which was the most influential philosophy school in 20th century. She is also the most famous feminist in the west. After Le Deuxième Sexe, Simone de Beauvoir wrote another brilliant work describing intellectuals’ destiny — Les Mandarins. This is a book deeply manifests the French intellectual faces during hesitation on crossroads and struggling for progress after World War II. Intellectuals, women & love, revolution & politics are the main themes in this novel. This thesis aims to analyze Simone de Beauvoir’s creation ideas of literature through the social reality in which French intellectual circles lived and from the characters’ love experience. It will mainly focus on stating Simone de Beauvoir’s feminism vision of love and her ethics of the self and the other advocated in the novel.

  8. “Just one animal among many?” Existential phenomenology, ethics, and stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell research and associated or derivative biotechnologies are proceeding at a pace that has left bioethics behind as a discipline that is more or less reactionary to their developments. Further, much of the available ethical deliberation remains determined by the conceptual framework of late modern metaphysics and the correlative ethical theories of utilitarianism and deontology. Lacking, to any meaningful extent, is a sustained engagement with ontological and epistemological critiques, such as with “postmodern” thinking like that of Heidegger’s existential phenomenology. Some basic “Heideggerian” conceptual strategies are reviewed here as a way of remedying this deficiency and adding to ethical deliberation about current stem cell research practices. PMID:20521117

  9. R.D. Laing and theology: the influence of Christian existentialism on "The Divided Self".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2009-04-01

    The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.

  10. Existential behavioural therapy for informal caregivers of palliative patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegg, M J; Brandstätter, M; Kögler, M; Hauke, G; Rechenberg-Winter, P; Fensterer, V; Küchenhoff, H; Hentrich, M; Belka, C; Borasio, G D

    2013-09-01

    Existential behavioural therapy (EBT) was developed to support informal caregivers of palliative patients in the last stage of life and during bereavement as a manualised group psychotherapy comprising six sessions. We tested the effectiveness of EBT on mental stress and quality of life (QOL). Informal caregivers were randomly assigned (1:1) to EBT or a treatment-as-usual control group using computer-generated numbers in blocks of 10. Primary outcomes were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (subscales somatisation, anxiety and depression), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the WHOQOL-BREF and a numeric rating scale for QOL (QOL-NRS, range 0-10). Data were collected at baseline, pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-ups after 3 and 12 months. Treatment effects were assessed with a multivariate analysis of covariance. Out of 160 relatives, 81 were assigned to EBT and 79 to the control group. Participants were 54.5 ± 13.2 years old; 69.9% were female. The multivariate model was significant for the pre-/post-comparison (p=0.005) and the pre-/12-month comparison (p=0.05) but not for the pre-/3-month comparison. Medium to large effects on anxiety and QOL (SWLS, WHOQOL-BREF, QOL-NRS) were found at post-treatment; medium effects on depression and QOL (QOL-NRS) emerged in the 12-month follow-up. No adverse effects of the intervention were observed. Existential behavioural therapy appears to exert beneficial effects on distress and QOL of informal caregivers of palliative patients. Further longitudinal evidence is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of Existential Holistic Group Therapy and the Holistic Process of Healing in a Group Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person�s wholeness. This includes the body, the person�s philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy.Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy.An important idea of the course is Bohm�s concept of �holo-movement� in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively � if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this

  12. A mobile hospice nurse teaching team's experience: training care workers in spiritual and existential care for the dying - a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornøe, Kirsten; Danbolt, Lars Johan; Kvigne, Kari; Sørlie, Venke

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to illuminate a pioneering Norwegian mobile hospice nurse teaching team's experience with teaching and training care workers in spiritual and existential care for the dying...

  13. Existential Aspect of Evil in the Works of Mani: Explanation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the old times, resolving and justifying the issue of "Evil" has been among humankind’s perpetual and difficult questions in the path towards making sense of the universe. The background and history of "Evil" in the literature and religion indicates its role in humankind's worldview towards its Existential roots, and this is among the important reasons why theological-philosophical traditions pay great attention to it. Philosophers and theologians have always been aware that justifying Evil in terms of religious beliefs is a huge task; therefore, their endeavors did not always lead to success. Justifying this issue has sometimes lead to duality and polytheism and sometimes it has actually caused theoretical conflicts. According to Mani - whose viewpoint is grounded in some Iranian ancient religious and ceremonial traditions - evil (darkness resides in the nature of terrestrial creatures. The aforesaid religion claims it wants to discover the rules governing this Being which is composed of Good and Evil and the procedure of liberation and purification from it. Mani’s thoughts had an impact on some Iranian and non-Iranian ancient religions in India, Africa and Middle East. For many years, Augustine believed that Mani’s religion offers the only acceptable rational interpretation of how the world is formed, because, it properly explains the source of Evil. Some scholars believe that Evil is an outcome of abulia and some other – like philosophical and theological traditions of Islamic world – believe that Evil is an outcome of lack of perfection and the absence of good; therefore, they think that Evil is devoid of any originality. The crucial point in this essay is to explain the existential aspect of Evil according to Mani; its real existence and its obvious opposition to good throughout the world; we also want to pay attention to the reasons behind this duality which opens its way out of Mani's works; as he claims, this duality will

  14. Meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with cancer and receiving palliative treatment: A life-world phenomenological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Febe; Karlsson, Magdalena; Wallengren, Catarina; Öhlén, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many people around the world are getting cancer and living longer with the disease. Thanks to improved treatment options in healthcare, patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer can increasingly live for longer. Living with cancer creates existential uncertainty, but what does this situation mean for the individual? The purpose of the study is to interpret meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer...

  15. Meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with cancer and receiving palliative treatment: a life-world phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Febe; Karlsson, Magdalena; Wallengren, Catarina; Öhlén, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many people around the world are getting cancer and living longer with the disease. Thanks to improved treatment options in healthcare, patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer can increasingly live for longer. Living with cancer creates existential uncertainty, but what does this situation mean for the individual? The purpose of the study is to interpret meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer...

  16. A mobile hospice nurse teaching team's experience: training care workers in spiritual and existential care for the dying - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornøe, Kirsten; Danbolt, Lars Johan; Kvigne, Kari; Sørlie, Venke

    2015-09-18

    Nursing home and home care nursing staff must increasingly deal with palliative care challenges, due to cost cutting in specialized health care. Research indicates that a significant number of dying patients long for adequate spiritual and existential care. Several studies show that this is often a source of anxiety for care workers. Teaching care workers to alleviate dying patients' spiritual and existential suffering is therefore important. The aim of this study is to illuminate a pioneering Norwegian mobile hospice nurse teaching team's experience with teaching and training care workers in spiritual and existential care for the dying in nursing homes and home care settings. The team of expert hospice nurses participated in a focus group interview. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The mobile teaching team taught care workers to identify spiritual and existential suffering, initiate existential and spiritual conversations and convey consolation through active presencing and silence. The team members transferred their personal spiritual and existential care knowledge through situated "bedside teaching" and reflective dialogues. "The mobile teaching team perceived that the care workers benefitted from the situated teaching because they observed that care workers became more courageous in addressing dying patients' spiritual and existential suffering. Educational research supports these results. Studies show that efficient workplace teaching schemes allowexpert practitioners to teach staff to integrate several different knowledge forms and skills, applying a holisticknowledge approach. One of the features of workplace learning is that expert nurses are able to guide novices through the complexities of practice. Situated learning is therefore central for becoming proficient. Situated bedside teaching provided by expert mobile hospice nurses may be an efficient way to develop care workers' courage and competency to provide spiritual and

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Parents With an Adult Child Who Has a Severe Disease: Existential Questions Will Be Raised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Inger; Molander, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    A prominent existential concept is that elderly parents should naturally become severely ill or die before a younger person does. If the reverse should happen, it may influence the parent's existential view of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the existential issues during illness time. This was a qualitative study with in-depth interviews and was conducted in a University Hospital in western Sweden. Eleven parents agreed to participate in individual interviews at baseline and 1 year later. The total number of interviews completed was 19. The study identified 5 areas according to an existential perspective: life took the wrong path, the age of the child, difficult to see the child as sick, worrying about the child, and the relationship with the adult child. Existential questions are often present in those circumstances and can be raised in conversations with parents. Existential questions began to arise for the parent when the child was diagnosed with the severe illness. The situation of having a severely ill child caused both fear and anxiety that the worst-case scenario they could imagine, that the child will die, might happen. Further research is required on this rarely investigated subject of having an adult child with a severe disease.

  18. Secular, Spiritual, and Religious Existential Concerns of Women with Ovarian Cancer during Final Diagnostics and Start of Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene; Hounsgaard, Lise; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This paper deals with secular, spiritual, and religious existential concerns during severe illness. Materials and Methods. Qualitative research interviews were made before and after surgery with women who underwent final diagnostics, surgery, and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer...... resources of comfort and meaning. Conclusion. Hope and courage to face life represent significant personal resources that are created not only in the interplay between body and mind but also between patients and their healthcare professionals. The women dealt with this in a dialectical manner, so that hope...... and despair could be present simultaneously. In this process secular, spiritual, and religious existential meaning orientations assisted the women in creating new narratives and obtain new orientations in life....

  19. Mind's response to the body's betrayal: Gestalt/Existential therapy for clients with chronic or life-threatening illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen

    2002-11-01

    In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Training intervention for health care staff in the provision of existential support to patients with cancer: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Danielson, Ella; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2013-12-01

    When a patient receives a cancer diagnosis, existential issues become more compelling. Throughout the illness trajectory, patients with cancer are cared for in oncology wards, by home care teams or in hospices. Nurses working with these patients are sometimes aware of the patients' existential needs but do not feel confident when discussing these issues. To determine the effects of a training intervention, where the focus is on existential issues and nurses' perceived confidence in communication and their attitude toward caring for dying patients. This was a randomized, controlled trial with a training intervention comprising theoretical training in existential issues combined with individual and group reflection. In total, 102 nurses in oncology and hospice wards and in palliative home care teams were randomized to a training or non-training group. Primary outcomes, confidence in communication, and attitude toward the care of dying patients were measured at baseline, immediately after the training, and five to six months later. Confidence in communication improved significantly in the training group from baseline (before the training) to both the first and second follow-up, that is, immediately after the training and five months later. The attitude toward caring for the dying did not improve in the training group. This study shows that short-term training with reflection improves the confidence of health care staff when communicating, which is important for health care managers with limited resources. Further studies are needed to explore how patients experience the communication skills of health care staff after such training. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical perspectives concerning positive aspects of caring for elderly persons with dementia: stress/adaptation and existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, C J

    1997-04-01

    Research concerning caregivers of persons with dementia has predominantly been guided by a stress/adaptation paradigm. This paradigm, however, does not fully address the issue of how caregivers manage to do so well under difficult circumstances. Existentialism offers an alternate theoretical view for exploring this issue. This article compares and contrasts these two paradigms-their key elements, strengths, and limitations, and areas of convergence and divergence. It identifies implications for future theory development, research, and clinical practice.

  2. An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin, Sergey A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients a person toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and necessitates a search for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, onesided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the second article (Kapustin, 2015b I showed that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more specific cases. In the current work I prove that this criterion is also present in the personality theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers, where it is implicitly stated in a more specific way. In the final article I will show that this criterion

  3. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  4. Aliens and existential elevators: absurdity and its shadows in Douglas Adams’s Hitch hiker series

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. van der Colff

    2008-01-01

    According to twentieth-century existentialist philosophy, the universe as we know it is steeped in senselessness, and the only possible means of survival is the construction of subjective meaning. Douglas Adams’s fictional universe portrayed in his “Hitch hiker” series reflects the arbitrary nature of existence, and the characters dwelling in this narrative space are faced with two existential choices: the one is defiance in the face of senselessness, the other is bleak despair. This article ...

  5. Can Creativity Beat Death? A Review and Evidence on the Existential Anxiety Buffering Functions of Creative Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Perach, R.; Wisman, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and symbolic immortality had been long acknowledged by scholars. In a review of the literature, we found 12 papers that empirically examined the relationship between creativity and mortality awareness using a Terror Management Theory paradigm, overall supporting the notion that creativity plays an important role in the management of existential concerns. Also, a mini meta-analysis of the impact of death awareness on creativity resulted in a small-medium wei...

  6. Lived-through past, experienced present, anticipated future: Understanding "existential loss" in the context of life-limiting illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Denise A

    2015-12-01

    Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is a rare, devastating neurodegenerative disease of middle/later life, usually presenting in the sixth and seventh decades (McDermot & Shaw, 2008). People have to wait many months to receive a diagnosis of MND (Donaghy et al., 2008), and during this period they have already experienced the degenerative nature that characterizes MND (Bolmsjö, 2001). However, information on the meaning of life with MND through time is limited. The aim of the present research was to answer the research question "What does it mean to be a person living through the illness trajectory of MND?" and to research the phenomenon of existence when given a diagnosis of MND and in the context of receiving healthcare. Hermeneutic phenomenology, inspired by the philosophers Heidegger and Gadamer, informed the methodological approach employed, which asked people to tell their story from when they first thought something untoward was happening to them. The hermeneutic analysis involved a five-stage process in order to understand (interpret) the lifeworld 1 of four people diagnosed with MND, and a lifeworld perspective helped to make sense of the meaning of existence when given a terminal diagnosis of MND. The concept of "existential loss" identified in relation to MND was the loss of past ways of being-in-the-world, and the loss of embodiment, spatiality, and the future. The concept of existential loss requires closer attention by healthcare professionals from the time of diagnosis and on through the illness trajectory. The study findings are conceptualized into a framework, which when used as a clinical tool may prompt healthcare professionals to focus on their patients' existential loss and existential concerns. This research adds to the existing literature calling for a lifeworld approach to healthcare.

  7. The impact of existential vulnerability for nursing home doctors in end-of-life care: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Kristian; Ruths, Sabine; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase

    2016-12-01

    Explore the impact of existential vulnerability for nursing home doctors' experiences with dying patients and their families. We conducted a qualitative study based on three focus group interviews with purposive samples of 17 nursing home doctors. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with systematic text condensation. Nursing home doctors experienced having to balance treatment compromises in order to assist patients' and families' preparation for death, with their sense of professional conduct. This was an arduous process demanding patience and consideration. Existential vulnerability also manifested as powerlessness mastering issues of life and death and families' expectations. Standard phrases could help convey complex messages of uncertainty and graveness. Personal commitment was balanced with protective disengagement on the patient's deathbed, triggering both feelings of wonder and guilt. Existential vulnerability is experienced as a burden of powerlessness and guilt in difficult treatment compromises and in the need for protective disengagement, but also as a resource in communication and professional coping. End-of-life care training for nursing home doctors should include self-reflective practice, in particular addressing treatment compromises and professional conduct in the dialogue with patient and next-of-kin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining temptation to drink from an existential perspective: Associations among temptation, purpose in life, and drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Corey R; Kirouac, Megan; Pearson, Matthew R; Fink, Brandi C; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2015-09-01

    Temptation to drink (TTD), defined as the degree to which one feels compelled to drink in the presence of internal or external alcohol-related cues, has been shown to predict alcohol-treatment outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs). Research examining TTD from an existential perspective is lacking and little is known about how existential issues such as purpose in life (PIL) relate to TTD, which is surprising given the role of existential issues in many treatments and mutual help approaches for AUDs. In the current study, we examined the longitudinal associations in a sample of 1726 among TTD, PIL, and drinking outcomes using data from Project MATCH (1997, 1998). Parallel process latent growth curve analyses indicated that PIL and TTD were significantly associated across time, such that higher initial levels of PIL and increases in PIL over time were associated with lower initial levels of TTD and decreases in TTD over time. Higher initial levels of TTD, lower initial levels of PIL, increases in TTD, and decreases in PIL were significantly associated with greater intensity and frequency of drinking and greater drinking-related consequences at the 15-month follow-up. Accordingly, TTD and PIL may be important constructs for clinicians to consider throughout the course of treatment. Future studies should examine if and how various kinds of treatments for AUDs are associated with increases in PIL, and whether these increases are related to decreased TTD and reduced drinking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Effect of Rehabilitation Method Based on Existential Approach and Olson\\'s Model on Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Naghiyaee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mastectomy as a treatment for breast cancer can disturb marital satisfaction of many couples. In this way, existential anxieties stemming from this potentially deleterious event, and inefficient responses to them, could be mediating. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method based on existential approach and Olson's marital enrichment model on marital satisfaction of women who had undergone mastectomy and their husbands . Methods: In this study, a single subject research design is used. The study population comprised couples who had referred to Radiotherapy department of Imam Hussein hospital in Tehran, that among them three couples whose average age was 20 to 50 years old, wife's had undergone mastectomy, tumor has not spread to other parts of the body, and had no prior history of psychiatric disorders before cancer, were selected through purposeful sampling and Intervention in 12 sessions of 90 minutes once a week, has been designed to suit their specific needs. The level of couple's marital satisfaction was evaluated using Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results: Comparing couple's scores on the diagram during 9 time measurement (3 times baseline, 4 times during intervention, and 2 times follow up assessment and calculating recovery percentage, represent increasing in score of marital adjustment scale. Discussion: So it seems that, this kind of an eclectic couple therapy, by considering couples existential anxiety, has been promoted their marital satisfaction. Explanations are given in discussion part .

  10. Reflecting on one's own death: The existential questions that nurses face during end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Margareta; Kasén, Anne; Wärnå-Furu, Carola

    2017-04-01

    When registered nurses care for patients at the end of life, they are often confronted with different issues related to suffering, dying, and death whether working in hospital or community care. Serious existential questions that challenge nurses' identities as human beings can arise as a result of these situations. The aim of our study was to describe and gain a deeper understanding of nurses' existential questions when caring for dying patients. Focus-group interviews with registered nurses who shared similar experiences and backgrounds about experiences in end-of-life care were employed to gain a deeper understanding about this sensitive subject. Focus-group interviews were performed in hospice care, in community care, and in a palliative care unit in western Sweden. A qualitative hermeneutic approach was employed to interpret the data. Nurses' existential questions balanced between responsibility and guilt in relation to their patients, between fear and courage in relation to being professional caregivers and fellow human beings, and between hope and despair in relation to the other's and their own death. Nurses in end-of-life care experience various emotions from patients related to things physical, spatial, and temporal. When nurses encounter these emotions as expressing a patient's suffering, they lead to challenges of balancing between different feelings in relation to patients, as both professional caregivers and fellow human beings. Nurses can experience growth both professionally and as human beings when caring for patients at the end of life.

  11. Acquisition of quantifier raising of a universal across an existential: Evidence from German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriszta Szendrői

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper reports an act out task with German 5- and 6-year olds and adults involving doubly-quantified sentences with a universal object and an existential subject. We found that 5- and 6-year olds allow inverse scope in such sentences, while adults do not. Our findings contribute to a growing body of research (e.g. Gualmini et al. 2008; Musolino 2009, etc. showing that children are more flexible in their scopal considerations than initially proposed by the Isomorphism proposal (Lidz & Musolino 2002; Musolino & Lidz 2006. This result provides support for a theory of German, a “no quantifier raising”-language, in terms of soft violable constraints, or global economy terms (Bobaljik & Wurmbrand 2012, rather than in terms of hard inviolable constraints or rules (Frey 1993. Finally, the results are compatible with Reinhart’s (2004 hypothesis that children do not perform global interface economy considerations due to the increased processing associated with it. This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  12. Determinants of the effect of existential behavioral therapy for bereaved partners: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Monika; Brandl, Jürgen; Brandstätter, Monika; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Fegg, Martin Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Informal caregivers of palliative patients took part in existential behavioral therapy (EBT), a group intervention comprising mindfulness exercises to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life. This study examined what the participants perceived as helpful to cope with their loss during the first year of bereavement, particularly with regard to the EBT intervention. Sixteen problem-centered, semi-structured interviews were evaluated with content analysis. Two main categories were found: social support and self-regulation. Social support includes sense of belonging as well as emotional, cognitive, and practical help experienced from others. Mindfulness and acceptance, a clear focus on the positive, and orientation toward the future were helpful strategies of self-regulation; these were also part of the EBT intervention. Mindfulness was understood as permitting emotions and acceptance of one's inner processes, even if they were not pleasant, and was found to be helpful to stop ruminative thinking. The categories considered as being helpful parallel core elements of EBT and recent grief theories. The intervention was found to be supportive and met the needs of the participants. The interviewees appreciated the continuity of EBT support from palliative care into bereavement.

  13. Physician-Assisted Suicide: Considering the Evidence, Existential Distress, and an Emerging Role for Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Abilash A

    2015-06-01

    Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is one of the most provocative topics facing society today. Given the great responsibility conferred on physicians by recent laws allowing PAS, a careful examination of this subject is warranted by psychiatrists and other specialists who may be consulted during a patient's request for PAS. In this article, recent evidence regarding the implementation of PAS in the United States and The Netherlands is reviewed. Support is found for some concerns about PAS, such as the possibility that mental illness occurs at higher rates in patients requesting PAS, but not for other concerns, such as the fear that PAS will be practiced more frequently on vulnerable populations (the slippery-slope argument). These data and common arguments for and against PAS are discussed with an emphasis on the tension between values, such as maximizing patient autonomy and adhering to professional obligations, as well as the need for additional research that focuses more directly on the patient-centered perspective. Implications of the available evidence are discussed and lead to a consideration of mental anguish in terminally ill patients including aspects of existential distress and an acknowledgment of the importance of tailoring end-of-life care to the distinct set of values and experiences that shape each patient's perspective. The article concludes with a discussion of an expanding role for psychiatrists in evaluating patients who request PAS. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. Social and existential alienation experienced by people with long-term mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdner, Anette; Magnusson, Annabella; Nyström, Maria; Lützén, Kim

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how people suffering from long-term mental illness and who live in the community experience their daily lives. The study was based on an ethnographic framework involving participant observations with 23 individuals from two rehabilitation centres and interviews with six women and two men. The observational notes and interviews were recorded, transcribed into the data and analysed based on the phases of hermeneutic interpretation. The process consisted of identifying tentative interpretations that highlighted various impediments that prevent people with long-term mental illness from having an active life. The impediments can also be interpreted as a form of alienation, an interpersonal phenomenon and a consequence due to of the lack of social acceptance towards mental illness. The participants expressed concern about the future and lack of hope. Viewing themselves as being 'odd' is not a symptom of mental illness, but rather evidence of experiencing existential and social alienation not only as a consequence of other people's reactions but also their own negative attitudes towards mental illness and effects of their cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Too lonely to die alone: internet suicide pacts and existential suffering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa-de Silva, Chikako

    2008-12-01

    Most striking in the recent rise of suicide in Japan are the increase in suicide among young Japanese and the emergence of Internet suicide pacts. An ethnography of suicide-related Web sites reveals a distinctive kind of existential suffering among visitors that is not reducible to categories of mental illness and raises questions regarding the meaning of an individual "choice" to die, when this occurs in the context of an intersubjective decision by a group of strangers, each of whom is too afraid to die alone. Anthropology's recent turn to subjectivity enables analyses of individual suffering in society that provide a more nuanced approach to the apparent dichotomy between agency and structure and that connect the phenomenon of suicide in Japan to Japanese conceptions of selfhood and the afterlife. The absence of ikigai [the worth of living] among suicide Web site visitors and their view of suicide as a way of healing show, furthermore, that analyses of social suffering must be expanded to include questions of meaning and loss of meaning and, also, draw attention to Japanese conceptions of self in which relationality in all things, including the choice to die, is of utmost importance.

  16. Physicians in Postgraduate Training Characteristics and Support of Palliative Sedation for Existential Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Larry D; Perkins, Susan M; Cottingham, Ann; Tong, Yan; Kozak, Mary Ann; Mehta, Rakesh

    2017-09-01

    Palliative sedation for refractory existential distress (PS-ED) is ethically troubling but potentially critical to quality end-of-life (EOL) care. Physicians' in postgraduate training support toward PS-ED is unknown nor is it known how empathy, hope, optimism, or intrinsic religious motivation (IRM) affect their support. These knowledge gaps hinder efforts to support physicians who struggle with patients' EOL care preferences. One hundred thirty-four postgraduate physicians rated their support of PS for refractory physical pain (PS-PP) or PS-ED, ranked the importance of patient preferences in ethically challenging situations, and completed measures of empathy, hope, optimism, and IRM. Predictors of PS-ED and PS-PP support were examined using binary and multinomial logistic regression. Only 22.7% of residents were very supportive of PS-ED, and 82.0% were very supportive of PS-PP. Support for PS-PP or PS-ED did not correlate with levels of empathy, hope, optimism, or IRM; however, for residents with lower IRM, greater optimism was associated with greater PS-ED support. In contrast, among residents with higher IRM, optimism was not associated with PS-ED support. Comparing current results to published surveys, a similar proportion of residents and practicing physicians support PS-ED and PS-PP. In contrast to practicing physicians, however, IRM does not directly influence residents' supportiveness. The interaction between optimism and IRM suggests residents' beliefs and characteristics are salient to their EOL decisions. End-of-life curricula should provide physicians opportunities to reflect on the personal and ethical factors that influence their support for PS-ED.

  17. Social, psychological and existential well-being in patients with glioma and their caregivers: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavers, Debbie; Hacking, Belinda; Erridge, Sara E.; Kendall, Marilyn; Morris, Paul G.; Murray, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerebral glioma has a devastating impact on cognitive, physical, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. We sought to understand the multidimensional experience of patients with this form of cancer as they progressed from receiving a diagnosis to the terminal phase of the disease. Methods: We recruited patients with a suspected brain tumour from a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom. We interviewed patients and their caregivers at key stages of the illness: before receiving a formal diagnosis, at the start of initial treatment, after initial treatment was completed and at six months’ follow-up; caregivers were also interviewed postbereavement. We interviewed the patients’ general practitioners once, after treatment had been completed. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them thematically using the constant comparative method of a grounded theory approach. Results: We conducted in-depth interviews with 26 patients, 23 of their relatives and 19 general practitioners. We saw evidence of physical, social, psychological and existential distress even before a diagnosis was confirmed. Social decline followed a similar trajectory to that of physical decline, whereas psychological and existential distress were typically acute around diagnosis and again after initial treatment. Each patient’s individual course varied according to other factors including the availability of support and individual and family resources (e.g., personal resilience and emotional support). Interpretation: There are practical ways that clinicians can care for patients with glioma and their caregivers, starting from before a diagnosis is confirmed. Understanding the trajectories of physical, social, psychological and existential well-being for these patients allows health care professionals to predict their patients’ likely needs so they can provide appropriate support and sensitive and effective communication. PMID:22431898

  18. About the conjunction between literature, religion and existential knowledge in the “Memoirs from Beyond the Grave” of Chateaubriand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kamińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between literature, religion and existential knowledge in the memorial work of François-René de Chateaubriand. The first main problem is the transmission of universal values represented by Christianity. The second problem are narrator’s tragic experiences that become a source of precious knowledge communicated to the reader. These narrative stakes, reinforced by rhetorical persuasion, are crucial to ensure immortality of the author through the pertinence of his voice addressed to posterity.

  19. Increasing scepticism toward potential liars: effects of existential threat on veracity judgments and the moderating role of honesty norm activation

    OpenAIRE

    Simon eSchindler; Marc-André eReinhard

    2015-01-01

    With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias). This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1) and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2). The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by ...

  20. Increasing skepticism toward potential liars: effects of existential threat on veracity judgments and the moderating role of honesty norm activation

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias). This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1) and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2). The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by sit...

  1. A method of evaluation of existential burden and mental health condition – initial data from patients who assaulted for life by taking an intoxicant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Anczyk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers call for using the data acquired from patients hospitalized in the Regional Acute Poison Center for assessment of existential burden of mental health con-dition. The authors assume that the exclusion of those people who attempted suicide by reason of the psychotic disorders and severe, chronic, recurrent depression (MDD enable to concentrate the considerations on patients who have attempted suicide because of the existential situation caused by charges, which exceeded their resistance to stress. The authors propose the method, which allows to record in the defined matrix the particular elements of the unfavorable events, which led to a suicide attempt. They also propose a graphical method of illustrating the unfavorable situation of the patient and the entire group of people. This allows the statistical assemblages of particular existential burdens and the formulation of considerations about the state of the mental health of the population.

  2. Further Exploring the Link Between Religion and Existential Health: The Effects of Religiosity and Trait Differences in Mentalizing on Indicators of Meaning in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Clay; Roylance, Christina; Abeyta, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Religiosity contributes to perceptions of meaning. One of the cognitive foundations for religious belief is the capacity to mentalize the thoughts, emotions, and intentions of others (Theory of Mind). We examined how religiosity and trait differences in mentalizing interact to influence meaning. We hypothesized that people who are most cognitively inclined toward religion (high mentalizers) receive the greatest existential benefits (i.e., high and secure meaning) from religiosity. We assessed individual differences in mentalizing and religiosity, and measured indicators of meaning. Results confirmed that the combination of high mentalizing and high religiosity corresponded to the highest levels of existential health.

  3. Existential Threat or Dissociative Response? Examining Defensive Avoidance of Point-of-Care Testing Devices Through a Terror Management Theory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors.

  4. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, our VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers adapting and appreciating strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our VEC model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony (安身以法以和 and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven (天道 with mind and virtue (立命以心以德. A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun, and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin’s (1946 top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students revealed empirical supports. Yang type of career praxes tend to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tend to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future

  5. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony (安身以法以和) and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven (天道) with mind and virtue (立命以心以德). A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun, and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin's (1946) top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students) revealed empirical supports. Yang type of career praxes tends to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tends to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future development

  6. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony () and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven () with mind and virtue (). A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun, and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin's (1946) top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students) revealed empirical supports. Yang type of career praxes tends to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tends to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future development. Acceptance and dialectic thinking often result

  7. Surgical nurses' attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer - a pilot study of an educational intervention on existential issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E

    2014-07-01

    This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Existential Group Therapy on Increasing Hope and Decreasing Depression in Women-Treated With Haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Bahman; Motamed Najjar, Maryam; Sayyah, Mansour; Shafi-Abadi, Abdollah; Haddad Kashani, Hamed

    2015-11-17

    Hopefulness is one of the most significant predictors of adaptation in hemodialysis patients, and plays a vital role in the recovery process. In contrast to hopefulness, depression is a frequent psychological reaction of the hemodialysis treatment with many negative consequences. The current research was designed to examine the effect of cognitive-existential treatment on the level of hopefulness and depression in hemodialysis patients. This quasi-experimental research included 22 female patients suffering from chronic kidney failure disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment for at least 3 months. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control conditions. The experimental group received a combination of treatment including some elements of "existentialism" philosophy and a "cognitive" approach designed for the Iranian population. The treatment protocol lasted for 12 sessions of 90 minutes twice per week prior to the entry of the patient to the dialysis session.  Miller's hope scale and BDI-II-21 were employed to collect the data. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using analysis of covariance by SPSS: 16 software. The result of the analysis indicated that there was a significant improvement in hopefulness level and decrease in depression of the patients in the experiment condition (Pexistential treatment resulted in the increase of hopefulness and decrease level of depression in the hemodialysis patients suffering from chronic kidney failure.

  9. The Potentiality of a Healthy Self: Evaluating Progressively Empowered Internalisation and Diagnosis through the Lens of Existential Epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Anna

    2016-11-01

    In this article I will examine how the language of diagnosis can engage with existential epistemology to develop a concept of Progressively Empowered Internalisation (PEI). This, I will argue, challenges conceptualisations of diagnosis as articulating and maintaining a static self-concept. It enables the individual to synthesise the language of a particular mental experience within the wider engagement of their own active process of self-becoming. I will suggest that this construction of PEI addresses the limitations of stigmatisation and static self-concepts. In seeing the language of diagnosis as a helpful tool for understanding a part of one's self-experience, it presents an alternative to the illness-based model of mental health. This conceptualisation engages with Kierkegaard's existential epistemology, as a means of using language to understand the task of becoming oneself and relating to others. Furthermore, it explores how mental health diagnosis requires communal engagement to enable the wellbeing of its members. Diagnosis is thereby seen as a process of further empowering the individual with the language to explain a particular part of their experience within the overall movement of developing an integrated self-concept.

  10. Trio of terror (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding): an existential function of literal self-objectification among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A

    2014-07-01

    Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women.

  11. The contribution of existential phenomenology in the recovery-oriented care of patients with severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Promoting recovery has become more and more important in the care of patients with severe mental disorders such as psychosis. Recovery is a personal process of growth involving hope, self-identity, meaning in life, and responsibility. Obviously, these components pertain, at least in part, to a psychotherapeutic care perspective. Yet, up to now, recovery has mainly been taken into account in transforming health services and as a general framework for supportive therapy. Existential phenomenology abdicates a theoretical stance and considers issues such as death anxiety, isolation, responsibility, and meaning. Thus, it is likely to provide some insight into the psychotherapeutic aspects of recovery. Furthermore, existential psychotherapy allows powerful insights for adopting a recovery-oriented attitude and to provide useful themes for discussing issues allowing patients to gain meaning and hope. This paper describes these elements to give clinicians insights into this complex topic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Exploring the existential function of religion: the effect of religious fundamentalism and mortality salience on faith-based medical refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vess, Matthew; Arndt, Jamie; Cox, Cathy R; Routledge, Clay; Goldenberg, Jamie L

    2009-08-01

    Decisions to rely on religious faith over medical treatment for health conditions represent an important but understudied phenomenon. In an effort to understand some of the psychological underpinnings of such decisions, the present research builds from terror management theory to examine whether reminders of death motivate individuals strongly invested in a religious worldview (i.e., fundamentalists) to rely on religious beliefs when making medical decisions. The results showed that heightened concerns about mortality led those high in religious fundamentalism to express greater endorsement of prayer as a medical substitute (Study 1) and to perceive prayer as a more effective medical treatment (Study 2). Similarly, high fundamentalists were more supportive of religiously motivated medical refusals (Study 3) and reported an increased willingness to rely on faith alone for medical treatment (Study 4) following reminders of death. Finally, affirmations of the legitimacy of divine intervention in health contexts functioned to solidify a sense of existential meaning among fundamentalists who were reminded of personal mortality (Study 5). The existential importance of religious faith and the health-relevant implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. You never know when your last day will come and your trip will be over--existential expressions from a melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdarevic, Senada; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Hörnsten, Åsa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore expressions of existential experiences by patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM). Semi-structured interviews were performed consecutively after diagnosis among 30 patients with MM. The methodological approach was inspired by Gadamer's hermeneutic philosophy. The analysis of expressions of existential experiences after having been diagnosed with malignant melanoma revealed that it is an existential process that people go through, beginning with feelings of suddenly becoming groundless at the time of the diagnosis, including being empty and in a vacuum, being in chaos and uncertainty and being confronted with one's own death. Next theme searching for solid ground included striving to understand what lies ahead, striving to find a balance in life - fighting, hoping, going on living and striving to prioritize family. The last theme creating islands of solid ground when living with cancer included understanding what is meaningful in life, living in the moment - seizing the day and keeping watch on the body. On being diagnosed with malignant melanoma, people go through a process where many questions emerge, including an existential turmoil, which health professionals should be aware of to provide these patients with sufficient support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Destined to Die but Not to Wage War: How Existential Threat Can Contribute to Escalation or De-Escalation of Violent Intergroup Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    War means threat to people's lives. Research derived from terror management theory (TMT) illustrates that the awareness of death leads people to defend cultural ingroups and their worldviews to attain a sense of symbolic immortality and thereby buffer existential anxiety. This can result in hostile effects of mortality salience (MS), such as…

  15. Meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with cancer and receiving palliative treatment: a life-world phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magdalena; Friberg, Febe; Wallengren, Catarina; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Many people around the world are getting cancer and living longer with the disease. Thanks to improved treatment options in healthcare, patients diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer can increasingly live for longer. Living with cancer creates existential uncertainty, but what does this situation mean for the individual? The purpose of the study is to interpret meanings of existential uncertainty and certainty for people diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and receiving palliative treatment. This study is part of a larger project in which 7 men and 7 women aged between 49 and 79 participated in a study of information and communication for people with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. A total of 66 interviews were conducted with participants who were followed up over time. The narrative interviews were transcribed verbatim and the texts were analysed in three steps: naive reading, structural analysis and interpreted whole by utilizing a phenomenological life-world approach. THIS STUDY HAS IDENTIFIED DIFFERENT SPHERES IN WHICH PEOPLE DIAGNOSED WITH ADVANCED GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER VACILLATE BETWEEN EXISTENTIAL UNCERTAINTY AND CERTAINTY: bodily changes, everyday situations, companionship with others, healthcare situations and the natural environment. Existing in the move between existential uncertainty and certainty appears to change people's lives in a decisive manner. The interview transcripts reveal aspects that both create existential certainty and counteract uncertainty. They also reveal that participants appear to start reflecting on how the new and uncertain aspects of their lives will manifest themselves -a new experience that lays the foundation for development of knowledge, personal learning and growth. People diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and receiving palliative care expressed thoughts about personal learning initiated by the struggle of living with an uncertain future despite their efforts to live in the present

  16. Wolność egzystencjalna a psychologiczne rozumienia wolności (EXISTENTIAL FREEDOM AND A PSYCHOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF FREEDOM. CAN PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ACCESS CATEGORIES OF EXISTENTIAL PHILOSOPHY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Trzópek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of issues presented in the article is centred around various perspectives of thinking about human freedom: existential freedom, freedom on the mental level as well as freedom in contemporary cognitive sciences. The first one is based on the philosophical (especially in K. Jaspers approach elaboration of the experience of a person. The second one pertains to our actual psychological capabilities and limitations; here the works of such doctors and therapists as K. G. Jung, E. Fromm, A. Kepinski and others have been adopted for the basis. Finally, the third one deals with the way which freedom is treated in within the cognitive trend dominating scientific psychology. Performed comparisons demonstrate that both the 'existential freedom' as well as the 'freedom on the mental level' seem to be phenomena resisting the investigation by naturalistically-oriented scientific psychology with its 'subjective' 'third person' methodology. Psychology which aspires to be counted among natural sciences, similarly to other sciences from this domain engages in the detection of relations, causative and functional laws and 'mechanism' belying investigated phenomena. 'Freedom' - if it is spoken about - is here rather 'perceived' or 'experienced' - awhile not real. At the same time it seems that psychology, as a detailed science should not - without venturing beyond its own competencies - explicitly formulate statements pertaining to the meaning of the experience of freedom or the existence of freedom 'as such'. The issues mentioned are relevant insofar as they pertain to the question regarding the possibility and a potential scope of changes which can occur in a subject at the participation of its will and its own work.

  17. [Man at the Frontier of his Being: Scope of the Concept of "Limit Situation" in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Following Jaspers' Existential Ontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Stauber, J

    2016-01-01

    The existential concept of "limit situation" was proposed by Jaspers as the inevitable threshold of human beings at their ordinary mode of being, namely Dasein, which has to be crossed to reach Existence as the proper mode of being after having transcended an existential challenge. A failure at facing limit situations indicates that they are ineluctable and have to be assumed. The starting point is the analysis of Jaspers' concept of limit situations, both within the antinomic structure of the human condition as well as the duality of being-in-the-world. An attempt is made here to interpret the ontological determination of the limit situation as an ontic one, which could be relevant to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic practice. The distinction between Dasein and Existence as modes of being is at the basis of Jaspers' existential philosophy. Limit situations cannot be veiled; therefore, they require a transcendence movement of the self in order to overcome enclosures and to reach the mode of being of Existence as authentic selfhood. Jaspers creates an ontological typology of limit situations in which suffering plays a key role. An ontic correspondence for psychiatry and psychotherapy refers to the importance of critical life events, of suicidality, of rigid thought styles and behavior patterns as enclosures; illness is both a limit situation in itself and also its consequence. In anthropological terms, the concepts of existential vulnerability and competence in dealing with limit situations have proved to be rewarding. The ontic correspondence to Jaspers' ontological concept of limit situations suggested by the author makes a fruitful contribution to psychiatry and psychotherapy, because it draws attention to the person-environment fit as a possible predetermined breaking point that could lead to psychopathologically relevant failure. Critical life events understood as relational, as well as existential vulnerability and defense mechanisms biographically

  18. Searching for existential security: a prospective qualitative study on the influence of mindfulness therapy on experienced stress and coping strategies among patients with somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annemette Bondo; Delmar, Charlotte; Nielsen, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to explore how mindfulness group therapy for somatoform disorders influenced the patients' stress experiences, coping strategies and contextual psychosocial processes. A longitudinal pre- and post-treatment design, using 22 semi-structured individual pre- and post-treatment interviews. Data-analysis was based on a thematic methodology. Pre-treatment patients were struggling in an existential crisis, feeling existentially insecure about their social identity, the causes, consequences and management of their illness; experiencing difficulties identifying and expressing stress-related cognitions, emotions and feelings, and low bodily and emotional self-contact; often leading to avoidant coping, making these individuals highly stress-vulnerable. Post-treatment, the overall change was conceptualized as increased existential security, defined by patients being more self-confident; more clarified with their social identity, the nature, management and future prospects of their illness; generally using more flexible coping strategies to reduce their daily stress experiences. Four related subthemes were identified contributing to increased existential security: 1) more secure illness perceptions - feeling existentially recognized as "really" ill, 2) enhanced relaxation ability - using mindfulness techniques, 3) increased awareness - connecting differently to mind and body 4) improved ability to identify and express needs and feelings of distress - more active communicating. Patients suggested that mindfulness therapy could be expanded with more time for group-discussions followed by additional individual therapy. Generally, treatment positively influenced the patients' illness perceptions, stress-experiences, body- and self-awareness, coping strategies, self-image, social identity and social functioning. However, patients identified potentials for treatment improvements, and they needed further treatment to fully recover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. BODY AND LITERATURE: AN INTRODUCTION. THE EXISTENTIAL PHENOMENOLOGY OF MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY AND COLLECTIVE MEMORY OF MAURICE HALBWACHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN DARÍO BARRETO VIANA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective memory in the work of degree titled Tiempo artístico y Memoria Colectiva: La Casa Grande y Álvaro Cepeda Samudio, derived in the postulation a set of conclusions about the role that fulfill the literary work in disposition of shared memory. Therefore, the finality of this investigation is the depuration of the collective memory analysis model through the integration of the corporeality at the set of variables structured by Maurice Halbwachs in La Memoria Colectiva (2004. For this it makes use the existential phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, that provides a theoretical-methodological scheme that enable to subdivide in three categories the aspects differents of the human body: 1. Perception 2. Movement. 3. Instrumentality, that contribute to the critic disassemble of En la colonia penitenciaria by Frank Kafka (1995 y Bartleby, el escribiente by Herman Melville (2010.

  20. Existential participation in Reality and the Ontodialogical focus - exemplified with Heidegger's, Takeuchi's and Corbin's interpretation of existence and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I will introduce some standard view on hermeneutics and interpretation. I will present a conceptual distinction between different ideals of truth, in relation if these ideals views on the importance of the "knower's" existential participation in Reality as a central aspect...... of knowledge the "knower" has. I will inspired by philosophical hermeneutics and Henry Corbin introduce a distinction between gnostic and agnostic ideals of knowledge, acknowledging that both forms of knowledge ideals can be found in different hermeneutical traditions in different faith-traditions in the world......, and very often are interwoven in each other. I will then focus on the "gnostic" knowledge ideal by giving a short example of how this knowledge ideal can be applied in different ways in different forms of religious-philosophical ontologies. This implicates also different forms of interpretations of what...

  1. Existential neuroscience: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of neural responses to reminders of one’s mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktyushin, Alexander; Arndt, Jamie; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Lo, Yin-Yueh; Kuhl, Julius; Eggert, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    A considerable body of evidence derived from terror management theory indicates that the awareness of mortality represents a potent psychological threat engendering various forms of psychological defense. However, extant research has yet to examine the neurological correlates of cognitions about one’s inevitable death. The present study thus investigated in 17 male participants patterns of neural activation elicited by mortality threat. To induce mortality threat, participants answered questions arranged in trial blocks that referred to fear of death and dying. In the control condition participants answered questions about fear of dental pain. Neural responses to mortality threat were greater than to pain threat in right amygdala, left rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and right caudate nucleus. We discuss implications of these findings for stimulating further research into the neurological correlates of managing existential fear. PMID:21266462

  2. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children (N = 106; 4–6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  3. Dealing with existential anxiety in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study of patients' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Pedersen, Birthe D; Dreyer, Pia; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-09-01

    To investigate patients' lived experiences of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is used to enable patients with cardiac problems to move forward to lead satisfying lives. However, knowledge of patients' concerns while they follow the current programmes is sparse. This study, which included nine men and two women with unstable angina pectoris and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, used a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. The patients were followed by field observations during exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Focus group interviews were conducted at the programme end, and individual interviews were performed one to two months later. The interpretation comprised three methodological steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive interpretation and discussion. Although both physically and psychologically challenged, the patients were encouraged to maintain an active lifestyle. Three themes were identified: anxiety regarding exercise, whereby the patients are initially insecure about how to behave with their diseased hearts; encouragement from training together, whereby the patients support each other in exercising; and growing confidence in the heart, whereby the patients enjoy being physically active. In exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation, patients' insecurity with respect to their heart disease is revealed as an existential anxiety. Through peer support and a positive physical perception, the patients gain renewed self-efficacy, helping them to continue their lives in an active and satisfying way. Knowing that patients are confronted with an existential anxiety during exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is important because it requires specific care. Recognising this anxiety also highlights how participating in the programme can be very demanding, which can help us understand aspects of adherence problems. Of greatest importance is that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation enables

  4. Why does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations

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    Hirschberger, Gilad; Pyszczynski, Tom; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N = 209), mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N = 112), examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems – even when these solutions make little practical sense. PMID:26635671

  5. Why Does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eHirschberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N=209, mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N=112, examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems – even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  6. Palliative patients’ and significant others’ experiences of transitions concerning organizational, psychosocial and existential issues during the course of incurable cancer: A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rikke; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring palliative patients’ or their significant others’ experiences of transitions during the course of incurable cancer. In this review, transitions are concept...... exploring euthanasia will be excluded because euthanasia is not included in the WHO definition of palliation. KEYWORDS Lived experience; incurable cancer; patient; significant other; transition; organizational; psychosocial; existential...

  7. Analyzing Heidegger’s Existentialism from the Perspective of Aristotle’s Practical Philosophy A New Approach towards Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    AA Heydari

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to illustrate the point that the basic issues in Aristotle’s practical philosophy in analyzing Heidegger’s existentialism are conceived of as the matter of ontology. Comportment of men in reference to beings (Verhaltenweisen) mentioned in Book Six of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics turns into comportment of constitution (Seinweise) in the new approach to Heidegger’s Being and Time (Sein und Zeit). What is of great significance for Heidegger is reviving the hidde...

  8. Destined to die but not to wage war: how existential threat can contribute to escalation or de-escalation of violent intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-10-01

    War means threat to people's lives. Research derived from terror management theory (TMT) illustrates that the awareness of death leads people to defend cultural ingroups and their worldviews to attain a sense of symbolic immortality and thereby buffer existential anxiety. This can result in hostile effects of mortality salience (MS), such as derogation of outgroup members, prejudice, stereotyping, aggression, and racism, which, in turn, can lead to the escalation of violent intergroup conflict and, thus, the escalation of war. Yet, escalation of destructive conflict following MS is not automatic. Instead, research on TMT suggests that MS does not necessarily result in conflict and intolerance but can also foster positive tendencies, such as intergroup fairness or approval of pacifism, depending on how existential threat is perceived, whether the need for symbolic self-transcendence is satisfied, which social norms are salient, and how social situations are interpreted. In the present article, we review current TMT research with the aim of reconciling the seemingly contradictory findings of hostile and peaceful reactions to reminders of death. We present a terror management model of escalation and de-escalation of violent intergroup conflicts, which takes into account the interaction between threat salience and features of the social situation. We also discuss possible intervention strategies to override detrimental consequences of existential threat and argue that war is not the inevitable consequence of threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Breast and ovarian cancer survivors' experience of participating in a cognitive-existential group intervention addressing fear of cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Lebel, Sophie; Tomei, Christina; Singh, Mina; Esplen, Mary Jane

    2015-08-01

    Currently, very few clinical approaches are offered to cancer survivors dealing with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). This paper provides an overview of cancer survivors' experience and satisfaction after taking part in a six-week, cognitive-existential (CE) group intervention that aimed to address FCR. In this qualitative descriptive study, 12 women with breast or ovarian cancer provided in-depth interviews of their experience in taking part in the CE group intervention. Analysis of their accounts revealed struggles to face their fears. Yet, by embracing their group experience, the women learned how to confront their fears and gain emotional control. The women reported that the group work was highly valuable. From the women's analysed accounts, the authors have proposed recommendations for changes to the group work process before moving the study to a full clinical trial. The study's findings also provide valuable insights to other cancer survivor groups who may also be experiencing FCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apocalyptic souls: the existential (anti hero metaphor in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Vasconcelos Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, I drew a correlation between Søren Kierkegaard’s (1813-1855 existentialist theory and apocalyptic representations in the Metal Gear Solid: Snake Eater, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes video games (Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, Kojima Productions, 2004, 2010 and 2014. In this successful franchise, the game’s main character, ‘Snake’ personifies ‘the knight of infinite resignation,’ the ‘tragic hero’ in ‘the infinite movement’ towards the achievement of ‘higher causes’. Also, Snake’s mentor ‘The Boss’, who sacrifices herself in order to reconcile the world from its 1960’s Cold War antagonism would represent another Kierkegaard notion called ‘the knight of faith’, who believes in his/her faith (the cause above all things. Such character traits enrich both gameplay and game narrative and the overall experience by introducing philosophical inquiries to the player. The methodology utilized was a free-form semiotic framework with emphasis on the symbolic representations along with Kierkegaard’s existentialism and other philosophical constructs as well.

  11. Understanding the risks of recent discharge: the phenomenological lived experiences--“existential angst at the prospect of discharge”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Links, Paul S; Harder, Henry G; Balderson, Ken; Bergmans, Yvonne; Eynan, Rahel; Ambreen, Munazah; Nisenbaum, Rosanne

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that people whose mental health problems lead them to require psychiatric hospitalization are at a significantly increased risk of suicide, and that the time immediately following discharge after such hospitalizations is a particularly high-risk time. This paper reports on phenomenological findings from a federally funded, mixed-methods study that sought to better understand the observed increased risk for suicide following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric service. A purposive sample of 20 recently discharged former suicidal inpatients was obtained. Data were collected in hermeneutic interviews lasting between 1 h and 2 h and analyzed according to van (1997) interpretation of hermeneutic phenomenology. Two key themes, "existential angst at the prospect of discharge" and "trying to survive while living under the proverbial 'sword of Damocles'" were induced. Each of these was comprised of five themes with the first key theme (which is the focus of this paper) encompassing the following: "Feeling scared, anxious, fearful and/or stressed," "Preparedness," "Leaving the place of safety," "Duality and ambivalence," and "Feel like a burden." Early exploration of and reconciling of patients' expectations regarding inpatient care for their suicidality would be empirically based interventions that could diminish the postdischarge risk for further suicide attempts.

  12. Supporting in an existential crisis: A mixed-methods evaluation of a training model in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Lisa; Olsson, Mariann; Strang, Peter

    2017-06-20

    Palliative care staff often report that they lack the skills and confidence to provide support during an existential crisis. Consequently, there is a definite need for a training program in this area. Our aim was to investigate whether a training model could give palliative care staff increased knowledge, awareness, and preparedness-all useful tools for providing support. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data were collected in four hospital-based palliative homecare teams in the Stockholm area. In total, 34 staff participated, representing different palliative care team professions. Before and after the intervention, a questionnaire with a 9-point Likert-type scale was completed (n = 34). Qualitative focus group discussions were conducted a month after the intervention (25 participants). These were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a manifest focus. In the quantitative part of our study, the participants showed significantly increased perceived knowledge, awareness, and preparedness in every aspect (p crisis. It is particularly useful for staff working in clinical palliative care.

  13. The role of religious and existential well-being in families with Lynch syndrome: prevention, family communication, and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bronwyn A; Hadley, Donald W; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the role of religious (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) on psychosocial factors, support network characteristics, and screening practices in families with Lynch syndrome, also referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Participants were individuals with Lynch syndrome associated cancers and their first-degree relatives at risk of inheriting an identified deleterious mutation. Analyses considered both family RWB and EWB norms and individual deviations from that norm. Analyses controlled for age, gender, cancer diagnosis, number of respondents, and network size. Higher family RWB was associated with increased depressive symptoms (p family EWB was related to decreased depression symptoms (p family EWB was associated with fecal occult blood testing (p family communication about genetic counselling and testing (p family-level effects. Individuals with lower EWB than their family had lower perceived risk for colorectal cancer (p communicated disease risk information to less family members (p family also had higher cancer worry (p family network and being aware of family characteristics which may impact individual adjustment to disease risk. Interventions considering family-level factors may provide efficient pathways to improving psychosocial factors, screening practices, communication about disease risk and genetic testing, and cancer prevention.

  14. The Life Mission Theory VII. Theory of Existential (Antonovsky Coherence: A Theory of Quality of Life, Health, and Ability for Use in Holistic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical framework of existential coherence is presented, explaining how health, quality of life (QOL, and the ability to function were originally created and developed to rehabilitate human life from an existential perspective. The theory is inspired by the work of Aaron Antonovsky and explains our surprising recent empirical findings—that QOL, health, and ability primarily are determined by our consciousness. The theory is a matrix of nine key elements in five layers: (1 coherence; (2 purpose and talent; (3 consciousness, love, and physicality/sexuality; (4 light and joy; and (5 QOL/meaning of life. The layer above causes the layer below, with the layer of QOL again feeding the fundamental layer of coherence. The model holds the person responsible for his or her own degree of reality, happiness, and being present. The model implies that when a person takes responsibility in all nine “dimensions” of life, he or she can improve and develop health, the ability to function, all aspects of QOL, and the meaning of life. The theory of existential coherence integrates a wide range of QOL theories from Jung and Maslow to Frankl and Wilber. It is a nine-ray theory in accordance with Gurjieff's enneagram and the old Indian chakra system. It can be used in the holistic medical clinic and in existential coaching. Love is in the center of the model and rehabilitation of love in its broadest sense is, accordingly, the essence of holistic medicine. To know yourself, your purpose of life (life mission and talents, and taking these into full use and becoming coherent with life inside and reality outside is what human life is essentially about. The new model has been developed to integrate the existing knowledge in the complex field of holistic medicine. Its strength is that it empowers the holistic physician to treat the patient with even severe diseases and can also be used for existential rehabilitation, holistic psychiatry, and sexology. Its major

  15. [Brain injury: existential view to the restoration of the patient's contact with the self and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, N S

    2014-01-01

    We present conceptual changes in psychological rehabilitation after severe brain injury. Traditional clinical approach reduces the person's inner life to level of consciousness, considers psychological processes only from the deficit point of view. We consider the experience of coming out of coma (non-existence) from the point of fundamental components of existence, i.e. anchoring with the world, with life, with self, with the future (Langle, 2003). In aspect of experience these components form the matrix of Patient-World and Patient-Self recovery phases. While working with BI patients, we have defined following phases: 0-phase: experiencing existence, the feeling "I exist here". The main target of psychotherapy is consolidation and reinforcement of the feeling of existence through the feeling of one's body boundaries (and extension), and finding resources for surviving. 1-phase: "be-able-to-exist-in-the world". The patient comes across reality of external world. We mean first of all the perception of the factual side of the world. 2-phase: loving life. The work is concentrated on the recovery of patient's ability to address himself and others so as to be able to experience emotions and live through his own wishes. 3-phase: restoration of patient's self-image and substantiation of own value. It means self-perception and selfrespect despite all the losses and deficits because of trauma. 4-phase: finding the sense. It is necessary to help the patient to make the existential change to avoid dependent position, don't consider himself as the victim of circumstances. This conception is used on different stages of recovery starting from severe disordered consciousness to socialization stage.

  16. Increasing Scepticism Toward Potential Liars: Effects of Existential Threat on Veracity Judgments and the Moderating Role of Honesty Norm Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eSchindler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias. This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1 and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2. The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by situational variables. Given that research on terror management theory has found evidence that mortality salience increases the sensitivity toward the compliance of cultural norms, especially when they are of focal attention, we assumed that when the honesty norm is activated, mortality salience affects judgmental error weighing and, consequently, judgmental biases. Specifically, activating the norm of honesty should decrease the weight of error 1 (the error of judging a true message as a lie and increase the weight of error 2 (the error of judging a lie as a true message when mortality is salient. In a first, we found initial evidence for this assumption. Furthermore, the change in error weighing should reduce the truth bias, automatically resulting in better detection accuracy of actual lies and worse accuracy of actual true statements. In two further studies, we manipulated mortality salience and honesty norm activation before participants judged several videos containing actual truths or lies. Results revealed evidence for our prediction. Moreover, in Study 3, the truth bias was increased after mortality salience when group solidarity was previously emphasized.

  17. Increasing skepticism toward potential liars: effects of existential threat on veracity judgments and the moderating role of honesty norm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias). This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1) and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2). The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by situational variables. Given that research on terror management theory has found evidence that mortality salience (MS) increases the sensitivity toward the compliance of cultural norms, especially when they are of focal attention, we assumed that when the honesty norm is activated, MS affects judgmental error weighing and, consequently, judgmental biases. Specifically, activating the norm of honesty should decrease the weight of error 1 (the error of judging a true message as a lie) and increase the weight of error 2 (the error of judging a lie as a true message) when mortality is salient. In a first study, we found initial evidence for this assumption. Furthermore, the change in error weighing should reduce the truth bias, automatically resulting in better detection accuracy of actual lies and worse accuracy of actual true statements. In two further studies, we manipulated MS and honesty norm activation before participants judged several videos containing actual truths or lies. Results revealed evidence for our prediction. Moreover, in Study 3, the truth bias was increased after MS when group solidarity was previously emphasized.

  18. Increasing skepticism toward potential liars: effects of existential threat on veracity judgments and the moderating role of honesty norm activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias). This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1) and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2). The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by situational variables. Given that research on terror management theory has found evidence that mortality salience (MS) increases the sensitivity toward the compliance of cultural norms, especially when they are of focal attention, we assumed that when the honesty norm is activated, MS affects judgmental error weighing and, consequently, judgmental biases. Specifically, activating the norm of honesty should decrease the weight of error 1 (the error of judging a true message as a lie) and increase the weight of error 2 (the error of judging a lie as a true message) when mortality is salient. In a first study, we found initial evidence for this assumption. Furthermore, the change in error weighing should reduce the truth bias, automatically resulting in better detection accuracy of actual lies and worse accuracy of actual true statements. In two further studies, we manipulated MS and honesty norm activation before participants judged several videos containing actual truths or lies. Results revealed evidence for our prediction. Moreover, in Study 3, the truth bias was increased after MS when group solidarity was previously emphasized. PMID:26388815

  19. Coping With Existential and Emotional Challenges: Development and Validation of the Self-Competence in Death Work Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Tin, Agnes Fong; Wong, Karen Lok Yi

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care professionals often are confronted by death in their work. They may experience challenges to self, such as aroused emotions and queries about life's meaningfulness. Assessing their level of "self-competence" in coping with these challenges is crucial in understanding their needs in death work. This study aims to develop and validate the Self-Competence in Death Work Scale (SC-DWS). Development of this scale involved three steps: 1) items generated from a qualitative study with palliative care professionals, (2) expert panel review, and (3) pilot test. Analysis was conducted to explore the factor structure and examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Helping professionals involved in death work were recruited to complete questionnaires comprising the SC-DWS and other scales. A total of 151 participants were recruited. Both one-factor and two-factor structures were found. Emotional and existential coping were identified as subscales in the two-factor structure. Correlations of the whole scale and subscales with measures of death attitudes, meaning in life, burnout and depression provided evidence for the construct validity. Discriminative validity was supported by showing participants with bereavement experience and longer experience in the profession and death work possessed a significantly higher level of self-competence. Reliability analyses showed that the entire scale and subscales were internally consistent. The SC-DWS was found to be valid and reliable. This scale may facilitate helping professionals' understanding of their self-competence in death work, so appropriate professional support and training may be obtained. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discourse Intonation and Information Structure: An Empirical Study of Existential There Constructions in Non-native Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Judit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of given and new information is one of the key components of accomplishing coherence in oral discourse, which is claimed to be a problematic area for language learners (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell 1995: 14. Research on discourse intonation proposes that instead of the given/new dichotomy, givenness should be viewed as a continuum, with different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006. Moreover, Prince (1992 previously categorized information structure into Hearer-old/Hearer-new and Discourse-old/Discourse-new information. There is consensus on the fact that focus or prominence associated with new information is marked with nuclear pitch accent, and its main acoustic cue, fundamental frequency (f0 (Ward & Birner 2001: 120. Non-native intonation has been reported to display numerous differences in f0 range and patterns compared to native speech (Wennerstrom 1994; Baker 2010. This study is an attempt to address the issue of marking information structure in existential there sentences by means of f0 in non-native spontaneous speech. Data originates from task-based interactions in the Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English (Van Engen et al. 2010. This paper examines two issues: (1 information structure in relation to the notions of givenness and different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006 and to Prince’s (1992 multidimensional taxonomy and (2 the use of f0 peaks to mark the prominence of new information. Several differences were measured among native speakers regarding the use of f0, sentence type, and complexity.

  1. A Logical Analysis of Existential Dependence and Some Other Ontological Concepts—A Comment to Some Ideas of Eugenia Ginsberg-Blaustein

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    Marek Magdziak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with several problems concerning notion of existential dependence and ontological notions of existence, necessity and fusion. Following some ideas of Eugenia Ginsberg-Blaustein, the notions are treated in reference to objects, in relation to the concepts of state of affairs and subject of state of affairs. It provides an axiomatic characterization of these concepts within the framework of a multi-modal propositional logic and then presents a semantic analysis of these concepts. The semantics are a slight modification to the standard relational semantics for normal modal propositional logic.

  2. Physical, social, psychological and existential trajectories of loss and adaptation towards the end of life for older people living with frailty: a serial interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Anna; Kendall, Marilyn; Starr, John M; Murray, Scott A

    2016-10-20

    The experiences of people with cancer and organ disease have been described across different dimensions of need as they approach death. Such information is lacking for frail older people approaching death, but could highlight how a palliative approach might be relevant for this population. Cognitively intact, community dwelling adults considered to be moderately or severely frail were recruited from a medical day hospital. Those recruited nominated an informal carer and case-linked professional. Qualitative in-depth serial interviews with older people and their informal carers were conducted over an 18 month period, and single interviews with case-linked healthcare professionals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and narrative analytical techniques were used to compile case studies. Thirty-four participants (13 patients, 13 informal carers and 8 healthcare professionals) completed 40 individual, 14 joint and 8 professional interviews. Five patients died during the study. The analysis highlighted a dynamic balance between losses and adaptations. Three typical patterns of multi-dimensional change emerged. 1) Maintenance of psychological and existential well-being with a gradual social decline mirroring the physical deterioration. 2) a gradual reduction in both psychological and existential well-being. 3) a marked downturn in social, psychological and existential well-being before death. Frail older people sustained their well-being through maintaining a sense-of-self, garnering support from carers and community structures, and focusing on living from day to day. Their well-being lessened when they lost their sense-of-self, feeling alienated from the world, and confused over the cause of their circumstances. Death remained distant and 'undiagnosed'. Social and community frameworks were essential for supporting their well-being. Multidimensional end-of-life trajectories for frail older people differed from those with other conditions. Alleviating psychological

  3. Language-Specific Existential Sentence Types: a Case Study of Lithuanian. Savitas lietuvių kalbos egzistencinių sakinių tipas – BKI konstrukcija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Kalėdaitė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje aptariamos sintaksinės ir semantinės bendraties junginių su esaties veiksmažodžiu ypatybės. Remdamasi egzistencinių sakinių analizės principais, taikomais šio tipo sakiniams anglų kalboje nagrinėti, autorė siūlo tradicinėje lietuvių kalbotyroje neišryškintą šios konstrukcijos interpretaciją.BKI konstrukcija susideda iš trijų privalomų elementų: bazinio veiksmažodžio būti formos, k-žodžio (kada, kam, kur, etc. ir bendraties. Šios konstrukcijos ypatumus pabrėžė jau J.Jablonskis, kurio dėmesį patraukė netradicinė veiksnio raiška. Išnagrinėjusi konstrukcijos sintaksinės struktūros bei atskirų elementų gramatinės raiškos ypatybes, autorė apibrėžia ją kaip savitą lietuvių kalbos egzis­tencinio sakinio sintaksinį variantą. ------ The article is devoted to the analysis of a specific syntactic structure in Lithuanian, the BKI construction. This type of sentence is also attested in Russian, where it has got a wide coverage.The BKI construction in Lithuanian is made up of the following elements: (i a form of the existential verb būti ‘be’, (ii the k-word, and (iii the infinitive. The type is attested both in positive and negative forms. The peculiarity of the construction has been noted by a number of Lithuanian scholars, however, no link has been recognized between the semantic content of the sentence, the existential verb būti ‘be’, and the syntactic structure of the construction. The data used for the analysis (2,000 entries are taken from Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos tekstynas at http://donelaitis.vdu.lt.In the article the author offers a new approach to the analysis of the BKI construction and claims that it represents a language-specific existential structure. Evidence is presented to the effect that the BKI construction in Lithuanian is a syntactic synonym of the existential type ‘proper’.

  4. Defining contemplative science: The metacognitive self - regulatory capacity of the mind,context of meditation practice and modes of existential awareness

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    Dusana Dorjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘contemplative’ is now frequently used in the fast growing field of meditation research. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the definition of contemplative science. Meditation studies commonly imply that contemplative practices such as mindfulness or compassion are the subject of contemplative science. Such approach, arguably, contributes to terminological confusions in the field, is not conducive to the development of an overarching theory in contemplative science, and overshadows its unique methodological features. This paper outlines an alternative approach to defining contemplative science which aims to focus the research on the core capacities, processes and states of the mind modified by contemplative practices. It is proposed that contemplative science is an interdisciplinary study of the metacognitive self-regulatory capacity of the mind and associated modes of existential awareness modulated by motivational/intentional and contextual factors of contemplative practices. The metacognitive self-regulatory capacity is a natural propensity of the mind which enables introspective awareness of mental processes and behaviour, and is a necessary prerequisite for effective self-regulation supporting well-being. Depending on the motivational/intentional and contextual factors of meditation practice, changes in the meta-cognitive self-regulatory processes enable shifts in modes of existential awareness which determine our sense of self and reality. It is hypothesized that changes in conceptual processing are essential mediators between the metacognitive self-regulatory capacity of the mind, motivational/intentional factors, context of meditation practice and the modulations in modes of existential awareness. Meditation training fosters and fine-tunes the metacognitive self-regulatory capacity of the mind and supports development of motivational/intentional factors with the ultimate aim of facilitating increasingly advanced modes of

  5. Życie w obliczu śmierci. Filozoficzne rozjaśnienie sytuacji egzystencjalnej. (LIFE IN THE FACE OF DEATH. PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTENTIAL SITUATION

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    Gerd Haeffner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The author presents our experience and knowledge about death. The problem of death is not only biological or psychological but first of all existential. We can understand death as the source of our freedom and the value of time (the world without death would be boring. We must accept the necessity of death and hope that we will live after it. Our faith in immortality is a kind of Kantian postulate. Immortality as Kantian postulate has no guaranty and does not satisfy skeptic but it is postulate of moral law fulfillment.

  6. Physical, social, psychological and existential trajectories of loss and adaptation towards the end of life for older people living with frailty: a serial interview study

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    Anna Lloyd

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The experiences of people with cancer and organ disease have been described across different dimensions of need as they approach death. Such information is lacking for frail older people approaching death, but could highlight how a palliative approach might be relevant for this population. Methods Cognitively intact, community dwelling adults considered to be moderately or severely frail were recruited from a medical day hospital. Those recruited nominated an informal carer and case-linked professional. Qualitative in-depth serial interviews with older people and their informal carers were conducted over an 18 month period, and single interviews with case-linked healthcare professionals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and narrative analytical techniques were used to compile case studies. Results Thirty-four participants (13 patients, 13 informal carers and 8 healthcare professionals completed 40 individual, 14 joint and 8 professional interviews. Five patients died during the study. The analysis highlighted a dynamic balance between losses and adaptations. Three typical patterns of multi-dimensional change emerged. 1 Maintenance of psychological and existential well-being with a gradual social decline mirroring the physical deterioration. 2 a gradual reduction in both psychological and existential well-being. 3 a marked downturn in social, psychological and existential well-being before death. Frail older people sustained their well-being through maintaining a sense-of-self, garnering support from carers and community structures, and focusing on living from day to day. Their well-being lessened when they lost their sense-of-self, feeling alienated from the world, and confused over the cause of their circumstances. Death remained distant and ‘undiagnosed’. Social and community frameworks were essential for supporting their well-being. Conclusions Multidimensional end-of-life trajectories for frail older people

  7. Analyzing Heidegger’s Existentialism from the Perspective of Aristotle’s Practical Philosophy A New Approach towards Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

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    AA Heydari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an attempt to illustrate the point that the basic issues in Aristotle’s practical philosophy in analyzing Heidegger’s existentialism are conceived of as the matter of ontology. Comportment of men in reference to beings (Verhaltenweisen mentioned in Book Six of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics turns into comportment of constitution (Seinweise in the new approach to Heidegger’s Being and Time (Sein und Zeit. What is of great significance for Heidegger is reviving the hidden ontological power present in the three fundamental modes of activity in Aristotle’s theory in which praxis is preferred to two other modes of activity drawn from being, i.e. theorie and poíésis. Heidegger diagnosed some proper definitions and descriptions regarding human life in Aristotle’s transcendental idealism which are not known in modern philosophy as in Husserl’s philosophy. If we reconsider existentialism under the shadow of Aristotle’s phenomenology and specially Nicomachean Ethics, we may find ways to better interpret Heidegger’s philosophy.

  8. Analyzing Heidegger’s Existentialism from the Perspective of Aristotle’s Practical Philosophy A New Approach towards Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

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    Dr Ahmad Ali Heydari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an attempt to illustrate the point that the basic issues in Aristotle’s practical philosophy in analyzing Heidegger’s existentialism are conceived of as the matter of ontology. Comportment of men in reference to beings (Verhaltenweisen mentioned in Book Six of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics turns into comportment of constitution (Seinweise in the new approach to Heidegger’s Being and Time (Sein und Zeit. What is of great significance for Heidegger is reviving the hidden ontological power present in the three fundamental modes of activity in Aristotle’s theory in which praxis is preferred to two other modes of activity drawn from being, i.e. theorie and poíésis. Heidegger diagnosed some proper definitions and descriptions regarding human life in Aristotle’s transcendental idealism which are not known in modern philosophy as in Husserl’s philosophy. If we reconsider existentialism under the shadow of Aristotle’s phenomenology and specially Nicomachean Ethics, we may find ways to better interpret Heidegger’s philosophy.

  9. The Existential Learner

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    McCoog, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    We are all smart in different ways. Through the theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner has been one of the leaders in cataloging HOW people are smart as opposed to how smart they ARE. The ability to see "the big picture" and make connections between similar and dissimilar concepts has been considered for inclusion in the multiple…

  10. Pessimism vs. Existentialism

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    Solomon, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    So opined Adam Cohen recently in the "International Herald Tribune", and so, too, according to a recent book by Joshua Foa Dienstag, a political scientist at the University of California at Los Angeles, "Pessimism: Philosophy, Ethic, Spirit "(Princeton University Press, 2006). In his defense of pessimism as an appropriate and realistic philosophy,…

  11. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective

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    Capri, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  12. Using the Existential Criterion for Assessing the Personality of Overprotective and Overly Demanding Parents in the Families of Patients Who Have Sought Psychological Counseling for Parent-Child Problems

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    Kapustin, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of applying the existential criterion of normal and abnormal personalities for assessing the personality of overprotective and overly demanding parents in 176 families of patients who have sought psychological counseling. It is shown that the position of overprotective parents is one-sided in relation to the…

  13. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia.

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    Nyström, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers.

  14. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers. PMID:22114621

  15. Bergson leitor de lucrécio: as implicações existenciais do determinismo Bergson reader of Lucretius: the existential implications of determinism

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    Jonas Gonçalves Coelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomamos como objeto de análise a obra precoce de Bergson, os Extraits de Lucrèce, procurando mostrar que ao privilegiar as implicações existenciais negativas do determinismo, prefigura e justifica o fato de dedicar grande parte de seu pensamento filosófico posterior à crítica ao determinismo e à defesa da liberdade.We take as object of analysis Bergson's early work, Extraits de Lucrèce, trying to show that by privileging the negative existential implications of determinism, he prefigures and justifies his having dedicated a great deal of his later philosophical thought to a criticism of determinism and a defense of liberty.

  16. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia

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    Maria Nyström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers.

  17. From Shakespeare to Kierkegaard: An Existential Reading of Hamlet = Shakespeare'den Kierkegaard'a: Varoluşçuluk Işığında

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    Aslı TEKİNAY

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare's Hamlet yields conveniently to an existential reading. Hamlet may be seen as the prototype of the modern European man who struggles in a "rotten" world. In Denmark, he finds himself in a Sartrean "void". As he struggles to overcome his "nausea" by trying to unmask men, strip them of their fine appearances and show them in their true nature, Hamlet passes through the three stages of life described by Kierkegaard: the aesthetic, the ethical and the religious. Since these stages are in contradiction with one another, there is a basic choice, an "either/or" facing man. Hamlet's actions or non-actions in the play can be studied within the framework of this context.

  18. The role of religious faith, spirituality and existential considerations among heart patients in a secular society: relation to depressive symptoms 6 months post acute coronary syndrome.

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    Bekke-Hansen, Sidsel; Pedersen, Christina G; Thygesen, Kristian; Christensen, Søren; Waelde, Lynn C; Zachariae, Robert

    2014-06-01

    We explored the significance of religious faith/coping and spirituality and existential considerations reported during hospitalisation on depressive symptoms at 6-month follow-up and addressed patients' perceived influence of their faith among 97 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients (72.2% male patients; mean age, 60.6 years) in a secular society. All faith variables were found unrelated to depressive symptoms. Having unambiguous religious or spiritual faith at follow-up was associated with a perceived positive influence of this faith on quality of life and the disease itself compared to patients with ambiguous faith. These findings underscore the importance of examining degrees of faith in secular settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Manifestations of existentialism in the artist’s pictorial Transcarpathian school of the 1960s - 1980s (on the example of V. Mukuta

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    T. I. Lupak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the philosophy of existentialism that the greatest freedoms is the freedom of society, formed the basis of the Ukrainian movement artistic nonconformity (underground, which originated in the artistic life of the Soviet Union in 1960. The essence of the universe existentialists know intuitively, discarding any scientific evidence and research. Artists in this direction convey reality through their inner feelings, «Coming» in the afterlife. Study such pressing issues as human freedom, humanism, alienation, loneliness, fear of change, responsibility is a choice, a critical attitude toward progress and improvement of the primary things of the world and of the human person and so on. The reflection of these experiences we find in the works of many Ukrainian artists, however, focus our attention on the work of artists Transcarpathian region. On the basis of a specified key concepts such as «existence», «being», «nothing», «boundary situation» and so on. Accordingly, difficult for artists during the 1960s - 1980s, they tried to portray on canvas the experiences and concerns. However, this expression strictly limited by the government. Therefore, usually feeling existentialism artistically artists of this time were hidden, veiled symbolic presentation. Often images of real experiences, spiritual, psycho-emotional and mental characteristics of man and nonkonform was prohibited by the authorities. Original masters scene painting is a student of Erdelyi and F. Manaylo - Vladimir Nikita. His work can be called implicitly mirror events in the region and Ukraine as a whole. The way he delicately veiled play and painful problems of his native land, defines it as a national author. With the artist’s canvas can track events that took place in Transcarpathia, because it was his paintings are illustrations of those events. In his works we trace coverage of all the above reasons ekzystents them.

  20. Sentimentos de pessoas ostomizadas: compreensão existencial Sentimiento de las personas ostomizadas: comprensión existencial Emotions of people living with ostomies: existential comprehension

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    Catarina Aparecida Sales

    2010-03-01

    cuán dolorosos o placenteros son los acontecimientos de la vida, quedando a cargo del enfermero estar atento a sus diferentes modos de expresarse.The objective of this study was to better understand the emotions of ostomy patients and to reinforce their own moral value as beings-in-the-world, through actions of humanized care. This qualitative study followed the existential phenomenology school of thought and was performed at a teaching hospital in Northwestern Paraná - Brazil. Interviews were performed with 15 ostomy patients receiving care at the stomal therapy outpatient clinic during the months of June and July, 2006. The guiding question was: What does being an ostomy patient mean to you? From the analysis, three existential themes emerged: finding oneself in the world of ostomy; daily life with an ostomy bag; and the importance of spirituality in understanding the situation. It was observed that ostomy patients, in their existentiality, express their vicissitudes differently, revealing how painful or pleasant life events can be to them. It is the nurse's challenge to be mindful of their varying forms of expression.

  1. The feasibility and acceptability of short-term, individual existential behavioural therapy for informal caregivers of patients recruited in a specialist palliative care unit.

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    Stöckle, Helena S; Haarmann-Doetkotte, Sigrid; Bausewein, Claudia; Fegg, Martin J

    2016-10-24

    Existential behavioural therapy (EBT) is a recently developed intervention to support informal caregivers of patients in a specialist palliative care unit and was initially established as a six-session group programme. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of an adapted short-term, individual approach of EBT in preparation for a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study was conducted in a prospective, mixed methods design including four quantitiative assessments with embedded qualitative interviews at one assessment. The intervention offered two one-hour therapeutic sessions focusing on (1) mindfulness and (2) existential meaning-in-life as a source of strength provided by a trained psychotherapist. To test the feasibility of the intervention, doubling of the participation rate, compared to the previous group study (13,6 %) as well as an attrition rate of less than 30 % were set as thresholds. To test the acceptability of the intervention, self-rated usefulness of individual aspects of the intervention and the frequency of implementing therapeutic elements by the carers were set as criteria. Acceptability testing also included the number of participants who completed both sessions, where we expected more than 75 % as a criterion for acceptability. Return rates of quantitative questionnaires were set as criteria for the feasibility of data collection (<33 % loss expected within the study period). Qualitative interviews were used to collect additional data on feasibililty and acceptability and to explore potential harms and benefits of the intervention. 44/102 (43,1 %) of eligible informal caregivers agreed to participate in the study. Due to attrition of 13 caregivers (attrition rate: 29,5 %), 31 caregivers were included in the trial. Self-rated usefulness showed sufficiant results for all but one individual aspect. Frequency of implementing therapeutic elements showed wide inter-item as well as inter-participant ranges and

  2. The importance of existential dimensions in the context of the presence of older patients at team meetings—in the light of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty's philosophy.

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    Lindberg, Elisabeth; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Persson, Eva; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore interpersonal dimensions of the presence of older patients at team meetings. The theoretical foundation of the study is grounded in caring science and lifeworld phenomenology. The results from two empirical studies, that indicated the need for a more in-depth examination of the interpersonal relationships when an older patient is present at a team meeting, were further explicated by philosophical examination in the light of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty's philosophy. The empirical studies were performed in a hospital ward for older people, where the traditional rounds had been replaced by a team meeting, to which the patients were invited. The analysis of the general structure and philosophical examination followed the principles of reflective lifeworld research. The philosophical examination is presented in four meaning structures: mood as a force in existence; to exist in a world with others; loneliness in the presence of others; and the lived body as extending. In conclusion, professionals must consider patients' existential issues in the way they are expressed by the patients. Existence extends beyond the present situation. Accordingly, the team meeting must be seen in a larger context, including the patients' life as a whole, as well as the ontological and epistemological foundations on which healthcare is based.

  3. Supportive-expressive group therapy: the transformation of existential ambivalence into creative living while enhancing adherence to anti-cancer therapies.

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    Kissane, David W; Grabsch, Brenda; Clarke, David M; Christie, George; Clifton, Diane; Gold, Stan; Hill, Christine; Morgan, Ann; McDermott, Fiona; Smith, Graeme C

    2004-11-01

    Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) has been developed and manualised in the research setting, but there have been few clinical accounts of its utility. In this qualitative review of its application in the Melbourne-based randomised control trial (RCT) for women with advanced breast cancer, SEGT is considered from the perspective of the structure and framework of therapy, its therapists, the issues that develop in exploring its common themes and what constitutes a well functioning group. Groups move through identifiable developmental phases. The mature group process transforms existential ambivalence into creative living, evidenced by humour, celebration, assertiveness, altruism, new creative pursuits and eventually courageous acceptance of dying. Challenges and pitfalls include avoidance, non-containment of ambivalence, intolerance of difference, anti-group phenomena and splitting. A key element is the medicalization of the group culture whereby members and co-therapists explore health beliefs and attitudes about care. This promotes compliance with anti-cancer treatments, including both the initiation of and perseverance with chemotherapy. This mechanism could prove to be a potentially important pathway in promoting longer survival. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in daily life: relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage in palliative home care.

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    Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Strang, Peter; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie

    2009-08-01

    This article explores relatives' experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a support supplement while caring for a dying family member at home. In palliative home care, relatives play an important role as carers to seriously ill and dying family members. To improve their quality of life, different support strategies are of importance. Complementary methods, such as soft tissue massage have become an appreciated supplement for these patients. However, only few studies focus on relatives experiences of receiving soft tissue massage as a supplemental support. Qualitative design Nineteen relatives received soft tissue massage (hand or foot) nine times (25 minutes) in their homes. Open-ended semi-structured tape-recorded interviews were conducted once per relative after the nine times of massage, using qualitative content analysis. Soft tissue massage gave the relatives' feelings of 'being cared for', 'body vitality' and 'peace of mind'. For a while, they put worries of daily life aside as they just experienced 'being'. During massage, it became apparent that body and mind is constituted of an indestructible completeness. The overarching theme was 'inner power, physical strength and existential well-being in their daily lives'. All relatives experienced soft tissue massage positively, although they were under considerable stress. Soft tissue massage could be an option to comfort and support relatives in palliative home care. In palliative nursing care, soft tissue massage could present a worthy supplement in supporting caring relatives.

  5. Transforming Adverse Cognition on the Path of Bhakti: Rule-Based Devotion, “My-Ness,” and the Existential Condition of Bondage

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    Travis Chilcott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava theologians developed a unique path of Hindu devotion during the 16th century through which an aspirant cultivates a rapturous form of selfless love (premā for Kṛṣṇa, who is recognized as the supreme and personal deity. In the course and consequence of cultivating this selfless love, the recommended practices of devotion are claimed to free one from the basic existential condition of bondage that is of concern for a wide range of South Asian religious and philosophical traditions. One of the principle cognitive tendencies characterizing this condition is to have thoughts and feelings of possessiveness over objects of the world, or what is referred to as the state of “my-ness” (mamatā, e.g., my home, my children, or my wealth. Using the therapeutic model of schema therapy as a heuristic analogue, this article explores the relationship between recommended practices of rule-based devotion (vaidhi-bhakti and the modulation of thoughts and feelings of possessiveness towards mundane objects. I argue that such practices function as learning strategies that can systematically rework and modulate how one relates to and responds to these objects in theologically desirable ways. I conclude by suggesting that connectionist theories of cognition and learning may offer a promising explanatory framework for understanding the dynamics of this kind of relationship.

  6. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of philosophy of life during holistic existential therapy for childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-03-07

    When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind) that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna's existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  7. Cœur, Temps and Monde in Le forçat innocent of Supervielle: A Poet’s Existential Metaphors of Prison and Shelter

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    Franck Dalmas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poet Jules Supervielle has a marginal status in twentieth-century French literature as he was not engaged in any prominent movement of his time (Symbolism, Futurism, or Surrealism. In that regard, his poetry is neither nationally colored nor aesthetically connoted. It might well be the reason for his lacking consideration in the literary canon. But these differences must get our special attention. Supervielle was not born in France and he was to live and write his works in a state of existential angst, divided, as he always felt, between his native Uruguay and his French legacy. As such, the poet developed a unique intimate oeuvre through which he tried to recapture and mingle his vacant identities. This article examines the recurrent themes of “heart,” “time,” and “world” in the collection of poems Le forçat innocent (1930 to show that a life-long meditation on his defective health, the unmanageable flow of time, and the hope for universal communion helped Supervielle overcome these metaphorical prisons and create a propitious shelter to his poetic expression. Contrasting aspects in his poetry, however, cannot stand apart from each other, and we have to consider their interlacing, which illuminates Supervielle’s work in a truly phenomenological manner.

  8. 'Getting back to normal' or 'a new type of normal'? A qualitative study of patients' responses to the existential threat of cancer.

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    Baker, P; Beesley, H; Fletcher, I; Ablett, J; Holcombe, C; Salmon, P

    2016-01-01

    Existential concerns about cancer have been studied extensively in palliative care but less so in curative settings. The present report aims to describe ways in which patients viewed the continuity or discontinuity of their identity in the face of the mortal threat of cancer. Twenty-eight patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer attending pre-treatment, treatment or follow-up appointments were interviewed about their emotional experiences following diagnosis. Qualitative analysis followed an inductive, constant comparative approach. Patients spoke of 'getting back to normal', but presented two distinct accounts of 'normality'. Some, particularly those only recently diagnosed, maintained continuity to past identity by upholding previous routines, emphasising resilience and minimising the impact of cancer. Others talked of a new 'normality' discontinuous with their past. Most accounts, however, evidenced elements of continuity and discontinuity, often in ostensibly contradictory ways. We suggest that holding contradictory perspectives simultaneously characterises an intermediate stage of adjustment for some patients: between reliance on continuity with the past in the aftermath of diagnosis and, later, a sense of being a new person, changed by cancer. Practitioners should appreciate that patients' wishes for 'normality' can signify very different responses to cancer, and that holding such contradictory orientations is functional, not aberrant. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of Philosophy of Life During Holistic Existential Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse

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    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna’s existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  10. The effect of spiritual interventions addressing existential themes using a narrative approach on quality of life of cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Renske; Hartog, Iris D; Jacobs, Marc; Daams, Joost G; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Johannes B A M; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spiritual interventions on quality of life of cancer patients. We conducted our search on June 6, 2014 in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and PubMed. All clinical trials were included that compared standard care with a spiritual intervention that addressed existential themes using a narrative approach. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A total of 4972 studies were identified, of which 14 clinical trials (2050 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 12 trials (1878 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall risk of bias was high. When combined, all studies showed a moderate effect (d) 0.50 (95% CI = 0.20-0.79) 0-2 weeks after the intervention on overall quality of life in favor of the spiritual interventions. Meta-analysis at 3-6 months after the intervention showed a small insignificant effect (0.14, 95% CI = -0.08 to 0.35). Subgroup analysis including only the western studies showed a small effect of 0.17 (95% CI = 0.05-0.29). Including only studies that met the allocation concealment criteria showed an insignificant effect of 0.14 (95% CI = -0.05 to 0.33). Directly after the intervention, spiritual interventions had a moderate beneficial effect in terms of improving quality of life of cancer patients compared with that of a control group. No evidence was found that the interventions maintained this effect up to 3-6 months after the intervention. Further research is needed to understand how spiritual interventions could contribute to a long-term effect of increasing or maintaining quality of life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Uma abordagem fenomenológico-existencial para a questão do conhecimento em psicologia An existential-phenomenological approach to the problem of psychological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vial Roehe

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da analítica existencial do filósofo Martin Heidegger, o artigo propõe que o conhecimento é um correlato ontológico do modo de ser humano e que a tradição científica comete um erro ontológico quando, por meio de uma suposta assepsia metodológica, separa o conhecedor do conhecido. Sendo assim, argumenta-se que qualquer empreendimento científico está vinculado às características do ser humano, que qualquer que seja o foco de uma investigação científica, este já estará sempre submetido às possibilidades perspectivas humanas. Portanto, a objetividade que a tradição científica preconiza, de modo algum se realiza. Propõe-se também que a psicologia não necessita adotar o modelo naturalista tradicional, a fim de adquirir credibilidade científica.Based on German philosopher Martin Heidegger's existential analytic, this article proposes that knowledge is an ontological counterpart to man's mode of being, and the scientific tradition incurs in ontological error when, through the use of a so-called methodological asepsis, it separates who-knows (the "subject" of knowledge from what-is-known (the "object" of knowledge. Thus, it can be argued that any scientific enterprise is linked to the characteristics of human beings, and whatever focus a scientific investigation might have, this focus will always be limited by human perceptive capabilities and, therefore, the objectivity proclaimed by the scientific tradition is never achieved at all. The article also proposes that psychology does not need to adopt the traditional naturalistic model in order to achieve scientific credibility.

  12. An existential theoiy of truth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, ... existentialist theory of truth which could serve undergraduate students as a supple ment to text readings on conventional theories of ... ship is reflected in how that content is conceived. Existentialists are keen to point out.

  13. O convivio com a dor: um enfoque existencial El convivio con el dolor: un enfoque existencial Living with pain: an existential focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maximiliano Sanches

    2002-12-01

    árias dimensiones también está afectada, fundamentalmente en lo que se refiere al mundo familiar, del trabajo y de la auto-relación.In the routine of a hospital, during my nursing practice of providing care to patients with pain, it was shown to me as reaching beyond a biological sphere included in an existential dimension. Something in this experience disturbed me and I felt the need to understand these people suffering from pain, asking how they understand their pain and what is the meaning of experiencing painful chronic situations. In the attempt to find a way to obtain such understanding, I searched for some ideas stemming from phenomenology. Then, I interviewed the subjects individually based on the central question: "How is your experience with pain? Tell me about this". After the analysis, I was able to understand that pain is a way to narrow the horizon of possibilities and transformations in existence. It is not only the physical body that is ill, but also life is affected in its various dimensions, fundamentally with regard to the family, work and self-relation world.

  14. Ressignificação existencial do pretérito e longevidade humana Existential meaning of the past, and human longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pavão Patrício

    2009-06-01

    associated with sadness, depression and death in its group, contradicting the alleged idea that older people increase life-time (as has been observed in recent years. This manuscript has the aim of determining environmental aspects involved with longevity; it thus uses "grounded theory", a technique of qualitative research method, operating on data provided by elderly former railroad workers. It was observed that former railroad worker's social representations convey to a central category: desolation from perceiving life and environmental annihilation due to continuous State and Society negligence to promote and preserve good things - that existed in the past. We can also observe that, in a parallel way, by hyper valorizing past things, they recognize their existence as part of an epic process that promoted the São Paulo state countryside economic and social development, with an existential meaning to the past, which suggests to be a strong defense mechanism that contributes to longevity. This finding can be included in the hypothesis that the function of longevity would be to preserve a social contingent with knowledge about a way of life that was successful because it was socially advantageous.

  15. A abordagem proibicionista em desconstrução: compreensão fenomenológica existencial do uso de drogas Deconstructing the prohibitionist approach: a phenomenological existential understanding of drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sodelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende, por meio do pensamento da fenomenologia existencial, desconstruir o modelo proibicionista ao uso de drogas. Ao compreender o homem como um ser inacabado, sempre entregue ao seu próprio cuidado, o estudo caminhará na direção de demonstrar a incompatibilidade dos objetivos proibicionistas com o modo singular de ser do homem. Demonstraremos que é a própria condição existencial do homem que gera o que nomearemos como "vulnerabilidade existencial", condição esta impossível de ser modificada. Com efeito, argumentaremos que qualquer abordagem preventiva que tenha como princípio fundamental erradicar o uso de drogas já estaria fadada ao fracasso. Fundamentando-nos ainda neste posicionamento, rejeitaremos a compreensão proibicionista que o "uso de drogas" é sempre e invariavelmente um comportamento desviante (patologia. Por fim, o estudo aponta para a importância do desenvolvimento de uma nova abordagem preventiva que absorva de modo integral a singularidade da condição humana (vulnerabilidade existencial, rompendo definitivamente com os preceitos proibicionistas, a saber, a abordagem de redução de danos.The present article aims to deconstruct the Prohibitionist Model against drug abuse. Understanding Man as an unfinished being, always left to his own care, the study demonstrates the incompatibility of the Prohibitionist objectives with Man's unique way of being. We show that it is the very existential condition of Man that generates what we call "existential vulnerability", a condition that is impossible to be modified. In fact, we argue that any preventive approach whose fundamental principle is the eradication of drug abuse would be prone to failure. Based on this positioning, we reject the Prohibitionist view according to which "drug abuse" is always and invariably a deviant behavior (pathology. Finally, the study points to the importance of the development of a new preventive approach that fully

  16. Stalking and compensation for existential damage. Some remarks starting from the sentences of the Court of Cassation (Supreme Court of November 11, 2008 - Le stalking et l’indemnisation du dommage existentiel. Quelques considérations suite aux jugements de la Cour de Cassation en Chambres Unies du 11 novembre 2008 - Stalking e risarcimento del danno esistenziale. Alcune considerazioni alla luce delle sentenze della Corte di Cassazione a Sezioni Unite dell’11 novembre 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florio M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A few days ago, a regulation against stalking was introduced into the Italian system, inserting the art. 612 bis into the Italian penal code. The author considers the new set of rules, aiming to defend the stalking victim, and the prospects of compensation for damage to the person. Above all, puts more emphasis on the analysis of compensation for existential damage, which is now accepted to be repayable as a result of the important sentences of the Court of Cassation in 2008, when definite criteria were established. From now on, such criteria for a systematic analysis of compensation for existential damage will be a reference point for the Italian Courts.

  17. Práticas de formação e a produção de políticas de existência Formation practices and the production of existential politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que somos herdeiros e estamos imersos no processamento de uma cultura - a cultura ocidental - que tem se caracterizado pelo investimento em fazer valer apenas uma política de existência, queremos partilhar algumas marcações que têm nos apoiado no exercício de deslocamento na perspectiva da criação de possíveis, da ampliação de espaços de liberdade. Entendendo as práticas de formação como importantes vetores no exercício cotidiano de civilizar, cabe aqui problematizar algumas instituições que nelas se instrumentalizam. Faremos isso chamando Nietzsche e Foucault como intercessores, para nos instalar num debate entre ciência e filosofia tencionando interrogar a primazia do referencial do direito em nosso presente.Considering that we are heir and immersed in a cultural process - the occidental culture - which character is based in the investment of imposing a single existential politic, we wish to share some guidelines that have been supporting us in the continuous exercise of perspective dislocation for the creation of possibles, enlargement of freedom areas. Understanding the formation practices as an important vector in the usual exercise of civilization, this article intends to question some institutions that use it as instrument. We will do that with the support of Nietzsche and Foucault as interlocutors, in a way that puts us in a debate between science and philosophy with the intention of questioning the primacy of the legal reference in our present.

  18. Quality of Life as Medicine III. A Qualitative Analysis of the Effect of a Five-Day Intervention with Existential Holistic Group Therapy or a Quality of Life Course as a Modern Rite of Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    The courses teach the participants respect, love, and intimacy; help them to draw on their seemingly unlimited hidden resources; and inspire them to take more responsibility for their own life. Exercises are accomplished with a partner chosen at the course as: (1 a person you like, (2 a person you do not know already, or (3 a person to whom you want to give help, support, and holding more than you want to get help from him or her. Pilot studies with 5-day quality of life interventions that combine training in quality of life philosophy with psychotherapy and bodywork have proved effective on patients with chronic pain and alcoholism. The present design aims to take this a step further and engage the patients in a process of personal growth that will last for years. The aim is to lead them to a stabile state of quality of life, health, and ability, from where they will not again fall into sickness and unhappiness. The focus of these courses is as much on prevention as is it on healing. The existential group therapy induces spontaneous healing of body, mind, and soul that seems to be highly efficient with hopefully lasting results. Every course is intended to give an immediate improvement in the quality of life, so its efficiency can be measured with the square curve paradigm. We have studied the participant’s accounts from their experience with the courses and have analyzed the remarkably large, qualitative changes in the state of being, quality of life, health, and consciousness, which many participants experience during the course. The long-term and preventative effects of the courses have yet to be documented.

  19. A interação existencial entre seres humanos e animais no romance Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo = The existential interaction between human beings and animals in the novel Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Vânia Libanori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedro Páramo, de Juan Rulfo, o corvo, o cavalo e o gato são animais que mantêm estreita ligação existencial com o ser humano. A interação ser humano-animal é fundamental para o entendimento de temas filosóficos presentes no romance, como a identidade humana, o outro, a morte. O corvo é o batedor da chegada de Juan Preciado no mundo da morte. O cavalo de Miguel Páramo é o único ser que sofre, verdadeiramente, a morte do seu tutor. O gato é o animal que faz visitas noturnas a Susana San Juan, com quem estabelece um diálogo somente inteligível para os dois. A integração entre personagens humanas e animais em Pedro Páramo mostra a comunicação entre seres pertencentes a diferentes espécies animais. No romance, seres humanos, corvos, cavalos e gatos têm mais semelhanças entre si do que a cultura ocidental antropocêntrica conhece.In Pedro Páramo by Juan Rulfo, the raven, the horse and the cat are animals that maintain a close existential link to the human beings. In the book, this human being/animal interaction is fundamental to the understanding of philosophical themes such as the identity, the other, and the death. In the story, the raven is the escort of Juan Preciado arrival into the death world. Miguel Páramos’s horse is the only being that genuinely suffers because of the death of its guardian, that is, Miguel’s death. The cat is the animal that make night visits to Susana San Juan to whom it speaks in a way that is understood by the two of them only. The connection between human and animal characters in Pedro Páramo shows the communication among beings that belong to different animal species. In the novel, human beings, ravens, horses, and cats are much more alike than the western anthropocentric culture has it.

  20. O cotidiano do ser-adolescendo com aids: movimento ou momento existencial? El cotidiano del ser-adolecer con sida: ¿movimiento o momento existencial? The daily life of adolescents with aids: existential movement or moment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2009-09-01

    diarias, ocio y relacionamientos. Transitando entre estos momentos, se re-vela como un ser-adolecer . En este movimiento existencial se re-vela como un ser-de-posibilidades, que no está limitado a este doble acontecer : adolecer (según demarcaciones de la edad y características predeterminadas y Sida (fragilidad clínica. Ahí reside el desafío de conjugar la dimensión biológica y existencial, en un modelo asistencial-institucional de cuidado al ser-adolecer.Children with vertical transmission HIV pass from childhood to adolescence and little is known about how they care for themselves. The objective was to understand the daily life of adolescents with AIDS. Heiddeger's hermeneutic analyzes was applied. The phenomenological interview of 11 non-institutionalized boys and girls (12-14 years with a disclosed diagnosis took place in 3 reference healthcare facilities in Rio de Janeiro. The comprehensive analysis showed that adolescents' daily live is marked by childhood and adolescent moments. In childhood, there is a desire to play like other children. In adolescence, there is a desire to be like others in appearance, mood, daily activities, leisure and relationship. In passing between these two moments, a process of becoming adolescent is revealed. In this existential movement they reveal as a being-with-possibilities that are not limited in the double-facticity: adolescence (according to etaria marks and predetermined characteristics and AIDS (clinical fragility. Therein resides the challenge of conjugating biological and existential dimensions in adolescent care.

  1. An Existential-Phenomenological Investigation of Women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will help me lose weight” or “Thinness equals beauty”. These nagging voices often overrun women's lives and ... evaluation, and the endless obsession with beauty? To be in constant pursuit of something that is ultimately ...... to the standards and ideals of the culture. Conversely, a positive comment made by a significant.

  2. Supporting existential care with protected mealtimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Malene; Birkelund, Regner; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    interrupted by high-priority tasks (e.g. taking blood samples) while eating. Protected mealtimes is a British concept that changes the organizational structure of mealtimes and provides a focus on the mealtime by ceasing all non-acute activities while patients are eating. DESIGN: Influenced by protected...

  3. Michel Leiris' scientific pursuit and existential quest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to ethnological activities. So, he questions informants and labels and classifies specimens. Relief and excitement result from the intoxicating effects of this scientific research. Like a detective on a trail, he notes his pleasure when discovering in an abandoned village, a rope which had been used to tie the sacrificial sheep ...

  4. Existentialism, Globalisation and the Cultural Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation is not a new phenomenon but the world has never before been subject to global forces that are characterised by such extensity, intensity, velocity and impact. Modern technology and communications effectively compress human time and space and we regard the world as a smaller place. One outcome of this has been greater contact with the…

  5. An existential-phenomenological investigation of women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated women's lived experience of becoming less obsessed with their bodily appearance. Written narrative accounts were collected from seven women co-participants and a phenomenological analysis of these descriptive protocols was then performed in order to reveal the prereflective structure of the ...

  6. Michel Leiris' scientific pursuit and existential quest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the police who, he claims, are hidden in his truck, if the fetish is not handed to him in exchange for 10 francs. “Ghastly ... they cannot smuggle the nation's ritual objects and church articles out of the country and because they fear being caught red handed by the customs with an altar piece they wanted to take out, they ...

  7. Existential technique and cognitive restructuring strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with lots of psychosocial implications that can result in low self-esteem and social inhibitions in several social activities. The uncertainty of never knowing where the seizure will occur lowers one's self-esteem and dignity. Objective: This study, therefore, investigated ...

  8. Surviving testicular cancer: : sexuality & other existential issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grietje

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the psychological aspects of ‘sexuality after testicular cancer’, where my collegue, the physician dr. Van Basten formerly predominantly described the physical-biological aspects of this subject. Testicular cancer is a type of male genital cancer, usually diagnosed between

  9. [Perspectives of an existential interdisciplinary body theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R

    1990-01-01

    The existence analytical inquiry has developed corporal models that admit in their integrative-anthropological form fertile comparisons with a phenomenological radical immanence-philosophy of the constitution. The "body as partner" (W. Blankenburg) and the not objectivitical measurable connection of the "figure- and functionbody" contain estimates, to understand the body as living "I can" (Maine de Biran; Husserl) that means as really final subjectivity, ipseity or "soul", like the french phenomenologist Michel Henry from the creature of the not secularized affectivity has analyzed. With that the remained rests of the still from world categories imaginaried connection get powered (transcendence, sensuousness, settlement by Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Schütz for example) to conceive the body as not inferable absolute origin being. Seen interdisciplinary there from results a new foundation for an evidence as constitution-comprehension, that can psychological like therapeutical the pathogenous for instance theoretical world/constitution/soul-distortions help over-power.

  10. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-26

    Jun 26, 2014 ... resources are graciously given, mediated by his broker Jesus. By proclaiming that the kingdom of God has come near. (Mk 1:15) Jesus is in effect announcing God's patronage and sets himself up as broker (Malina 2003:389–390). The root metaphor of father in relation to family opens another nuance of ...

  11. Gestação na adolescência com enfoque no casal: movimento existencial Embarazo en la Adolescencia con enfoque en el casal: movimiento existencial Gestation in the Adolescence with focus on the couple: existential movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Silva de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    gestation in the adolescence, focused as social pathology and risk, have been visualized from the previous concepts of the science and the facts supported in a gender question. Thus, the adolescent couple´ s perspective still is obscure. This qualitative study had as objective to analyze the existential movement of the adolescent couple that experiences a pregnancy. It is a study that used a phenomenological approach with the concepts of Martin Heidegger. The interviews realization occurred from March to October of 2008. The scenario was the House of Birth David Capistrano Filho and the subjects were 09 adolescent couple. To study the adolescent-couple, in its experience of be pregnant, give birth and nourish, in other words, in the daily of the be-couple, that is father/mother allowed to construct others possibilities of care supported in the ontological instance, veiled in the assistance daily that is operated by the protocol of gestational risk.

  12. Freedom and Responsibility: Existentialism, Gifted Students, and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses excerpts from Jean-Paul Sartre to examine the meaning of being human and also what it means to be free as a human being. It discusses how Sartre's thoughts on freedom and responsibilities may be usefully applied in science and social studies instruction for gifted students. (CR)

  13. Existential questions: no, one, or two Utrecht Schools?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René; Stam, Henderikus J.; Panhuysen, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Among psychologists, the Utrecht School was famous (at least outside The Netherlands) for its phenomenological psychology (e.g. (Giorgi, 1990). Buytendijk, Linschoten, Van Lennep, Kouwer, Langeveld, and others were considered as the members of a school with a strongly resembling approach to

  14. Existential autonomy: why patients should make their own choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, H

    1997-01-01

    Savulescu has recently introduced the "rational non-interventional paternalist" model of the patient-doctor relationship. This paper addresses objections to such a model from the perspective of an anaesthetist. Patients need to make their own decisions if they are to be fully autonomous. Rational non-interventional paternalism undermines the importance of patient choice and so threatens autonomy. Doctors should provide an evaluative judgment of the best medical course of action, but ought to restrict themselves to helping patients to make their own choices rather than making such choices for them. PMID:9279743

  15. The Search for Meaning of Life: Existentialism, Communication, and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hasbiansyah

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Makna merupakan hal sangat penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Tanpa makna, kehidupan akan tanpa arah dan penuh kegelisahan. Makna hidup dapat dicari melalui nilai-nilai kreatif, nilai-nilai pengalaman, nilai-nilai cara bersikap, komunikasidan partisipasi,pemahaman diri, dan pemahaman akan ajaran agama. Islam menawarkan aspek nomatif bagi pencapaian hidup bermakn lewat pembersihan diri, kontemplasi, serta komitmen pada keilmuan dan kemasyarakatan.

  16. Dealing with existential anxiety in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte; Pedersen, Birthe D; Dreyer, Pia

    2015-01-01

    rehabilitation. Focus group interviews were conducted at the programme end, and individual interviews were performed one to two months later. The interpretation comprised three methodological steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive interpretation and discussion. Findings Although both...

  17. An Existential-Phenomenological Investigation of the Experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexual and gender identity problems, and eating and personality disorders. Suggestions for Further Research. The underlying dimensions revealed in this research study demonstrate the need for a continued in-depth look at the experience of same-sex attraction. On the other hand, by restricting my engagement with co-.

  18. Bringing the Meaning Back In: Exploring Existentially Motivated Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    human existence. Psychology and sociology have more recently empirically demonstrated meaning-in-life’s close connection to happiness , psychological ...recently empirically demonstrated meaning-in-life’s close connection to happiness , psychological well-being, and even physical health. This thesis examines...being human. Indeed, meaning-in-life directly affects both psychological and physiological well-being, affecting stress levels and happiness and

  19. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karl Barth's hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth's “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth's understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of ...

  20. An existential-phenomenological investigation of the experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are an abundance of studies regarding the development of sexual identity and sexual orientation that have served as the foundational underpinnings for exploring sexual orientation development. To date, however, findings from these studies have failed to constitute a significant resource for understanding the gay ...

  1. Healing relationships and the existential philosophy of Martin Buber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John G; Scott, Rebecca G; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2009-01-01

    The dominant unspoken philosophical basis of medical care in the United States is a form of Cartesian reductionism that views the body as a machine and medical professionals as technicians whose job is to repair that machine. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for an alternative philosophy of medicine based on the concept of healing relationships between clinicians and patients. This is accomplished first by exploring the ethical and philosophical work of Pellegrino and Thomasma and then by connecting Martin Buber's philosophical work on the nature of relationships to an empirically derived model of the medical healing relationship. The Healing Relationship Model was developed by the authors through qualitative analysis of interviews of physicians and patients. Clinician-patient healing relationships are a special form of what Buber calls I-Thou relationships, characterized by dialog and mutuality, but a mutuality limited by the inherent asymmetry of the clinician-patient relationship. The Healing Relationship Model identifies three processes necessary for such relationships to develop and be sustained: Valuing, Appreciating Power and Abiding. We explore in detail how these processes, as well as other components of the model resonate with Buber's concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships. The resulting combined conceptual model illuminates the wholeness underlying the dual roles of clinicians as healers and providers of technical biomedicine. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that health care should be focused on healing, with I-Thou relationships at its core. PMID:19678950

  2. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential? | Malan | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 70, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  3. humour as an aesthetico existential strategy in third generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR AKPAN

    war and the cataclysm of the war itself that opened up the space for a new and more radical generation in the mid 70s. Funso Ayejina is the critic who better captures the zeitgeist and its impact on Nigerian poetry at the time when he. 99. Idom T. Inyabri, Department of English and Literary Studies, P.M.B. 1115, University of ...

  4. Beyond support: Exploring support as existential phenomenon in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Support in different modes, expressions and actions is at the core of the public welfare culture. In this paper, support is examined as an everyday interpersonal phenomenon with a variety of expressions in language and ways of relating, and its essential meaning is explored. The fulcrum for reflection is the lived experience ...

  5. Nietzche at Northern: An Existential Narrative of Confronting the Abyss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jim

    2008-01-01

    When good people do violently bad things, one seeks answers, drawing from one's repertoire of theories and concepts that have served him/her well. Underlying one's attempts to understand violent behavior is the belief that one can impose sense on seemingly insensible actions. Sometimes, in the face of inexplicable events, one is left to try to…

  6. An Existential-Phenomenological Investigation of the Experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the differences in experiential realities because of societal and ... Cass's Model. The Australian psychologist Vivienne Cass (1979) ... and that “stability and change in human behaviour are ... patterns seen in individuals with same-sex sexual.

  7. Healing relationships and the existential philosophy of Martin Buber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dominant unspoken philosophical basis of medical care in the United States is a form of Cartesian reductionism that views the body as a machine and medical professionals as technicians whose job is to repair that machine. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for an alternative philosophy of medicine based on the concept of healing relationships between clinicians and patients. This is accomplished first by exploring the ethical and philosophical work of Pellegrino and Thomasma and then by connecting Martin Buber's philosophical work on the nature of relationships to an empirically derived model of the medical healing relationship. The Healing Relationship Model was developed by the authors through qualitative analysis of interviews of physicians and patients. Clinician-patient healing relationships are a special form of what Buber calls I-Thou relationships, characterized by dialog and mutuality, but a mutuality limited by the inherent asymmetry of the clinician-patient relationship. The Healing Relationship Model identifies three processes necessary for such relationships to develop and be sustained: Valuing, Appreciating Power and Abiding. We explore in detail how these processes, as well as other components of the model resonate with Buber's concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships. The resulting combined conceptual model illuminates the wholeness underlying the dual roles of clinicians as healers and providers of technical biomedicine. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that health care should be focused on healing, with I-Thou relationships at its core.

  8. Uncovering an Existential Barrier to Breast Self-exam Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Hart, Joshua; Routledge, Clay

    2008-01-01

    The present research applies an analysis derived from terror management theory to the health domain of breast examination, and in doing so uncovers previously unrecognized factors that may contribute to women’s reluctance to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs). In Study 1, when concerns about mortality were primed, reminders of human beings’ physical nature (i.e., creatureliness) reduced intentions to conduct BSEs compared to reminders of humans’ uniqueness. In Study 2, women conducted shorter exams on a breast model (an experience found to increase death-thought accessibility) when creatureliness was primed compared to a uniqueness and no essay condition. In Study 3, after a creatureliness prime, women performed shorter BSEs when a placebo did not provide an alternative explanation for their discomfort compared to when it did. Advances for theory and breast self-exam promotion are discussed. PMID:19255593

  9. Humour as an Aesthetico Existential Strategy in Third Generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of any generation of poets, at least since the moderns, has been characterized by a lot of controversies. In Modern Nigerian Poetry, the incarnation of the third generation has its own slant of controversies. Burdened by the lack of a formidable, vibrant critical presence at home and challenged by the dominant ...

  10. The feeling of hope in cancer patients: an existential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Aparecida Sales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at unveiling the feeling of hope in people who experience cancer in their existence. Qualitative study based on Heidegger’s phenomenology, performed with eight cancer patients assisted in a philanthropic organization, between December 2013 and February 2014, in a northwestern city in Paraná, Brazil, using the following guiding question: “How do you perceive the feeling of hope at this time in your life?” The analysis resulted in the ontological themes: searching for hope in dealing with cancer, and experiencing feelings of hope and despair in being with others. Patients revealed mixed feelings, going from the lack of hope at the time of diagnosis to a rekindling of hope, as well as those who never lost the will to live. We conclude that living with cancer causes extreme feelings; and hope emerges as a feeling capable of influencing and causes an expressive impact in coping with that.

  11. Grasping the Existential Experience of Living with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janni Lisander

    Dette projekt havde til formål at undersøge eksistentielle vilkår hos kvinder med sygdommen, systemisk lupus erythematosus, herunder hvordan disse vilkår blev erfaret gennem et langvarigt sygdomsforløb. Data blev konstrueret gennem 3 konsekutive, personlige interview sessions på dag 0, efter 6 og...

  12. On The Adequacy of Emotions and Existential Feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the analytic tradition of the philosophy of emotions the folk notion of adequacy is understood with regard to – at least four – different questions, viz. (a a moral question, (b a prudential question, (c an epistemic question, and (d a fittingness (or correctness question. Usually, the fittingness question is treated as being the central one. I have some doubts concerning this assessment, particularly when it comes to substantial – interpersonal or cultural – controversies about whether a specific emotional response is adequate or whether a specific event deserves the emotional responses it triggers. To approach these matters, I recommend first doing without the established distinctions, for they may prematurely tempt us into assessing the adequacy of emotional responses in terms of one of these categories thereby overlooking other features that deserve attention. Instead, I will start with the folk notion of adequacy and then refine stepwise the conceptual landscape to get closer to what the crucial issues of adequacy are.

  13. Introduction to giorgi’s existential phenomenological research method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una breve introducción a las bases teóricas en que Amedeo Giorgi fundamenta su trabajo de investigación con un enfoque fenomenológico existencial. De igual forma, muestra los distintos pasos que este autor sigue para analizar la información recogida en una investigación.

  14. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karl Barth's hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth's “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth's understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of ...

  15. The Death Penalty and Human Dignity: An Existential Fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nagelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of capital punishment in the United States frequently cite the evolution from electrocution and hanging to lethal injection as an indication that the evolving standards of decency exhibited by such a transition demonstrate a respect for human dignity. This essay examines that claim by evaluating two standards for assessing whether an act comports with accepted definitions of human dignity: a personal-achievement model, based on work by economist Amartya Sen of Harvard University, and a universal and intrinsic approach to human dignity articulated by criminologist Robert Johnson of the American University. We evaluate Sen’s capabilities model through the lens of a condemned prisoner’s ability to achieve self-defined goals. We then assess Johnson’s claim that preserving human dignity requires an elimination of the death penalty, irrespective of any prisoner’s ability to lead a restricted, albeit goal-directed, existence.

  16. Sen and Moral Choice: Merging development and existentialism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development as freedom, in the words of Amartya Sen (1999), a renowned Indian political economist and philosopher, means that development is not reducible to income satisfaction. Rather, it is about what people are “able to do and be”. But beyond Sen, this paper makes the argument that human development, based on ...

  17. O corpo em uma perspectiva fenomenológico-existencial: aproximações entre Heidegger e Merleau-Ponty El cuerpo en una perspectiva fenomenológico-existencial: acercamientos entre Heidegger y Merleau-Ponty The body in an existential-phenomenological perspective: approximations between Merleau-Ponty and Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Auler de Almeida Prado

    2012-01-01

    concepciones? ¿Habría algo impensado? A principio - consideramos -, hay mucho qué pensar sobre el cuerpo desde diversos ángulos temáticos y teóricos, y tanto dichas concepciones tradicionales como las actuales son expresiones de un modo de pensar de determinada época. Haciendo una reflexión respaldada en el pensamiento heideggeriano, buscamos mostrar uno de los caminos posibles de repensarse el cuerpo, procediendo a algunos acercamientos con el pensamiento de Merleau-Ponty. Veremos cómo la concepción actual de cuerpo se vincula a determinada concepción de hombre y de ser y que tenemos una especie de intimidad original con el mundo que la mirada sobre el cuerpo señala. Dicha intimidad debe ser recuperada para que cultivemos una forma más humana y más cercana con los demás.This essay presents an existential-phenomenological perspective of the body, having Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty as reference authors. In the traditional conceptions, the body has been understood as a biological mechanism in opposition to a supersensible instance (ration, mind or soul, as source of erotic and impersonal pleasure, and most recently, as a ‘visit card’, submitted to fashion, health and good shape tendencies. Would those conceptions be absolute or expression of a certain way of life of the contemporaneous society? Which implications do those conceptions have? Would there be something still unthought? In the first place - we think - there is a lot to consider about the body under theoretical and thematic obliquities. Reflecting on this based on the heideggerian view, this essay intents to show one of the possible ways to rethink the body, according to some approximations to Merleau-Ponty’s view. We will see how the present body conception is linked to a certain conception of man and being and that we have a kind of “original intimacy” with the world that the body conception defended in this essay points out. We should recover this intimacy in order to raise a more human

  18. THE EXISTENTIAL ROBINSONNADE OF FRANKENSTEIN / ЕКЗИСТЕНЦІЙНА РОБІНЗОНАДА ФРАНКЕНШТЕЙНА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана БРОНСЬКИХ

    2016-03-01

    тамінація образу, літературна еволюція, ціннісний орієнтир, процеси осучаснення. Brons'kykh Svitlana.The existential Robinsonnade of Frankenstein. In our work on issues of literature, we tried to analyze the spiritual state of an immortal person which is doomed to immortality and is deprived of the chance of saving his souls. The mythological concept of novels such as "Frankenstein" can be considered the forerunner of science fiction literature. This type of novels also contains elements of Gothic and Romantic elements. The purpose of the article is the individual and social human separation doomed to immortality. Using traditional literary elements we open again the question of the genetic relationship of literary communication. These genetic relationships are based on the use of literary traditional material in the context of a national literature. Key words: traditional material, the characteristics, image contamination, literary evolution, values, processes of modernization.

  19. Pressupostos de uma avaliação de contexto existencial da violência escolar para o planejamento de condutas motoras educacionais voltadas para pré-adolescentes de classes de progressão Presupuesto de una evaluación del contexto existencial de la violencia en la escuela para la planificación de conductas motoras educativas dirigidas hacia preadolescentes de la clase de progresión Estimate of an existential context evaluation of the school violence for the planning of educational motor behaviors to pré-adolescentes of progression classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indinalva Nepomuceno Fajardo

    2006-03-01

    situation of social risk, have been constituted as a phenomenon of moral nature that spreaded in the last years in Brazil. This fact affects different instances of the Brazilian society, amongst these, many schools, consisting in a great challenge and concern for the society and, more specifically, for the responsible ones for these institutions. For this reason it became object of public politics that, in some way, try to present strategical alternatives for the solution of this big problem. So, the objective of this work is presenting a reflection about the subject, showing an evaluation of existential context of violence that could contribute with some estimated for the planning of educational motor behaviors to pay-adolescents with delay in cognitive development and that, because of this, are registered in progression classrooms. This evaluation was developed from a existential phenomenological understanding of the pay-adolescents of 9 the 12 years old, registered in the related classroom of the Municipal School Dr. August Mário T. of Freitas, located in the North Zone of Rio De Janeiro, in which the violent behavior of pupils is a current manifestation. In this understanding was established a logical correlation between the causes and consequences of this problem, using as theoretical support the thought of Jose Ortega Y Gasset who manifests the necessity of knowing the Being from its existential circumstance, proving that the beings in question live in a context social and historical of adverse circumstances, that can be the causes of the violence in the school and others environments.

  20. Writing of a aporia. Transits and obstructions in Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Romero Tenorio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The point of this article is to stress that graphs are a philosophical system which reflect upon the nature of writing. It is for this reason that we propose using the Spanish word «grafo» (comingfrom Spelling, writing and scripts and not «graficos», a more mathematically oriented term. Rather than building up a symbolic or algebraic - like language, Peirce concentrates on the need of writing,and therefore thought, to expand its existence in their visible traces. System conventions and primary elements are discussed on this article. Firstly we deal with sections which organise expansion according to a logic of obstructions and openings, always respecting the continuous transit principle. Next, we enquire about the three elements of the system: the sheet of assertion, grapheus and graphist. Ending with a deep reflection on the ethics of creativity.

  1. BEING CARED BY A FAMILY MEMBER: THE EXISTENTIAL FEELINGS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender el cotidiano de pacientes oncológicos en lo cuidado de la familia en domicilio. Estudio fenomenológico de Heidegger en se encuestó a 20 pacientes de la Atención Primaria a la Salud del Noroeste de Paraná, entre noviembre de 2012 a febrero de 2013. Se utilizó la pregunta guía: ¿Cómo ha sido su experiencia al ser cuidado por su familia?. El análisis fenomenológica se realizó mediante la selección de unidades de cada selección y posterior de las cuestiones ontológicas, que son lo que significa: Permaneciendo solo ante la presencia del otro y Encontrando en el amor el fundamento para el cuidado. Se concluye que el cuidado domiciliar en consonancia con la práctica paliativita, cuando fundamentado en amor y solicitud, es capaz de dar ‘alas’ a aquellos que visualizaron sus vidas amenazadas.

  2. SPIRITUALITY AND SINCERITY AS BASIC "EXISTENTIALS" OF HUMAN EXISTENCE: THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. N. Sinitsyn; A. G. Hentonen

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the philosophical-pedagogical and psychological analysis of the categories of "spirit," "soul" and "body", different views on the concepts of "spirituality", "sincerity" and "physicality." The "spirit" and "spirituality" is considered from the perspective of the unity of the three fundamental values of human existence (Truth, Goodness, Beauty), highlighting three areas of spiritual activity - knowledge, art, morality. "Soul" and "sincerity" are associated with the interna...

  3. A Precise and Efficient Algorithm for Determining Existential Summary Data Flow Information,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    b : VAR, f: PARM, e: INVOKE proc POSTR (p:PROC) #This routine recursively computes SVEC- declare q : PROC 1. for q c SON[p] do 2. POSTR (q) 3. SVEC[p...SVEC(p] u SVEC[q] 4. for e e CALL~q] do 5. SVEC[p] SVEC[p] + e 6. return 4~. end POSTR proc UPDATE(x,y :VAR) #This is a utility routine which updates...12. EQIV[a] --[a] +e 13. if e i AFTEMP~a) then 14. AFTEMP[a) - AFTEMP[a]+e 15. ATOF[a,e] - 0 16. ATOF~a,eJ +- ATOF[a,e]+x 17. SVEC(q] 4- 0 18. POSTR

  4. The Existential Turn: Reappraising Being and Time’s Overcoming of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus Duits

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to propose an answer to these relatedquestions. It amounts to an attempt to work through conceptually step by step Heidegger’s so called “overcoming of metaphysics”. It is true of course that the locution, “the overcoming of metaphysics”, does not appear in Being and Time. The discourse of the overcoming of metaphysics is held by Heidegger’s commentators to belong to a period post-dating the early work, after the so called Kehre. I shall stubbornly evade this knotty issue of Heidegger interpretation here. For my purposes it suffices merely if our understanding ofBeing and Time, its content, intent and consequence, can be deepened or expanded if it is read in the light of the task of overcoming metaphysics—or at least in the light of that task as it is to be conceived in the context I shall present here. What is to be understood by the phrase “the overcoming of metaphysics”?

  5. Relative states and the existential interpretation: einselection, envariance and quantum Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This is a brief 'guide to ideas' aimed at illuminating various developments that are based on the recognition of the role of the environment in the transition from quantum to dassical, and that are relevant to Everett's 'Relative State Interpretation' .

  6. A Reflection on Musical Experience as Existential Experience: An Ontological Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Frederik; Varkoy, Oivind

    2012-01-01

    In the current world of education, politics and public opinion, musical experience is increasingly threatened. It is designated ever more as an expendable luxury. This kind of general trend has hardly left the thinking in the field of music and music education untouched. Inspiration comes from the technical rationality of our time. This…

  7. A Gnostic Critic of Modernity: Hans Jonas from Existentialism to Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the German-Jewish philosopher Hans Jonas (1903–1993) employed Gnosticism in his philosophical critique of modernity. Far from treating it as an “antiquarian concern” or attempting to “overcome” it, I argue that Jonas continuously used Gnosticism, including...

  8. Moving Out of the Cellar: A New (?) Existentialism for a Future without Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kip; Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2013-01-01

    In this article authors Kip Kline and Kathleen Abowitz write that the "new breed of accountability-driven schools is more interested in reaching some number at the end of the school year" than in actually constructing places where teachers can create meaningful learning experiences for students. In this article they argue that…

  9. Significations of being the caregiver of the companion with cancer: an existential look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolli, Kelly Cristine; Medeiros, Marcelo; Sales, Catarina Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    to unveil the significances of women who experience being the caregiver of their companion with cancer. a Heidegger's phenomenological research, performed with ten women who are caregivers of their companions with cancer in a town in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, from December 2013 to February 2014. The following guiding question was used: "How has it been for you to care for your companion with cancer?". from the analysis of the speeches the following ontological themes emerged: "Taking responsibility of caring for the companion with cancer", "Learning to live with the intimacy changes" and "Learning to live with the feelings related to care". The data revealed the wives' sense of responsibilities for caring and the influence of feelings in the act of caring, including the impact on the couple's intimacy. in the midst of difficulties, the feelings of affection are the driving force behind these women to continue their actions as wife-caregivers.

  10. Two Nordic existential comedies: Smiles of a Summer Night and The Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer Night and Lars von Trier's The Kingdom. By means of evolution-and neurology-based humour theory it shows how the two directors, who ordinarily make dark and tragic films, use humour mechanisms from mainstream entertainment to transform trag...

  11. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Existentialism at Home, Determinism Abroad: A Small-Town Mexican American Kid Goes Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Joe Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Joe Robert Gonzalez describes the process of his own growth as a Mexican American from Brownsville, Texas, who attended Villanova University. Coming from a majority-minority town, Gonzalez identifies the importance of safe spaces for Mexican American youth, many of whom doubt their own potential to thrive within university settings.…

  13. Essence of alienation in the existential philosophy of the XXth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanchuk

    2017-08-01

    On the whole, an alarming assessment of the human situation by all existentialists is quite consistent with the assessment of representatives of other philosophical trends: psychoanalysis, neo-Marxism, religious philosophers, and many outstanding scientists.

  14. Integrating Existentialism and Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, William R.

    2012-01-01

    As workers face a changing and ever-complex employment landscape, traditional career theories and approaches may not be sufficient in meeting career challenges. Calls for integrated career theories have emerged as more people seek meaning and purpose in their lives and careers. This article proposes a career counseling option that integrates…

  15. Harassment Issues in Sport Organizations: Utilitarian, Justice, Kantian, and Existential Approaches to Moral Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.

    2004-01-01

    The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…

  16. Dignity and existential concerns among nursing homes residents from the perspective of their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspari., Synnøve; Høy, Bente; Lohne, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this cross-country Scandinavian study was to explore how residents in nursing homes experience that their dignity is promoted and attended to. This is one part of the Scandinavian project in which we interviewed residents, relatives and staff members. Background......: The main subject concerns the dignity of residents of nursing homes for older people. This article brings forward results from interviews of relatives on how they experience that the dignity is met, promoted and attended to for their next of kin. Design: The study was qualitative with a hermeneutic...... approach. Methods: Qualitative research interviews of 28 relatives of residents at six participating nursing homes in Scandinavia. The results derive from analysis of the interviews using Kvale’s three levels of interpretation; self-understanding, common sense and a theoretical understanding. Results...

  17. Using an Existential Psychotherapy Framework to Assist Students in Mindful Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the mobile Internet continues to play an increasing role in all of our lives and particularly in the lives of college and university students. Questions have been raised about the impact of the Internet on adolescents' and college students' fulfillment of traditional developmental tasks and more broadly their mental health. The present…

  18. End of life care in nursing homes: Palliative drug prescribing and doctors' existential vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Nursing homes are the main arena for end-of-life (EOL) care in Norway. Patients, their informal caregivers and academics alike have called for doctors more involved in EOL care, but the nursing home doctor’s role has been given relatively little attention in research. This thesis explores the doctor’s work with EOL care in nursing homes from the perspectives of EOL prescription changes (paper I); the effectiveness and safety of palliative prescriptions (paper II); and from...

  19. JUHANI PALLASMAA: THE THINKING HAND: EXISTENTIAL AND EMBODIED WISDOM IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Altés Arlandis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el contexto actual de efervescente y alocada pasión por los procedimientos y arquitecturas digitales y paramétricas, parece doblemente pertinente dedicar un pequeño espacio a la revisión de algunos textos de autores que se han manifestado abierta y decididamente sus reservas frente a este tipo de subproductos arquitectónicos y han argumentado concienzudamente las razones de tal rechazo. Tras Los Ojos de la Piel: La Arquitectura y los Sentidos este nuevo libro supone una continuación de las ideas sugeridas en aquél acerca de la condición "corporal" del ser humano. Pallasmaa extenderá su análisis mucho más allá de la mano, explorando el significado de lo que se viene denominando "embodiment".En todo caso, no es esta la única aportación interesante del libro. Pallasma explora en diferentes capítulos, Pallasma explora también conceptos e ideas que se antojan apropiadísimos hoy tales como "El Trabajo de Pensar" y "El Valor de la Incertidumbre", las relaciones entre "Resistencia, Tradición y Libertad", o la arquitectura como "Imagen de Vida", que desembocan en la propuesta final de una arquitectura que aminora la velocidad y reduce el ruido, defiendiendo la natural lentitud y diversidad de la experiencia y protege el silencio.

  20. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    .... With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, our VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment...

  1. [On Michel Foucault's unpublished lectures on Ludwig Binswanger's existential analysis (Lille 1953-54)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to analyze Michel Foucault's position toward phenomenological psychology and psychopathology during the 1950s, in light of the new documentary sources available today. Our investigation is especially focused on one of the courses given by Foucault at the University of Lille between 1952 and 1954, namely, the course on "Binswanger and phenomenology" (1953-54). The analysis of this course, which was conceived by Foucault within the context of a philosophical reflection on the anthropological problem of psychopathology, will finally allow us to re-ascribe Foucault the place he deserves in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry".

  2. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Treatment of Vulvodynia Through Existential Therapy and Acceptance Through Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual problems are found in four major forms: lack of libido, lack of arousal and potency, pain and discomfort during intercourse, and lack of orgasm. It is possible to work with a holistic approach to sexology in the clinic in order to find and repair the negative beliefs, repressions of love, and lack of purpose of life, which are the core to problems like arousal, potency, and pain with repression of gender and sexuality. It is important not to focus only on the gender and genitals in understanding the patient's sexual problems. It is of equal importance not to neglect the body, its parts, and the feelings and emotions connected to them. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual problem and these feelings are often “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. The patient with sexual problems can be helped both by healing existence in general and by discharging old painful emotions from the tissues. The later process of local healing is often facilitated by a simple technique: accepting contact via touch. This is a very simple technique, where the self-acceptance of the patient is to be promoted, for example, asking the female patient to put her hand on her stomach (uterus or vulva, after which the holistic physician puts his hand supportively around hers. When done with care and after obtaining the necessary trust of the patient, this aspect of holding often releases the old negative emotions of shame bound to the touched areas. Afterwards, the emotional problems become a subject for conversational therapy and further holistic processing. Primary vulvodynia seems to be one of the diseases that can be cured after only a few successful sessions of working with acceptance through touch. The technique can be used as an isolated procedure or as a part of a pelvic examination. When touching the genitals with the intention of sexual healing, a written therapeutic contract with the patient is highly recommended and a strict ethical code is necessary to avoid malpractice. As about one woman in three suffers from sexual problems, many of which seemingly can be efficiently alleviated by the simple holistic techniques of “holding and processing”, it is very important that the holistic physician is also trained to work in the sexual sphere in order to be able to support his patients fully.

  3. [Resilience and Spirituality Considered from Viewpoint of Existential Philosophy of Karl Jaspers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After publishing "General Psychopathology" in 1913, Jaspers turned his attention to serious philosophical contemplation. Using the term grenzsituation (limit situation) as a key concept, he first presented a framework to shed light on the pathology of both individuals and groups, and this led on to include the perspective of resilience. He then used three more key concepts, transzendenz (transcendence), chiffer (cipher), and unverstädliche (unintelligible) to offer a framework to focus on the possibilities of human existence. In the field of medicine, this is useful to support a spiritual approach which is discussed in palliative treatment. The philosophy developed by Jaspers can be considered as indicating a practical form of guidance for people to find self-support from a limit situation where they have lost their own support, and finally, come to a degree of mutual acceptance. Mutual acceptance is made possible at the level of ciphers, in which specific meaning remains undefined, by directing both the self and the other toward a state of "transcendence". Nowadays there is a trend for those chaplains involved in spiritual care from a specialist point of view to be trained to effectively transcend any difference in religious belief. As a basic premise, the author considers there is a need to once again return to a state before the start of individual religions, and stand on a cross-sectional ground level, an area which could be regarded as common to all religions. When conducting such a task, in the author's view, the restrained spirituality that Jaspers expounded is thought-provoking.

  4. Dealing with multivoicedness, art products and existential matters within phenomenology of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    In the years to come, a global challenge is to reorganize the health care systems to engaging people in health promotion and make individuals and groups co-constructors of health and well-being. In Denmark in 2012, a local challenge has come up as the National Health Board published a new program...

  5. To Be or Not To Be: The Existential Issue for National Governance Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research Question/Issue The article addresses the issue of whether governance bundles which include both formal and informal governance mechanisms should be classified and compared on the basis of national identity. Research Findings/Insights The governance bundle affecting each firm has formal

  6. On the function and importance of research design in existential-phenomenological qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    inquiry. This is very different from the research traditions within the social sciences, which traditionally emphasizes the importance of research design and a controlled inquiry, even with respect to qualitative research. Social research is traditionally divided into three phases: planning, execution...... and reporting. Both De Vaus (2001, Research Design in Social Research) and Blaikie (2009, Designing Social Research) highlight the preparatory phase stressing the importance of designing an inquiry in a way, that brings empirical material forth that makes it possible to answer the research question...... the argument that there would be a fruitful contribution to much phenomenological research from a greater emphasis on research design and controlled inquiry. But is it possible to combine these social science research principles with a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to qualitative research...

  7. Running, Being, and Beijing—An Existential Exploration of a Runner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkainen, Noora; Harrison, Marlen Elliot; Ryba, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we explore the negotiation of a conflicted runner identity in a Finnish runner's short-term migration to Beijing, China. We examine the historical and cultural construction of the runner identity and discuss the current discourses that constitute the modern runner subjectivities...

  8. The existential function of close relationships: introducing death into the science of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Florian, Victor; Hirschberger, Gilad

    2003-01-01

    Originally, terror management theory proposed two psychological mechanisms in dealing with the terror of death awareness-cultural worldview validation and self-esteem enhancement. In this article, we would like to promote the idea of close relationships as an additional death-anxiety buffering mechanism and review a growing body of empirical data that support this contention. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sociocultural and personal functions of close relationships, we formulate two basic hypotheses that have received empirical support in a series of experimental studies. First, death reminders heighten the motivation to form and maintain close relationships. Second, the maintenance of close relationships provides a symbolic shield against the terror of death, whereas the breaking of close relationships results in an upsurge of death awareness. In addition, we present empirical evidence supporting the possibility that close relationships function as a related yet separate mechanism from the self-esteem and cultural worldview defenses.

  9. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth’s hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.M. Pelser

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth’s “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth’s understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of the Enlightenment and its counter-movement in Romanticism. In this article Barth’s attitude to the place and role of historical criticism is explained in light of his dialectic distinction between “scientific” and “practical” interpretation. The article aims to show that Barth, with his dialectics, continues Schleiermacher’s realism. In conclusion, the positivistic traits in the Barth legacy are raised once again, in order to open the door to Jürgen Habermas and other deconstructionist thinkers of the postmodern era in hermeneutics.

  10. Existential neuroscience: neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses against death-related thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that reminders of mortality increase ingroup support and worldview defense, presumably in order to deal with the potential for anxiety that roots in the knowledge that death is inevitable. Interestingly, these effects are obtained solely when thoughts of death are not in the focus of consciousness. When conscious, death-related thoughts are usually defended against using proximal defenses, which entail distraction or suppression. The present study aimed at demonstrating neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses. We focused on the late positive potential (LPP), which is thought to reflect an increased allocation of attention toward, and processing of, motivationally relevant stimuli. Our prediction was that the LPP should be increased for death-related relative to death-unrelated, but equally unpleasant stimulus words. In Experiment 1, this prediction was confirmed. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which used a target word detection task. In Experiment 2, both death-related and pleasant words elicited an enhanced LPP, presumably because during the less demanding task, people might have distracted themselves from the mortality reminders by focusing on pleasant words. To summarize, we were able to identify a plausible neurophysiological marker of proximal defenses in the form of an increased LPP to death-related words. PMID:22267519

  11. The Janus face of schizotypy: enhanced spiritual connection or existential despair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Lewis, Andrew James

    2014-12-15

    It has been asserted that schizotypy has a negative relationship with subjective well-being. By employing a multidimensional measure of spiritual well being with 400 British College students we report a more complex relationship. The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version were used and analysis made use of Canonical Correlational Analysis. Results suggested that two distinct relationships emerged between schizotypy and spirituality. First, a positive association between cognitive/perceptual features of schizotypy and spiritual connectedness emerged. Second a more global negative relationship between feelings of spiritual isolation and despair was found for all aspects of schizotypy. These findings challenge the previous literature based on one-dimensional subjective well being measures which have found only a negative relationship. However, the positive association between connectedness and cognitive-perceptual aspects of schizotypy raises import questions about the possible benefit of certain types of schizotypal experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "An existential place of pain": the essence of despair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggs, Nancy; Shattell, Mona; Cowling, William Richard

    2010-07-01

    While there is a substantive body of knowledge on depression, little is known about the experience of despair. Though the terms depression and despair are often used interchangeably, studies of despair suggest that it is distinguishable from depression as experienced by women. This study explored women's experience of despair through qualitative interviews with 14 women ages 28 to 55 (M = 45) who self-identified as experiencing despair. Three themes emerged: "Crippling and Debilitating," "There's Nothing You Can Do," and ''It'll Never End." The findings lend support to the notion that despair is distinguishable from depression, but this warrants further study. The findings also suggest that while there are common elements of despair among women, there are also unique experiences of despair. While there is a substantive body of knowledge on depression, little is known about the experience of despair. This phenomenological study explored women's experience of despair through qualitative interviews with 14 women ages 28 to 55 (M = 45) who self-identified as experiencing despair. Three themes emerged: "Crippling and Debilitating," "There's Nothing You Can Do," and "It'll Never End." The findings suggest that women desire to have their experiences recognized and validated while simultaneously receiving acknowledgment of their ability to overcome the past and to shape their own destinies.

  13. Existential hazards of the multicultural individual: defining and understanding "cultural homelessness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, V N; Jenkins, S R

    1999-02-01

    Cultural homelessness (CH) is the authors' term to describe unique experiences and feelings reported by some multicultural individuals. Ethnically related concepts found in the cross-cultural and multiethnic literature (e.g., marginality, intercultural effectiveness, ethnic enclaves, reference group) are used to explain how CH may arise from cross-cultural tensions within the ethnically mixed family and between the family and its culturally different environment, especially due to geographic moves. CH is conceptualized as a situationally imposed developmental challenge, forcing the child to accommodate to contradictory and changing norms, values, verbal and nonverbal communication styles, and attachment processes. Culturally homeless individuals may enjoy a broader, stronger cognitive and social repertoire because of their multiple cultural frames of reference. However, code-switching,complexities may lead to emotional and social confusion, which, if internalized, may result in self-blame and shame. Culturally encoded emotion labeling may be disrupted, leading to alexithymia.

  14. Exacerbated Vulnerability in Existential Changes: The Essence of Dealing with Reduced Working Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, Sigrún Hulda; Halldórsdóttir, Sigríður

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore people's experience of reduced working capacity and their encounters with professionals in that life situation. We collected data through in-depth interviews with eight individuals. The main finding of the current research is how illness and accident impairing work capacity "exacerbate…

  15. Existential neuroscience: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of neural responses to reminders of one's mortality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quirin, Markus; Loktyushin, Alexander; Arndt, Jamie; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Lo, Yin-Yueh; Kuhl, Julius; Eggert, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    A considerable body of evidence derived from terror management theory indicates that the awareness of mortality represents a potent psychological threat engendering various forms of psychological defense...

  16. Exploring the Possibility of Peak Individualism, Humanity's Existential Crisis, and an Emerging Age of Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gabriel B

    2017-01-01

    There is an emerging cultural narrative in the United States that we are entering an age of purpose-that millennials, more than any other generation, are searching for purpose and purposeful work (Sheahan, 2005) and that we are entering an era or economy of purpose (Hurst, 2014). For profit, non-profit, and educational institutions are perceiving and adapting to serve millennials' demand for purpose in life, specifically within the workplace (Klein et al., 2015). Yet, longitudinal studies of purpose do not exist, and millennials are also referred to as GenMe. Existing quantitative research suggests they (we) are increasingly individualistic, materialistic, and narcissistic (Greenfield, 2013). Google's digitization of millions of books and the Ngram Viewer allow for quantified analysis of culture over the past two centuries. This tool was used to quantitatively test the popular notion that there is a rise in demand for purpose. Analysis reveals a growing interest in purpose-in-life and a shift toward collectivistic values emerging over the lifespan of the millennial generation.

  17. Exploring the Possibility of Peak Individualism, Humanity's Existential Crisis, and an Emerging Age of Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel B. Grant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging cultural narrative in the United States that we are entering an age of purpose—that millennials, more than any other generation, are searching for purpose and purposeful work (Sheahan, 2005 and that we are entering an era or economy of purpose (Hurst, 2014. For profit, non-profit, and educational institutions are perceiving and adapting to serve millennials' demand for purpose in life, specifically within the workplace (Klein et al., 2015. Yet, longitudinal studies of purpose do not exist, and millennials are also referred to as GenMe. Existing quantitative research suggests they (we are increasingly individualistic, materialistic, and narcissistic (Greenfield, 2013. Google's digitization of millions of books and the Ngram Viewer allow for quantified analysis of culture over the past two centuries. This tool was used to quantitatively test the popular notion that there is a rise in demand for purpose. Analysis reveals a growing interest in purpose-in-life and a shift toward collectivistic values emerging over the lifespan of the millennial generation.

  18. The Existential Self: Challenging and Renegotiating Gender Identity through Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Carol

    2018-01-01

    This article explores perceptions of the role of education as a potential medium of transformation and a vehicle to challenge and renegotiate symbolic and cultural notions of gender identity. Drawing on data collected at two time points over 10 years, it considers four young women from working-class backgrounds in England who aspired to and then…

  19. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  20. The iNEAR programme: an existential positive psychology intervention for resilience and emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunariu, Aneta D; Tribe, Rachel; Frings, Dan; Albery, Ian P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new psychological intervention, the iNEAR, which is a resilience and wellbeing programme consisting of a classroom based set of activities designed to facilitate the formation of positive identities through the acquisition of skills for growth and personal flourishing. Three hundred and fifty-four young people aged 11 and 12, matched for age and gender, were randomly allocated to the intervention (84 girls; 80 boys) and control conditions (93 girls; 96 boys). Following the intervention, boys, compared to girls, showed higher levels of wellbeing and environmental mastery, and higher levels of tolerance to uncertainty. The intervention was effective in increasing appreciation of positive relationships with others, for girls, and, although not statistically significant, it generated change in the desired direction for boys. In contrast to boys, girls' scores on openness to diversity also increased between baseline and post-intervention. Ways in which positive psychology interventions can resource individuals to better respond to adversity, coercion, and personal uncertainty, and so contribute to safeguarding against the adoption of extreme belief systems are also discussed.

  1. Efficient Evaluation of Probabilistic Advanced Spatial Queries on Existentially Uncertain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Dai, Xiangyuan

    2009-01-01

    that exceeds a threshold. Accordingly, a ranking probabilistic spatial query selects the objects with the highest probabilities to qualify the spatial predicates. We propose adaptations of spatial access methods and search algorithms for probabilistic versions of range queries, nearest neighbors, spatial...

  2. An existential model of oral health from evolving views on health, function and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the evolution of conceptual frameworks and models of health and disability to construct an explanatory model of oral health. The International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps adopted by the WHO is based largely on social role theory and a utilitarian tradition portraying disablement as a negative and socially unacceptable consequence of impairment. It has been the major conceptual influence on the construction of psychometric tools for dentistry. However current views of chronic disease are refocused on the influence of coping strategies used by people to prevent or limit disability and handicap. Consequently, the WHO adopted the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as an alternative description of health and health-related states based on an existentialist view of the body, the person and society. In addition, an ethnographic exploration has identified three major domains of oral health--oral hygiene, comfort and general health--that dominate the opinions of people with oral impairments. Application of the framework and language of the ICF to the major domains of oral health provides the basis for a new biopsychosocial model of oral health, function and disablement.

  3. Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Sarita; Graupmann, Verena; Agthe, Maria; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Blautzik, Janusch; Demirçapa, Idil; Berndt, Andrea; Pöppel, Ernst; Frey, Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and women. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. From cultural to existential diversity : the impossibility of psychotherapy integration within a traditional framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.; Óscar F. Gonçalves; Ivey, Allen E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors build upon Castonguay and Goldfried's analysis regarding issues and directions central to advancing psychotherapy integration. They elaborate on two issues addressed only minimally in Castonguay and Goldfried's article. The first involves moving beyond traditional psychotherapy territory to include cultural, self-in-relationship, and interdisciplinary domains. The second concerns using more holistic and synergistic processes to coconstruct integrative theories and appr...

  5. Exploring the existential function of religion and supernatural agent beliefs among Christians, Muslims, atheists, and agnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kenneth E; Arndt, Jamie; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    2012-10-01

    Building on research suggesting one primary function of religion is the management of death awareness, the present research explored how supernatural beliefs are influenced by the awareness of death, for whom, and how individuals' extant beliefs determine which god(s), if any, are eligible to fulfill that function. In Study 1, death reminders had no effect among Atheists, but enhanced Christians' religiosity, belief in a higher power, and belief in God/Jesus and enhanced denial of Allah and Buddha. Similarly, death reminders increased Muslims' religiosity and belief in a higher power, and led to greater belief in Allah and denial of God/Jesus and Buddha (Study 2). Finally, in Study 3, death reminders motivated Agnostics to increase their religiosity, belief in a higher power, and their faith in God/Jesus, Buddha, and Allah. The studies tested three potential theoretical explanations and were consistent with terror management theory's worldview defense hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  6. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic sexology and treatment of vulvodynia through existential therapy and acceptance through touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav

    2004-08-04

    Sexual problems are found in four major forms: lack of libido, lack of arousal and potency, pain and discomfort during intercourse, and lack of orgasm. It is possible to work with a holistic approach to sexology in the clinic in order to find and repair the negative beliefs, repressions of love, and lack of purpose of life, which are the core to problems like arousal, potency, and pain with repression of gender and sexuality. It is important not to focus only on the gender and genitals in understanding the patient"s sexual problems. It is of equal importance not to neglect the body, its parts, and the feelings and emotions connected to them. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual problem and these feelings are often "held" by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. The patient with sexual problems can be helped both by healing existence in general and by discharging old painful emotions from the tissues. The later process of local healing is often facilitated by a simple technique: accepting contact via touch. This is a very simple technique, where the self-acceptance of the patient is to be promoted, for example, asking the female patient to put her hand on her stomach (uterus) or vulva, after which the holistic physician puts his hand supportively around hers. When done with care and after obtaining the necessary trust of the patient, this aspect of holding often releases the old negative emotions of shame bound to the touched areas. Afterwards, the emotional problems become a subject for conversational therapy and further holistic processing. Primary vulvodynia seems to be one of the diseases that can be cured after only a few successful sessions of working with acceptance through touch. The technique can be used as an isolated procedure or as a part of a pelvic examination. When touching the genitals with the intention of sexual healing, a written therapeutic contract with the patient is highly recommended and a strict ethical code is necessary to avoid malpractice. As about one woman in three suffers from sexual problems, many of which seemingly can be efficiently alleviated by the simple holistic techniques of "holding and processing", it is very important that the holistic physician is also trained to work in the sexual sphere in order to be able to support his patients fully.

  7. ГЕРМЕНЕВТИЧНЕ КОЛО НОРМАТИВНОЇ СТРУКТУРИ НАУКИ: МІЖ ПРОФЕСІЙНИМ ЕТОСОМ І ЕКЗИСТЕНЦІЙНИМ ДОСВІДОМ / Hermeneutic Circle of the Normative Structure of Science: Between the Professional Ethos and Existential Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Роман Ігор

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Роман И. Герменевтический круг нормативной структуры науки: между профессиональным етосом и экзистенциональным опытом В публикации раскрывается герменевтический смысл вопросов нормативной структуры науки в философии ХХ-ХХІ века. Методологические и этические нормы научного мышления рассматриваются с точки зрения герменевтической онтологии Г.Гадамера, где норма становится частью герменетического круга, важным элементом формирования передструктуры понимания. Показан герменевтический смысл философии науки Л.Витгенштейна, Т.Куна, Р.Мертона и других известных авторов. Особое внимание обращается на метафизические аспекты методологических и этических норм науки. Приводятся цитаты известных учёных, доказывающие религиозные истоки и интенции научного мировоззрения ХІХ – ХХ вв. Ключевые слова: герменевтический круг, метафизические аспекты методологии науки, предструктура понимания, интенции научного мировоззрения. Roman I. HERMENEUTIC CIRCLE OF THE NORMATIVE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE: BETWEEN THE PROFESSIONAL ETHOS AND EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCE The article presents hermeneutic analysis of the theoretical problems of the normative structure of science. Methodological and ethical norms

  8. O jogo existencial e a ritualização da morte El juego existential y la ritualización de la muerte The existential game and the ritualization of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseney Bellato

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexão aborda o medo da morte que acompanha o existir humano desde o seu alvorecer, sendo o ser humano o único ser vivo que sabe que vai morrer, o que o leva a antecipar esse medo, fazendo-o companheiro de toda sua vida. Para diminuir essa "angústia mortal" tem ele tido, ao longo dos tempos, que "negociar" com a morte, como maneira de enfrentamento desse medo. Essa compreensão se torna importante por sermos profissionais da enfermagem, que cuidamos, no nosso quotidiano de trabalho, do ser humano em processo de morrer.Esta reflexión discute el miedo de la muerte que acompaña el existir humano, siendo el ser humano el único ser vivo que sabe que se va a morir, lo que le lleva a anticipar ese miedo, haciéndolo un compañero en toda su vida. Para disminuir esa "angustia mortal", el hombre negocia con la muerte, como manera de enfrentar tal miedo. Esa comprensión se hace importante para los profesionales de la enfermería, que en su trabajo cotidiano cuidan del ser humano en el proceso de morir.This reflection approaches the fear of death that has accompanied human existence from its dawn. Humans are the only living beings who know about death, which makes them anticipate this fear by turning it into a companion for life. In order to reduce this "deadly anguish", mankind has had to negotiate with death over time, as a way of confronting this fear. This understanding becomes important since we are nursing professionals who, in our daily work, deliver care to the human being in the process of dying.

  9. Richard Avedon's "In the American West" and Jean-Paul Sartre: An Existential Approach to Art and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Richard Avedon's photographic exhibit "In the American West" both as a work of art and as an important link to contemporary philosophical thought, particularly that of Jean-Paul Sartre, through its depiction of the human condition. Notes that the exhibit used as a teaching resource engages students in questions concerning art…

  10. 'A dream, dreamed by reason... hollow like all dreams': French existentialism and its critique of abstract liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.; Vintges, K.

    2010-01-01

    The recent claiming of Simone de Beauvoir's legacy by French feminists for a policy of assimilation of Muslim women to Western models of self and society reduces the complexity and richness of Beauvoir's views in inacceptable ways. This article explores to what extent a politics of difference that

  11. From neurotic guilt to existential guilt as grief: the road to interiority, agency, and compassion through mourning. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaler-Adler, Susan

    2006-09-01

    This study proposes through a case illustration that psychoanalytic patients who can process both aggression and loss through a mourning process are able to free themselves from pathological self attack when the object relations work of attachment, psychic holding, and separation transpires. In the case of Helen discussed here, transformation through a "developmental mourning process" results in the evolution of powerful psychological capacities for interiority, self agency, and interpersonal compassion. This developmental mourning process is endowed with the assimilation and psychic fantasy symbolization of aggression.

  12. From neurotic guilt to existential guilt as grief: the road to interiority, agency, and compassion through mourning. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaler-Adler, Susan

    2006-12-01

    This study is a continuation of an article that was published in the previous issue of The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (Volume 66, Number 3, September 2006). The case of Helen is illustrated in terms of the analysand's developmental mourning, countertransference, interiority, antilibidinal ego, and transformation of aggression into self-agency.

  13. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and propo......INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers...

  14. How can an existential-phenomenological Bildung perspective throw light on the potentials and workings of Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    2018-01-01

    What is the purpose of higher learning and the ideals of the university? What traits characterize the habitus of the profession that the students enter after completing their studies? Including such Bildung-perspectives (Gadamer) and profession-perspectives (Bourdieu) makes it possible to come...... to a deeper understanding of the workings and potentials of Problem-Based Learning, and of the demands that this educational philosophy place on the institution, supervisor and student. Through case studies it is demonstrated that project work contributes to psychology students’ embodiment of the habitus...

  15. ON THE EDGE OF ARTIFICIAL LIFE AND EXISTENTIALISM: LEGITIMIZING ‘ROBO-CULTURE’ THROUGH ANARCHY, ORDER AND MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timuçin Buğra EDMAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human beings desire immortality as well as they desire the role of God. Having power and using this power over weak people is one of the oldest behaviors of humankind. One of the most important psychological causes of slave trade, almost as old as human history, is undoubtedly the desire of the human to play the immortal God role. We can see this demand in The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf and The Iliad, which are the earliest written works. We witness the search for the immortality and domination of heroes and anti-heroes in works such as Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus, I, Robot and The Robots of Dawn in contemporary literary period. In many of these quests, the man's desire for absolute domination and for immortality cause him to confront God with the desire to produce (or create something. On the other hand, in contemporary films such as Batman vs Superman: Dawn of Justice, which is adapted to the motion picture screen, it seems that when the man tries to go beyond himself due to his limitless desire of mastership, he confronts a god, Superman. In the science fiction works of our era, the tendency of man to dominate has begun to turn into chaotic robot-human relationship from old slavery-master relationship like in Asimov’s works. The Terminator or The Matrix series are the best examples for this. Therefore, the article will try to establish the theory of confusion and chaos that people encounter while playing the role of God. In doing so, this theory will be tried to be supported by Asimov's I, Robot, The Robots of Dawn, and Robot Visions novels in the light of some quotations. This article, of course, will also examine the tendency to claim everything in what man thinks he can benefit, rather than simply centering Asimov's works. Are these robots equipped with advanced artificial intelligence going to revolt against the people who produce themselves as Cain rebels against God? Consequently, this work will discuss the point where the relentless search for power and immortality of human beings can reach in view of Asimov's selected novels and definitions.

  16. Existential concerns and narrative techniques in the novels of Ford Madox Ford, Virginia Wools and Aldous Huxley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojka Verčko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of the close relationship between the nexistential concem and the narrative techniques used by English writers Ford Madox Ford, Virginia Woolf and Aldous Huxley to present the general human condition. The selected authors had introduced narrative techniques that influenced the entire development of the modern  novel and that are stili highly  relevant and widely used in the contemporary novel, including the Slovene modern novel.

  17. A little lady called Pandora: an exploration of philosophical traditions of humanism and existentialism in nursing ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoake, D D

    1998-07-01

    This article battles its way through the contemporary philosophical assumptions regarding interactions with traumatized young people. That is, interaction by nurses as they attempt to provide 'a shoulder to cry on', 'someone to trust' or just simply 'a hand to hold'. The young people that are nursed in the hospital setting have experienced illness, surgery and recovery to name just a few, but when confronted with being separated from their families, being frightened and needing a friend the role of nursing takes on many different facets. The child (Pandora) a traumatized child taken from home to a new strange place, is warmly accepted by carers who seem to share a set of beliefs and assumptions about relationships and interaction. This article aims to explore the effects humanist and existentialist philosophy has had in guiding current nursing practice using extracts from his own practice and observations.

  18. The meaning of suffering in drug addiction and recovery from the perspective of existentialism, Buddhism and the 12-Step program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the current article was to examine the meaning of suffering in drug addiction and in the recovery process. Negative emotions may cause primary suffering that can drive an individual toward substance abuse. At the same time, drugs only provide temporary relief, and over time, the pathological effects of the addiction worsen causing secondary suffering, which is a motivation for treatment. The 12-Step program offers a practical way to cope with suffering through a process of surrender. The act of surrender sets in motion a conversion experience, which involves a self-change including reorganization of one's identity and meaning in life. This article is another step toward understanding one of the several factors that contribute to the addict's motivation for treatment. This knowledge may be helpful for tailoring treatment that addresses suffering as a factor that initiates treatment motivation and, in turn, treatment success.

  19. Social, psychological and existential well-being in patients with glioma and their caregivers: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavers, Debbie; Hacking, Belinda; Erridge, Sara E; Kendall, Marilyn; Morris, Paul G; Murray, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    .... We interviewed patients and their caregivers at key stages of the illness: before receiving a formal diagnosis, at the start of initial treatment, after initial treatment was completed and at six months' follow-up...

  20. EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS AND FATHERS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CANCER: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL-EXISTENTIAL HEIDEGGERIAN APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Michel dos Santos Benedetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación basada en la fenomenología existencial heideggeriana que tuvo por objetivo comprender las vivencias de padres/madres de niño y adolescentes con cáncer. Participaron 13 padres de ocho pacientes, atendidos por una asociación de ayuda del noroeste de Paraná, entre diciembre/2011 y marzo/2012, cuando fueron encuestados con la pregunta: ¿Cómo ha sido para usted vivenciar la experiencia de tener un hijo con cáncer? Del análisis surgieron tres temáticas: experiencia de estar presente y el estar ausente del ente querido; compartiendo la tristeza existencial del hijo y aprendiendo con el hijo enfermo. Se evidenció que esos padres experimentan imprevistas transformaciones en el cotidiano desencadenando incertidumbre, miedos y angustias. Sin embargo, la misma angustia que los hace detenerse delante del mundo, los hará comprender la condición existencial del hijo y de sí mismos. Se hace imprescindible que los profesionales, como la enfermería, transpongamos el cuidado técnico-científico y busquemos comprender sus necesidades existenciales con el objetivo de ofrecer un cuidado integral y humanizado.

  1. Peace of mind and sense of purpose as core existential issues among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer W; Wolfe, Joanne; Cook, E Francis; Grier, Holcombe E; Cleary, Paul D; Weeks, Jane C

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate issues experienced by parents of children with cancer and factors related to parents' ability to find peace of mind. Cross-sectional survey. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. One hundred ninety-four parents of children with cancer (response rate, 70%) in the first year of cancer treatment. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being sense of meaning subscale. Principal components analysis of Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being sense of meaning subscale responses identified 2 distinct constructs, peace of mind (Cronbach alpha = .83) and sense of purpose (Cronbach alpha = .71). Scores ranged from 1 to 5, with 5 representing the strongest sense of peace or purpose. One hundred forty-seven of 181 parents (81%) scored 4 or higher for questions related to sense of purpose (mean [SD] score, 4.4 [0.6]). Only 44 of 185 parents (24%) had scores in the same range for peace of mind (mean [SD] score, 3.2 [0.9]) (P peace of mind scores when they also reported that they trusted the oncologist's judgment (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-30.02), that the oncologist had disclosed detailed prognostic information (OR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.14-3.70), and that the oncologist had provided high-quality information about the cancer (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.11-5.79). Peace of mind was not associated with prognosis (OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41-1.32) or time since diagnosis (OR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.995-1.003). Physicians may be able to facilitate formulation of peace of mind by giving parents high-quality medical information, including prognostic information, and facilitating parents' trust.

  2. Filozofia egzystencjalna w ujęciu Miguela de Unamuno (THE EXISTENTIAL PHILOSOPHY ACCORDING TO MIGUEL DE UNAMUNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Leszczyna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present the philosophy of Miguel de Unamuno, especially his conception of human life. The author of the article focuses mainly on the characteristics and presentation of the attributes of the human existence. The title of Unamuno's most famous work, Del Sentimiento Trágico de la Vida (The Tragic Sense of Life, refers to the human condition of the desire for immortality when faced with the certainty of death. According to Unamuno this desire to live forever is an irrational desire, but it is this desire that makes us human. Thus there is a conflict between our perpetual desire for immortality and our reason - which contradicts it; out of this conflict comes the desire to believe in God, which reason cannot confirm.

  3. Pedagogical mediation in youth and adult education: existential needs and the dialogue as a foundation of education practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA REGINA SANCEVERINO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se constituye en la investigación de las circunstancias y condiciones necesarias para que se procesen mediaciones en situaciones de enseñanza y se potencie para el estudiante el aprendizaje del contenido que responda de la forma más adecuada a la complejidad de la educación de jóvenes y adultos (EJA, además de analizar cómo tales mediaciones crean condiciones para que se desarrolle el pensamiento crítico de los estudiantes y la praxis educativa en esta modalidad de enseñanza. Se trata de un recorte de investigación de doctorado, de abordaje cualitativo, en el que se desarrolla una revisión teórica, articulada por observaciones empíricas en una escuela de EJA de enseñanza primaria, en Santa Catarina, Brasil. Análisis e interpretación de los datos se recuperan perspectiva hermenéutico-dialéctico. Los resultados muestran que la EJA es un modo complejo y, en consecuencia, necesita una mediación que está recubierto con la intencionalidad. Así que no es una acción pedagógica, es una acción pedagógica crítica, razonada, planificada, intencional, en la que el maestro(a y alumno(a son objeto de aprendizaje.

  4. Do People Who Believe in God Report More Meaning in Their Lives? The Existential Effects of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranney, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    I conduct the first large-N study explicitly exploring the association between belief in God and sense of purpose in life. This relationship, while often discussed informally, has received little empirical attention. Here I use the General Social Survey to investigate how form of and confidence in belief in God is related to sense of purpose in life, as measured by a Likert item level of agreement with the statement "In my opinion, life does not serve any purpose." Using logistic regression analysis, I find that those who indicate that they are confident in God's existence report a higher sense of purpose compared to nonbelievers, believers in a higher power, and those who believe but occasionally doubt.

  5. Data from Paper ‘Embodied Terror Management: Interpersonal Touch Alleviates Existential Concerns among Individuals with Low Self-esteem’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Tjew-A-Sin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes data from the four studies reported in our 'Embodied terror management' paper. The data was collected at either the campus or at the psychology lab at the VU University Amsterdam in 2011/2012 among Dutch-speaking student samples. The dataset consists of the measures described in the paper. The data can be used for replication purposes, meta-analyses, and exploratory analyses, as well as cross-cultural comparisons of mortality salience effects. The authors also welcome collaborative research based on re-analyses of the data.

  6. Being present in the face of existential threat: The role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Christopher P; Brown, Kirk Warren; Kashdan, Todd B; Cozzolino, Philip J; Breen, William E; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Terror management theory posits that people tend to respond defensively to reminders of death, including worldview defense, self-esteem striving, and suppression of death thoughts. Seven experiments examined whether trait mindfulness-a disposition characterized by receptive attention to present experience-reduced defensive responses to mortality salience (MS). Under MS, less mindful individuals showed higher worldview defense (Studies 1-3) and self-esteem striving (Study 5), yet more mindful individuals did not defend a constellation of values theoretically associated with mindfulness (Study 4). To explain these findings through proximal defense processes, Study 6 showed that more mindful individuals wrote about their death for a longer period of time, which partially mediated the inverse association between trait mindfulness and worldview defense. Study 7 demonstrated that trait mindfulness predicted less suppression of death thoughts immediately following MS. The discussion highlights the relevance of mindfulness to theories that emphasize the nature of conscious processing in understanding responses to threat.

  7. The Subject-Object-Relationship in Karl Jaspers' Periechontology - A Contribution to an Education for Openness, Tolerance and Existential Realization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferdinand Röhr

    2016-01-01

    .... In Karl Jaspers' later philosophy, the Periechontology, we find reflections that lead to the limits of the subject-object-division, demonstrating that an absolute and final knowing of Being is impossible...

  8. The power of consoling presence - hospice nurses' lived experience with spiritual and existential care for the dying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tornøe, Kirsten A; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Sørlie, Venke

    2014-01-01

    Being with dying people is an integral part of nursing, yet many nurses feel unprepared to accompany people through the process of dying, reporting a lack of skills in psychosocial and spiritual care...

  9. Existentialism and Gender Equality Interpretation in the «Second Sex» by s. De Beauvoir Экзистенциализм и интерпретация гендерного равенства во «Втором поле» С. де Бовуар Екзистенціалізм та інтерпретація гендерної рівності у «Другій статі» С. де Бовуар

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Vlasova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the contradictory interrelation between existentialism and feminism in the «Second Sex» by S. de Beauvoir as the epoch-making book in the history of feminism.В статье исследуются противоречия взаимодействия экзистенциализма и феминизма во «Втором поле» С. де Бовуар как эпохальной вехе в истории феминизма.У статті проаналізовано суперечності взаємодії екзистенціалізму та фемінізму в епохальній для історії фемінізму «Другій статі» С. де Бовуар.

  10. Benjamin Fondane notebooks. Benjamin Fondane facing the History. About the Existential Monday. The Poem time, no. 14/2011, Editions Kedem, Tel Aviv, 243 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranţa Sofia MILANCOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Luna august reprezintă, pentru membrii sau colaboratorii Socièté d’Etudes Benjamin Fondane, momentul întâlnirii ştiinţifice anuale sub genericul Rencontres de Peyresq. Fiecare astfel de reuniune este succedată de apariţia unui volum critic realizat cu sprijinul Centre National du Livre – France. Este vorba despre seria deja cunoscutelor, în bibliografia de specialitate, Cahiers Benjamin Fondane.Volumul recent apărut poartă titlul Benjamin Fondane devant l’Histoire. Autour du Lundi existentiel. Au temps du Poème şi este cel de al paisprezecelea număr din seria caietelor.În îngrijirea energicei şi competentei preşedinte a Société d’Etudes Benjamin Fondane, prof. dr. Monique Jutrin, volumul propune spre lectură cercetătorilor de specialitate un corpus de eseuri critice grupate pe secţiuni: editorial, filosofie, poezie, opera în limba română a lui Benjamin Fundoianu, bibliografie de specialitate etc.

  11. 'I is another': Humanistic conception of identity and existential options in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Radoje V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting and examining Joyce's first novel entitled A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man which introduces us to the life and artistry of Joyce himself. In addition to this, the special emphasis will be placed on the intellectual growth of the fictional counterpart of Joyce himself, Stephen Dedalus who, for the sake of embracing his true vocation as an artist guided by the unflinch­ing devotion to both truth and beauty, exiles himself from the stifling conventionality of his homeland - Ireland. Envisioning the culture of Ireland as imbued with a series of 'nets' embodied in nationality, church, and family which restrain the initial stimulus of his soul, Joyce's alter ego refuses to bow down before the authority of any institution other than the authority of his art. Much of this paper has been inspired by the work of humanist philosopher Erich Fromm, whose ideas have prompted me to view Joyce in the light of the great Humanist tradition focusing on man's innate capability of creating valid ethical criteria he/she is to live by.

  12. Preparation to the question of the sense of being in Martin Heidegger's thought : an introduction to the 'existential analytic' of Dasein: Sein und Zeit - Was ist Metaphysik? - Rektoratsrede

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esengrini, Stefano Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare the field for an analysis of the role played by Sein und Zeit inside Heidegger's pathway of thinking, it proves decisive to show the theoretical horizon from which this first fundamental work of his takes its start. That is why, on the basis of Heidegger's hypothesis that the

  13. Křesťanská symbolika v románu Lhář M. A. Hansena jako díle křesťanského existencialismu

    OpenAIRE

    Slouková, Radka

    2011-01-01

    The Liar is one of the Danish writer Martin A. Hansen's best known and popular novels. The Liar is influenced by existentialism, one can call it a work of Christian existentialism. In my thesis I demonstrate which main features of Christian existentialism are present in the novel. In the first part I describe existentialism as philosophy. Existentialism came from France to Denmark. It is a philosophy that focuses on the concrete individual. People must create their own existentence by accepti...

  14. “Narcissism” and the Creation of Soulful Space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    narcissism'. Using both the psychoanalytic tradition and the literary myth of Narcissus as 'touchstones', it unfolds a view of existential dilemmas and possibilities that are announced by this discourse. As such, it seeks to clarify the existential task.

  15. Jamie May's Success and Bill Houston's Failure Search for Meaning of Life in Denis Johnson's Angel

    OpenAIRE

    Indreswari, Intan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the meaning life of Bill Houston and Jamie May. In order to complete this paper, the writer used library research to collect the material. The writer uses a book written by Viktor Frankl about logotherapy to analyze the novel. Logotherapy consists of existential problems and the way to find the meaning of life. Existential problems fall into existential frustration, existential vacuum and noogenic neuroses. Projection and de-reflection are a therapy ...

  16. Eksistensiale verstaan van die Ou Testament: Die teologiese arbeid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existential understanding of the Old Testament: The theological work of Antonius HJ Gunneweg. Gunneweg applies Bultmann's concept of existential understanding to the Old Testament. Existential interpretation means that the text must be laid out in terms of the possibilities of the human existence. The author shows how ...

  17. Tarih Felsefesi Alanında Bir İnceleme: Varoluş Felsefesi ve Tarih Anlayışı/A Researching in the Domain of Philosophy of the History: The Existentialism and the History Conception

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıoğlu, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    Varoluş felsefesi, insanın varoluşunu irdeleyen, insanın dünya ve evren içindeki yerini sorgulayan bir felsefedir. Bu felsefe ile varoluşçu filozofların insanın yaşamdaki seçişi, kim olduğu, ne olmaya çalıştığı, kendini gerçekleştirmesi gibi konuları nasıl ele aldıklarını inceledik. Ayrıca Varoluşçu filozofların Tarih anlayışlarını ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Anahtar Kelimeler: Varoluş felsefesi, insan, özgürlük, tanrı, tarih.Abstract The Philosophy of Existence is a philosophy that is searching...

  18. A pessoa com diabete: do enfoque terapêutico ao existencial La persona con diabetes: del enfoque terapéutico al existencial The person with diabetes: from a therapeutic to an existential focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Diaz Oviedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo diante da inquietação com a pessoa com Diabetes, as implicações da doença em sua vida;. fundamentalmente, buscando um deslocamento da doença sob a ótica de um fato para a de um fenômeno, que requer desvelamentos. Conduzido sob o referencial da investigação fenomenológica, com vistas à apreensão da essência do significado de conviver com a doença. O estudo foi realizado obtendo depoimentos de pessoas que experienciam a doença. O contexto da investigação foi uma Instituição de Saúde, localizada na cidade de San Luis Potosí, no México. A análise dos dados possibilitou a construção de categorias temáticas, que revelam facetas importantes do existir dessas pessoas. Abriu perspectivas para um olhar para além da doença, contemplando a pessoa diabética em sua situcionalidade. E assim norteando alguns caminhos para políticas de assistência.Delante de la inquietud con la persona con Diabetes, de las implicaciones de la enfermedad en su vida y, fundamentalmente, buscando comprender la enfermedad como un fenómeno, ya que hasta ahora ha sido observada como un hecho, se realizó este estudio, tratando de obtener de revelaciones la información que ayuden a alcanzar el objetivo pretendido. Conducido bajo el marco de la investigación fenomenológica, con el objetivo de aprehender la esencia del significado de convivir con la enfermedad, el estudio fue realizado obteniendo declaraciones de personas que experimentan la enfermedad. El contexto de la investigación fue una Institución de Salud, localizada en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, en México. El análisis de los datos posibilitó construir categorías temáticas que revelaron facetas importantes de la existencia de esas personas, abriendo perspectivas para observar más allá de la enfermedad, contemplando a la persona diabética en su situación integral, mostrando, así, algunos caminos para la creación de políticas de asistencia.This study was motivated by the aspects lived by people with diabetes and the implications the disease have on their lives. In essence, this study was performed with the purpose of changing the disease from its position of a fact to the position of a phenomenon that needs further clarification. Phenomenology was the framework used in this investigation, with a view to undertand the meaning of living with diabetes. The study location was a health institution in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, where people with diabetes were interviewed and provided statements about their experience. Data analysis permitted the construction of thematic categories, which revealed important facets regarding these people's existence. The study provided new perspectives for looking beyond the disease, and seeing the person with diabetes within their situational context, thus, showing some paths for health care policies.

  19. Tuhan dalam Perdebatan Eksistensialisme

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    Chafid Wahyudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of existentialism pays great attention to the fate of human beings as individualist embodiments. This also becomes a manifestation of human’s freedom which receives less attention due to its exclusion under the strong influence of Hegel’s doctrine essentialist philosophy or system of thought that emphasizes collectivity. The emergence of existentialism itself in turn propagates into the polemical invention of humans upon their God. There are two conceptions of the divine discourses on existentialism, namely the theistic existentialism and the atheistic one. Theistic existentialism tries to accept God and consider Him not to rob humans’ freedom because God is understood individually, not as a self-enclosed system. On the contrary, atheistic existentialism actually rebels against God’s intervention in humans’ freedom as well as eliminates the existence of God and brings the absolute freedom of human beings themselves, which in turn this leads to humans’ creative activity.

  20. With Doug: an Eastern Orthodox--Gestalt framework for pastoral psychotherapy in the armed forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David

    2013-01-01

    In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.

  1. Coaching Behaviors and Athlete Motivation: Female Softball Athletes’ Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megan M. Buning; Melissa A. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    ...’ perspectives of head coach behaviors that influenced competence and motivation. Content analysis followed existential phenomenological interpretation methods and revealed three primary themes that influenced motivation: athletes...

  2. Education of Coexistence as Technē Tou Biou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with education of coexistence as training of life art (technē tou biou. The major thesis is the following: our existence has been educated in the life environment together with other agents of life world (Lebenswelt, while the latter are educated in the background of our existential project to be realized during our life. This major thesis presupposes the minor ones developed in the article: existential education means the change of the roles between the agents of life enwironment; existential education covers an ironic relationship between the teacher and a disciple; the teacher educates an unique combination of the disciple’s charachteristics to be nourished in his (her existential perspective instead of forcing the equal way for everybody; every community has been educated while an individual changes life environment by realization of his (her existential utopia; education is a kind of existential tradition’s transfer through the new communicative channels; philosophy of education based on existential phenomenology stresses the aspects of responsible coexistence in the life-world to be created; education is the training of our life’s art as responsible creation inseparable from becoming of life-world as the environment of our coexistence; education deals with a miracle of breaking educational circle while a disciple excels the teacher and changes the educational environment. By analysing the problems of existential education the author uses the approaches of both existential phenomenology and cultural regionalistics. 

  3. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  4. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  5. JEAN PAUL SARTRE AND THE CONCEPT OF DETERMINISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... of these theorists include; Sigmund Freud,. Konrad Lorenz, B.F. Skinner and Karl Marx to mention but a few. Finally, the paper shall discuss the contributions of Jean Paul Sartre's existentialism to the growth of knowledge. Elements of Determinism in Jean Paul. Sartre's Existentialism. In one sense, Jean ...

  6. Entreprenörskap som existentiell handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupferberg, Feiwel

    2002-01-01

    populations. The existential aspects of entepreneurship are only partially taken int account by the new economic sociology, emphasizing the value of socializing for its own sake. More generally a focus upon the existential aspects of entrepreneurial action challenges the classical sociological vies of order...

  7. Adolescents\\' experience of a parental traumatic brain injury | Harris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the experiences of four adolescents, each living with a parent who has sustained a traumatic brain injury, against the theoretical backdrop of existential-phenomenological psychology. In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed within the context of the existential phenomenology, in an attempt to ...

  8. Thinking, Relating and Choosing: Resolving the issue of Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Which is worse: Doing evil or being evil? If we are free to define ourselves through our choices, as existentialism posits, then the latter is worse. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of the difference between religious (group) ethics and the ethics of a person of faith that embraces individuals with an existential ...

  9. The Wound that Connects: A Consideration of “Narcissism” and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    narcissism'. Using both the psychoanalytic tradition and the literary myth of Narcissus as 'touchstones', it unfolds a view of existential dilemmas and possibilities that are announced by this discourse. As such, it seeks to clarify the existential task of ...

  10. The Sartre-Heidegger Controversy on Humanism and the Concept of Man in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Paul Sartre claims in his 1945 lecture "Existentialism is a Humanism" that there are two kinds of existentialism: that of Christians like Karl Jaspers, and atheistic like Martin Heidegger. Sartre's "spiritual master" Heidegger had no problem with Sartre defining him as an atheist, but he had serious problems with Sartre's…

  11. Art Therapy in Hospice: A Catalyst for Insight and Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrai, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    The reach of art therapy in assisting a hospice patient in confronting existential issues at the end of life is illustrated in this article with a case that took place over the course of 22 semiweekly sessions. Painting with an art therapist allowed the patient to shift from a state of anxiety and existential dread to a more accepting, fluid…

  12. Is Gestalt Therapy a Humanistic Form of Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantino, Len

    1977-01-01

    Believes the therapeutic situation that offers the greatest awareness with the least amount of dehumanization is a synthesis of the gestalt and the existential humanistic (EH) orientations. Considers the relationship and possible synthesis of the existential and gestalt positions. (Author/RK)

  13. Factorial Structure of the Existence Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Tomic, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Existential meaning in life is becoming an increasingly important measure of personal assessment. In search of a suitable instrument to measure existential meaning, the authors reviewed several measures. Eventually, they selected the Existence Scale (ES), doing so on theoretical grounds. The ES is a

  14. Poetry and Narrative as Qualitative Data: Explorations into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    This article explores existential principles through autoethnographic poetry and narrative reflections. The use of poetry and narrative as tools in qualitative research is explored. Poetry and narratives are shown to be valuable tools for presenting people's lived experiences of complex existential principles and processes.

  15. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    dramatic universe of existentialism created by some playwrights who have not been given scholarly attention. The study shall therefore undertake a dialectical consideration of the concept of waiting and time in Agoro's Something to die For an existential drama and raise new judgment in the appreciation of waiting and time ...

  16. Demoralization in opioid dependent patients : a comparative study with cancer patients and community subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Kissane, D.W.; Geessink, R.J.; Velden, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study existential distress or demoralization expressed as meaninglessness and helplessness in opioid dependent patients. xxx Method: Comparison of existential distress between opioid dependent patients (n=131), patients with advanced cancer (n=100) and a community based sample without severe

  17. Modernity in Two Great American Writers' Vision: Ernest Miller Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshmiri, Fahimeh; Darzikola, Shahla Sorkhabi

    2016-01-01

    Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, American memorable novelists have had philosophic ideas about modernity. In fact their idea about existential interests of American, and the effects of American system on society, is mirrored in their creative works. All through his early works, Fitzgerald echoes the existential center of his era. Obviously,…

  18. Menneskelige grundtræk i sygeplejen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth; Harder, Ingegerd; Haahr, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Title: Existentials in nursing What does it mean to be human? What constitute human existentials? These are essential questions in clinical nursing where caring is primary and caring for the whole human being is seen as an ethical ideal. The aim of this paper is, from a phenomenological perspective......, to get a deeper understanding of human existentials, in other words characteristics common to all human beings. Inspired by van Manen and others, we describe seven human existentials, space, body, time, relations, ambience, historicity/memory and mortality. We illuminate the meaning of these existentials...... with examples from phenomenological research and discuss their importance to clinical nursing. The discussion thus extends ‘van Manen’s four existentials’ space, body, time and relations that have gained increasing popularity in nursing research and nursing education. We conclude by proposing that a more human...

  19. Presencia y disposición de las Disputationes Metaphysicae de Francisco Suárez en el proyecto ontológico-existenciario de Martin Heidegger = Presence and disposition of Francisco Suárez’s disputationes metaphysicae in the ontological-existential project of Martin Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Ángel Poncela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro propósito se cifra en esta ocasión, en mostrar los motivos filosóficos que condujeron al Martin Heidegger a introducir la metafísica suareciana en la configuración de su ontología existenciaria. Tomaremos como hilo conductor la historia del ser y más en concreto, la de su olvido en favor del ente y que Heidegger desarrolló en diferentes escritos como un momento negativo, fundamental y previo a la exposición de su concepción de la Metafísica. En este relato dejaremos anotado, la función capital que para el proyecto heideggeriano de reinterpetación de la Metafísica desempeñó, la idea de la metafísica griega y en particular de la aristotélica alcanzada por el pensador alemán. Abordaremos este problema con cierta extensión pues sostenemos que el concepto de la metafísica suareciana manejado por Heidegger está determinado por su comprensión de la Metafísica de Aristóteles. Y que se resume en su conocida interpretación onto-teológica. En último término, el peso de la reflexión heideggeriana sobre la metafísica de Suárez, recae sobre el concepto de existencia y su modo de aprehensión que es comprendido como un antecedente moderno e imperfecto del Dasein como vía de acceso al Ser

  20. Krytyka nowoczesnych stosunków społecznych jako podstawa ponowoczesnej sztuki życia – egzystencjalny wymiar dzieła Michela Foucault [The Critique of Modern Social Relations as the Foundation of the Postmodern Art of Life – the Existential Dimension of the Work of Michel Foucault

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markus Lipowicz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to reveal the essential connection of MichelFoucault’s critical attitude regarding social relationships with the formation of thepostmodern ethos of making out of the human life an artwork...

  1. Krytyka nowoczesnych stosunków społecznych jako podstawa ponowoczesnej sztuki życia – egzystencjalny wymiar dzieła Michela Foucault [The Critique of Modern Social Relations as the Foundation of the Postmodern Art of Life – the Existential Dimension of the Work of Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lipowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to reveal the essential connection of MichelFoucault’s critical attitude regarding social relationships with the formation of thepostmodern ethos of making out of the human life an artwork. It will be shown thatthe main object of Foucault’s critique are the relations of power and knowledge inthe Christian priesthood and their modern transformation in nonreligious institutions.From this point of view, mainly based on the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche,the Christian ethics occur to be an accumulation of techniques of disciplinizationand normalization. This attitude towards Christianity and modernity leads to thepostmodern ethos of making out of life an artwork. This notion is mainly based onthe antique Greek and Roman philosophy, where instead of obeying to universalethical principles the human being struggled to be his own master. Therefore thepostmodern existence tries to be beyond all traditional boundaries, which resultsin the danger of neglecting the historical fact, that Christianity was and still is animportant institution of the Western Civilization.

  2. Existential phenomenology as a possibility to understand pregnancy experiences in teenagers La fenomenologia existencial como posibilidad de comprensión de las vivencias del embarazo en adolescentes A fenomenologia existencial como possibilidade de compreensão das vivências da gravidez em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Bessa Jorge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research had as objective to comprehend the sense of pregnancy to the teenager pregnant trying to get the way of being and having be pregnant. It was done four in-deep interviews, using the core question: How do you feel being pregnant? The speeches and their meanings were analysed by the light of Heidegger's Phenomenology. In getting closer to the phenomena we get the way impersonal and not authentic of teenagers, the co-presence in relation to the boyfriend and family. They shown, still the dread by the child and by his health, worrying with the future that around the care, due they deem themselves not to have the ability to this, which causes the anguish and anxiety of daily life, in the new way of being. The comprehension of this phenomena is fundamental in the care to the teenager pregnant to a full and humanized action.La investigación ha tenido como objetivo comprender el sentido del embarazo para la adolescente embarazada, intentando captar el "modo-de-ser" y su nuevo "siendo-en el-mundo-estando-embarazada". Han sido realizadas cuatro entrevistas en profundidad, utilizando la cuestión que nos guia: ¿Cómo es para ti estar embarzada? Los discursos y sus significados han sido analizados a la luz de la Fenomenología heideggeriana. Ha quedado demostrado además el temor por el hijo y por la salud del mismo, y la preocupación con el futuro que involucra el cuidar, justamente porque juzgan que no poseen habilidades para ello. Eso favorece la angustia y la ansiedad propias de su cotidiano, en el nuevo-modo-de-ser de la presencia. La comprensión de este fenómeno es fundamental en el cuidado de la adolescente embarazada, para lograr una acción integral y humanizada en el control y la promoción de la salud del binomio madre-hijo.A pesquisa teve como objetivo compreender o sentido da gravidez, para a adolescente grávida, tentando captar o modo-de-ser e seu novo-sendo-no-mundo-estando-grávida. Foram realizadas quatro entrevistas em profundidade, utilizando-se a questão norteadora: como é para você estar grávida? Os discursos e seus significados foram analisados à luz da fenomenologia heideggeriana. Na aproximação com o fenômeno, captou-se o modo impessoal e inautêntico das adolescentes, a co-presença na relação com o namorado e com a família, influenciando as decisões sobre a gravidez. Ficou demonstrado, ainda, o temor pelo filho e pela saúde dele, a preocupação com os cuidados e o futuro que circunda o cuidar por julgarem não possuir habilidade para tal, o que gera a angústia e a ansiedade próprias da cotidianidade no novo-modo-de-ser-da-presença. A compreensão desse fenômeno é fundamental no cuidado à adolescente grávida para uma ação integral e humanizada, no controle e na promoção da saúde do binômio mãe-filho.

  3. THE EXISTENTIAL ROBINSONNADE OF FRANKENSTEIN / ЕКЗИСТЕНЦІЙНА РОБІНЗОНАДА ФРАНКЕНШТЕЙНА

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Світлана БРОНСЬКИХ

    2016-01-01

    ... состояния обреченного на бессмертие и лишенного шанса на спасение души индивидуума. Это бессмертный персонаж в романах типа «Франкенштейн». Мифологические концепции...

  4. A liberdade humana e as suas diferentes situações existenciais: a infância, o sono, a demência e a ignorância no pensamento de Luis de Molina (1535-1600 = Human freedom and its different existential situations: infancy, sleep, insanity and ignorance according to Luis de Molina(1535-1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebalde, João Carlos Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, pretende-se mostrar como o jesuíta Luis de Molina define a liberdade humana e a pensa em diferentes situações existenciais, nomeadamente a infância, o sono, a demência e a ignorância, na obra Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione et reprobatione (1588. Discute-se também a importância da educação, da medicina e da religião no desenvolvimento do ser humano, no pensamento de Molina

  5. Understanding the will to live in patients nearing death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; McClement, Susan; Harlos, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This study examined concurrent influences on the will to live in 189 patients with end-stage cancer The authors found significant correlations between the will to live and existential, psychological, social, and, to a lesser degree, physical sources of distress. Existential variables proved to have the most influence, with hopelessness, burden to others, and dignity entering into the final model. Health care providers must learn to appreciate the importance of existential issues and their ability to influence the will to live among patients nearing death.

  6. Eksistensiale verstaan van die Ou Testament: Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Boshoff

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Existential understanding of the Old Testament: The theological work of Antonius HJ Gunneweg Gunneweg applies Bultmann's concept of existential understanding to the Old Testament. Existential interpretation means that the text must be laid out in terms of the possibilities of the human existence. The author shows how Gunneweg worked it out under the following headings: Israel; The beginning; Moses; One kingdom or two kingdoms; Paul; Sola scriptura instead of salvation history; Word. The result is that Gunneweg comes to a unique understanding of the relationship between the Old and New Testaments.

  7. Prayer and meditation among Danish first time mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMothers’ existential dimensions in the transition to motherhood have not been described thoroughly. They might experience disruption and new perspectives in existential ways and this may especially be the case in preterm birth. The aim of this study was twofold. First we investigated...... the existential dimension of motherhood transition in a secularized context, through practices of prayer and meditation. Second we described the relationship between time of birth (term/preterm) and the prayer/meditation practices of the mothers.MethodsData were gathered from a nationwide questionnaire survey...

  8. The healing of life within the HIV and AIDS pandemic: Towards a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-05

    Feb 5, 2013 ... conditions create and sustain crisis situations for poor and vulnerable ... Existential as well as psychological challenges for people living with HIV and ... the psychosocial and emotional strain in volunteers and staff caring for ...

  9. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    a case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  10. Hard or Easy? Difficulty of Entrepreneurial Startups in 107 Climato-Economic Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Janssen, Onne; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    Driven by existential needs for thermal comfort, nutrition, and health, human populations create cultural adaptations to environmental conditions. Entrepreneurs starting new businesses in more threatening or more challenging environments may be a case in point. In a secondary analysis of

  11. Modern Internet-resources in the practice of lifelong informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ruliene Lyubov Nimazhapovna

    2015-01-01

    The publication examines the existential function of education. Informal learning is offered as the practice of continuous education. An overview of Internet resources as tools for informal learning are presented.

  12. Individualism and memory: Robert Frost and Tanure Ojaide | Orhero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1913) and Tanure Ojaide's The Beauty I have seen (2010). The paper adopts existentialism as a critical approach. Previous studies on these poets, especially Ojaide, have neglected the individualistic nature of their poetry and stereotyped the ...

  13. Van Calvinisme tot eksistensialisme1: ’n teologiese gesprek met André P. Brink met verwysing na sy memoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From Calvinism to existentialism: a theological discussion with André P. Brink with reference to his memoirs In this article the author attempts to develop a theological discussion with the well-known and world-famous writer André P. Brink, on the topics of Calvinism and existentialism. The question at stake is why Brink, who grew up in a South African Calvinist milieu, which was reinforced by his studies at the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, turned his back on Calvinism and wholeheartedly embraced existentialism during his study in Paris. Why was Potchefstroom exchanged for Paris? Why was Christ replaced by Camus? Did Brink thoroughly compare Calvinism with existentialism or was his decision taken precipitately? This is the fascinating question which the author tries to unravel in this investigation.

  14. Van Calvinisme tot eksistensialisme1: ’n teologiese gesprek met André P. Brink met verwysing na sy memoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From Calvinism to existentialism: a theological discussion with André P. Brink with reference to his memoirsIn this article the author attempts to develop a theological discussion with the well-known and world-famous writer André P. Brink, on the topics of Calvinism and existentialism. The question at stake is why Brink, who grew up in a South African Calvinist milieu, which was reinforced by his studies at the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, turned his back on Calvinism and wholeheartedly embraced existentialism during his study in Paris. Why was Potchefstroom exchanged for Paris? Why was Christ replaced by Camus? Did Brink thoroughly compare Calvinism with existentialism or was his decision taken precipitately? This is the fascinating question which the author tries to unravel in this investigation.

  15. Securitisation: The case of post-9/11 United States Africa policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): weak states were believed to pose an existential threat to the US. American aid to Africa consequently more than tripled in the years following 9/11. Using the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory, we investigate the interaction between ...

  16. Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper will in an overall and outlining way describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimensions of entrepreneurship teaching....

  17. Heidegger and Hegel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    The paper identifies a structural isomorphism between Hegel's and Heidegger's thinking of historicity. Hegel's idealist principle of subjectivity is replaced by Heidegger's existential concept of facticity, transforming the discourse of a Phenomenology of Spirit into a Hermeneutic of Facticity...

  18. Generalizing Refinement Operators to Learn Prenex Conjunctive Normal Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); W. van Laer; J. Ramon; L. de Raedt

    2000-01-01

    textabstractInductive Logic Programming considers almost exclusively universally quantied theories. To add expressiveness, prenex conjunctive normal forms (PCNF) with existential variables should also be considered. ILP mostly uses learning with refinement operators. To extend refinement operators

  19. A Psychological View of Spirituality and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jeffrey; Hunter, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Using Howard Gardner's concept of existential intelligence along with others such as Jerome Bruner, explores the psychology of spirituality and leadership. Describes how famous film director uses meditation in his work. Draws implications for educational leadership. (PKP)

  20. Undecidability of Weak Bisimilarity for PA-Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the problem whether two PA-processes are weakly bisimilar is undecidable. We combine several proof techniques to provide a reduction from Post's correspondence problem to our problem: existential quantification technique, masking technique and deadlock elimination technique....