Sørensen, Anders Dræby
of the outcome of psychotherapy through qualitative research. The precise aim is to draw attention to the special characteristics of this outcome in terms of learning outcome. This regards both existential therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy and to clarify the possible differences and similarities between...... the lived experience of the learning outcomes of these approaches. The study also clarifies the differences between existential psychotherapy as an art of learning directed at existential learning of authenticity and cognitive- behavioural therapy as a learning-based medical treatment technology directed...... at behavioural and cognitive learning of adaptive and functional responses that alleviates pathological symptoms....
S Jalili Nikoo
Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: With an aging population, considering the factors affecting the quality of life more than ever is necessary. The aim of current research was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive existential therapy on quality of life of elderly people. Methods: The current research is semi experimental with pre and post test with control group. Statistical population of research consists of all elderly people in Kahrizak nursing homes. In the first phase, the participants were selected through purposive sampling method and after responding to the quality of life questionnaire and obtaining score for enter to research they were divided in two groups of experimental and control (N = 12 per group using random sampling method. The experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group counseling based on cognitive- existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: There was no difference between pre-test and control groups, but the mean scores of post-test experimental and control groups were statistically significant. and cognitive group therapy improves quality of life is (p=0.001. Therefore it seems that cognitive-existential group therapy increase quality of life of elderly people. Conclusion: Cognitive Existential Group therapy utilizes concepts such as death, meaning, cognitive distortions and responsibility could increase the level ofquality of life of elderly people. Thus interventions based on this approach could be useful in improving the quality of life.
Sørensen, Anders Dræby
This is a presentation of a research project, which explores lived experience of psychotherapy in terms of learning outcomes. This includes both Existential therapy (ET) and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and their possible differences and similarities. I can describe learning as any...... experiential change that occurs in the participants understanding as result of the therapy in which they participate. Learning outcomes are concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the intentions of the educator, as expressed in the objectives of an educational effort. This research points...
Potash, Jordan S; Chan, Faye; Ho, Andy H Y; Wang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Carol
End-of-life care workers and volunteers are particularly prone to burnout given the intense emotional and existential nature of their work. Supervision is one important way to provide adequate support that focuses on both professional and personal competencies. The inclusion of art therapy principles and practices within supervision further creates a dynamic platform for sustained self-reflection. A 6-week art therapy-based supervision group provided opportunities for developing emotional awareness, recognizing professional strengths, securing collegial relationships, and reflecting on death-related memories. The structure, rationale, and feedback are discussed.
Zock, T.H.; Alma, H.
What role does art play in the life of contemporary, secularized people who are looking for existential and spiritual meaning? This was the leading question in our empirical research on the opera ‘‘Dialogues of the Carmelites’’ by the French composer, Francis Poulenc. First, we will sketch the
... individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Individuals who benefit from art therapy include ...
Day, Kristen W.
In this article, the author proposes an integration of existential and narrative therapies with current evidence-supported approaches to treating the aforementioned population. First, she briefly defines interpersonal violence, then provides a history and review of the diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which frequently…
Full Text Available In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person�s wholeness. This includes the body, the person�s philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy.Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy.An important idea of the course is Bohm�s concept of �holo-movement� in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively � if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this
Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav
In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person"s wholeness. This includes the body, the person's philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy. Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy. An important idea of the course is Bohm's concept of "holo-movement" in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively--if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this experience as "the spiritual design
Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.
Lewis, Adam M
Existential psychotherapy and Terror Management Theory (TMT) offer explanations for the potential psychological effects of death awareness, although their respective literatures bases differ in clarity, research, and implications for treating psychopathology. Existential therapy is often opaque to many therapists, in part due to the lack of consensus on what constitutes its practice, limited published practical examples, and few empirical studies examining its efficacy. By contrast, TMT has an extensive empirical literature base, both within social psychology and spanning multiple disciplines, although previously unexplored within clinical and counseling psychology. This article explores the implications of a proposed TMT integrated existential therapy (TIE), bridging the gap between disciplines in order to meet the needs of the aging population and current challenges facing existential therapists.
Moon, Bruce L.
This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…
Jaarsma, Ada S.; Kinaschuk, Kyle; Xing, Lin
Written collaboratively by two undergraduate students and one professor, this article explores what it would mean to teach existentialism "existentially." We conducted a survey of how Existentialism is currently taught in universities across North America, concluding that, while existentialism courses tend to resemble other undergraduate…
Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen
In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Potash, Jordan S.; Mann, Sarah M.; Martinez, Johanna C.; Roach, Ann B.; Wallace, Nina M.
The objective of this study was to determine art therapists' fit in the continuum of health delivery services defined by behavioral health. All publications in "Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art" Therapy Association from 1983 (Volume 1) to 2014 (Volume 31) were systematically reviewed to understand how art therapy has been…
Verhofstadt-Denève, L M
As Moreno has shown, the method of psychodrama can be effectively used to work on dreams. The first part of this article describes the theoretical framework. Special reference is made to a personality model based on self-reflection in relation to dialectic processes, existential questions, self-evaluations, and personality development. The theoretical introduction is followed by a description of the basic elements, techniques, and stages associated with classic psychodrama and psychodramatic dream work. After situating this approach in the wider context of dream analysis in the field of group therapy, the different stages of the working model are illustrated by means of a "dream session" conducted with an adolescent therapy group. Finally the session is analyzed from the perspective of a number of basic Morenian tenets and from the point of view of developmental therapy.
Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo
Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.
Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar
Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.
Moon, Bruce L.; Hoffman, Nadia
This article presents an innovation in art therapy research and education in which art-based performance is used to generate, embody, and creatively synthesize knowledge. An art therapy graduate student's art-based process of inquiry serves to demonstrate how art and performance may be used to identify the research question, to conduct a process…
Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...
Sørensen, Mariann B.
In the years to come, a global challenge is to reorganize the health care systems to engaging people in health promotion and make individuals and groups co-constructors of health and well-being. In Denmark in 2012, a local challenge has come up as the National Health Board published a new program......-patient indicates that a cancer diagnosis often incites questions of an existential nature. This means new challenges for health care practice as well as for qualitative health research. In order to facilitate reflexive processes concerning existential and spiritual topics, one of the cornerstones of phenomenology...... a variety of tools such as from novels, films, dialogues, narratives, poetry and autobiographies written by patients and relatives. How to use these tools as learning spaces for health care providers, meeting these challenges in practice? Some suggestions are: ´empowerment by discussing dilemmas´ (Jacobsen...
Pénzes, I.J.N.J.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Diverse approaches to art therapy assessment agree that art materials should play a central role. However, relatively little research is done on the role of different art materials. This article describes the results of a qualitative study on the use of art materials by art therapists in art therapy
Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.
The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…
Beatrice A. Popescu
Full Text Available This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.
Popescu, Beatrice A
This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas. Following the anamnestic interview and the psychological evaluation, rarely the depression or anxiety diagnosed on Axis I is purely just a sum of invalidating symptoms, which may disappear if treated symptomatically. When applying the Sentence Completion Test, an 80 items test of psychodynamic origin and high-face validity, most of the clients report an entire plethora of conscious or unconscious motivations, distorted cognitions or irrational thinking but also grave existential themes such as scope or meaning of life, professional identity, fear of death, solitude and loneliness, freedom of choice and liberty. Same issues are approached in the philosophical counseling practice, but no systematic research has been done yet in the field. Future research and investigation is needed in order to assess the importance of moral dilemmas and existential issues in both practices.
Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne
The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…
Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia
As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…
Farber, Eugene W
This article describes an existentially informed approach to conducting psychotherapy with individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Uses of existential concepts to guide a holistic conceptualization of the individual and illuminate core existential concerns and dilemmas in confronting HIV-related challenges are delineated. Applications of existential ideas regarding psychotherapy process and technique in HIV-related psychotherapy also are illustrated. It is concluded that existential psychotherapy offers a conceptual framework that is especially well suited to the work of psychotherapy with individuals living with HIV disease, although the approach has received only limited attention in the HIV-related psychotherapy literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Morris, Frances Johanna; Willis-Rauch, Mallori
Social Empowerment Art Therapy (SEAT) aims to address the stigma of mental illness through the artistic empowerment of participants. The model was developed within an inpatient psychiatric setting from observations of a shared governance structure that empowered residents. Incorporating an open art studio approach and social action art therapy,…
meaning making. Methods: The key research question is: 1. What kind of existential needs are central to dying cancer patients and their relatives during the terminal phase in Danish hospices? Exploring this highly sensitive and complex research area entails substantial ethical responsibility during data...... based and practice relevant knowledge about the complexity of existential considerations and needs among dying cancer patients and their relatives in a secularized society as Denmark. Existential needs are seen as a multidimensional concept that encompasses religious, spiritual and secular existential...
Waller, Diane E.
Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness is a guide to the use of arts therapies in the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In the last few years arts therapies have been used in an increasingly wide range of applications with new groups of patients, such as patients in palliative care, or with learning disabilities - Diane Waller has been a driving force behind this expansion.\\ud This book covers treatment such as art therapy, dance movement therapy and mus...
Ledger, Alison; McCaffrey, Tríona
Arts-based research (ABR) has emerged in music therapy in diverse ways, employing a range of interpretive paradigms and artistic media. It is notable that no consensus exists as to when and where the arts are included in the research process, or which music therapy topics are most suited to arts-based study. This diversity may pose challenges for music therapists who are developing, reading, and evaluating arts-based research. This paper provides an updated review of arts-based research literature in music therapy, along with four questions for researchers who are developing arts-based research. These questions are 1) When should the arts be introduced? 2) Which artistic medium is appropriate? 3) How should the art be understood? and 4) What is the role of the audience? We argue that these questions are key to understanding arts-based research, justifying methods, and evaluating claims arising from arts-based research. Rather than defining arts-based research in music therapy, we suggest that arts-based research should be understood as a flexible research strategy appropriate for exploring the complexities of music therapy practice. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Withrow, Rebecca L.
This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…
I. I. Sulima
the tragic mood (suffering, pain, sorrow, death are the important components of a fulfilling human life and they should not be evaluated unambiguously negative in education. can be combined in art. The consistency of the experience of the fundamentals of human existence and co-presence with them in hermeneutically oriented education make it event-related, give it meaning. The article also investigates the border line of the achievements of a man and education. The conclusion about the nature of self-regeneration of education is drawn.Discussion and Conclusions: The authors stick to the humanist antiscientific position in the analysis of the revealed unity of human nature and existential education, believing that humanistically oriented education should help to find the man a tough, but the best possible place to live between the “must be” and “the existing”. Existential education aims to help a person to keep courageously the dynamics of the balance on the blade of Genesis, on which he goes from himself to himself. Education in the article is represented as institutialized environment of ongoing human evolution in hermeneutical undertaking.
Schouten, K.A.; Niet, G.J. De; Knipscheer, J.W.; Kleber, R.J.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Art therapy has often been applied in the treatment of traumatized adults, and good results in clinical practice have been reported. However, although art therapy experts underline these benefits, the effectiveness of art therapy in trauma treatment has not been established by systematic review. The
Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.
The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…
Potash, Jordan S.
Electronic media provides rapid delivery and unlimited access to pictures, sounds, and information. The ubiquitous presence of techno-digital culture in the lives of today's adolescents may influence or contaminate the art therapy process. This article presents two case studies that illustrate how cyberspace entered into art therapy sessions and…
The article broaches the subject of art therapy, which is also known as therapy through art. The activities carried out within it are based on the use of the therapeutic properties of the art practice. Art therapy is an extremely large concept and contains in itself many therapies based on its actions in art. Art therapy includes: therapy, which is based on plastic arts, music therapy, bibliotherapy, dramatherapy, dancetherapy and others. Writing about the properties of art therapy should als...
Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja
To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.
Pénzes, I.J.N.J.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Background: Art materials have a central role in art therapy. The way a client interacts with art materials - material interaction - is an important source of information in art therapy assessment in adult mental health. The aim of this study was to develop the categories of material interaction and
Callanan, B O
The use of art engages frail oder persons in a unique way. Art therapists recognize the creative source in the elderly and strive to involve them in the creative process. The art therapist combines the media of the visual artist with assistance in art skills to enable the older person to make meaningful expressions of emotion despite deteriorating functional ability. Supportive and therapeutic art interventions augment the skills and assets that many older persons retain. Effective art therapy sessions may be brought to older persons in their homes or in the day programs they attend. Through art therapy, the frail elderly learn new ways to express and interpret life situations, to communicate perspectives and respond to the difficulties before them.
Schweizer, Celine; Spreen, Marinus; Knorth, Erik J.
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are often referred to art therapy. To investigate what works in art therapy with these children 'tacit knowledge' of eight well experienced art therapists was explored. Promising components were arranged into the Context and Outcomes of Art Therapy
Full Text Available This introduction addresses the relevance of existentialist philosophy for understanding the indeterminacies and instabilities of late-modern society. Whilst existentialist thought is often misunderstood and subsequently unexplored, all the contributors to this special edition accept the basic premise that human existence is inescapably contingent and indeterminate. This introduction provides a short overview of the articles and reflects on themes such as destabilization and reintegration. All the articles are based on contributions to the workshop 'Law, Jurisprudence, Governance and Existential Indeterminacy', held at the International Institute for the Sociology of Law, Onati, Spain, 23-24 May 2013. Esta introducción aborda la relevancia de la filosofía existencialista para comprender las indeterminaciones e inestabilidades de la sociedad tardía. Aunque a menudo el pensamiento existencialista se ha malentendido y por consiguiente, no se ha explorado, todos los participantes de este número especial aceptan la premisa básica de que la existencia humana es ineludiblemente contingente e indeterminada. Esta introducción ofrece un breve resumen de los artículos y reflexiona sobre temas como la desestabilización y reintegración. Todos los artículos se basan en las presentaciones del workshop 'Law, Jurisprudence, Governance and Existential Indeterminacy', celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica, Onati, España, los días 23-24 de mayo de 2013. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2619387
Deane, K; Fitch, M; Carman, M
Art therapy is a healing art intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ways for patients to respond to their cancer experience. A new art therapy program was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to learn about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components. The role of the facilitator was to assist in the interpretation of a participant's drawing in order to reveal meaning in the art. This paper presents patients' perspectives about the new art therapy program. Content analysis of participant feedback provided information about the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Evaluation of the art therapy/museum education program demonstrated many benefits for cancer patients including support, psychological strength, and new insights about their cancer experience.
Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar
Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561
Susana Iñarra Abad
Full Text Available The logical way to learn from the architectural space and then be able to design and represent it is, undoubtedly, that of experiencing it through all the sensitive channels that the space wakes up us. But since the last 30 years, much of our learning about space comes from images of architecture and not from the space itself. The art of architecture is drifting towards a visual art and moving away from its existential side. In digital images that have flooded the architectural media, digital photographs of existing spaces intermingle with non-existent space renderings (photographs with a virtual camera. The first ones represent existing places but can be altered to change the perception that the observer of the image will have, the second ones speak to us about places that do not exist yet but they present reality portions through extracts from digital photography (textures, trees, people... that compose the image.
Schweizer, Celine; Spreen, Marinus; Knorth, Erik J.
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often referred to art therapy. To investigate what works in art therapy with children with ASD, the tacit knowledge of 8 experienced art therapists was explored through interviews. Promising components were arranged into the Context and Outcomes of Art Therapy (COAT) model. According to the…
The paper concludes that art therapy anaesthetizes emotional therapy. Art as therapy enables us to share someone else's pains as it communicates joy and happiness as exemplified in the application of cool colour paintings, whereas the warm colour paintings communicates pain and suffering. The paper recommends that ...
Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…
Characteristics of art therapists in rehabilitative therapy Objectives: This study examines the sociodemographic, qualification- and activity-related characteristics of art therapists working in the field of rehabilitation. In 2013, an analysis of occupational groups was carried out in Germany, with the objective of describing the art therapists working there.A total of 2,303 complete datasets were submitted. From this group, those therapists mainly working in the field of rehabilitation/follow-up care/participation of disabled persons (according to Social Security Code VI and IX, n = 302) were selected and described. Most art therapists are female (average age 45 years) and largelywork part-time. Music and art therapy are the most common venues.More than 80% have a graduate degree. Methods of quality management are used.More than half of the therapists working in rehabilitation hospitals are employed in the field of psychosomatic medicine. Both individual and group therapy (each patient attending 1-2 times a week) are common. The results provide an overview of art therapy in the field of rehabilitation and show the spread in rehabilitation. Further research is indicated.
O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary
This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…
Potash, Jordan S.; Doby-Copeland, Cheryl; Stepney, Stella A.; Washington, Brittney N.; Vance, Lindsey D.; Short, Gwendolyn M.; Boston, Charlotte G.; Ballbé ter Maat, Mercedes
For 25 years the Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association has provided education, networking, and mentoring activities for all art therapists, as well as support for art therapists of color. The formation of the committee demonstrates increasing cultural competence within the profession, and its continuation promises future…
Background: The moment of birth is seen as a miracle, a journey and even a religious act. Research stress how giving birth might facilitate interference with previous conceptions of how to make meaning of life existentially. However, birth as an existential life transformative event, has been...... explored only briefly in empirical research. The aim of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore how first-time mothers experienced their first birth in relation to existential meaning-making. Secondly, to describe the relationship between considerations related to existential meaning-making and time...... of birth. Method: The study was based on a nationwide questionnaire, conducted among Danish first time mothers, who had given birth either preterm or full-term (n=517). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items. Eight core items were analysed in this study. Findings Preliminary findings show that new...
Chancellor, Bree; Duncan, Angel; Chatterjee, Anjan
Patients with dementias commonly experience neuropsychiatric symptoms that diminish their quality of life. Pharmacologic treatments for these symptoms are limited in their efficacy. In the absence of near-future prospects for a cure for degenerative dementias, treatments that improve neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life are needed. We explore the hypothesis that art therapy is useful in dementia by reviewing the extant literature. With appropriate structure, patients with dementia can produce and appreciate visual art. Case studies and several small trials suggest that art therapy engages attention, provides pleasure, and improves neuropsychiatric symptoms, social behavior, and self-esteem. Whether these benefits generalize beyond the studio remains unknown. We offer a theoretical framework that motivates the use of art therapy and propose that clinical enquiry to establish methods, assess efficacy, and define optimal conditions for the use of art therapy in Alzheimer's and other dementing disorders is timely.
for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood......The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... as referring to the existential condition of plurality and uses this insight to draw up a theoretical ground for further phenomenological analysis of right....
In this viewpoint the author makes a case for developing a clear and concise definition of art therapy that can easily be adopted by art therapists working across a spectrum of theoretical frameworks. The reader is asked to widen the lens through which art therapy is defined by considering its influence on society, the mind, health, and behavior.…
Discusses the failure of art therapy, as a profession, to integrate feminism and gender issues into art therapy literature and research. Examines whether there are research methodologies that are less gender biased than others and which methods are best suited to art therapy. (SNR)
Attard, Angelica; Larkin, Michael
Art therapy enables individuals to use art to creatively express themselves and communicate differently with themselves, others, and their reality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for psychosis and schizophrenia suggest that arts therapies, which include art therapy, are considered to improve negative symptoms of psychosis. We examined the effectiveness of art therapy for people with psychosis and explored whether art therapy is a meaningful and acceptable...
Shrestha, Rajeet; Trauger-Querry, Barbara; Loughrin, Athena; Appleby, Brian S
This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit from art therapy despite the rapidly progressive nature of the illness. Art therapy can also be useful for assessment of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by healthcare professionals.
Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian
living, and to some women also being interpreted as a spiritual experience. However, in present maternity services there is a predominant focus on biomedical issues, which sets the arena for motherhood transition, and the issues related to potentially existentially changing experiences......) outcome measures, and (g) results. Measurements: The studies were synthesised in a thematisation on the basis of the existential psychotherapist and philosopher Emmy van Deurzen's concepts of four interwoven life dimensions, through which we experience, interpret, and act in the world: Umwelt, Mitwelt......, Eigenwelt, and Überwelt. Key conclusions: The findings in this review suggest that transition to motherhood is considered a pivotal and paradoxical life event. Through the lens of existential psychology it can be interpreted as an existentially changing event, reorganising values and what makes life worth...
as a mixed-methods design, with the quantitative part imbedded in the qualitative part. Seven participants were chosen to participate in an art therapy group during a 6-month intervention with a total of 13 meetings. The inclusion criteria were identification of mild to moderate depression based on the test......The aim in this research study was to focus on art therapy as a method to explore the inner life as prevention against the development of depression and to address the possibility for art therapy to be used as an early intervention tool related to depression. A Jungian epistemology was used...... as a frame for the overall understanding of well-being together with a holistic approach, including the biological, psychological, social and spiritual domains in life. Art therapy processes in the clinical part of the study aimed to include all these levels as the activation of these are considered...
Miholić Damir; Martinec Renata
Contemporary approaches in different fields of expressive arts-therapies (art-therapy, music therapy, dance movement therapy, bibliotherapy, psychodrama and drama therapy) are presented in this article. In that way, theoretical background, some elements of observation and assessment, as well as specific methods of therapy interventions are described. Relevant knowledge about different aspects of expressive art-therapies is presented by reviewing some recent references and results of different...
Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.
Full Text Available Contemporary approaches in different fields of expressive arts-therapies (art-therapy, music therapy, dance movement therapy, bibliotherapy, psychodrama and drama therapy are presented in this article. In that way, theoretical background, some elements of observation and assessment, as well as specific methods of therapy interventions are described. Relevant knowledge about different aspects of expressive art-therapies is presented by reviewing some recent references and results of different investigations. Results of previous researches pointed out that expressive arts-therapy may have positive influence on different aspects of psychosocial functioning. Also, further investigations are needed in order to achieve best practice in different fields of education and rehabilitation.
Marica Mircea Adrian
Full Text Available The existence of a self and the imperative of knowing it have gone through philosophy from its beginning until today. Existentialism, starting with Kierkegaard and continuing with Heidegger, relate the scope of the authentic self to that of anxiety. Once the scope of the anxiety of self has been formulated, it entered the sphere of psychological theories. The prolific encounter between existentialism and psychology materializes into the influent contemporary psychological school, named existential psychotherapy. Our analysis wishes to describe the nodal points of this encounter, having as reference points the scope of self and its anxieties. In the first part of the analysis we look into the philosophical premises, referring to the two above mentioned names, while in the second part we present the taking-ups and the applicative adjustments brought up by existential psychotherapy.
Potash, Jordan S.; Ramirez, Wayne A.
A broad history of art therapy in the United States offers important perspectives on which to view contemporary art therapy practice and professional identity. This article provides descriptive research on the contributions of art therapist Wayne Ramirez, an active leader in the early days of the American Art Therapy Association whose attention…
Attard, Angelica; Larkin, Michael
Art therapy enables individuals to use art to creatively express themselves and communicate differently with themselves, others, and their reality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for psychosis and schizophrenia suggest that arts therapies, which include art therapy, are considered to improve negative symptoms of psychosis. We examined the effectiveness of art therapy for people with psychosis and explored whether art therapy is a meaningful and acceptable intervention in this Review. Seven electronic databases were searched for empirical papers that concerned the use of art therapy for adults with psychosis that were published from 2007 onwards. The search identified 18 papers. High-quality quantitative articles provided inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of art therapy in adults with psychosis. However, high-quality qualitative articles indicated that therapists and clients considered art therapy to be a beneficial, meaningful, and acceptable intervention, although this conclusion was based on a small number of studies. In this Review, we discuss the theoretical, clinical, and methodological issues in light of the development of more robust research, which is needed to corroborate individuals' experiences and guide evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linesch, Debra; Ojeda, Angelica; Fuster, Maria Elena; Moreno, Stephanie; Solis, Guadalupe
This article describes an expanded case study methodology that was used to explore the value that art therapy processes have in expression and understanding of the complications of immigration and acculturation. Data collected from two art therapy groups of Hispanic/Latino youth and immigrant women at an urban parish were analyzed to develop an…
Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara
As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette
Objective: The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design: A qualitative methodology with semi......-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting: General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects: Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results: Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being...... points Although integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter. The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions...
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergård, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP-patient encounter. DESIGN: A qualitative methodology with semi......-structured focus group interviews was employed. SETTING: General practice setting in Denmark. SUBJECTS: Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. RESULTS: Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being...... POINTS: Although integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP-patient encounter. The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions...
Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.
This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual art therapy. PTSD Checklist–Military Version and Beck Depression Inventory–II scores improved with treatment in both groups with no significant difference in improvement between the experimental and control groups. Art therapy in conjunction with CPT was found to improve trauma processing and veterans considered it to be an important part of their treatment as it provided healthy distancing, enhanced trauma recall, and increased access to emotions. PMID:29332989
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is the most prevalent central nervous system diseases thatdue to being chronic, frequent recurrence, uncertainty about its progress, and disability, can lead to various distresses as well as demoralization . Rehabilitation method based on Cognitive-Existential therapy is an integratedapproach which can help to decrease demoralization syndrome in these patients. This study aimed to exploring effectiveness of rehabilitation method based on Cognitive-Existential approach on decreasing demoralization syndrome in patients with MS. Methods: Single subject design is used in this study. Among women who had referred to Tehran MS Association, 3 women (aged between 20-40 were selected through purposeful sampling and separately participated in 10 sessions (90 minutes. Participants were assessed during 7 phases of intervention (2 baselines, 3 measurement during intervention, 2 follow-up through Demoralization Syndrome Scale (2004 and Cognitive Distortion scale (2010. Data were analyzed by calculating process variation index and visual analysis. Results: Comparing patients with MS scores on the diagram during 7 time measurement and calculating recovery percentage, represent decreasing in demoralization syndrome score scale. Discussions: Findings showed that rehabilitation method based on Cognitive Existential approach can decrease demoralization syndrome in patients with MS.
Feen-Calligan, Holly; Matthews, Wendy K.
This article describes a study of art therapy and music education students at a Midwestern university in the United States, who participated in single-semester service-learning assignments prior to their clinical internship or student teaching experience. Undergraduate music teacher-candidates taught music to homeschool students; art therapy…
A pertinent aim of art therapy is to support clients facing unprecedented barriers to social justice in a time of political uncertainty, which I argue is heightened by the impact of neoliberalism and globalization. In this article, I demonstrate the ongoing need to apply an intersectional framework to art therapy practice in a manner that…
Todres, Les; Galvin, Kathleen
In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on “homecoming”. We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of being-in-the-world, as well as a felt sense of what this is like as an experience. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Gegnet (abiding expanse), we characterise the deepest possibility of existential well-being as “dwelling-mobility”. This term indicates both the “adventure” of being called into expansive existential possibilities, as well as “being-at-home-with” what has been given. This deepest possibility of well-being carries with it a feeling of rootedness and flow, peace and possibility. However, we also consider how the separate notions of existential mobility and existential dwelling as discrete emphases can be developed to describe multiple variations of well-being possibilities. PMID:20842215
Vinod D. Deshmukh
Full Text Available Self is difficult to define because of its multiple, constitutive streams of functional existence. A more comprehensive and expanded definition of self is proposed. The standard bio-psycho-social model of psyche is expanded to biophysical-mental-social and existential self. The total human experience is better understood and explained by adding the existential component. Existential refers to lived human experience, which is firmly rooted in reality. Existential living is the capacity to live fully in the present, and respond freely and flexibly to new experience without fear. Four common fears of isolation, insecurity, insignificance, and death can be overcome by developing a lifestyle of whole-hearted engagement in the present reality, creative problem solving, self-actualization, and altruism. Such integrative living creates a sense of presence with self-awareness, understanding, and existential well-being. Well-being is defined as a life of happiness, contentment, low distress, and good health with positive outlook. Self is a complex, integrative process of living organisms. It organizes, coordinates, and integrates energy-information within and around itself, spontaneously, unconsciously, and consciously. Self-process is understood in terms of synergetics, coordination dynamics, and energy-information–directed self-organization. It is dynamic, composite, ever renewing, and enduring. It can be convergent or divergent, and can function as the source or target of its own behavior-mentation. The experience of self is continuously generated by spontaneous activation of neural networks in the cerebral neocortex by the brainstem-diencephalic arousal system. The multiple constitutive behavioral-mental streams develop concurrently into a unique experience of self, specific for a person at his/her developmental stage. The chronological neuro-behavioral-mental development of self is described in detail from embryonic stage to old age. Self can be
Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug
psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...
Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.
Krasilnikov Igor Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available In the article sights of founders of existential psychology at phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of intrapersonal conflicts are considered. It is underlined, that the basic internal conflict is connected with existential anxiety, human life-death. Experience of the existence in the modern social world often has tragical character for the person. The solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts is defined by how the person could realize in itself deep «Me» connected with feeling of finding of internal and external freedom, creative and spontaneity. It is emphasized, that freedom is the main quality of social human life, but the way to it demands from the person of the responsibility, courage and honesty. The authorship of own destiny, personal identity are a source of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Not each person is capable to keep authenticity in the life. Integrity «Me» cannot be restored, ignoring cultural mental-moral values. Purpose. To study phenomenology and psychological mechanisms of the solution of existential intrapersonal conflicts. Methodology. The qualitative theoretical analysis and synthesis of literary data. Results. In the article general concepts of leading scientists-psychologists of existential orientation to phenomenology and mechanisms of the solution of intrapersonal conflicts are presented. The significant attention is given R. Meya's to sights, as one of the main representatives of existential psychotherapy. Practical implications. Preparation of psychologists in the field of psychotherapeutic consultation.
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the problems concerning the existential freedom of the young, black, female, main character. Several concepts are used in the analysis; namely, black women existentialism, existential backlash, power feminism, and black feminism. The analysis is also done in the frame of feminist criticism. The result of the analysis shows that it is not easy for a young, black, female character to construct, keep, and/or perform her critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom. There are various kinds of existential backlashes that have to be faced by the female character. Finally, the female character who insists on keeping her own critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom, after she fails to put it into practice in daily life, still has to face a tragic ending. This paper aims to analyze the problems concerning the existential freedom of the young, black, female, main character. Several concepts are used in the analysis; namely, black women existentialism, existential backlash, power feminism, and black feminism. The analysis is also done in the frame of feminist criticism. The result of the analysis shows that it is not easy for a young, black, female character to construct, keep, and/or perform her critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom. There are various kinds of existential backlashes that have to be faced by the female character. Finally, the female character who insists on keeping her own critical opinion concerning her own existential freedom, after she fails to put it into practice in daily life, still has to face a tragic ending Abstrak: Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji permasalahan seputar kebebasan eksistensial tokoh utama perempuan muda kulit hitam. Beberapa konsep digunakan dalam kajian; yaitu, eksistensialisme perempuan kulit hitam, lecut balik eksistensial, feminisme yang mengandalkan kekuatan, dan feminisme kulit hitam. Kajian juga dilakukan dalam kerangka kritik
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Research Center is a government facility that has a long history of groundbreaking research. Art therapy research began at NIH in 1958 with Hanna Kwiatkowska, whose work contributed to the foundation of art therapy with families, and with Harriet Wadeson, who conducted psychodynamic art therapy…
Carveth, Donald L
Though commonly seen as a member of the so-called "culturistic" school of psychoanalysis that rejected Freudian drive theory and embraced an "oversocialized" conception of human nature, Fromm's qualified essentialism and neo-Marxist existentialism significantly transcend both biological and social determinism (although he succumbs to the latter in regard to his theory of the Oedipus complex). His existential Freudo-Marxism contributes to the integration of psychoanalysis and social science. In place of the authoritarian superego and the pseudo-objective stance of the classical Freudians, Fromm offers conscientious, egalitarian, personalistic, and humane values.
Demonstrates how art therapy helped a woman address her identity and memory difficulties while she managed her daily activities. The process helped her validate traumatic events in her history and provided a starting point for addressing internal conflicts. The client's artwork helped the therapist learn about the client's unconscious states. (MKA)
This report on how Native American healing methods can be utilized in Western creative art therapy emphasizes that for Native Americans, art is an element of life--not a separate aesthetic ideal. Furthermore, American Indian philosophy does not separate healing from art or religion; the belief is that traditional healing, which uses shamanic…
Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…
Larsen, Janni Lisander; Hall, Elisabeth; Jacobsen, Søren
with systemic lupus erythematosus and of various ages, disease durations and severities were undertaken from September 2013 - October 2015. Data were analysed following van Manen's phenomenological approach and using drawing as an interpretive tool. Findings: The main existential experience was interpreted......Aim: To explore from the perspective of women the nature of basic existential conditions while living with systemic lupus erythematosus. Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus has an unpredictable disease course and is documented to cause an existential rearrangement of life. The significance...... of changes in existential conditions and related experiences are unclear in the context of nursing and women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Design: A qualitative design guided by Van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological methodology. Method: Individual in-depth interviews with 15 women diagnosed...
Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M.; Bride, Brian E.
While the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs’ use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) was positively related to offering art therapy, while use of Contingency Management (CM) was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings, and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents. PMID:25514689
Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E
Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents.
The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.
Full Text Available Art-based learning experiences have demonstrated a range of benefits, including improved observation skills and perspective taking. This article describes the effects of an art-based module in an entry-level curriculum for occupational therapy (OT students. An exploratory pilot study investigated the feasibility of a groupadministered visual art-based module for 20 first-year OT graduate students. Outcomes were evaluated using a mixed-methods approach that combined pre-post quantitative results from survey questionnaires and qualitative reflective essays. Pre- and post-surveys revealed significant changes in the students’ perception regarding the benefits of art in OT curricula. The students’ reflective essays on their learning described artbased sessions as: (a opportunities to practice perspective shifting, (b tapping into emotion, (c exemplars of the therapeutic encounter, (d integrative and “out of the box,” and (e impacting student roles and the classroom environment. Findings support art-based pedagogies to complement coursework to build an understanding of clients, creative thinking, and valued learning experiences. Learning partnerships between occupational therapy faculty, art museum educators, and artists can offer fruitful interdisciplinary learning experiences.
Jaspers' concept of limit situations seems particularly appropriate not only to elucidate outstanding existential situations in general, but also basic preconditions for the occurrence of mental disorders. For this purpose, the concept is first explained in Jaspers' sense and then related to an 'existential vulnerability' of mentally ill persons that makes them experience even inconspicuous events as distressing limit situations. In such situations, an otherwise hidden fundamental condition of existence becomes manifest for them, e.g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life. This fundamental condition is found unbearable and, as a reaction, gives rise to mental illness. This concept of existential vulnerability is illustrated by some psychopathological examples. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Veld, W.M. van der; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Despite the use of art therapy in clinical practice, its appreciation and reported beneficial results, no instruments are available to measure specific effects of art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C in multidisciplinary treatment. In the present study, we described the
van Hooren, Susan; van der Veld, William M.; Hutschemaekers, Giel
Abstract Despite the use of art therapy in clinical practice, its appreciation and reported beneficial results, no instruments are available to measure specific effects of art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C in multidisciplinary treatment. In the present study, we described the development and psychometric evaluation of the Self‐expression and Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS). Structural validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were examined using two independent databases (n = 335; n = 34) of patients diagnosed with personality disorders cluster B/C. This resulted in a nine‐item effect scale with a single factor with a high internal reliability and high test–retest reliability; it demonstrated discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. In conclusion, the SERATS is brief and content‐valid and offers objective and reliable information on self‐expression and emotion regulation in art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C. Although more research on construct validity is needed, the SERATS is a promising tool to be applied as an effect scale and as a monitoring tool during art therapy treatment. © 2017 The Authors Personality and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28730717
Gert J. Malan
Full Text Available The kingdom of God was a central theme in Jesus’ vision. Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God’s patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God in opposition to the temple ideology of exclusivist covenantal nomism. The analogies of father and king served as the root metaphors for this symbolic universe. They are existential root metaphors underpinning the contextual symbolic universe of God’s patronage in reaction to the collapse of the patronage system which left peasants destitute. Jesus’ paradoxical use of the metaphor kingdom of God had a therapeutic value and gave the concept new meaning. The initial motivation for proclaiming God’s patronage originated in Jesus’ primary identity formation by Mary as single parent and was reinforced in his secondary identity formation by John the Baptist. From these results can be concluded that kingdom of God was not meant to be understood as utopian, but existential. In order to clarify the meaning of kingdom of God and God’s patronage for the 21st century, emythologisation and deconstruction can be helpful especially by highlighting the existential meaning of the kingdom of God.
Malarial infection among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State was investigated between April and August 2008 to determine the level of malaria infection in HIV/AIDS patients on ART and those not on ART with respect to CD4+ counts, age and gender. A total of ...
May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC
The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235
Bigelow, Gordon E.
Although no set of principles can apply uniformly to all existentialists, certain basic characteristics of existentialism are central to both the nonreligious writers like Sartre and Camus and the theistic existentialists like Kierkegaard, Maritain, Marcel, Tillich, Berdyaev, and Buber. These characteristics are (1) an insistence that human life…
Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Mogensen, Ole
Research indicates that childbirth is a time when a woman might experience existential disruptions and gain new perspectives on life. The 2-fold aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes related to existential meaning among first-time mothers intensify and whether they differ between...... mothers who gave birth at full term and those who gave birth preterm. All first-time mothers who gave birth in Denmark in 2010 before the 32nd week of pregnancy and twice that number of full-term mothers (randomly sampled) were invited to participate in a national cross-sectional survey. Five core items...... concerning meaning in life, vulnerability of life, responsibility, thoughts about life and death, and "something bigger than oneself" were analyzed to compare mothers' attitudes on existential meaning. The overall response rate was 57% (517/913). Contrary to the hypothesis, attitudes related to existential...
Haeyen, Suzanne; van Hooren, Susan; van der Veld, William M; Hutschemaekers, Giel
Despite the use of art therapy in clinical practice, its appreciation and reported beneficial results, no instruments are available to measure specific effects of art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C in multidisciplinary treatment. In the present study, we described the development and psychometric evaluation of the Self-expression and Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS). Structural validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were examined using two independent databases (n = 335; n = 34) of patients diagnosed with personality disorders cluster B/C. This resulted in a nine-item effect scale with a single factor with a high internal reliability and high test-retest reliability; it demonstrated discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. In conclusion, the SERATS is brief and content-valid and offers objective and reliable information on self-expression and emotion regulation in art therapy among patients with personality disorders cluster B/C. Although more research on construct validity is needed, the SERATS is a promising tool to be applied as an effect scale and as a monitoring tool during art therapy treatment. © 2017 The Authors Personality and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Personality and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Glover, N M
This article discusses the use of play therapy and art therapy treatment techniques for persons in substance abuse treatment who have a history of incest victimization. While substance abuse treatment focuses on substance abuse, neglecting to address issues related to past incest contact may increase the potential for relapse. This population displays unique characteristics that may prevent them from participating in, or benefitting from, traditional treatment modalities (which are highly dependent upon the verbal interactions between clients and therapists). Play therapy and art therapy are discussed in terms of history, rationale, and benefits to clients.
Blomme, R.J.; Bornebroek te Lintelo, K.
This article aims to develop a conception consisting of insights from complexity theory and additional notions from Weick’s sense-making theory and existentialism for examining organization behaviour.
Rosen, Marni; Pitre, Renée; Johnson, David Read
A new method of art therapy is described, based on Developmental Transformations, in which the therapist participates in joint art making with a client. The therapist's task is to present a graduated set of interpersonal demands on the client through the artwork, helping the client find adaptive responses to accommodations required by others, as…
Pedro José Regis Sansalonis
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain the reason and importance of using art-therapy in groups dealing with Asperger Syndrome, through a bibliographic review, specially of secondary sources as a research work. Finally, it is recognized the scarce bibliography found, and the need of continuing to investigate art-therapy in this social group, still unknown by most of the society.
of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers ... gical) indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one's .... dual human perspective and the unavoidable existential tasks of deciphering for oneself what is ...
Multicultural competence is essential to contemporary art therapy practice. Current education standards require that culturally sound theories and practices be taught along with self-awareness, but there is little research on the effects of such training in art therapy. The current study examined data from the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge,…
Full Text Available Art therapy is a profession that offers potential avenues to improve mental health by increasing positive emotions and counteracting depression and negativity through art-making processes within a therapeutic relationship. As art therapy research is scant, this study of how positive emotions are expressed through art-making was needed. Pairs of art therapists (N = 5 conducted participatory arts-based research to explore emotional expression through visual art-making and discussion. Results included artwork and illustrated poems that demonstrate the expression of positive and other emotions within an interpersonal relationship. As part of multi-modal aesthetic exploration, poetry was used as a means of data analysis and as a vehicle for conveying findings.
Loonstra, B.; Brouwers, A.; Tomic, W.
Abstract Teacher burnout is recognized as a serious problem. In research it has been related to many person-specific variables; one of these, the variable of existential fulfilment, has received very little attention thus far. The present study focuses on the relationship between existential
Full Text Available Susan Burwash, Ph.D., OTR/L, an occupational therapy professor and artist based in Washington State, provided the cover art for the Winter 2017 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. The featured piece contains Professor Burwash’s signature fauxpals, lampwork glass beads made from molten glass and pure silver foil. Art creates balance between traditional medicine and personal medicine, those meaningful activities that give life purpose. Professor Burwash’s personal medicine is making beautiful things that can be given away.
Full Text Available The approach of logotheory is one of many approaches to understanding of man. Logotheory sees a human being in his complexity, as a three-dimensional unity of somatic, psychic, and noetic dimensions. Through logotheory, man discovers the possible sources for not loving himself and others. The logotheoretical approach points out that individuals involved in bullying presentun developed noetic dimension. This becomes a source of existential frustration or existential vacuum leading to the occurrence of various forms of pathological behaviour including bullying. It emphasises that aggressors present insufficient development of two fundamental capacities of the noetic dimension allowing the contact with other people: self-detachment and self-transcendence. The uniqueness of this approach lies in the search for answers to one’s existence that bring more than just a temporary satisfaction. Uncovering existential sources of bullying behaviour could be instrumental in finding solutions to prevention and intervention of bullying.
Chilton, Gioia; Scotti, Victoria
This article describes an artistic inquiry conducted by two art therapists using a dialogic method of collage and letter writing over a period of 4 weeks. The goal of the project was to broaden understanding of arts-based research and to discover the properties of collage as a research practice in art therapy. A thematic analysis of the visual and…
Oster, Jörg; Poetsch, Stephanie; Danner-Weinberger, Alexandra; von Wietersheim, Jörn
The aim of this study was the examination of the experiences of patients participating in an art therapy during a psychosomatic day hospital. The data basis were 15 transliterated interviews from the end of the treatment, conducted with a presentation of the pictures painted in the art therapy sessions, as well as the digitised pictures. The evaluation was done with a qualitative analysis of the interviews and an analysis of the pictures, using a specially-developed category system. In the art therapy, most part of the pa-tients dealt with own conflicts. Nearly all pa-tients benefitted from the art therapy and indicated an improvement of their feeling. The picture processes are different; at the beginning, wishes and familiar techniques dominated. Pictures of turning points differed in their dimensions. The art therapy was seen as a part of the complete treatment in which several therapies assembled. The final interviews were experienced as helpful for further reflections. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Juana M. Cáceres-Gutiérrez
Full Text Available The study of art therapy and spirituality makes it possible to describe the symbolic and universal meaning that the different expressions of art can contribute to the comprehensive transformation —personal and transpersonal— of spirit. The article understands said transformation from the perspective of intervention in pathology or dysfunctionality, as well as of health and personal growth promotion. What is it about art that transforms individuals? The paper argues that the therapeutic relation, the creative act, and the authentic self are the pillars of a productive individual and social intervention.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy. The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies specialization has worked within a year in VSIA BKUS children hospital “Gaiļezers” during the time period from 05.2009 to 05.2010?The results were gained by comparing patient groups at the age from 2,5 to 17 years in the children hospital and they showed that the art therapists and dance movement therapist most frequently were working with patients who have behaviour and emotional disorders. However music therapists are working more frequently with patients who have mental retardation.
In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donald F. Krill
Full Text Available The existential impact upon social work began in the 1960’s with the emphasis upon freedom, responsibility and a sense of the absurd. It affirmed human potential while faulting the deterministic thinking that was popular with psychological theorists at that time. It was open to the prospects of spirituality, but was less than optimistic concerning great progress among social institutions. It was a forerunner to the strengths-based social work programs of our present day.
Examines whether art therapy is a profession or an idea by exploring the differences implied by the words "profession" and "idea" and comparing them with the author's experiences as a art therapist. Specifically examines this question in light of the prevalent and distinguishing characteristics of those in the profession. (Author/MKA)
Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth
of existential experiences over time in female patients suffering from Lupus. Method: Three 3 qualitative indept interviews with 15 women is planned during 1½ year. First and second round is performed, and third is planned during spring 2015. Interviews are guided by Van Manens life world existentials (time...... to withdraw their consent, and to choose time and place for the interviewing. Results: Interpretation on the existential meaning is in progress. Preliminary results document that the chaotic time of the diagnosis gradually changes over the years, leaving a mark on their existential life. Experiencing......THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital...
Merve Halıcı Kurtulan
Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.
Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Søren; Hall, Elisabeth
THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital of Copenha......THE LURKING OF THE WOLF- QUALITATIVE RESARCH OF EXISTENTIAL EXPERIENCES WITH LUPUS IN FEMALE PATIENTS. J. Lisander Larsen (1, 2), S. Jacobsen (2), E.O. C. Hall (1), R. Birkelund(3) (1) Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Section for Nursing, Denmark. (2) University Hospital...... for existential uncertainty. Patient experiences are scarcely researched, and studies do not emphasize existential themes at stake during the illness trajectory and this leaves a knowledge gap important for evidence-based nursing support. Purpose: The purpose of this PhD study is to explore the meaning...... of existential experiences over time in female patients suffering from Lupus. Method: Three 3 qualitative indept interviews with 15 women is planned during 1½ year. First and second round is performed, and third is planned during spring 2015. Interviews are guided by Van Manens life world existentials (time...
Woodgate, Roberta L; West, Christina H; Tailor, Ketan
Until now, most existentially focused cancer research has been conducted within adult populations. Only a handful of qualitative investigations have captured the experiences of children with cancer relative to themes such as existential fear and finitude, meaning/meaninglessness, uncertainty, authenticity, and inauthenticity. This article aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the existential challenges faced by children living with cancer. An interpretive, descriptive qualitative research approach was used. Thirteen children (8-17 years) undergoing treatment for cancer participated. Children participated in individual open-ended interviews and also had the opportunity to journal their experiences in a computerized drawing tool. The 4 main themes that emerged in relation to the existential challenges experienced by children with cancer included (1) existential worry, (2) existential vacuum, (3) existential longing, and (4) existential growth. The drawing tool within the computer diary was found to be particularly beneficial in assisting children to express the existential challenges that they had previously been unable to articulate in words. Children moved between existential anxiety and existential growth within the cancer world. The expressive means of drawing pictures gave children a therapeutic space to explore and work at understanding the existential challenges experienced. This research provides evidence that the active engagement of children's imaginations through the use of a computer-drawing tool may have significant therapeutic value for children with cancer. As well, the findings support the importance of nurses "being there" for young patients with cancer in their time of despair.
Bruce, Anne; Boston, Patricia
This article presents a discussion of the use of palliative sedation in response to intractable (not responsive to treatment) existential suffering. Patients suffering from a terminal illness are often faced with severe symptoms at the end of life. Although palliative sedation is sometimes used when no other options are effective in relieving unbearable pain or suffering, its use in response to intractable existential suffering in terminal illness remains controversial. A literature search was conducted for published articles addressing the use of palliative sedation between 1996 and 2009 using established databases. Palliative sedation remains an uneasy practice. The debates have centred on ethical issues surrounding decisions to use sedation and on separating the intent of palliative sedation (relief of intolerable symptoms) from the intent of euthanasia (hastening death). There is lack of consensus in defining existential suffering. Consequently, there is limited understanding of how decisions are being made when using palliative sedation to treat intractable existential suffering. Given the confusion and uncertainty about ethical and clinical justifications for palliative sedation in treating existential suffering, we argue that a better understanding of the controversies and decision-making process is needed. Greater understanding is required to prevent palliative sedation from becoming a substitute for intensive treatment of this kind of suffering. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nelson, Cindy Lou
This paper describes the history and development of the Jersey City Public Schools creative arts therapy program. Creative arts therapists contributed examples of their work throughout the district that provide a window into their respective school settings. Examples include technology-based art therapy, an extended school year program,…
With the advance of globalization and changing demographics, an intercultural perspective that is self-reflexively aware of ethnocentric bias is increasingly important for art therapists. This article draws from cross-cultural art therapy in the international service realm to consider the nature of art therapy as a distinctly cultural practice.…
Full Text Available The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way as interventions in mental health domains. However, explorations into the specific mechanisms that underpin the therapeutic effect of arts-based activities are still scarce. Qualitative data were collected from a thematic literature review and expert comments on meaningful working procedures in arts therapies. Analysis of multiple data sources revealed core themes and core procedures that occur across arts therapy modalities. This paper presents a practice informed model of arts-based methods in mental health that may serve as a conceptual frame of reference for arts therapists and as study material on the applicability of arts therapy interventions for specific mental health settings.
The vexing issue of whether the immune system can be reconstituted during HIV infection by supplying antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been a question asked about HIV-infected adults and children receiving therapy.1-9 Knowing that the immune system is sufficiently plastic in adults to show restoration of specific and ...
Crawford, M. J.; Killaspy, H.; Kalaitzaki, E.; Barrett, B.; Byford, S.; Patterson, S.; Soteriou, T.; O Neill, F. A.; Clayton, K.; Maratos, A.; Barnes, T. R.; Osborn, D.; Johnson, T.; King, M.; Tyrer, P.
Background: Art Therapy has been promoted as a means of helping people who may find it difficult to express themselves verbally engage in psychological treatment. Group Art Therapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia.Method/Design:...
In expressive arts therapy, visual art, movement, music, poetry, and creative writing offer clients opportunities to explore their hidden feelings expressed in the art forms. The colors, lines, motions, or sounds expressed during the therapy session promote better understanding of the self with support of the therapist. It is crucial to have a…
Creadick, Theo Alcott
Components of the expressive arts approach to therapy for disabled students are briefly described in terms of music, movement and dance, sculpture, sandplay, drawing and painting, journal writing, poetry, playwriting, puppetry, and drama. (CL)
Sutherland, Judy; Waldman, Gwenn; Collins, Carolyn
This article describes the theory and practice of Art Therapy Connection (ATC), an inner city, yearlong school art therapy program in Chicago, IL, for students identified as being at risk of failing grades 3-12. The ATC program helps to address the mental health needs of students living in impoverished communities and the constant threats they…
Prinds, Christina Lange
Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way....... This may be even more relevant for women giving birth preterm, since research suggests that mothers of premature babies undergo an experience of loss, crisis and unpredictability. This PhD project aimed to identify whether motherhood transition actualises considerations on how to make meaning of life...... existentially among Danish first-time mothers, and whether they differ among mothers of full-term children (FT) and mothers of preterm children (PT). The thesis consists of three individual, still interrelated papers, first a scoping review among mothers having given birth at full term, identifying existing...
Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.
This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual…
Larsen, Janni Lisander; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Jacobsen, Søren; Birkelund, Regner
To explore from the perspective of women the nature of basic existential conditions while living with systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus has an unpredictable disease course and is documented to cause an existential rearrangement of life. The significance of changes in existential conditions and related experiences are unclear in the context of nursing and women with systemic lupus erythematosus. A qualitative design guided by Van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological methodology. Individual in-depth interviews with 15 women diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and of various ages, disease durations and severities were undertaken from September 2013 - October 2015. Data were analysed following van Manen's phenomenological approach and using drawing as an interpretive tool. The main existential experience was interpreted as a person "moving with the waves of systemic lupus erythematosus" constituted by the themes "oscillating between presence and absence of systemic lupus erythematosus," "recognizing space and bodily possibilities and limitations" and "being enriched through relationships and activities." When systemic lupus erythematosus was flaring, well-being was threatened and a laborious time to escape the feeling of a setback-in-life persisted long after the disease was medically under control. Daily life with systemic lupus erythematosus is conditioned by a prominent need to be in existential motion, related to the absence and presence of systemic lupus erythematosus. The experience of a setback-in-life by illness might challenge well-being and indicates that periods of disease flares or disturbing symptoms are critical time points to provide support. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen
Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…
Full Text Available Alli Berman, a New York based artist, provided the cover art for the Fall 2016 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Sunlight Underwater” is a 12 piece PuzzleArt painting made from acrylic on American maple that measures 22x30. The PuzzleArt concept began as a simple exercise that evolved into a therapeutic modality. When a sudden stroke impacted Berman’s well-being and quality of life, it was art that helped her to make connections during recovery.
International audience; As professor Amia Lieblich has said, "People are story tellers by nature" (Lieblich et al., 1988). Storytelling technique is well-founded in narrative theory, phenomenology, psychoanalytic theory, trauma studies and aesthetics. Both my own research and my Art Therapy practice have been enriched by the use of narrative and storytelling as therapy interventions. Storytelling ability emanates from narrative knowledge. Notably, it is reframed as the patient's ability to us...
van Bruggen, Vincent; Vos, J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Glas, G.
Existential anxiety (EA) is an expression of being occupied with ultimate concerns such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. Philosophers and psychologists have claimed its importance for the study of human thinking, emotion, decision making, and psychopathology. Until now research
Valladares, Ana Cláudia Afonso; da Silva, Mariana Teixeira
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the development of hospitalized children before and after art therapy interventions. Qualitative case studies were undertaken in this descriptive-exploratory research, based on the developmental evaluation of the children. The study participants were five children between seven and ten years old, in the Hospital of Tropical Illnesses (HDT) in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, in 2006. Results showed that art therapy interventions efficiently promoted children's development. Art therapy is a resource for positively channeling the variables of hospitalized children's development and for neutralizing affective factors that naturally appear, as well as for exposing the child's healthier potentials, which sometimes receive little stimulus in the context of hospitalization.
Lee, Seung Yeon
This qualitative study explored flow experiences in art therapy with three children from families that had immigrated to the United States from South Korea and were facing acculturation gaps. The children's flow experiences were examined through multiple data sources including videotaped art therapy sessions, children's post-session interviews,…
Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Chun, Sae-il
This case report discusses the potential for art therapy to aid in the recovery of early-chronic stroke patients. The patient was diagnosed with having a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a cerebral aneurysm rupture 1 year prior to hospitalization. Therapies used as part of the patient's treatment included 10 weeks of art therapy conducted twice a…
Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Jeong Shin; Kim, Yong Bae; Choi, Mi Yeon; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun Hyun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy
Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Jeong Shin; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi Yeon; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun Hyun [Graduate School of Clinical Art Therapy, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy.
Kongkasuwan, Ratcharin; Voraakhom, Kotchakorn; Pisolayabutra, Prim; Maneechai, Pichai; Boonin, Jiraporn; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai
To examine the efficacy of creative art therapy plus conventional physical therapy, compared with physical therapy only, in increasing cognitive ability, physical functions, psychological status and quality of life of stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial with blinded assessor. An in-patient setting PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients aged ⩾50 years who could communicate verbally. All participants received conventional physical therapy five days per week. An intervention group received additional creative art therapy, twice a week for four weeks, in a rehabilitation ward. Cognitive function, anxiety and depression, physical performance and quality of life were measured with the Abbreviated Mental Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the modified Barthel Index scale and the pictorial Thai Quality of Life questionnaire, respectively. Mean differences for the intervention group were significantly greater than the control group for depression (-4.5, 95% CI -6.5, -2.5, part therapy and most reported improved concentration (68.5%), emotion (79.6%), self-confidence (72.2%) and motivation (74.1%). Creative art therapy combined with conventional physical therapy can significantly decrease depression, improve physical functions and increase quality of life compared with physical therapy alone. © The Author(s) 2015.
Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie
There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…
Voeuk, Anna; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Fainsinger, Robin; Huot, Ann
Palliative sedation can be used for refractory symptoms during end-of-life care. However, continuous palliative sedation (CPS) for existential distress remains controversial due to difficulty determining when this distress is refractory. The aim was to determine the opinions and practices of Canadian palliative care physicians regarding CPS for existential distress. A survey focusing on experience and views regarding CPS for existential distress was sent to 322 members of the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians. Eighty-one surveys returned (accessible target, 314), resulting in a response rate of 26%. One third (31%) of the respondents reported providing CPS for existential distress. On a 5-point Likert-type scale, 40% of participants disagreed, while 43% agreed that CPS could be used for existential distress alone. Differing opinions exist regarding this complex and potentially controversial issue, necessitating the education of health-care professionals and increased awareness within the general public.
By combining museum education with art therapy, museums can make significant contributions to healthcare. The Creative Aging program at The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., unites these fields, using artworks and art-making as catalysts to explore feelings, invite self-exploration, and build community. The program fosters an interest in…
This article aims at making a case for the role of seduction in existential education, that is, education that focuses on the pupil's life choices. First, the article attempts to show that the relationship between the teacher and the pupil can be understood as a form of seduction. Secondly, the article examines how such a relationship functions in…
Describes how art therapy can benefit patients hospitalized due to severe burns, who suffer psychological as well as physical trauma. Outlines the psychological phases, identifies how burn patients typically experience their healing process, and discusses how art therapy can assist the patient at each stage of the recovery process. (JPS)
McIntyre, B B
Through art, music, and drama children can creatively express the feelings of sadness and anger that occur when a family member dies. In so doing, they can often avoid later difficulties resulting from unresolved emotions. Hospices may want to develop an art therapy group to facilitate this process with clients and their families.
Richardson, Phil; Jones, Kevin; Evans, Chris; Stevens, Peter; Rowe, Anna; HASH(0x7f4d76f6c120)
Background\\ud There is no high quality controlled trial evidence for the effectiveness of art therapy in the adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud To conduct the first exploratory RCT of group interactive art therapy (AT) as an adjunctive treatment in chronic schizophrenia.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud The outcomes of 43 patients randomised to 12 sessions of AT were compared with those of 47 who received standard psychiatric care. Patients were assessed on a range of measures of symptoms,...
Tucknott-Cohen, Tisah; Ehresman, Crystal
This article describes the healing benefits of art therapy for an individual with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In this clinical case description, a woman diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease received individual art therapy for 17 weeks. The treatment concerns that arose, altered view of reality, agitation, and retrogenesis provide insight on…
Beck, Malene; Birkelund, Regner; Poulsen, Ingrid
by the bell; (2) being embraced by calmness and aesthetics and (3) being in a trust-bearing agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients experienced mealtimes as meaningful events that nourished them in an existential manner because the calming and aesthetically pleasing environment made them feel embraced and allowed...
Rørtveit, Kristine; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of this study was to reflect on aspects of mental health nursing leadership qualities with special focus on the therapeutic process for women who suffer from eating difficulties (ED). Therapy for patients with ED involves motivating them to make meaningful changes. Leadership qualities in MHN should focus on the relationship with the patient and positive empowerment processes. In-depth interviews were conducted with six women suffering from ED who had participated in art therapy. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretative hermeneutic approach. A main theme 'The mental health nurse as a formative and mindful leader in a group therapeutic relationship' and two themes 'Leading sensitively towards awakening the patients' awareness of their pre-understanding' and 'Leading dialectically towards solving patients' existential dilemmas' were developed and comprised two aspects of leadership. The nurse-patient relationship is influenced by the patients' pre-understanding and existential dilemmas. Leadership qualities associated with being formative and mindful represent important aspects of this relationship and should be investigated and thematically described in greater detail in future research. The nurse-patient relationship should focus on clinical supervision, in order to strengthen the nurses' leadership qualities in terms of being aware and dialectical. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Correia, Edgar A.; Sartóris, Vítor; Fernandes, Tiago; Cooper, Mick; Berdondini, Lucia; Sousa, Daniel; Pires, Branca Sá; da Fonseca, João
Within the major therapeutic paradigms, observational instruments have been developed to assess orientation-specific interventions or processes. However, to date, no such instrument exists to assess existential practices. Recent research indicates the key practices of existential therapists, and forms an empirical basis on which to develop an…
Ana Stella Ribeiro Medeiros Neves
Full Text Available Both Environmental Education (EE and Art Therapy strive to improve quality of life by making man more aware of his relationship with himself, with other living beings and with the environment. This paper reports on the application of the tools of art therapy as a strategy to raise awareness of municipal school teachers to work in EE with elementary school children. Therefore, five art therapeutic meetings were held, in which an integrated and inclusive reflection on the four nature elements were emphasized, i.e., water, earth, fire and air, with a well thought-out and incorporated content. At the conclusion of the art therapy and after extensive reflection on the relationship with EE, participants were open to experiencing new paradigms, and could thus rethink and reorganize the curriculum, in search of new alternatives for effective EE.
Koom, Woong Sub; Choi, Mi Yeon; Lee, Jeongshim; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Ju Hye; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). Materials and Methods: Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Results: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. Conclusion: Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy. PMID:27306778
This paper aims to conceptualize the issues that surround the notion of existential health. It also seeks to establish the impact that existential issues have upon the health of the individual client and how these might explicitly be applied in clinical practice settings. The ability of clients to draw upon their own existential resources as a fundamental part of their health care experience often goes unrecognized in nursing. Whilst existential mechanisms may be theoretically recognized, as a valid aspect of an individual's unique and personal identity, they are not an established part of the health care activity of nurses. Entrenched biomedical frameworks of care delivery and the interchangeable use of metaphysical health states with existential health states in the established literature present particular dilemmas for the acknowledgement of existential health in clients. A review of the literature has been conducted. This account argues that the failure to recognize and assess a client's existential health status represents a major omission on the part of the clinical nurse. These nurses are, in effect, denying their clients the right to exercise and mobilize an important and valuable health resource.
Kopytin, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexey
This article presents findings from a study of the therapeutic effects of group art therapy in a psychotherapy unit of a Russian hospital for war veterans. The researchers randomly assigned 112 veterans being treated for stress-related disorders to an experimental group (art therapy) and a control group. The emphasis was on the use of humor in the…
Hoogsteder, L.M.; Kuijpers, N.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.
This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined
Hoogsteder, L.; Kuijpers, N N; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.
This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined
Full Text Available The triple and parallel loss of quality of life, health, and ability without an organic reason is what we normally recognize as a life crisis, stress, or a burnout. Not being in control is often a terrible and unexpected experience. Failure on the large existential scale is not a part of our expectations, but most people will experience it. The key to getting well again is to get resources and help, which most people experience with shame and guilt. Stress and burnout might seem to be temporary problems that are easily handled, but often the problems stay. It is very important for the physician to identify this pattern and help the patient to realize the difficulties and seriousness of the situation, thus helping the patient to assume responsibility and prevent existential disaster, suicide, or severe depression. As soon as the patient is an ally in fighting the dark side of life and works with him/herself, the first step has been reached. Existential pain is really a message to us indicating that we are about to grow and heal. In our view, existential problems are gifts that are painful to receive, but wise to accept. Existential problems require skill on the part of the holistic physician or therapist in order to help people return to life—to their self-esteem, self-confidence, and trust in others. In this paper, we describe how we have met the patients soul to soul and guided them through the old pains and losses in order to get back on the track to life.
Full Text Available Objectives: Mastectomy as a treatment for breast cancer can disturb marital satisfaction of many couples. In this way, existential anxieties stemming from this potentially deleterious event, and inefficient responses to them, could be mediating. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method based on existential approach and Olson's marital enrichment model on marital satisfaction of women who had undergone mastectomy and their husbands . Methods: In this study, a single subject research design is used. The study population comprised couples who had referred to Radiotherapy department of Imam Hussein hospital in Tehran, that among them three couples whose average age was 20 to 50 years old, wife's had undergone mastectomy, tumor has not spread to other parts of the body, and had no prior history of psychiatric disorders before cancer, were selected through purposeful sampling and Intervention in 12 sessions of 90 minutes once a week, has been designed to suit their specific needs. The level of couple's marital satisfaction was evaluated using Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results: Comparing couple's scores on the diagram during 9 time measurement (3 times baseline, 4 times during intervention, and 2 times follow up assessment and calculating recovery percentage, represent increasing in score of marital adjustment scale. Discussion: So it seems that, this kind of an eclectic couple therapy, by considering couples existential anxiety, has been promoted their marital satisfaction. Explanations are given in discussion part .
Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809
Boldt, Randal W.; Paul, Sherin
Creative-arts therapy groups offer university students powerful ways to address intrapersonal and interpersonal concerns. These groups combine the strengths of a traditional process group with the benefits of participation in the expressive arts. The creative process draws students in, invites insight and introspection, and facilitates outward…
Carmen Lúcia Tindó Secco
The art of poetry and painting: new poetic and pictorial subjectivities in Angola after its Independence. The post 80's decades and the rising of other forms of revolution in the aesthetic language. Themes and creative literary procedures: the existential reason, the individual sensitivities, the literary imagination. The presence of love, the myths, of History, of the dreams in the Angolan arts of the last decades as strategies of cultural resistance.
Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French. He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy. While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.
Aquiléia Helena de Morais
Full Text Available Objective. To understand the significance of clay art therapy for psychiatric patients admitted in a day hospital. Methodology. Qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research, undertaken with 16 patients in a day hospital in Londrina, in the state of Parana, Brazil, who participated in seven clay therapy sessions. Data collection took place from January to July 2012 through interviews guided by a semi structured questionnaire and the data were submitted to content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged: Becoming familiar with clay art therapy; Feeling clay therapy; and Realizing the effect of clay therapy. Conclusion. The use of clay as a therapeutic method by psychiatric patients promoted creativity, self-consciousness, and benefited those who sought anxiety relief.
Roth, Ellen A., Ed.; Rubin, Judith A., Ed.
The proceedings of the 2nd annual Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (with handicapped persons) consists of 44 items including full length papers, summaries of previously published papers, descriptions of workshops, and a limited number of abstracts (submitted by those who chose not to present a paper or workshop description). The papers are…
Jessica L Tracy
Full Text Available The present research examined the psychological motives underlying widespread support for intelligent design theory (IDT, a purportedly scientific theory that lacks any scientific evidence; and antagonism toward evolutionary theory (ET, a theory supported by a large body of scientific evidence. We tested whether these attitudes are influenced by IDT's provision of an explanation of life's origins that better addresses existential concerns than ET. In four studies, existential threat (induced via reminders of participants' own mortality increased acceptance of IDT and/or rejection of ET, regardless of participants' religion, religiosity, educational background, or preexisting attitude toward evolution. Effects were reversed by teaching participants that naturalism can be a source of existential meaning (Study 4, and among natural-science students for whom ET may already provide existential meaning (Study 5. These reversals suggest that the effect of heightened mortality awareness on attitudes toward ET and IDT is due to a desire to find greater meaning and purpose in science when existential threats are activated.
Bele, Samir; Bodhare, Trupti N; Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Saraf, Abhay; Valsangkar, Sameer
Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) among patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is significantly impacted by virtue of varied disease or treatment-related factors, and its evaluation along with existential concerns is required for providing comprehensive care to the patient. The aim of this study was to describe the various dimensions of HRQOL and existential concerns and to examine the relationship between the two among patients with ESRD. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 54 patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a teaching hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and existential concerns of the respondents. The HRQOL was evaluated using a standardized scale of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) questionnaire. Data were presented as frequencies, mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) for baseline characteristics and scores. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between various domains of quality of life and existential concerns. Among HRQOL, the worst results obtained were in the domain of burden of kidney disease (33.45 ± 13.53), work status (49.07 ± 24.75), quality of social interaction (62.22 ±11.80), general health (43.06 ± 13.01), and physical functioning (47.50 ± 18.88). Disrupted personal integrity (12.80 ± 2.81) and loss of continuity (5.37 ± 1.17) were most bothersome existential concerns. A co-relational model behaves distinctly eliciting weak to strong association among various domains of HRQOL and existential concerns. Patients with ESRD reported impaired HRQOL in most of the domains. Existential concerns are distinguished as important dimensions of HRQOL. Association between HRQOL and existential concerns showed that these dimensions are distinct, and there is a need for assessing and attending these entities through a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate the suffering and achieving a sense of overall
van Bruggen, V.; Vos, J.; Westerhof, G.; Bohlmeijer, E.; Glas, G.
Existential anxiety (EA) is an expression of being occupied with ultimate concerns such as death, meaninglessness, and fundamental loneliness. Philosophers and psychologists have claimed its importance for the study of human thinking, emotion, decision making, and psychopathology. Until now research
Kalmanowitz, Debra L; Ho, Rainbow T H
This study's objective was to understand how art therapy and mindfulness meditation could be integrated together in the context of different cultures and political violence and in work with asylum seekers suffering from trauma. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study based on the social construction paradigm. Twelve participants took part in 4 intensive full-day art therapy and mindfulness workshops. The study's setting was an art therapy and mindfulness studio ( Inhabited Studio ) in Hong Kong where participants engaged in art making and in mindfulness-meditation practice. Different aspects of the Inhabited Studio appealed to participants based on each individual's worldview, culture, religion, and coping style. Responses to the Inhabited Studio were organized into 7 thematic clusters. Five themes were categorized into 2 broad categories composed of personal elements (memory, identity) and mediating aspects (emotional/self-regulation, communication, and imagination). The final 2, resilience and worldview, spanned both areas. Participants found the Inhabited Studio culturally compatible and some of the skills they learned helpful in times of stress. This points to how this combination can contribute to building resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
In this article, I examine the ties between neoliberalism and multiculturalism in art therapy in the United States. I explore the neoliberal privatization of society as an influence of individualistic norms in the profession. I explain my analysis of multiculturalism using the 1954 film "Magnificent Obsession" and introduce the concept…
Carmen Lúcia Tindó Secco
Full Text Available The art of poetry and painting: new poetic and pictorial subjectivities in Angola after its Independence. The post 80's decades and the rising of other forms of revolution in the aesthetic language. Themes and creative literary procedures: the existential reason, the individual sensitivities, the literary imagination. The presence of love, the myths, of History, of the dreams in the Angolan arts of the last decades as strategies of cultural resistance.
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Drass, Jessica Masino
Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…
Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole
the approach of a scoping review. Systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO were combined with manual and electronic searches for related references. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 examining dimensions of existential meaning-making in transition to motherhood were......, and to some women also being interpreted as a spiritual experience. However, in present maternity services there is a predominant focus on biomedical issues, which sets the arena for motherhood transition, and the issues related to potentially existentially changing experiences, are not considered important...
Morojele, Neo K; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile
We examined whether alcohol use is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence independently of structural and psychosocial factors among 304 male and female ART recipients in ART sites in Tshwane, South Africa. ART adherence was assessed by the CASE Adherence Index. Independent variables were demographic, structural, psycho-social, and alcohol use (AUDIT score) factors. In hierarchical multiple regression, demographic variables (Step 1) explained 4 % of variance in ART adherence (p ≤ 0.01). Variance explained increased to 16 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering structural variables (Step 2); 19 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering psychosocial variables (Step 3); and 24 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering AUDIT score (Step 4). Alcohol use is independently associated with ART adherence.
Yue, Anthony R.
Reflecting on the personal experience of teaching human resource management in the Canadian Arctic, the author explores the utility of an existentialist approach to pedagogy. The author outlines select aspects of existentialism that are pertinent to the teaching and discusses the implications of using reflexive existential thought as guidance in a…
Diamond-Raab, Lisa; Orrell-Valente, Joan K
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa typically afflict individuals in adolescence. Given the intractability of these diseases in combination with the natural recalcitrance of adolescence, treatment with this population presents a daunting challenge. Traditional group therapy that focuses on verbal therapy is often not effective with this population, particularly in the acute stages of the diseases. A group therapy approach that integrates art therapy, psychodrama, and verbal therapy offers an innovative alternative to traditional group therapy.
Full Text Available Background : Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL among patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is significantly impacted by virtue of varied disease or treatment-related factors, and its evaluation along with existential concerns is required for providing comprehensive care to the patient. Aim : The aim of this study was to describe the various dimensions of HRQOL and existential concerns and to examine the relationship between the two among patients with ESRD. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 54 patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a teaching hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and existential concerns of the respondents. The HRQOL was evaluated using a standardized scale of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ questionnaire. Data were presented as frequencies, mean ± Standard Deviation (SD for baseline characteristics and scores. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between various domains of quality of life and existential concerns. Results : Among HRQOL, the worst results obtained were in the domain of burden of kidney disease (33.45 ± 13.53, work status (49.07 ± 24.75, quality of social interaction (62.22 ±11.80, general health (43.06 ± 13.01, and physical functioning (47.50 ± 18.88. Disrupted personal integrity (12.80 ± 2.81 and loss of continuity (5.37 ± 1.17 were most bothersome existential concerns. A co-relational model behaves distinctly eliciting weak to strong association among various domains of HRQOL and existential concerns. Conclusion : Patients with ESRD reported impaired HRQOL in most of the domains. Existential concerns are distinguished as important dimensions of HRQOL. Association between HRQOL and existential concerns showed that these dimensions are distinct, and there is a need for assessing and attending these entities through a multidisciplinary
According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...
The existential implications in Bontemps'"Black Thunder," Richard Wright's "Native Son," and Ellison's "Invisible Man" are explored in this paper. Each of these novels exhibits a concern about man structuring his existence through the choices he makes in an absurd world. Gabriel, the protagonist of "Black…
Koole, S.L.; Tjew-a-Sin, Mandy; Schneider, I.K.
Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a
Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav
When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind) that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna's existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.
... and successfully within their social context within which they belong. By using Art Therapy action programme ASD children are expected to develop social and communication skills through emotions and artistic creations as a way to train conversational abilities, anticipate situations and understand emotions and actions.
Full Text Available The paper examines a ground that the chosen philosophers share. It will address man’s existential crisis - his confusion and despair over his existence. T. S Eliot believed that his insight could pull humanity out of the despair and hopelessness of modern era. The paper emphasizes the self transcending character of human existence. The eternal human situation offers liberation of mankind which starts with a total knowledge of man by himself. Through philosophical and existential exploration we can enter into, in effect, another state of consciousness, where we reconnect with each of our will at a deeper and satisfying level.
Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel
Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…
There is a paucity of research addressing quality of life factors for American Indian and Alaska Native cancer survivors. Complementary forms of therapy, such as art therapy, are beginning to address quality of life factors through the "healing" arts for cancer survivors. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot was to explore the effects of culturally relevant art interventions on stress reduction for American Indian cancer survivors and their family members. Forty-six adult participants attended one of three workshops held within two settlements of the Coharie tribe and one southeastern urban tribal center. The data collected consisted of a pretest and posttest State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and artwork resulting from three directed interventions. The artwork was analyzed using qualitative coding methods; however, the scores from the STPI were inconclusive because the inventory was determined to be culturally biased. While statistical significance was not achieved, the findings from qualitative coding reinforced a native concept of wellness focusing on the complex interaction between mind, body, spirit, and context. This pilot study also demonstrated how a community-driven approach was instrumental in the development of the overall workshop format. An expansion of the pilot study is also presented with preliminary results available in 2012.
This viewpoint presents a reflection on a meaningful relationship that developed between a university art education department and a local art therapy studio. Such partnerships are desirable and mutually beneficial because of the significant interest many art educators have in the field of art therapy. The author, an art educator, describes the…
Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. However, only a few trials assess the effects of arts therapies. Material and Methods. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Google Scholar from their start date to January 2012. We handsearched reference lists and contacted experts. All randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and controlled clinical trials of art interventions in breast cancer patients were included. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analyses were performed using standardized mean differences. Results. Thirteen trials with a total of 606 patients were included. Arts therapies comprised music therapy interventions, various types of art therapy, and dance/movement therapies. The methodological quality ranged from poor to high quality with the majority scoring 3 of 4 points on the Jadad scale. Results suggest that arts therapies seem to positively affect patients’ anxiety (standardized mean difference: −1.10; 95%, confidence interval: −1.40 to −0.80 but not depression or quality of life. No conclusion could be drawn regarding the effects of arts therapy on pain, functional assessment, coping, and mood states. Discussion. Our review indicates that arts interventions may have beneficial effects on anxiety in patients with breast cancer.
Ronkainen, Noora; Tikkanen, Olli; Littlewood, Martin
This research examines athletes’ career paths and reflections of meaning in their sporting practices through an existential psychological lens. Through notions of spirituality and authenticity, we examined how competitive sport practices and bodily movement gain meaning, and often fundamentally...... shift meaning, in athletes’ lives. Reflective writings with a follow-up from 10 athletes were interpreted through an existential-narrative analysis. The results suggest that while the early years of sport practice are most often characterised as highly enjoyable experiences, for some, the later career...
This study identified decreased distress after art therapy in a proxy pretest study with a convenience sample of 73 patients being treated for cancer. Art therapy outcomes from 4 settings (oncology unit, infusion clinic, individual sessions, and open studio) were measured via the self-report Distress Thermometer, which was collected as part of an…
Existentialism is a notoriously difficult philosophy to explain. The thesis here is that comparing it with Punk Rock is a useful way in. They share a number of features: nihilistic, extreme, passionate, liberating, inclusive, amateur and violent, and each of these serves as a heading under which similarities are explored.
Whipple, Jennifer; Tucker, Catherine
This article describes how the book "When Nietzsche Wept: A Novel of Obsession" and the movie "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind" can be used to help counseling graduate students understand existential theory and its application to clients. Yalom's Four Givens of Existence, which consists of freedom and responsibility, meaninglessness,…
Full Text Available A imagem da capa refere-se a uma experiência realizada em um curso no Congresso Brasileiro e Latino Americano de Terapia Ocupacional em 2013 que buscou oferecer aos participantes ferramentas relacionadas às abordagens corporais e às artes plásticas e visuais para a construção de estratégias de intervenção e cuidado com diferentes populações em terapia ocupacional. As propostas sensibilizaram para os estados de presença dos corpos, buscando uma maior agregação das partes e uma conexão mais potente com o presente e com os ambientes. A experiência promoveu um espaço de criação e interação grupal e expressou a singularidade dos processos de cada participante em meio a produção coletiva. AbstractThe cover image refers to an experiment conducted in a course at the Brazilian and Latin American Congress of Occupational Therapy in 2013 that sought to provide participants with tools related to body approaches and visual arts for the construction of intervention and care strategies with different populations in occupational therapy. The proposals sensitized the states of presence of the bodies, seeking a greater aggregation of the parts and a more powerful connection with the present and with the environments. The experience promoted a space of creation and group interaction and expressed the uniqueness of the processes of each participant in the midst of collective production.Key words: Art; Body; Education; Group; Occupational Therapy.
Full text: In recent years, IBA has developed a state-of-the-art Proton Therapy System that is currently being implemented at the Northeast Proton Therapy Center in Boston. First patient treatment is predicted for the fourth quarter of 2001. The IBA Proton Therapy System consists of a 230 MeV accelerator (a fixed energy isochronous cyclotron), an Energy Selection System that can decrease the energy down to 70 MeV and up to five treatment rooms. There are two types of treatment rooms. A gantry treatment room in which a patient can be treated from virtually any angle or a fixed horizontal beam line aimed at treatments of the of the head and neck. The system is equipped with a Therapy Control System and a Global Safety Management System. The Integrated Therapy Control System is an integrated system ensuring the control of the treatment sessions through independent but networked therapy control units and, therefore, the control of each equipment subsystem. The integrated safety management system, independent of the Therapy Control System, includes a set of hard-wired safety devices, ensuring the safety of the patient and personnel. The system will be capable of delivering proton treatments in four-treatment modes: Double Scattering, Single Scattering, Wobbling and Pencil Beam Scanning. The presentation will show the most important subsystems and treatment modes capabilities as well as the most recent advances in the technology. (author)
Rosenburg, Karen L.
This case study focused on the addition of a therapy dog in an Art I level class at a public high school level that included students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine how Animal Assisted Therapy may benefit autism support students in the art classroom. The students participated in lessons that focused on…
Lister, Suzanne; Tanguay, Denise; Snow, Stephen; D'Amico, Miranda
The Centre for the Arts in Human Development in Montreal has provided art, drama, music, and dance/movement therapies to adults with developmental disabilities for over 10 years with the goals of developing and enhancing self-esteem, social skills, and communication abilities. This report describes the development and purpose of the center,…
Cameron, Nicholas; Drossopoulou, Sophia; Ernst, Erik
Wildcards extend Java generics by softening the mismatch between subtype and parametric polymorphism. Although they are a key part of the Java 5.0 programming language, a type system including wildcards has never been proven type sound. Wildcards have previously been formalised as existential types....... In this paper we extend FGJ, a featherweight formalisation of Java with generics, with existential types. We prove that this calculus, ExistsJ, is type sound, and illustrate how it models wildcards in the Java Programming Language. ExistsJ is not a full model for Java wildcards, because it does not support...... lower bounds for wildcards. We discuss why ExistsJ can not be easily extended with lower bounds, and how full Java wildcards could be modelled in a type sound way....
Full Text Available In the article, I critically evaluate some common objections against contemporary approaches to mindfulness meditation, with a special focus on two aspects. First, I consider the claim that de-contextualized contemporary approaches may have serious ethical consequences (the so-called problem of “mindful sniper/zombie”; second, I investigate the suggestion that it may be misleading to construe mindfulness meditation as (simply a relaxation and/or attention-enhancing technique, as it is sometimes accompanied by unpleasant, even terrifying phenomena (the so-called “dark night of the soul”. In the last two sections, I weave the two narratives together by putting forward the following claim: traditionally-minded criticisms of contemporary approaches are ultimately correct, but for the wrong reasons––the historical context is not important in itself, but because of the role it plays in confronting the practitioner with the fundamental existential questions. In this sense, mindfulness meditation can be conceived as an important, but not the only element of a broader process of overcoming existential angst, whose ultimate goal is not relaxation or enhanced attention, but rather a radical existential transformation.
This study represents an existential-phenomenological investigation of the experience of being accepted in individuals who have undergone psychiatric institutionalization. Written protocols of narrative accounts were collected from nine individuals drawn from a partial hospitalization programme, with the analysis of these ...
A basic assumption for the study is that perceiving a person's deepest needs and desires to be on hand for another person, and their attempt to do so, have, in an ontological sense, the power to bear witness of goodness and eternity. The study was based on a theoretical basis of a caring science view of suffering, as well as the ethics of the philosopher Lévinas. The aim was to explore and clinically validate nuances of witnessing as a caring act.A Socratic dialogue was performed and an interpretive (hermeneutic) method was employed in this study. The Socratic dialogue with four nurses in palliative care focused on and analysed one clinical example of witnessing in palliative care. As basis for the findings are the participating nurses jointly formulated assumptions on the subject: To be a witness you have to be with the patient and refer back to him or her what you have seen; but also to act in accordance with what you have perceived. In the moment you witness, a window is opened onto the unknown; you become vulnerable as a caregiver and require courage. Being a witness encompasses existential and spiritual aspects; being a fellow human being, having a heart to heart relationship is a wilful act on the part of the nurse. Our theoretical discussion focuses on the language of the body, courage as a bridge to an existential encounter and the alleviation of patients' suffering through caregivers' witnessing. A conclusive aspect is that being a witness may bring a new understanding of life in the face of death and suffering. The existential position of being a witness requires the caregiver to be courageous because of its transformative prospect, but may utterly enrich both parties' inner life of shared meaning.
A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department
Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)
A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.
Instructional practices are rooted in the philosophies of education. Educators, those in the practice of education, must turn to educational philosophers for guidance to questions relating to educating society. Educators must make the connection between learning practices and the philosophies of education that underlies the methods of learning. The purpose of this paper was to examine specifically the literature to determine if there is a relationship between the philosophy of existentialism ...
Linesch, Debra; Aceves, Hilda C.; Quezada, Paul; Trochez, Melissa; Zuniga, Elena
This grounded theory study utilized art therapy techniques to explore the experiences of 8 Latino families that had immigrated to the United States. Focus group facilitators invited the parents and adolescent children in the families to share their acculturation experiences verbally and in family drawings. Emergent themes from each of three focus…
Garlock, Lisa Raye
In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…
Siller, Heidi; Waibel, Eva Maria
Existential Pedagogy (EP) derives from existential analysis and logotherapy developed by Viktor Frankl and Alfried Längle in the tradition of existential philosophy and phenomenology. This study investigated how EP influences pedagogues' and teachers' attitudes and teaching. Four focus groups with a total of 12 persons each were conducted in an…
Leurent, Baptiste; Killaspy, Helen; Osborn, David P.; Crawford, Mike J.; Hoadley, Angela; Waller, Diane; King, Michael
PURPOSE Although some studies suggest that art therapy may be useful in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, a recent large trial of group art therapy found no clinical advantage over standard care, but the study population was heterogeneous and uptake of the intervention was poor. This study aimed to investigate whether art therapy was more effective for specific subgroups of patients. METHODS Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of group art therapy ...
Lundgren, Jens; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline A
BACKGROUND: The SMART study randomized 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL to intermittent antiretroviral therapy (ART; the drug conservation [DC] group) versus continuous ART (the viral suppression [VS] group). In the DC group......, participants started ART when the CD4+ cell count was ART at entry inform the early use of ART. METHODS: Patients who were either ART naive (n=249) or who had not been receiving ART for >or= 6 months (n=228) were analyzed. The following......). RESULTS: A total of 477 participants (228 in the DC group and 249 in the VS group) were followed (mean, 18 months). For outcome (iv), 21 and 6 events occurred in the DC (7 in ART-naive participants and 14 in those who had not received ART for >or= 6 months) and VS (2 in ART-naive participants and 4...
Leurent, Baptiste; Killaspy, Helen; Osborn, David P; Crawford, Mike J; Hoadley, Angela; Waller, Diane; King, Michael
Although some studies suggest that art therapy may be useful in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, a recent large trial of group art therapy found no clinical advantage over standard care, but the study population was heterogeneous and uptake of the intervention was poor. This study aimed to investigate whether art therapy was more effective for specific subgroups of patients. Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia (n = 140) versus standard care alone (n = 137). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores at 12 months were compared between trial arms. Interaction between intervention effect and different subgroups, including those with more severe negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and those who expressed a preference for art therapy prior to randomisation, was tested using a linear mixed model. The clinical effectiveness of group art therapy did not significantly differ between participants with more or less severe negative symptoms [interaction for difference in PANSS = 1.7, 95 % CI (-8.6 to 12.1), P = 0.741], or between those who did and did not express a preference for art therapy [interaction = 3.9, 95 % CI (-6.7 to 14.5), P = 0.473]. None of the other exploratory subgroups suggested differences in intervention effect. There was no evidence of greater improvement in clinical symptoms of schizophrenia for those with more severe negative symptoms or those with a preference for art therapy. Identification of patients with schizophrenia who may benefit most from group art therapy remains elusive.
Koslander, Tiburtius; da Silva, António Barbosa; Roxberg, Asa
This study illuminates how existential needs and spiritual needs are connected with health care ethics and individuals' mental health and well-being. The term existential needs is defined as the necessity of experiencing life as meaningful, whereas the term spiritual needs is defined as the need of deliverance from despair, guilt and/or sin, and of pastoral care. It discusses whether or not patients' needs are holistically addressed in Western health care systems that neglect patients' existential and spiritual needs, because of their biomedical view of Man which recognizes only patients' physical needs. It excludes a holistic health care which considers all needs, expressed by patients in treatment of mental illness. Addressing all needs is important for patients' improvement and recovery. For some patients, this is the only way to regain their mental health and well-being.
Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda
This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…
Putin’s intent. What we can do is learn from his actions, and what we see suggests growing Russian capabilities, significant military modernization...AU/ACSC/POWELL, N/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT...The methodology focuses on Russian capability, capacity, and intention to threaten NATO members’ existence. While Russia does possess nuclear weapons
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO Foundry is a collection of freely available ontologically structured controlled vocabularies in the biomedical domain. Most of them are disseminated via both the OBO Flatfile Format and the semantic web format Web Ontology Language (OWL, which draws upon formal logic. Based on the interpretations underlying OWL description logics (OWL-DL semantics, we scrutinize the OWL-DL releases of OBO ontologies to assess whether their logical axioms correspond to the meaning intended by their authors. Results We analyzed ontologies and ontology cross products available via the OBO Foundry site http://www.obofoundry.org for existential restrictions (someValuesFrom, from which we examined a random sample of 2,836 clauses. According to a rating done by four experts, 23% of all existential restrictions in OBO Foundry candidate ontologies are suspicious (Cohens' κ = 0.78. We found a smaller proportion of existential restrictions in OBO Foundry cross products are suspicious, but in this case an accurate quantitative judgment is not possible due to a low inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.07. We identified several typical modeling problems, for which satisfactory ontology design patterns based on OWL-DL were proposed. We further describe several usability issues with OBO ontologies, including the lack of ontological commitment for several common terms, and the proliferation of domain-specific relations. Conclusions The current OWL releases of OBO Foundry (and Foundry candidate ontologies contain numerous assertions which do not properly describe the underlying biological reality, or are ambiguous and difficult to interpret. The solution is a better anchoring in upper ontologies and a restriction to relatively few, well defined relation types with given domain and range constraints.
Diploma Thesis ?The Influence of Art on Children´s Art Expression in School Practice? Deals with Evaluation of Possibilities Arttherapeutic Elements of Roznov Art Therapy and the Ways of Use Receptive Art Therapy in Art Lessons at Secondary School. There is Described Children´s Art Expression in the Age between 12 and 15 and Possible Impact of Art Form on Shaping Children´s Art Expression. It Evaluates the Importance of Methodical Intervention of Roznov Art Therapy Elements.
Marcos Antonio Norris
Full Text Available This article brings Sartre’s notion of existential authenticity, or sovereign decisionism, into conversation with the work of contemporary political theorist Giorgio Agamben, who argues that sovereign decisionism is the repressed theological foundation of authoritarian governments. As such, the article seeks to accomplish two goals. The first is to show that Sartre’s depiction of sovereign decisionism directly parallels how modern democratic governments conduct themselves during a state of emergency. The second is to show that Sartre’s notion of existential authenticity models, what Agamben calls, secularized theism. Through an ontotheological critique of Sartre’s professed atheism, the article concludes that an existential belief in sovereign decision represses, rather than profanes, the divine origins of authoritarian law. I frame the argument with a reading of Sartre’s 1943 play The Flies, which models the repressed theological underpinnings of Sartre’s theory.
This article discusses the creative making of boxes as a cross-cultural art therapy intervention in Kigali, Rwanda, with survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The box as an art form is particularly applicable with young adult survivors, given the nature of their prodigious trauma and the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as…
Schreibman, Rachel; Chilton, Gioia
This viewpoint presents aesthetic writing and reflection on the art therapy supervisor and supervisee dyad from a practice of appreciative inquiry. Through writing and exchanging poems, the authors sought to uncover the dynamics of the supervisory relationship that contributed to a positive learning experience. Poetry as inquiry provoked new…
Full Text Available A theoretical framework of existential coherence is presented, explaining how health, quality of life (QOL, and the ability to function were originally created and developed to rehabilitate human life from an existential perspective. The theory is inspired by the work of Aaron Antonovsky and explains our surprising recent empirical findings—that QOL, health, and ability primarily are determined by our consciousness. The theory is a matrix of nine key elements in five layers: (1 coherence; (2 purpose and talent; (3 consciousness, love, and physicality/sexuality; (4 light and joy; and (5 QOL/meaning of life. The layer above causes the layer below, with the layer of QOL again feeding the fundamental layer of coherence. The model holds the person responsible for his or her own degree of reality, happiness, and being present. The model implies that when a person takes responsibility in all nine “dimensions” of life, he or she can improve and develop health, the ability to function, all aspects of QOL, and the meaning of life. The theory of existential coherence integrates a wide range of QOL theories from Jung and Maslow to Frankl and Wilber. It is a nine-ray theory in accordance with Gurjieff's enneagram and the old Indian chakra system. It can be used in the holistic medical clinic and in existential coaching. Love is in the center of the model and rehabilitation of love in its broadest sense is, accordingly, the essence of holistic medicine. To know yourself, your purpose of life (life mission and talents, and taking these into full use and becoming coherent with life inside and reality outside is what human life is essentially about. The new model has been developed to integrate the existing knowledge in the complex field of holistic medicine. Its strength is that it empowers the holistic physician to treat the patient with even severe diseases and can also be used for existential rehabilitation, holistic psychiatry, and sexology. Its major
Dmytro Yu. Snitko
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean
Dmytro Yu. Snitko
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning
Drass, Jessica Masino
Punk culture is based on an ideology that emphasizes questioning conformity and creating a space for individuality within community. It has inspired fans to create their own music and art as part of their quest for authenticity. Art therapy informed by punk culture can be a way to create a culture of connection while also building resiliency and…
Greta D. Assessment of anger expression using art therapy with younger school-age children with emotional and behavioral problems, Master’s thesis / lecturer Dr. V. Grigaliūnienė, consultant Dr. A. Brazauskaitė; Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing, , Kaunas Faculty of Vilnius Academy of Arts, Kaunas, 2017:107psl. The aim of this Master‘s thesis was to evaluate the changes in anger expression and control by using art therapy with younger school-age children that ha...
Full Text Available This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.
Full Text Available One of the frequently overlooked psychosocial problems of refugees is the phenomenon of homesickness. Being forced into exile and unable to return home may cause natural feelings of nostalgia but may also result in emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical adversities. According to the literature, the creative arts therapies with their attention to preverbal language—music, imagery, dance, role play, and movement—are able to reach individuals through the senses and promote successive integration, which can lead to transformation and therapeutic change. These forms of therapy can be a temporary home for refugees in the acculturation process, by serving as a safe and enactive transitional space. More specifically, working with dance and movement can foster the experience of the body as a home and thus provide a safe starting place, from which to regulate arousal, increase interoception, and symbolize trauma- and resource-related processes. Hearing, playing, and singing music from the home culture may assist individuals in maintaining their cultural and personal individuality. Creating drawings, paintings, or sculpturing around the topics of houses and environments from the past can help refugees to retain their identity through art, creating safe spaces for the future helps to look ahead, retain resources, and regain control. This article provides a literature review related to home and homesickness, and the role the arts therapies can play for refugees in transition. It further reports selected interview data on adverse life events and burdens in the host country from a German study. We propose that the creative arts therapies are not only a container that offers a temporary home, but can also serve as a bridge that gently guides refugees to a stepwise integration in the host country. Several clinical and research examples are presented suggesting that the support and affirmation through the creative arts can strengthen individuals in
Schur, Sophie; Radbruch, Lukas; Masel, Eva K; Weixler, Dietmar; Watzke, Herbert H
Adequate symptom relief is a central aspect of medical care of all patients especially in those with an incurable disease. However, as an illness progresses and the end of life approaches, physical or psychoexistential symptoms may remain uncontrollable requiring palliative sedation. Although palliative sedation has become an increasingly implemented practice in the care of terminally ill patients, sedation in the management of refractory psychological symptoms and existential distress is still a controversial issue and much debated. This case report presents a patient who received palliative sedation for the treatment of existential distress and discusses considerations that may arise from such a therapeutic approach.
Varallo, Patrick A.
Educating and meeting the multiple needs of students at risk of low academic achievement has been a growing concern for public schools in the United States. Many at-risk students require alternative school-based interventions. This study examined the operation, premise, and objectives of art therapy integrated in 14 school districts across the…
Mandić-Gajić Gordana; Špirić Željko
Background/Aim. Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods. The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy...
Akhan, Latife Utas; Kurtuncu, Meltem; Celik, Sevim
This study was performed to determine the effect of art therapy with clay on hopelessness levels of patients under treatment in departments of neurology. The study was of one group, pre- and posttest design. This study was performed on patients who were hospitalized in the neurology departments of a university and a state hospital between February and May 2012 in Turkey. The sample for the study comprised 50 neurology patients with diagnoses of epilepsy (17 patients) and stroke (33 patients). The patients in the study were asked to create objects of clay of any shape they desired. Data for the research were collected with a sociodemographic data form and by using the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). While BHS scores of neurology patients before clay therapy were found higher compared to the scores after therapy with clay, there was also a statistically significant difference. After clay therapy, BHS scores were lower in women, in married patients, in patients who suffered from a stroke, people who had chronic disease, people without psychological illness, and in the case of children. The study showed that clay therapy had an impact on the hopelessness levels of neurology patients. Art therapy with clay may be used for rehabilitation purposes in neurology patients, both in the hospital and at home after discharge.
Genetic engineering for purposes of human enhancement poses risks that justify regulation. However, this paper argues philosophically that it is inappropriate to use human rights treaties to prohibit germ-line genetic engineering whether therapeutic or for purposes of enhancement. When also looked at existentially, the ...
Camus' short story “An Adulterous Woman” from his collection Exile and the Kingdom narrates the experience of Janine, wife of a French Algerian cloth-trader, who accompanies her husband on a business trip to the Saharan interior at mid-20th century. The desert landscape and its weather play an integral role in the plot. Blending realism and fantasy that borders on science fiction, the narrator characterizes the sky as an animate cosmological energy whose virility is masked by sunlight during the day. Released after sundown and portrayed as a liberator at the climax of the story, the shaman-like night sky descends upon Janine as a shower of stars that leaves her with an existential sense of self. This paper explores themes of astronomy and existentialism that Camus develops through Janine's “adultery” with a cosmological force, supplemented by visual imagery related to the aesthetic and scientific cultural contexts of the story and Camus' era.
S. V. Sannіkov
Full Text Available Purpose. Via the life example of a great Christian hermit Augustine of Hippo and his «Confessions», the author of the essay considers the existential choice problem, which changes man’s course of life and displays its essence. Analyzing and deconstructing Augustine's self-reflection against the background of the texts by two other great Africans (A. Camou and J. Darrida, the article traces the foundations and main stages of the process of self-seeking in people who want to find themselves in a lost world. The purpose of the article is to analyze the intellectual, emotional and spiritual components of the process of taking epochal-making decisions versus the approaches of A. Camus and J. Derrida, prominent Augustine’s fellow countrymen, born in Algeria as well. Methodology. The research is based on the comparative historical analysis, allowing to identify and summarize some principles for the decision-making of the most important existential solutions. The use of comparative procedures made possible to show the ineffectiveness of self-contained Camus' and Darrida’s existential searches, and at the same time, demonstrate the success of finding selfhood and self-knowledge by Augustine, who was open for the gift descending from Above. The use of other general scientific methods, such as analysis, reduction, generalization, and retrospective method allowed the researcher to highlight some epistemological problems manifested in understanding and searching the Truth, as the most important and often unconscious human need. Augustine's openness to accepting Truth from Above and at the same time understanding the inability to seize it independently distinguishes him from similar searches of Jacques Darrida. Originality. The research has shown that the existential choice, which in contrast to ordinary choices, changes a man’s life and renders meaning to his existence, is made not with a volitional decision, but with a hardly explicable encounter
Sigurgeirsdottir, Jonina; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur
This paper is a report of a study to increase understanding of patients' experience of rehabilitation and their self-reported needs in that context. Nurses need to be able to recognize patient needs to plan effective and individualized care. Needs-led nursing care is emphasized in the nursing literature, but few studies in rehabilitation have explored needs from the patient's perspective. The sample of this phenomenological study was purposively selected and the data consisted of 16 in-depth interviews with 12 people aged between 26 and 85 years. The data were collected in 2005. The findings showed that being a patient in rehabilitation involves existential struggling, as the reason behind patients' rehabilitation, accident or illness usually leads to trying to cope with existential changes while needing to adapt to new characteristics of life and self. This makes patients vulnerable and their self-reported needs include individualized caring and emotional support from family, peers and staff. Participants also reported a need for a sense of security in a stable and homelike environment, with assistance, help and presence. Finally, they reported needing goal-oriented and progressive care in which realistic and achievable goals were established. Individualized patient education enhanced their independence and empowered them towards a new and progressive lifestyle. A new emphasis is needed in rehabilitation nursing, involving assessment of existential well-being of patients by means of skilful interpersonal relationship based on individualized caring and emotional support and recognition of each patient's own hierarchy of needs.
Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara
In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…
Paxton William A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antiretroviral therapy (ART has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Methods From five patients cellular HIV-1 infection levels were quantified before and after initiation of therapy (2-5 weeks. Through sequencing the C2V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope, we studied the effect of short-term therapy on virus variants derived from naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Results During short-term ART, HIV-1 infection levels declined in all lymphocyte subsets but not as much as RNA levels in serum. Virus diversity in the naïve and central memory lymphocyte populations remained unchanged, whilst diversity decreased in serum and the effector memory lymphocytes. ART differentially affected the virus populations co-circulating in one individual harboring a dual HIV-1 infection. Changes in V3 charge were found in all individuals after ART initiation with increases within the effector memory subset and decreases found in the naïve cell population. Conclusions During early ART virus diversity is affected mainly in the serum and effector memory cell compartments. Differential alterations in V3 charge were observed between effector memory and naïve populations. While certain cell populations can be targeted preferentially during early ART, some virus strains demonstrate varied sensitivity to therapy, as shown from studying two strains within a dual HIV-1 infected individual.
Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Kirkevold, Marit
Two studies with single-group design (Study 1 N = 18, Study 2 N = 28) addressed whether horticultural activities ameliorate depression severity and existential issues. Measures were obtained before and after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program and at 3-month follow-up. In both studies, depression severity declined significantly during the intervention and remained low at the follow-up. In both studies the existential outcomes did not change significantly; however, the change that did occur during the intervention correlated (rho > .43) with change in depression severity. Participants' open-ended accounts described the therapeutic horticulture experience as meaningful and influential for their view of life.
Gipson, Leah R.
This viewpoint examines the limitations of cultural competency in art therapy education through personal reflection, calling for an immersive engagement with social justice practices of naming difference, asserting counter narratives, and following the leadership of people impacted by systemic violence. The author discusses the impact of…
Osborne, John W
Aspects of existentialism relevant to existence and death anxiety (DA) are discussed. Included are the "thrownness" of existence, being-with-others, the motivational influence of inevitable death, the search for meaning, making the most of existence by taking responsibility for one's own life, and coping with existential isolation. The attempted separation of DA from object anxiety is a significant difficulty. The correlations among age, gender, and DA are variable. Personality and role-oriented problems in the transition to retirement are discussed along with Erikson's notion of "generativity" as an expression of the energy and purpose of mid-life. Furthermore, methodological and linguistic problems in DA research are considered. The article suggests qualitative methodologies as an interpersonal means of exploring DA within the contexts of psychotherapy and counselling.
Lind, Annemette Bondo; Risoer, Mette Bech; Nielsen, Klaus; Delmar, Charlotte; Christensen, Morten Bondo; Lomborg, Kirsten
Patients with somatoform disorders could be vulnerable to stressors and have difficulties coping with stress. The aim was to explore what the patients experience as stressful and how they resolve stress in everyday life. A cross-sectional retrospective design using 24 semi-structured individual life history interviews. Data-analysis was based on grounded theory. A major concern in patients was a longing for existential recognition. This influenced the patients' self-confidence, stress appraisals, symptom perceptions, and coping attitudes. Generally, patients had difficulties with self-confidence and self-recognition of bodily sensations, feelings, vulnerability, and needs, which negatively framed their attempts to obtain recognition in social interactions. Experiences of recognition appeared in three different modalities: 1) "existential misrecognition" covered the experience of being met with distrust and disrespect, 2) "uncertain existential recognition" covered experiences of unclear communication and a perception of not being totally recognized, and 3) "successful existential recognition" covered experiences of total respect and understanding. "Misrecognition" and "uncertain recognition" related to decreased self-confidence, avoidant coping behaviours, increased stress, and symptom appraisal; whereas "successful recognition" related to higher self-confidence, active coping behaviours, decreased stress, and symptom appraisal. Different modalities of existential recognition influenced self-identity and social identity affecting patients' daily stress and symptom appraisals, self-confidence, self-recognition, and coping attitudes. Clinically it seems crucial to improve the patients' ability to communicate concerns, feelings, and needs in social interactions. Better communicative skills and more active coping could reduce the harm the patients experienced by not being recognized and increase the healing potential of successful recognition. Copyright © 2013
Hamers, Raph L.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wensing, Annemarie M.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob; Siwale, M.; Njovu, C.; Labib, M.; Menke, J.; Botes, M. E.; Conradie, F.; Ive, P.; Sanne, I.; Wallis, C. L.; Letsoalo, E.; Stevens, W. S.; Hardman, M.; Wellington, M.; Luthy, R.; Mandaliya, K.; Abdallah, S.; Jao, I.; Dolan, M.; Namayanja, G.; Nakatudde, L.; Nankya, I.; Kiconco, M.; Abwola, M.; Mugyenyi, P.; Osibogun, A.; Akanmu, S.; Schuurman, R.; Wensing, A. M.; Straatsma, E.; Wit, F. W.; Dekker, J.; van Vugt, M.; Lange, J. M.
Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African
Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K
Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.
Manders, Elizabeth; Chilton, Gioia
The authors used artistic inquiry to study intersubjectivity in a weekly, stimulated creative arts therapy studio experience for one year. They found that the conversion of meaning from the meta-verbal, imaginal, aesthetic language of dance and visual art into verbal and textual discourse required complex translational processes. Personal…
Andrei Sergeevich Emelyanov
Full Text Available This article is devoted to an extensive and modern area of scientific knowledge – Decision theory. The author comprehends and analyzes critically the methodological bases of the Decision theory, he thinks, it rejects the most important thing – a human. In the article the reconstruction of historical development in the Decision theory is considered and also existential factors and feelings are discussed, which appear in human being and operate the situation of decision-making.
Geue, Kristina; Buttstädt, Marianne; Singer, Susanne; Kleinert, Evelyn; Richter, Robert; Götze, Heide; Böhler, Ursula; Becker, Cornelia; Brähler, Elmar
Art therapy is used in the whole field of psycho-oncological maintenance to support coping mechanisms with creative techniques. Previous studies stated effects of art therapy just by referring to the participants' ratings. This study wants to extend the perspective by including the views of all involved parties--participating patients, dropouts, art therapist and supervisor. We developed and tested an art therapy programme for cancer patients. The participants' and dropouts' ratings were documented by using a questionnaire with open and closed questions upon completion of the intervention. The art therapist and the supervisor described their personal point of view. 74 patients took part in the intervention whereof 18 dropped out. Of these, 8 could be interviewed regarding the reasons for not participating further in the study. The dropouts evaluated the intervention positively(4/8) or could not make a final statement (3/8). 55 questionnaires were available from the 56 participants. They described the importance of the programme in several ways. Most of all, they reported of: stimulation of imagination (50/55), emotional stabilisation(48/55), enlargement of means of expression (45/55) and contact with other patients (42/55). The dropouts named several reasons for their decision to cancel: too intense focus on the disease(N = 3), modern drawing (N = 1), too much talks (N = 1) and too much sketching (N = 1) were some points of criticism. The art therapist as well as the supervisor emphasized activation as a main outcome for the participants. Positive effects of the intervention programme highlight the importance of establishing an art therapy in ambulant care. It enlarges the range of psychosocial maintenance and enables oncological patients to cope with the disease and its consequences with artistic means.
This brief report describes a mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) intervention, "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out," which was piloted in 2010 and has since been offered at the Abramson Cancer Center at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. The author adapted the original MBAT intervention using a walkabout conceptual model, which was…
Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria
This paper will in an overall and outlining way describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimensions of entrepreneurship teaching.......This paper will in an overall and outlining way describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimensions of entrepreneurship teaching....
Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Juhl, Jacob; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Schlotz, Wolff
The present research tested the proposition that nostalgia serves an existential function by bolstering a sense of meaning in life. Study 1 found that nostalgia was positively associated with a sense of meaning in life. Study 2 experimentally demonstrated that nostalgia increases a sense of meaning in life. In both studies, the link between nostalgia and increased meaning in life was mediated by feelings of social connectedness. Study 3 evidenced that threatened meaning increases nostalgia. Study 4 illustrated that nostalgia, in turn, reduces defensiveness following a meaning threat. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 showed that nostalgia disrupts the link between meaning deficits and compromised psychological well-being. Collectively, these findings indicate that the provision of existential meaning is a pivotal function of nostalgia. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Many counselors are unaware that Natalie Rogers, daughter of Carl Rogers, has extended her father's work into the creative and expressive arts. This article includes a verbatim conversation with Natalie Rogers as she reflects on her childhood and her professional work. Person-centered expressive art therapy is an alternative to traditional verbal…
Angela Barbosa Franco
Full Text Available The right of labor disconnection underlies on a constitutional and fundamental prerogative of the entire working class. Rest periods from the laboring environment are protected by law and have the objective to provide workers with recovery of their physical and mental energies. They also assure moments of delight, of family, communitarian and political insertion, for the fulfillment of personal plans. The violation of these disconnection periods can jeopardize projects or life habits, as well as social relations, resulting in existential damage. From these premises, this article aims to analyze the characterizing elements of existential damage in order to evince its peculiarities in relation to moral damage and to defend the accumulation of damages to provide just atonement to the victims and to their dignity as human beings. Thus, this research supports itself on legal dogmatic principles, since it considers that the internal elements of legal order are sufficient to establish a distinction between moral and existential injuries. The main problem relies on the typifying elements of existential damage. Due to their extra-patrimonial nature and relationship to personal rights, they are mistakenly considered by labor courts as moral damages, and, therefore, given limited possibilities of indemnification to the victim. Under this perspective, the contextual complexity above presented is overcome through deductive reasoning, as it indicates in the open norms of the national legal system the possibility of an interdisciplinary and comparative investigation which attests the specificities of moral and existential damages.
Shadi Saleh Neimneh
Full Text Available This article looks into the postcolonial Arabic narrative of Ghassan Kanafani to examine its underplayed existential and naturalistic aspects. Postcolonial texts (and their exegeses deal with the effects of colonization/imperialism. They are expected to be political and are judged accordingly. Drawing on Kanafani’s Men in the Sun (1963, I argue that the intersection among existentialism and naturalism, on the one hand, and postcolonialism, on the other, intensifies the political relevance of the latter theory and better establishes the politically committed nature of Kanafani’s fiction of resistance. In the novella, the sun and the desert are a pivotal existential symbol juxtaposed against the despicable life led by three Palestinian refugees. The gruesome death we encounter testifies to the absurdity of life after attempts at self-definition through making choices. The gritty existence characteristic of Kanafani's work makes his representation of the lives of alienated characters more accurate and more visceral. Kanafani uses philosophical and sociological theories to augment the political nature of his protest fiction, one acting within postcolonial parameters of dispossession to object to different forms of imperialism and diaspora. Therefore, this article explores how global critical frameworks (naturalism and existentialism enrich the localized contexts essential to any study of postcolonial literature and equally move the traditional national allegory of Kanafani to a more realist/unidealistic level of political indictment against oppression.
Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God's patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God ...
Notes that, when used to treat patients diagnosed with multiple personality disorder, art therapy aids in translating unspeakable memories into visual format. Discusses "stepping in," drawing process that may promote "cross-alter associations" to imagery drawn by other personalities. Addresses recovery of traumatic material…
Heeregrave, Edwin J.; Geels, Mark J.; Baan, Elly; van der Sluis, Renee M.; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naive, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte
Full Text Available The article shows the way in which the discovery of the existence of the Absolute is made in existential metaphysics. This existential metaphysics provides us with knowledge about reality. It shows the content of the experience of being, the content given to us in the transcendentals. It also unveils the foundation of the rational order, which is given to us in the discovery of the first principles of the existence of being and of cognition. Metaphysics provides us also with knowledge concerning the structure of being. It shows us being as composite and plural; being which is “insufficient” in its structure and calls for an explanation. That being—that is problematized in existence, given to us in experience, and incompletely intelligible in itself—lifts us toward its ultimate “complement” and understanding, to the Absolute.
M.A. van der Colff
Full Text Available According to twentieth-century existentialist philosophy, the universe as we know it is steeped in senselessness, and the only possible means of survival is the construction of subjective meaning. Douglas Adams’s fictional universe portrayed in his “Hitch hiker” series reflects the arbitrary nature of existence, and the characters dwelling in this narrative space are faced with two existential choices: the one is defiance in the face of senselessness, the other is bleak despair. This article explores the existential choices made by prominent characters in the “Hitch hiker” series. The article distinguishes between and analyses the Sisyphus characters and their polar opposites (or nihilist shadows in Douglas Adams’s “Hitch hiker” series. Adams’s characters, be they human, alien or sentient machine, all face the same existential choice: actuate individual meaning, or resort to despondency. Characters who choose the first option are regarded as Sisyphus figures, whereas characters who choose the latter are referred to as shadows or nihilist nemeses.
Lockman, Jennifer D; Servaty-Seib, Heather L
There is a lack of empirically supported theories explaining suicidal ideation and few theories describe how suicidal ideation can be prevented in the context of normative human development. Rogers (2001) proposed an existential constructivist theory of suicide (ECTS) wherein existential distress and the inability to reconstruct meaning from adverse life events contribute to suicidal ideation. The ECTS includes a distinct focus on meaning reconstruction from adverse life events, which is congruent with existing research on college students and developmental frameworks used by counseling psychologists. Thus, in the present study, we tested the predictions of the ECTS in a college student sample. We collected data online from 195 college students (i.e., ages 18-25) attending a large, Midwestern university and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling. Findings provided partial support for the original ECTS. Post hoc analyses of an alternate ECTS model indicated that existential distress mediated the negative association between meaning reconstruction and suicidal ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioural psychotherapy is, just like other psychotherapeutic systems, of an eclectic nature. Should a therapist be successful across a wide range of issues, he/she needs to be adaptable, flexible and eclectic in terms of the techniques applied. Eclectically oriented therapists use a wide range of interventions; however, they adhere to individual theoretical structures. The aim of the paper is to point out the application of a combination of artistic activities within the system of the Cognitive behavioural therapy. For this purpose the paper presents a qualitative analysis of two case studies. We formulated the following research questions. Can the methods of combining the cognitive behavioural therapy and art accelerate the course of therapy? Can the methods of combining the cognitive behavioural therapy and art be perceived by the client as effective? The phenomenon investigated in the case study is a functional analysis of a client’s case and subsequent application of therapeutic and educational techniques of the Cognitive behavioural therapy and art. In both case studies it was demonstrated that the involvement of therapeutic elements accelerated the course of therapy. The clients in the research sample assessed the therapy as beneficial.
Webster, R. Scott
This article considers changing the purposes of education held by pre-service teachers. It argues that purposes of education are inextricably linked to life meanings and purposes. Employing an existential perspective, mainly through Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre and Morris, the fundamental beliefs that one has regarding the meaning and…
This paper discusses the details of existential sentences constructed with the Portuguese verbs "ter" and "haver" in the interpersonal form. The uses of these verbs are discussed and analyzed in detail. The history and evolution of linguistic changes in Brazilian Portuguese are discussed in an attempt to detect historical…
Luzzatto, Paola; Sereno, Valerie; Capps, Roy
The multidimensional aspect of pain suggests the use of multimodal interventions. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has recently utilized the art therapy modality to help patients communicate the painful side of their illness in such a way that they can feel understood and respected. In this paper we describe a simple innovative art therapy intervention that we have developed within the Art Therapy Service in the Psychiatric Department of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The patients work with a Body Outline as a starting template, together with the art therapist, in sessions lasting approximately 45 minutes. They are encouraged to fill the space inside and outside the Body Outline. They can use colored pastels, markers, or watercolor or cut out images for a collage. Seventy hospitalized adult cancer patients, 60 women and 10 men, used this intervention between January 1999 and May 2000. We have analyzed the variety of responses from the 70 patients, and three main groups have emerged, which have focused on the following issues: (1) visualization of physical pain, (2) communication of emotions, and (3) search for meaning/spirituality. The results suggest that because of its abstract symbolic feature, the Body Outline is a very flexible therapeutic intervention. It must be offered within the relationship with the art therapist, and it may fulfill quite a variety of expressive needs, from the description of physical pain to the elaboration of spiritual longings.
A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.
Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present a simplified account of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, and Marcel. It is designed to serve as a supplement to conventional textbook treatments of the nature of truth, which typically ignore the contributions that existentialists have made to the topic. An existential theory of truth stresses the epistemological (not ontological indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one’s personal participation in determining them. Contrary to superficial interpretations, this theory does not do away either with a transcendent reality or with objectivity. What is rejected is anything that would circumvent the necessary task of participating, oneself, in the epistemological determination of truth.
Solomon, Sunil S; Lucas, Gregory M; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yepthomi, Tokugha; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Ganesh, Aylur K; Anand, Santhanam; Moore, Richard D; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in the developing world has improved, but whether increased access has translated to more rapid treatment initiation among those who need it is unknown. We characterize time to ART initiation across three eras of ART availability in Chennai, India (1996-1999: pregeneric; 2000-2003: generic; 2004-2007: free rollout). Between 1996 and 2007, 11,171 patients registered for care at the YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education (YRGCARE), a tertiary HIV referral center in southern India. Of these, 5726 patients became eligible for ART during this period as per Indian guidelines for initiation of ART. Generalized gamma survival models were used to estimate relative times (RT) to ART initiation by calendar periods of eligibility. Time to initiation of ART among patients in Chennai, India was also compared to an HIV clinical cohort in Baltimore, USA. Median age of the YRGCARE patients was 34 years; 77% were male. The median CD4 at presentation was 140 cells/µl. After adjustment for demographics, CD4 and WHO stage, persons in the pregeneric era took 3.25 times longer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-4.17) to initiate ART versus the generic era and persons in the free rollout era initiated ART more rapidly than the generic era (RT: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). Adjusting for differences across centers, patients at YRGCARE took longer than patients in the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort (JHCC) to initiate ART in the pregeneric era (RT: 4.90; 95% CI: 3.37-7.13) but in the free rollout era, YRGCARE patients took only about a quarter of the time (RT: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.22-0.44). These data demonstrate the benefits of generic ART and government rollouts on time to initiation of ART in one developing country setting and suggests that access to ART may be comparable to developed country settings.
Searchfield, Grant D; Durai, Mithila; Linford, Tania
Background: There are several established, and an increasing number of putative, therapies using sound to treat tinnitus. There appear to be few guidelines for sound therapy selection and application. Aim: To review current approaches to personalizing sound therapy for tinnitus. Methods: A "state-of-the-art" review (Grant and Booth, 2009) was undertaken to answer the question: how do current sound-based therapies for tinnitus adjust for tinnitus heterogeneity? Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed were searched for the 10-year period 2006-2016. The search strategy used the following key words: "tinnitus" AND "sound" AND "therapy" AND "guidelines" OR "personalized" OR "customized" OR "individual" OR "questionnaire" OR "selection." The results of the review were cataloged and organized into themes. Results: In total 165 articles were reviewed in full, 83 contained sufficient details to contribute to answering the study question. The key themes identified were hearing compensation, pitched-match therapy, maskability, reaction to sound and psychosocial factors. Although many therapies mentioned customization, few could be classified as being personalized. Several psychoacoustic and questionnaire-based methods for assisting treatment selection were identified. Conclusions: Assessment methods are available to assist clinicians to personalize sound-therapy and empower patients to be active in therapy decision-making. Most current therapies are modified using only one characteristic of the individual and/or their tinnitus.
The principal claim of this dissertation is that there is a unique structural core shared by Double Object, Dative Experiencer and Existential/Presentational constructions. This core is argued to take the form of a Cipient Predication structure, `cipient covering traditional notions like (affected)
Langebeek, Nienke; Gisolf, Elizabeth H.; Reiss, Peter; Vervoort, Sigrid C.; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B.; Richter, Clemens; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.
Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of
Feen-Calligan, Holly; McIntyre, Barbara; Sands-Goldstein, Margaret
This article reviews the history of dollmaking that is relevant to art therapy, and the application of dolls as therapeutic media in clinical and educational settings. The authors describe their experiences using dollmaking in the resolution of grief, in professional identity construction, and in community service. The article addresses the…
Ghaemi, S Nassir
Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic sub-syndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods.
Ghaemi, S. Nassir
Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic subsyndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410
Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify
Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Art therapy and drawings may serve as alternative means of expression and release from trauma among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Methods. The retrospective clinical study of drawings of war veterans was performed. A total of 89 war veterans met the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV PTSD criteria and were consecutively admitted to the Day Hospital during 5 years. Art group therapy as part of integrative treatment was performed once a week. The group was open and heterogeneous. Qualitative analysis of drawings content and group protocols were obtained. The drawings were made by free associations. War related themes were explored and descriptive statistics were applied. Results. The most frequent type of common themes of combat stress presented battle and witnessing wounded and killed combatants. Less frequent were themes of graves, destroyed cities and broken trees. The veterans preferred black and red colors with association to death, blood, wounds and destroyed objects. Conclusion. Drawing could provide a unique, complex, visual illustration of war traumatic experiences and memories of posttraumatic stress disorder veterans. Art group discussion might enhance war veterans’ verbal expression due to group support in safe setting. As adjuvant psychotherapy, art group therapy could enrich awareness and the ability of clinicians to treat hard posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to uncovered war trauma.
Parrish, Mark S.; Stanard, Rebecca P.; Cobia, Debra C.
Adolescent sexual acting out behaviors frequently occur in the context of comorbid issues, such as depression, trauma, behavioral disorders, and developmental deficits, thus rendering any single treatment modality less effective. Augmenting traditional treatment with an existential-humanistic (E-H) perspective enables counselors to more…
Disclosures of child sexual abuse create an immediate crisis within the child's family unit. Reactions of nonoffending caregivers in particular may prevent them from being emotionally available to respond immediately to the needs of the child victim. This article describes an art therapy intervention of visual mapping used in a support group of…
Burke, D T; Al-Adawi, S; Lee, Y T; Audette, J
The term Martial Arts is often used as general phrase to describe many of the combat arts, which have developed in eastern cultures over the past millennium. This paper reviews the Martial Arts from the original context of a trio of life skills. This trio includes the healing arts such as acupuncture, the self-exploration arts such as yoga, and the vital life skills such as meditation. As Martial Arts suggests the waging of combat, the origins of the most common combat arts are reviewed, with an overview of the difference between the hard and the soft styles. The arts developed not only in the eastern, but also in all parts of the world, with references of these types of combats arts in the writings of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. In modern times, the combat arts are performed for both exercise and sport. A review of the injuries that occur, and the health benefits that might be expected are discussed. A review of the medical literature that demonstrates some of these health benefits is included, with Tai Chi Chuan as the most studied of these. The health benefits discussed include strengthen and self-efficacy of the elderly, reduced falls, increased exercise capacity, and benefits to the immune system and autonomic nervous system. The paper emphasized the breadth of the Martial Arts and the import of these to the sports and health community.
This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…
Full Text Available The similitude between anxiety and death is the starting point of Paul Tillich's analysis from The Courage To Be, his famous theological and philosophical reply to Martin Heidegger's Being And Time. Not only Tillich and Heidegger are concerned with the connection between anxiety and death but also other proponents of both existentialism and nihilism like Friedrich Nietzsche, Emil Cioran and Lev Shestov. Tillich observes that "anxiety puts frightening masks" over things and perhaps this definition is its finest contribution to the spectacular phenomenology of anxiety. Moreover, Tillich has some illuminating insights about the anxiety of emptiness and meaninglessness, which are important for the history of the existential philosophy. It is interesting how the protestant theologian tries to answer to Heidegger: while the German philosopher asserted that we must avoid fear and we have to embrace anxiety as a route to personal authenticity, Tillich notes that we should transform anxiety into fear, because courage is more likely to "abolish" fear.
Gulbrandsen, P.; Clayman, M.L.; Beach, M.C.; Han, P.K.; Boss, E.F.; Ofstad, E.H.; Elwyn, G.
OBJECTIVE: We describe the different ways in which illness represents an existential problem, and its implications for shared decision-making. METHODS: We explore core concepts of shared decision-making in medical encounters (uncertainty, vulnerability, dependency, autonomy, power, trust,
Gestalt therapy, a particular type of psychotherapy, draws on existential and various Eastern philosophies, and aims to enable the individual to seek his or her own solutions to personal problems. Literally translated as 'whole', Gestalt focuses the individual to appreciate and experience the present. This article examines the Gestalt theory and considers its application to a terminally ill client and his wife.
Køster, Allan; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte
Our poster outlines the basic analytical and methodological strategy of a pending 3-year investigation into the existential dimensions of grief. The project is divided into two main foci: 1) a retrospective investigation into how bereavement of a parent in childhood/adolescence shapes the various....... Methodologically our design stands out by including a strong focus on the embodied and prereflective dimension of personal existences and connecting this with narrative accounts. The theoretical basis for this approach has been presented in recent publications by the authors (Køster & Winther-Lindqvist 2017...... and Køster 2016, 2017) and will be explicated in the poster session....
Seifert, Kathrin; Spottke, Annika; Fliessbach, Klaus
Art and art therapy open up interesting possibilities for dementia patients. However, it has not been evaluated scientifically so far, whether the art of sculpting has any benefits. In this non-randomized pilot study with twelve participants, we investigated the feasibility and acceptance of sculptural activity in patients with dementia and the effects on their well-being. A questionnaire was custom-designed to investigate five key aspects of well-being: mental state and concentration, corporeal memory, self-reliance, self-esteem and physicality. Remarkable improvements were seen in several subscales in the sculptural activity group, but not the control group: Mental state and concentration (nine of thirteen key aspects), self-reliance (four of five), self-esteem (one of one) and physicality (two of two). The results of this pilot study indicate the multidimensional effects of sculptural activity on patients living with dementia. The field would benefit greatly from further research.
Langebeek, Nienke; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Reiss, Peter; Vervoort, Sigrid C; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Richter, Clemens; Sprangers, Mirjam AG; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T
Background Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of adherence-enhancing interventions. Our objective was to review evidence on predictors/correlates of adherence to ART, and to aggregate findings into quantitative estimates of their impact on adher...
Qiu, Hong-Zhong; Ye, Zeng-Jie; Liang, Mu-Zi; Huang, Yue-Qun; Liu, Wei; Lu, Zhi-Dong
Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia. This article concludes that the art brut therapy was effective for the inmates with schizophrenia in mainland China and provides encouraging data on how to enhance mental health for inmates with schizophrenia. Art brut therapy can reduce emotional distress and negative psychiatric symptoms among Chinese inmates. Arts brut therapy can enhance Chinese inmates' compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medicines, and regular sleeping patterns. Arts brut therapy in conjunction with medication is highly recommended for recovery of Chinese inmates with schizophrenia, especially for patients with negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bouchard, Rene R.
Through the lens of Jungian theory of the shadow, this article identifies ways in which its dynamics and manifestations occur in the field of art therapy. Introduces experiential exercises for discovering and working with the shadow and concludes with recommendations for transforming negative dynamics into creative solutions. (Author/MKA)
Full Text Available In 2004, the Indian government began providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART through established ART centers. Despite the fact that ART is provided free by the government, there are a large number of sero positive people who do not come forward to receive treatment. Non-adherence is further confounds efforts to offer effective treatment. This study reports the profile of patients who attend an ART centres in southern India.
Subject-verb concord in English existential constructions is often viewed as problematic from both prescriptive and descriptive approaches to grammar and causes considerable confusion among teachers and learners of English as a second language (ESL). This paper aims to disentangle debates over the curious usage of the "there" + plural noun phrase…
Full Text Available The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined.A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b continuous ART (cART. Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count >350 cells(c/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints.The proportions of CD4 counts >350 cells/µl were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: -0.16, 23.1. No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm.We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00100646.
Radl, Donna; Vita, Maureen; Gerber, Nancy; Gracely, Edward J; Bradt, Joke
National attention on patients' cancer-related emotional distress produced a need for evidence-based, psychosocial interventions in oncology care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Self-Book© art therapy for emotional distress and psychological well-being of female oncology patients during active oncology treatment. Sixty consenting women with cancer were randomly assigned to either a six-session Self-Book© art therapy program or standard care. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was employed. Data were collected using the Distress Thermometer (DT), Perceived Emotional Distress Inventory (PEDI), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Brief Psychological Well-being test, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp). Measurements were obtained at baseline, week 3, week 6, and 1-to-2 months post-intervention. Forty participants were included in the final analysis. No significant differences between groups were found for the primary outcome measures: emotional distress and psychological well-being. Greater improvements in Self-Book© art therapy participants' spiritual well-being were found compared to the standard care control participants (p = 0.02). Although no statistically significant differences were present between the groups for the primary outcomes, several positive trends were noted. Thirty percent of Self-Book© art therapy participants reported post-intervention emotional distress scores that were below the abnormal range for emotional distress, compared with only 5% of standard care control participants, suggesting that Self-Book© art therapy may have clinical value. Further studies are recommended to better understand the therapeutic mechanisms of Self-Book© art therapy for enhancing psychological well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ghislain, Mathilde; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Meyer, Laurence; Capeau, Jacqueline; Fellahi, Soraya; Gérard, Laurence; May, Thierry; Simon, Anne; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile
Objectives HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation. Methods Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142). Results Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07). Conclusion After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. PMID:26636578
Pike, Amanda Alders
This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…
Dixon, Jimmy-Gama; Gibson, Sarah; McPake, Barbara; Maleta, Ken
The World Health Organization (WHO) staging is a commonly used rationing mechanism for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among various HIV infected populations including youths in most developing countries. Rationing is defined as any policy or practice that restricts consumption of or access to certain goods due to its limited supply. However, as HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing among youth, understanding the capacity of the staging approach to achieve HAART uptake in youth is of considerable importance. This study aimed to explore how HAART rationing and access mechanisms impact on youth's utilization of HAART in Malawi. The study used mixed methods with quantitative analysis of existing Ministry of Health Clinical HIV Unit data used to determine existing levels of youth HAART use. Qualitative methods employed in-depth interviews that interviewed nine ART providers, nine HIV positive youth on HAART and nine HIV positive youth not on HAART; and field observations to nine ART clinics were used to understand HAART rationing and access mechanisms and how such mechanisms impact youth uptake of HAART. The findings revealed that ART providers use both explicit rationing mechanisms like WHO clinical staging and implicit rationing mechanisms like use of waiting lists, queues and referral in ART provision. However, the WHO staging approach had some challenges in its implementation. It was also observed that factors like non-comprehensive approach to HAART provision, costs incurred to access HAART, negative beliefs and misconceptions about HAART and HIV were among the key factors that limit youth access to HAART. The study recommends that while WHO staging is successful as a rationing mechanism in Malawi, measures should be put in place to improve access to CD4 assessment for clients who may need it. ART providers also need to be made aware of the implicit rationing mechanisms that may affect HAART access. There is also need to improve monitoring of those HIV
Rajasuriar, Reena; Wright, Edwina; Lewin, Sharon R
The purpose of this review was to summarize recent studies on the effect of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients on markers of immune activation/inflammation, viral persistence and serious non-AIDS events. Early ART, initiated within days to months of HIV infection, was associated with marked reduction in T-cell activation often reaching levels observed in HIV-uninfected individuals. However, the impact of early ART on markers of innate immune activation, microbial translocation and inflammation/coagulation was less clear. Early ART has also been associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of latently infected cells, which was greater if ART was initiated within days to weeks rather than months following infection. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between immune activation and viral reservoirs, specifically following early ART. Early ART may potentially reduce serious non-AIDS events and associated mortality, but most of these studies have extrapolated from changes in surrogate markers, such as CD4 : CD8 ratio. Early ART was associated with beneficial effects on multiple markers of immune activation, inflammation and viral persistence. Longer term prospective studies are still needed to determine whether early ART translates to a significant reduction in serious non-AIDS events and mortality.
Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the key concepts of Existential thought in two masterpieces of the world literature, namely, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Sadeq Hedayat’s The Blind Owl (Buf-e Kur. Freedom, free will, authenticity, self-realization, self-becoming, and awareness of death are among the main concerns of both writers. Shakespeare depicts authenticity in the character of Hamlet, and it is in contrast to him that the reader finds many instances of inauthenticity. The Danish prince has no tolerance whatsoever for inauthentic or self-deceiving. The same thing is visible in The Blind Owl in which the narrator-protagonist feels himself above all the low, petty desires of mankind. All in all, both characters’ main challenge is to live authentically. Keywords: Existential philosophy, authenticity, angst, death, being, existence, self-realization
Miholić, Damir; Prstačić, Miroslav; Martinec, Renata
Aim: The main aim of this research includes the analysis of the psychodynamics of the changes in the experience of the child and in the parent-child relationship, during the complementary application and supporting creative art/expressive therapy in pediatric oncology, especially in connection with the modern concepts of psychosocial oncology, sophrology, education and rehabilitation sciences. Method: According to initial hypothesis application of complementary and creative art/expressive ...
Keall, Robyn; Clayton, Josephine M; Butow, Phyllis
To investigate the facilitators, barriers and strategies that Australian palliative care nurses identify in providing existential and spiritual care for patients with life-limiting illnesses. Palliative care aims to be holistic, incorporating all domains of personhood, but spiritual/existential domain issues are often undertreated. Lack of time and skills and concerns for what you may uncover hamper care provision. A qualitative study through semistructured interviews. We interviewed 20 palliative care nurses from a cross section of area of work, place of work, years of experience, spiritual beliefs and importance of those beliefs within their lives. Questions focused on their current practices of existential and spiritual care, identification of facilitators of, barriers to and strategies for provision of that care. Their responses were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. The nurses' interviews yielded several themes including development of the nurse-patient relationship (14/20 nurses), good communication skills and examples of questions they use to 'create openings' to facilitate care. Barriers were identified as follows: lack of time (11/20 nurses), skills, privacy and fear of what you may uncover, unresolved symptoms and differences in culture or belief. Novel to our study, the nurses offered strategies that included the following: undertaking further education in this area, being self-aware and ensuring the setting is conducive to in-depth conversations and interactions and documentation and/or interdisciplinary sharing for continuity of care. Palliative care nurses are well placed to provide existential and spiritual care to patients with the primary facilitator being the nurse-patient relationship, the primary barrier being lack of time and the primary strategy being undertaking further education in this area. These findings could be used for nurse-support programmes, undergraduate or graduate studies or communication workshop for nurses.
Tupper, Kenneth W.
In light of recent specific liberalizations in drug laws in some countries, I have investigated the potential of entheogens (i.e., psychoactive plants used as spiritual sacraments) as tools to facilitate existential intelligence. "Plant teachers" from the Americas such as ayahuasca, psilocybin mushrooms, and peyote, and the Indo-Aryan…
In this article, the author examines the use of transitional objects in a case study of a 12-year-old boy, documenting the role of art therapy in helping the boy cope with the trauma of his parents' recent separation and divorce. Transitional objects emerged spontaneously as the boy integrated the transition that the divorce of his parents…
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.
Lucía HERVÁS HERMIDA
Full Text Available Recent research in the field of positive parenting advocates the importance of promoting family support, through parental education programs. On the other hand, the importance of the prenatal period for human development is well known, but attention to this stage has traditionally been done from the biomedical point of view, without paying attention to the other educational, emotional, social and gender aspects.In this sense, the aim of this article is to propose a possible way to support positive parenting, which will provide an useful contribution to prenatal pedagogy as an emerging science, through art therapy. By the qualitative analysis of two case studies of two women participants from two different workshops, the possibilities offered by group art therapy as a way of prenatal education, for the exploration of the creative dimension of motherhood are shown, and the deepening of the attachment with both the baby, the couple and the environment. Likewise, the development of parental competences is favored, focusing on awareness and personal development, and on the creation of a group support, in which shared learning takes place. Finally, the conclusions deal with aspects of the methodology that foster an improvement in the well-being and the development of an empowered and resilient attitude, benefiting both mother and child, as well as the whole family and social environment.
Counselling is increasingly described in the literature as an important part of the psychiatric nurse's role. Often, the type of counselling described in that literature is of the client-centered type developed by Carl Rogers. This report outlines the philsophical position known as existentialism and offers suggestions as to how that philosophy may be used to develop a more vigorous and more egalitarian approach to counselling in nursing.
“Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space” examines how existing spaces can be used as a basis for their rearrangement into meaningful, exitential (‘wezenlijke’) places. The research consists of a textual part and an artistic part (a series of works and exhibitions, including a retrospective on show in CIAP (Hasselt) from december 2015 – march 2016). One of the innovative aspects of this research is the unique methodology that was used. Through the point of vi...
Davies, Philippa; Hunot, Vivien; Moore, Theresa HM; Caldwell, Deborah; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Churchill, Rachel
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25408624
Wahlbeck, Helén; Kvist, Linda J; Landgren, Kajsa
Fear of childbirth is a serious problem that can have negative effects on both women and babies and to date treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate the experience of undergoing art therapy in women with severe fear of childbirth. Nineteen women residing in Sweden, who had undergone art therapy for severe fear of childbirth, were interviewed during 2011-2013 about their experiences of the treatment. All women had received both support from a specialist team of midwives and treatment by an art therapist who was also a midwife. The women were interviewed three months after giving birth. The transcribed interviews were analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical method. A main theme and three themes emerged from the analysis. The main theme was Gaining hope and self confidence. The three themes were; Carrying heavy baggage, Creating images as a catalyst for healing and Gaining new insights and abilities. Through the use of images and colours the women gained access to difficult emotions and the act of painting helped them visualize these emotions and acted as a catalyst for the healing process. Art therapy was well accepted by the women. Through sharing their burden of fear by creating visible images, they gained hope and self-confidence in the face of their impending childbirth. The results may contribute to knowledge about the feasibility of treating fear of childbirth by art therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Ammentorp, Jette
BACKGROUND: General practice recognizes the existential dimension as an integral part of multidimensional patient care alongside the physical, psychological and social dimensions. However, general practitioners (GPs) report substantial barriers related to communication with patients about existen...
Concomitant herbal medicine and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) use among HIV patients in Western Uganda: a cross-sectional analysis of magnitude and patterns of use, associated factors and impact on ART adherence.
Lubinga, S J; Kintu, A; Atuhaire, J; Asiimwe, S
Use of herbal medicines among patients receiving Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) remains by far an uncharacterised phenomenon in Africa and Uganda specifically. We evaluated the use of herbal medicines among patients on ART at the HIV clinic of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH), examined factors associated with their concomitant use and their impact on ART adherence. This was a cross-sectional study among 334 systematically sampled patients receiving ART at the HIV clinic of MRRH from February to April 2010. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions of quality of care received, self-perceived health status, information on ART received, herbal medicines use and ART adherence. Study outcomes were concomitant herbal medicine and ART use, and ART adherence. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were conducted using Stata10.0. Close to half, 155 (46.4%) reported concomitant herbal medicines and ART use, with 133 (39.8%) using herbal medicines at least once daily. Most (71.6%) used herbal medicines to treat HIV-related symptoms. A majority (92.3%) reported that the doctors were unaware of their use of herbal medicines, 68.5% citing its minimal importance to the attending physician. Most frequently used herbs were Aloe vera (25%) and Vernonia amygdalina (21%). Time since start of ART (OR 1.14 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, for each one year increase), number of ART side effects reported (≥3 vs.≤1, OR 2.20 95% CI 1.13-4.26) and self-perceived health status (Good vs. Poor, OR 0.31 95% CI 0.12-0.79) were independently associated with concomitant herbal medicine and ART use. Concomitant herbal medicine and ART use was not associated with poor ART adherence (OR 0.85 95% CI 0.47-1.53). There is widespread concomitant herbal medicines and ART use among our patients, with no association to poor ART adherence. Patients appear to use these therapies to complement as opposed to substituting ART.
Zerda, Adam de la; Armbruster, Benjamin; Xing Lei
While ART has been studied for years, the specific quantitative implementation details have not. In order for this new scheme of radiation therapy (RT) to reach its potential, an effective ART treatment planning strategy capable of taking into account the dose delivery history and the patient's on-treatment geometric model must be in place. This paper performs a theoretical study of dynamic closed-loop control algorithms for ART and compares their utility with data from phantom and clinical cases. We developed two classes of algorithms: those Adapting to Changing Geometry and those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. The former class takes into account organ deformations found just before treatment. The latter class optimizes the dose distribution accumulated over the entire course of treatment by adapting at each fraction, not only to the information just before treatment about organ deformations but also to the dose delivery history. We showcase two algorithms in the class of those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. A comparison of the approaches indicates that certain closed-loop ART algorithms may significantly improve the current practice. We anticipate that improvements in imaging, dose verification and reporting will further increase the importance of adaptive algorithms
Ana Cristina Aloia Ronconi
mediado, pela arte, entre a materialidade do mundo e a subjetividade dos participantes, o ateliê de artes enseja a busca do significado como finalidade de todo processo educativo. Palavras-chave: Processo educativo. Pequenas histórias. Ateliê de artes. Abstract The present article discusses the role of the “atelier of Arts” in the context of the education understood from its integral and existential dimension, and not only reduced to the teaching-learning process that takes place at formal school. The living experience of the “ateliers of Arts” for children, coordinated by an Art-educator in the city of Sao Paulo, enriches the discussion, when treats the space and time dedicated to the activity as a continent for the development of the pupils’ subjectivity, in the sense of soul-making. In the contact, mediated by the Art, between the world’s materiality and the subjectivity of the pupils, the “atelier of Arts” proposes the searching of meaning as the goal of all educative process. Keywords: Educative process. Short stories. Atelier of arts.
Kip, Kevin E; Elk, Carrie A; Sullivan, Kelly L; Kadel, Rajendra; Lengacher, Cecile A; Long, Christopher J; Rosenzweig, Laney; Shuman, Amy; Hernandez, Diego F; Street, Jennifer D; Girling, Sue Ann; Diamond, David M
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder. This prospective cohort study reports on a new exposure-based therapy known as Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART(®)) that incorporates the use of eye movements administered in a brief treatment period (1-5 one-hour sessions within three weeks). Eighty adults aged 21-60 years with symptoms of PTSD were recruited from the Tampa Bay area. The ART-based psychotherapy was designed to minimize anxiety and body sensations associated with recall of traumatic memories and to replace distressing images with favorable ones. Participants' mean age was 40 years, 77% were female, and 29% were Hispanic. Participants underwent a median of three ART sessions, 66 of 80 (82.5%) completed treatment, and 54 of 66 (81.8%) provided 2-month follow-up data. Mean scores pre- and post-ART and at 2-month follow-up were: PTSD Checklist: 54.5 ± 12.2 vs. 31.2 ± 11.4 vs. 30.0 ± 12.4; Brief Symptom Inventory: 30.8 ± 14.6 vs. 10.1 ± 10.8 vs. 10.1 ± 12.1; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: 29.5 ± 10.9 vs. 11.8 ± 11.1 vs. 13.5 ± 12.1; Trauma Related Growth Inventory-Distress scale: 18.9 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 5.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.9 (p ART vs. post-ART and 2-month comparisons). No serious adverse events were reported. ART appears to be a brief, safe, and effective treatment for symptoms of PTSD.
Chakravarty, Jaya; Kansal, Sangeeta; Tiwary, Narendra; Sundar, Shyam
Approximately, 40% of the patients registered in the National AIDS Control Program in India are not on antiretroviral therapy (ART), i.e., are in pre-ART care. However, there are scarce data regarding the retention of pre-ART patients under routine program conditions. The main objective of this study was to find out the reasons for default among patients in pre-ART care. Patients enrolled in the ART Centre, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) between January and December 2009 and in pre-ART care were included in the study. Defaulters were those pre-ART patients who missed their last appointment of CD4 count by more than 1 month. Defaulters were traced telephonically in 2011 and those who returned and gave their consent for the study were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Out of 620 patients in pre-ART care, 384 (68.2%) were defaulters. One hundred forty-four of the defaulters were traced and only 83 reached the ART center for interview. Among defaulters who did not reach the ART center, illiterate and unmarried were significantly more and mean duration from registration to default was also significantly less as compared to those who came back for the interview. Most defaulters gave more than one reason for defaulting that were as follows: Inconvenient clinic timings (98%), need for multiple mode of transport (92%), perceived improved health (65%), distance of center from home (61%), lack of social support (62%), and financial difficulty (59%). Active tracing of pre-ART patients through outreach and strengthening of the Link ART centers will improve the retention of patients in the program.
Andrei Sergeevich Emelyanov
Full Text Available This article is devoted to an extensive and rather modern scientific area – Decision-making theory. The author uses logical-mathematical bases of Decision-making theory to make an explication of the existential features of the choice, which is based on four main martingales: trend, time, men and phobia. The last four constituents “have power” above human-being and impress the situation of decision-making. The impression on such situation allow to minimize a risk, to predict results and to create a strategy with positive result.
It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, 'nullify' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest
Full Text Available The importance of art therapy in everyday practice with handicap children, especially during the time dedicated to practical art, represents the basic of this report. By that most important are hand made activity, drawing, and music, and their positive influence on children emotional life.
Park, S J; Kushwaha, S S; McGregor, C G A
Congestive heart failure is associated with poor quality of life (QoL) and low survival rates. The development of state-of-the-art cardiac devices holds promise for improved therapy in patients with heart failure. The field of implantable cardiac assist devices is changing rapidly with the emergence of continuous-flow pumps (CFPs). The important developments in this field, including pertinent clinical trials, registry reports, innovative research, and potential future directions are discussed in this paper.
Govender, Kaymarlin; Akintola, Olagoke; George, Gavin; Petersen, Inge; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Reardon, Candice
Despite being one of the worst affected sectors in South Africa, the mining sector has proven to be one of the most active in intervention efforts in the fight against HIV and AIDS (Ellis, 2007). Owing to low uptake rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in mining companies in recent years (Connelly & Rosen, 2006) and the positive relationship between attitudes towards ART and ART uptake (Cooper et al., 2002; Horne, Cooper, Gellaitry, Leake, & Fisher, 2007), this study sought to describe and investigate the psychosocial and behavioural correlates of attitudes towards ART in a sample of South African mineworkers. A total of 806 mineworkers from a large South African mine participated in this quantitative study. Despite a high rate of HIV testing behaviour (83.0%) as well as favourable attitudes towards ART, analysis indicated that temporary employees and contractors were more vulnerable in terms of HIV risk, HIV testing behaviours and ART knowledge and attitudes. Employees who had more positive attitudes towards ART were more knowledgeable of ART and, importantly, had a more favourable attitude towards the mine's HIV/AIDS treatment programme. These findings are discussed in relation to the low ART uptake rates in this context and recommendations for the improvement of ART uptake amongst employees at this mining site.
Corbeil, J; Poupard, D
The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.
This conceptual and practical paper is integrating the work of Viktor Frankl (1985) and Steven Reiss (2000, 2008) into a model of Existential and Motivational Analysis (EMotiAn). This integrated model and approach may provide scholars, educators, consultants and practitioners alike with an innovative and meaningful framework for leadership and…
Нерубасская, А. А.
Today a critical necessity has appeared in the reconsideration of modern people lifestyle and society on the whole so as to raise strong and happy generation in a context of life quality increasing, creation of decent living conditions. The given article provides a systematic analysis of the development of the medical methods in the world nations‘ social systems, and a systematic investigation of the ―health‖ existential as a part of the development of the ancient medicine. Nowadays the deman...
Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels C
When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study with selected survey participants. The response rate was 59% (1237/2098), of which 85% stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. We formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: the patient, clinical peers, official complaints, guilt, and existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared (and sometimes experienced), the inner struggles with guilt and existential considerations were dominant. Feelings of guilt were reported by 36-49%, and 50% agreed that the traumatic childbirth had made them think more about the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath of a traumatic childbirth. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic
Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin
According to terror management theory, self-esteem serves as a buffer against existential anxiety. This proposition is well supported empirically, but its neuronal underpinnings are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present neuroimaging study, our aim was to test how self-esteem affects our neural circuitry activation when death-related material is processed. Consistent with previous findings, the bilateral insula responded less to death-related stimuli relative to similarly unpleasant, but death-unrelated sentences, an effect that might reflect a decrease in the sense of oneself in the face of existential threat. In anterior parts of the insula, this 'deactivation' effect was more pronounced for high self-esteem individuals, suggesting that the insula might be of core importance to understanding the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem. In addition, low self-esteem participants responded with enhanced activation to death-related over unpleasant stimuli in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that regulating death-related thoughts might be more effortful to these individuals. Together, this suggests that the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem might be implemented in the brain in the form of both insula-dependent awareness mechanisms and prefrontal cortex-dependent regulation mechanisms. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.
D'Amico, Miranda; Lalonde, Corinne
The purpose of this quasi-experimental research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of art therapy for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The program we tested was structured to provide a therapeutic setting for children to discuss difficulties they experience in their social interactions, and give them…
The concise curriculum vitae of the founder of existential analysis is followed by an exact comparison of the polarity (homo natura versus homo cultura) between Binswanger and Freud. Then the five stages in the development of (Existential Daseinsanalysis Analysis) are described: the stage of learning, of practice, of criticism, of the alternative to psychoanalysis, and of reconciliation. The criticism is aimed especially at Freud's naturalism and at the concept of drive. These concepts are opposed by ontoanalytic doctrines derived from Heidegger's ontoanalysis. The differences are further exemplified by the comparison of the existentialanalytical and the psychoanalytical view of the unconscious. A presentation of the treatment of a "hysterical phobia," which is first explained in psychoanalytic terms and later in existentialanalytic terminology (mainly concerning the world-projects) makes the difference between the two schools of thought explicit.
Rodrigues, Paulo; Crokaert, Jasper; Gastmans, Chris
Although unanimity exists on using palliative sedation (PS) for controlling refractory physical suffering in end-of-life situations, using it for controlling refractory existential suffering (PS-ES) is controversial. Complicating the debate is that definitions and terminology for existential suffering are unclear, ambiguous, and imprecise, leading to a lack of consensus for clinical practice. To systematically identify, describe, analyze, and discuss ethical arguments and concepts underpinning the argument-based bioethics literature on PS-ES. We conducted a systematic search of the argument-based bioethics literature in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase ® , The Philosopher's Index, PsycINFO ® , PsycARTICLES ® , Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Pascal-Francis, and Cairn. We included articles published in peer-reviewed journals till December 31, 2016, written in English or French, which focused on ethical arguments related to PS-ES. We used Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies protocol, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven for data extraction and synthesis of themes. We identified 18 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis revealed mind-body dualism, existential suffering, refractoriness, terminal condition, and imminent death as relevant concepts in the ethical debate on PS-ES. The ethical principles of double effect, proportionality, and the four principles of biomedical ethics were used in argumentations in the PS-ES debate. There is a clear need to better define the terminology used in discussions of PS-ES and to ground ethical arguments in a more effective way. Anthropological presuppositions such as mind-body dualism underpin the debate and need to be more clearly elucidated using an interdisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin Rincon, C.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Dena Espinel, E. de; Gomez Llorente, P. L.; Fernandez Bordes, M.
The radiotherapy unit TIT-Art TomoTherapy allows the realization of intensity modulated treatments in a helical manner through design, consisting of a linear accelerator installed on a rotating gantry in combination with the longitudinal movement of the treatment table and a multi leaf collimator (MLC) binary. The acceptance tests include, among other things, the acquisition of a set of dosimetric data (profiles and PDD), for later comparison with a reference set of measures taken at the factory, called the gold standard. Being pre commissioning from the factory, the unit will be accepted provided that the measured data meet the gold standard within preset tolerances. The dosimetric equipment used in the test of acceptance is provided by the manufacturer and so far is done with water tank, camera, software electrometer and associate of Standard Imaging and marketed by TomoTherapy Inc. The objective of this study is to compare the measures obtained with a semiconductor diode with the gold standard. (Author)
Hvidt, Niels Christian; La Cour, Peter
cultural basis for research in secular society. Reviewing the literature, three main domains of existential meaning-making emerge: Secular, spiritual, and religious. In reconfirming these three domains, we propose to couple them with the three dimensions of cognition (knowing), practice (doing...
Aase, M; Nordrehaug, J E; Malterud, K
Physicians are exposed to matters of existential character at work, but little is known about the personal impact of such issues. To explore how physicians experience and cope with existential aspects of their clinical work and how such experiences affect their professional identities, a qualitative study using individual semistructured interviews has analysed accounts of their experiences related to coping with such challenges. Analysis was by systematic text condensation. The purposeful sample comprised 10 physicians (including three women), aged 33-66 years, residents or specialists in cardiology or cardiothoracic surgery, working in a university hospital with 24-hour emergency service and one general practitioner. Participants described a process by which they were able to develop a capacity for coping with the existential challenges at work. After episodes perceived as shocking or horrible earlier in their career, they at present said that they could deal with death and mostly keep it at a distance. Vulnerability was closely linked to professional responsibility and identity, perceived as a burden to be handled. These demands were balanced by an experience of meaning related to their job, connected to making a difference in their patients' lives. Belonging to a community of their fellows was a presupposition for coping with the loneliness and powerlessness related to their vulnerable professional position. Physicians' vulnerability facing life and death has been underestimated. Belonging to caring communities may assist growth and coping on exposure to existential aspects of clinical work and developing a professional identity.
Tang, Siew Tzuh; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Shi; Chou, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Chen, Chen H
Whether prognostic awareness benefits terminally ill cancer patients' psychological-existential well-being and quality of life (QOL) is unclear because of lack of well-controlled longitudinal studies. This study longitudinally evaluated the associations of accurate prognostic awareness and prognostic acceptance with psychological distress, existential suffering, and QOL while comprehensively controlling for confounders in Taiwanese terminally ill cancer patients' last year of life. A convenience sample of 325 cancer patients was followed until death. Psychological distress and existential suffering were assessed by severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and high self-perceived sense of burden to others, respectively. Dichotomized and continuous (QOL) outcome variables were evaluated by multivariate logistic and linear regression modeling with the generalized estimating equation, respectively. Accurate prognostic awareness was not associated with the likelihood of severe anxiety or depressive symptoms but significantly increased the likelihood of high self-perceived sense of burden to others and was associated with poorer QOL in participants' last year of life. Participants who knew and highly accepted their prognosis were significantly less likely to experience severe anxiety symptoms than those who were unaware of or knew their prognosis but had difficulty accepting it. Knowing one's poor prognosis and confronting one's impending death without full acceptance and adequate professional psycho-spiritual support may harm more than benefit terminally ill cancer patients' psychological state, existential well-being, and QOL. These findings highlight the importance of tailoring psycho-spiritual support to cancer patients' psychological and existential needs when prognostic information is disclosed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rockwell, Pam; Dunham, Mardis
This study explored the use of the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) with a population of persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder who were court ordered for treatment. Two groups of adults (N = 40) were closely matched on age, gender, race, socioeconomic status and education level, and were administered the Person Picking…
Seidel, M.; Thinius, A.; Bahr, A.; Seidel, M.
This paper discusses Sosa’s via media between existential relativism and absolutism. We discuss three implications of Sosa’s account which require some further clarification. First, we distinguish three alternative readings of Sosa’s account – the indexicalist, the homonymist and the (proper)
Hijmans, E.J.S.; Selm, M. van
This article aims to examine existential meaning constructions from an action theoretical perspective in a specific Internet environment: the personal homepage. Personal homepages are on-line multi-media documents addressing the question Who am I? Authors of personal homepages provide information on
Utaş Akhan, Latife; Atasoy, Nuray
Purpose: Study was conducted to explore the impact of marbling art therapy on the anxiety levels of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Methods: Data for the study were at a university hospital and in the psychiatric service,polyclinic of a State Hospital with 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 34 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Investigations were carried out with study groups and a control group.Findings:Following marbling, it was found that there were signi...
Cuypers, Stefaan E.
Richard Stanley Peters was one of the founding fathers of analytic philosophy of education in the twentieth century. After reviewing Peters' disentanglement of the ambiguities of liberal education, I reconstruct his view on the status and the existential foundations of the humanities. What emerges from my reconstruction is an original…
Sohn, Brian K.; Plaas, Kristina; Franklin, Karen; Dellard, Tiffany; Murphy, Brenda; Greenberg, Katherine H.; Greenberg, Neil B.; Pollio, Howard R.; Thomas, Sandra P.
Previous analyses of transformational learning (TL) focused on rational or nonrational processes such as critical reflection on an uncomfortable personal situation or emotional learning. In this phenomenological study, researchers examined existential dimensions of TL. Individual interviews were analyzed to identify the lived experiences of eight…
Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study that aimed to explore experts’ and patients’ opinions and recommendations regarding adherence to antiretroviral medication. This study was prompted firstly by the lack of existing local research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART and secondly by the importance of adherence, given the recent introduction of ART to the public health sector. Four experts and seven patients were interviewed. The experts had worked within the HIV/AIDS field for at least two years while the patients (chosen from public antiretroviral roll-out programmes had been on ART for at least six months. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. This article focuses specifically on the recommendations for improving adherence that emerged from the experts' and patients' interviews. While the experts and patients generated two fairly distinct sets of recommendations (clearly informed by their different experiences and knowledge, both groups emphasised the importance of the mediating effects of social support and the healthcare provider–patient relationship in adherence to ART medication. Opsomming Gesprekke met kundiges en pasiënte: Aanbevelings ter verbetering van ART-nakoming. Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor die bevindinge van ’n studie wat kundiges en pasiënte se menings en aanbevelings ten opsigte van die nakoming van antiretrovirale medikasievoorskrifte ondersoek het. Die studie is in die eerste plek uitgevoer na aanleiding van die gebrek aan bestaande plaaslike navorsing oor die nakoming van antiretrovirale terapie (ART en in die tweede plek na aanleiding van die belangrikheid van nakoming in die lig van die onlangse bekendstelling van ART in die openbaregesondheidsektor. Onderhoude is met vier kundiges en sewe pasiënte gevoer. Die kundiges het vir ten minste twee jaar binne die MIV/Vigs-omgewing gewerk en die pasiënte (wat uit die openbare antiretrovirale
Ana Cláudia Afonso Valladares
Full Text Available Every child, particularly those who will be submitted to surgery, needs to express themselves, createand establish relationships with the world. This study was based on qualitative studies which were, in turn,substantiated on the behavioral changes of patients and their images. It was developed in the pediatric clinic of apublic hospital in the city of Goiânia/GO in a two years period (1998-2000. The target population consisted ofhospitalized children in the pre-operative process. It was concluded that great therapeutic benefit was achievedfrom the use of art therapy for this population as it helped the children to recover their mental balance, thusstrengthening a healthier side of the child which had been deadened by the illness, hospitalization and treatment.
Mutimura, Eugene; Addison, Diane; Anastos, Kathryn; Hoover, Donald; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Karenzie, Ben; Izimukwiye, Isabelle; Mutesa, Leo; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Nashi, Denis
Background Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the advanced stages of HIV infection remains a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to better understand barriers and enablers to timely ART initiation in Rwanda where ART coverage is high and national ART eligibility guidelines first expanded in 2007–2008. Methods Using data on 6326 patients (≥15 years) at five Rwandan clinics, we assessed trends and correlates of CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and the proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ Rwanda. However, sex disparities in late treatment initiation persisted through 2011–2012, and appeared to be driven by later diagnosis and/or delayed linkage to care among men. PMID:25562492
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
A growing specialization has been developed in psychiatric institutions indicating that staff members specialize in one diagnosis. Music therapists are on the one hand asked to formulate diagnosis specific treatment models; on the other hand music therapy is also recognized to both provide quality...... to be both clinically specialized and both psychodynamic and existentially oriented in our contribution to psychiatric treatment. Cochrane Reviews show that music therapy has a significant impact on reduction of negative symptoms for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The reasons for this positive...... treatment outcome are in the literature related to music therapists´ overall attitudes and relational competencies in their work which also provide quality of life and resources for these patients. This essay, which is based on my Keynote presentation at the 7th Nordic music therapy Congress, Jyväskylä SF...
O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Rouhani, Shada A; Kasozi, Julius; Greenwald, Kelsy E; Perkons, Nicholas R; Faustin, Zikama M; Bassett, Ingrid V; Ware, Norma C
Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data. Refugees described profound motivation to adhere to ART and employed adherence strategies to facilitate success despite the austere setting. However, refugees spoke of specific hardships living in Nakivale that served as barriers to ART adherence, including difficulty accessing clinic when ill, food insecurity, drug stockouts, and violence and unrest in the settlement. For some refugees, need for ART inextricably linked them to the HIV clinic and prevented them from transitioning permanently away from the settlement. By learning about refugees' experiences we can design informed interventions to enhance ART adherence, thus minimizing morbidity and mortality, preventing transmission of HIV, and supporting refugees' abilities to move freely toward repatriation, resettlement or integration in their host country.
Lamb, Kalina M; Nogg, Kelsey A; Safren, Steven A; Blashill, Aaron J
Body image disturbance is a common problem reported among sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Recently, a novel integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy for body image and self-care; CBT-BISC) was developed and pilot tested to simultaneously improve body image and ART adherence in this population. Although CBT-BISC has demonstrated preliminary efficacy in improving ART adherence, the mechanisms of change are unknown. Utilizing data from a two-armed randomized controlled trial (N = 44 sexual minority men living with HIV), comparing CBT-BISC to an enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) condition, sequential process mediation via latent difference scores was assessed, with changes in body image disturbance entered as the mechanism between treatment condition and changes in ART adherence. Participants assigned to CBT-BISC reported statistically significant reductions in body image disturbance post-intervention, which subsequently predicted changes in ART adherence from post-intervention to long term follow-up (b = 20.01, SE = 9.11, t = 2.19, p = 0.028). One pathway in which CBT-BISC positively impacts ART adherence is through reductions in body image disturbance. Body image disturbance represents one, of likely several, mechanism that prospectively predicts ART adherence among sexual minority men living with HIV.
Kapustin, Sergey A.
Full Text Available This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients a person toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and necessitates a search for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, onesided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the second article (Kapustin, 2015b I showed that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more specific cases. In the current work I prove that this criterion is also present in the personality theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers, where it is implicitly stated in a more specific way. In the final article I will show that this criterion
Tsague, Landry; Koulla, Sinata S; Kenfak, Alain; Kouanfack, Charles; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Abong, Therese; Mbangue, Madeleine; Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Essomba, Claudine; Mosoko, Jembia; Pouillot, Regis; Menyeng, Louis; Epee, Helene; Tchuani, Carno; Zoung-Kanyi, Anne Cecile; Bella, Lucienne Assumpta; Zekeng, Leopold
Retention in long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) program remains a major challenge for effective management of HIV infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) discontinuation raises concerns about drug resistance and could negate much of the benefit sought by ART programs. Based on existing patient records, we assessed determinants of retention in HIV care among HIV patients enrolled in an urban ART at two urban hospitals in Cameroon. Extended Cox regression procedures were used to identify significant predictors of retention in HIV care. Of 455 patients, 314 (69%) were women, median (IQR) age and baseline CD4 cell count were respectively 36 years (30 - 43) and 110 cells/μL (39 - 177). Forty patients (9%) had active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment. After a median (IQR) follow-up of 18 months (10-18), 346 (75%) were still in care, 8 (2%) were known dead, and 101 (22%) were lost to follow-up (LFU). Severe immunosuppression (CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/μL) at baseline (aHR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4 - 3.7) and active tuberculosis upon enrollment (aHR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0 - 3.6) were independent predictors of cohort losses to follow-up within the first 6 months after HAART initiation. These data suggest that three-quarter of HIV patients initiated on HAART remained in care and on HAART by 18 months; however, those with compromised immunologic status at treatment initiation, and those co-infected with TB were at increased risk for being lost to follow-up within the first 6 months on treatment.
Full Text Available Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential but also criticized philosophers of the XX century. With Being and Time 1927 he sets apart his existential analytic from psychology as well as from anthropology and from the other human sciences that deny the ontological foundation, overcoming the Cartesian dualism in search of the ontological unit of an articulated multiplicity, as human being is. Heidegger’s Dasein Analytic defines the fundamental structures of human being such as being-in-the-world, a unitary structure that discloses the worldhood of the world; the modes of being (Seinsweisen, such as fear (Furcht and anxiety (Angst; and the relationship between existence and time. In his existential analytic, anxiety is one of the fundamental moods (Grundbefindlichkeit and it plays a pivotal role in the relationship of Dasein with time and world. The paper firstly focuses on the modes of being, underlining the importance of anxiety for the constitution of human being; secondly, it shows the relationship between anxiety and the world, and anxiety and time: rejecting both the Aristotelian description of time, as a sequence of moments that informs our common understanding of time, and the Augustine’s mental account of inner time, Heidegger considers temporality under a transcendental point of view. Temporality is ek-static, it is a process through which human being comes toward and back to itself, letting itself encounter the world and the entities. The transcendental interpretation of time provided by Heidegger may give its important contribution to psychopathology.
This study evaluated paediatric nursing students' knowledge of diet therapy to establish whether it was sufficient to prepare them for practice. A questionnaire sampled 19 1st-year and nine 4th-year students' diet therapy knowledge in relation to chronic renal failure, cystic fibrosis, juvenile diabetes mellitus and liver disease. The knowledge of 1st and 4th-year students was compared and then evaluated against criteria, devised by the researcher to measure whether this knowledge level was sufficient for practice. The Mann-Whitney Utest showed a significant difference between the 1st and 4th-years' diet therapy knowledge. The mean score for overall diet therapy knowledge of 4th-year students was 46 per cent. The results suggest that knowledge of diet therapy is insufficient to prepare nursing students for practice and that this topic needs further emphasis in paediatric nurse education.
Stalking and compensation for existential damage. Some remarks starting from the sentences of the Court of Cassation (Supreme Court of November 11, 2008 - Le stalking et l’indemnisation du dommage existentiel. Quelques considérations suite aux jugements de la Cour de Cassation en Chambres Unies du 11 novembre 2008 - Stalking e risarcimento del danno esistenziale. Alcune considerazioni alla luce delle sentenze della Corte di Cassazione a Sezioni Unite dell’11 novembre 2008
Full Text Available A few days ago, a regulation against stalking was introduced into the Italian system, inserting the art. 612 bis into the Italian penal code. The author considers the new set of rules, aiming to defend the stalking victim, and the prospects of compensation for damage to the person. Above all, puts more emphasis on the analysis of compensation for existential damage, which is now accepted to be repayable as a result of the important sentences of the Court of Cassation in 2008, when definite criteria were established. From now on, such criteria for a systematic analysis of compensation for existential damage will be a reference point for the Italian Courts.
systems theory with art. Martin Nore through his visual art develops and activistic form of system theory, where therapeutic intervention turns into societal self-therapy for broken meaning horizons and unintended consequences of the current massage of the form peace/war. The activistic systems...... theoretical art, the "artivistic" perspective developed from the broken minds of war experiences, diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury. Since then, it has broadened the perspective to demonstrate its capacity to work with the distinction between civil society and its...... outside. This is the fight with art, where the predominant selfdescriptions in western societies are questioned on their selflimitations and insufficient strategies of deparadoxation. In Martins art, the paradox of the structural coupling of body, mind and society as both distinct from each other...
Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Art therapy (AT) is frequently used in the treatment of patients diagnosed with cluster B/C personality disorders, but there is little evidence for its efficacy. This study aimed to provide insight into the perceived effects of AT. We interviewed 29 adult patients in individual and focus-group
Lock, James; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Agras, William S; Weinbach, Noam; Jo, Booil
Adolescents with anorexia nervosa who have obsessive-compulsive (OC) features respond poorly to family-based treatment (FBT). This study evaluated the feasibility of combining FBT with either cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) or art therapy (AT) to improve treatment response in this at-risk group. Thirty adolescents with anorexia nervosa and OC features were randomized to 15 sessions of FBT + CRT or AT. Recruitment rate was 1 per month, and treatment attrition was 16.6% with no differences between groups. Suitability, expectancy and therapeutic relationships were acceptable for both combinations. Correlations between changes in OC traits and changes in cognitive inefficiencies were found for both combinations. Moderate changes in cognitive inefficiencies were found in both groups but were larger in the FBT + AT combination. This study suggests that an RCT for poor responders to FBT because of OC traits combining FBT with either CRT or AT is feasible to conduct. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Oner-Ozkan, Bengi
The study examined the relationship between the defensive versus existential religious orientation and mortality salience hypothesis in a country where the predominant type of religion is Islam. It was predicted that the mortality reactions of participants would not differ in accordance with their religious orientations within a Muslim sample. The…
Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine
Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Henoch, Ingela; Danielson, Ella; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Melin-Johansson, Christina
When a patient receives a cancer diagnosis, existential issues become more compelling. Throughout the illness trajectory, patients with cancer are cared for in oncology wards, by home care teams or in hospices. Nurses working with these patients are sometimes aware of the patients' existential needs but do not feel confident when discussing these issues. To determine the effects of a training intervention, where the focus is on existential issues and nurses' perceived confidence in communication and their attitude toward caring for dying patients. This was a randomized, controlled trial with a training intervention comprising theoretical training in existential issues combined with individual and group reflection. In total, 102 nurses in oncology and hospice wards and in palliative home care teams were randomized to a training or non-training group. Primary outcomes, confidence in communication, and attitude toward the care of dying patients were measured at baseline, immediately after the training, and five to six months later. Confidence in communication improved significantly in the training group from baseline (before the training) to both the first and second follow-up, that is, immediately after the training and five months later. The attitude toward caring for the dying did not improve in the training group. This study shows that short-term training with reflection improves the confidence of health care staff when communicating, which is important for health care managers with limited resources. Further studies are needed to explore how patients experience the communication skills of health care staff after such training. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Velasco, Cesar; Pérez, Inaki; Podzamczer, Daniel; Llibre, Josep Maria; Domingo, Pere; González-García, Juan; Puig, Inma; Ayala, Pilar; Martín, Mayte; Trilla, Antoni; Lázaro, Pablo; Gatell, Josep Maria
The financing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally determined by the cost incurred in the previous year, the number of patients on treatment, and the evidence-based recommendations, but not the clinical characteristics of the population. To establish a score relating the cost of ART and patient clinical complexity in order to understand the costing differences between hospitals in the region that could be explained by the clinical complexity of their population. Retrospective analysis of patients receiving ART in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2011. Factors potentially associated with a higher cost of ART were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Two predictive models of "high-cost" were developed. The normalized estimated (adjusted for the complexity scores) costs were calculated and compared with the normalized real costs. In the Hospital Index, 631 (16.8%) of the 3758 patients receiving ART were responsible for a "high-cost" subgroup, defined as the highest 25% of spending on ART. Baseline variables that were significant predictors of high cost in the Clinic-B model in the multivariate analysis were: route of transmission of HIV, AIDS criteria, Spanish nationality, year of initiation of ART, CD4+ lymphocyte count nadir, and number of hospital admissions. The Clinic-B score ranged from 0 to 13, and the mean value (5.97) was lower than the overall mean value of the four hospitals (6.16). The clinical complexity of the HIV patient influences the cost of ART. The Clinic-B and Clinic-BF scores predicted patients with high cost of ART and could be used to compare and allocate costs corrected for the patient clinical complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Dunne, Simon; Gallagher, Pamela; Matthews, Anne
Using a terror management theory framework, this study investigated if providing mortality reminders or self-esteem threats would lead participants to exhibit avoidant responses toward a point-of-care testing device for cardiovascular disease risk and if the nature of the device served to diminish the existential threat of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and twelve participants aged 40-55 years completed an experimental questionnaire. Findings indicated that participants were not existentially threatened by established terror management methodologies, potentially because of cross-cultural variability toward such methodologies. Highly positive appraisals of the device also suggest that similar technologies may beneficially affect the uptake of screening behaviors.
Bozcuk, H; Ozcan, K; Erdogan, C; Mutlu, H; Demir, M; Coskun, S
There is limited data on the role of art therapy used in cancer patients. We wanted to test the effect of painting art therapy provided by a dedicated professional painting artist on quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients having chemotherapy. Cancer patients having chemotherapy in the day unit of a medical oncology department of a university hospital were offered to take part in a painting art therapy program (PATP). This program consisted of a professional painting artist facilitating and helping patients to perform painting during their chemotherapy sessions while they were in the day unit, as well as supplying them painting material for home practice. The changes in quality of life domains of EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire and in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scores (HADS) were assessed before and after the PATP. These results were contrasted with a reference group of cancer patients on chemotherapy but not taking part in the PATP. In order to adjust for multiple comparisons of quality of life parameters between patient groups, we utilized the Bonferroni correction. A total of 48 patients, of which 26 patients did and 22 did not have prior exposure to PATP, were enrolled in the PATP. A control group of 24 patients who did not have any PATP activity during the study period also took part in the study. With PATP, there was significant improvement in global quality of life (F=7.87, P=0.001), and depression scores (F=7.80, P=0.001). To our knowledge, this is the largest comparative PATP experience in cancer patients on chemotherapy and show that PATP is feasible in the clinics. Our results confirm that art therapy in the form of painting improves quality of life and depression in cancer patients having chemotherapy. This effect was more pronounced in patients without any previous experience of PATP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim
Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
E. V. Sinbukhova
Full Text Available Nowadays neurosurgery has come to an absolutely new level. Modern techniques allow to perform complex operations on the brain, spinal cord and spine. Despite the possibilities of neurosurgery the rehabilitation questions remain significant in the postoperative period. Personality features of patients play a direct role in the manifestation of spinal cord disease, and spinal somatic diseases. Stress, previous illness and injury contribute to the formation of pain behavior habits. Experienced pain is fixed in our emotions causing fear which is fixed and reproduced in the future. Because of past events consequence expectation of the future events are formed. Not adequate fixation of negative emotions, in its turn, leads to obsessions, phobias, mania. Various studies confirm the reduction of patients anxiety using art therapy. A new component of this research is to study the use of art therapy (projective drawing technique to raise the paitients autopsychology competence level.In this analysis were examined 45 patients of spinal department (21 women and 24 men, medium age 39,22, with diagnoses: spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, hernia, tumors.
Audra Holmes Greene
Full Text Available The Performing Arts Troupe is a program that provides youth in foster care and youth from low income neighborhoods with expressive therapies and social support. The program is designed to assist youth in addressing the effects of trauma and developing competencies as they prepare to transition to adulthood. The article discusses the literature base for the program, the program activities and describes the impact of the program on youth through preliminary evaluations and case studies. The program offers an innovative combination of expressive therapies and social supports that has effectively met the needs of vulnerable youth.
Roberts, Hannah J.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.
The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was “viral.” What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy.
Agledahl, Kari Milch; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Førde, Reidun; Wifstad, Åge
To study how doctors care for their patients, both medically and as fellow humans, through observing their conduct in patient-doctor encounters. Qualitative study in which 101 videotaped consultations were observed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach, generating explanatory categories through a hermeneutical analysis of the taped consultations. A 500-bed general teaching hospital in Norway. 71 doctors working in clinical non-psychiatric departments and their patients. The doctors were concerned about their patients' health and how their medical knowledge could be of service. This medical focus often over-rode other important aspects of the consultations, especially existential elements. The doctors actively directed the focus away from their patients' existential concerns onto medical facts and rarely addressed the personal aspects of a patient's condition, treating them in a biomechanical manner. At the same time, however, the doctors attended to their patients with courteousness, displaying a polite and friendly attitude and emphasising the relationship between them. The study suggests that the main failing of patient-doctor encounters is not a lack of courteous manners, but the moral offence patients experience when existential concerns are ignored. Improving doctors' social and communication skills cannot resolve this moral problem, which appears to be intrinsically bound to modern medical practice. Acknowledging this moral offence would, however, be the first step towards minimising the effects thereof.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of interventions that address psychosocial and existential distress in people with motor neurone disease (MND or that alleviate caregiver burden in MND family carers have often been suggested in the research literature. Dignity therapy, which was developed to reduce psychosocial and existential distress at the end of life, has been shown to benefit people dying of cancer and their families. These results may not be transferable to people with MND. The objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy to enhance the end of life experience for people with motor neurone disease and their family carers. Methods/design This is a cross-sectional study utilizing a single treatment group and a pre/post test design. The study population will comprise fifty people diagnosed with MND and their nominated family carers. Primarily quantitative outcomes will be gathered through measures assessed at baseline and at approximately one week after the intervention. Outcomes for participants include hopefulness, spirituality and dignity. Outcomes for family carers include perceived caregiver burden, hopefulness and anxiety/depression. Feedback and satisfaction with the intervention will be gathered through a questionnaire. Discussion This detailed research will explore if dignity therapy has the potential to enhance the end of life experience for people with MND and their family carers, and fill a gap for professionals who are called on to address the spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs of their MND patients and families. Trial registration ACTRN Trial Number: ACTRN12611000410954
Larsson, Helena; Rämgård, Margareta; Bolmsjö, Ingrid
In order to better understand people in demanding medical situations, an awareness of existential concerns is important. Studies performed over the last twenty years conclude that when dying and death come closer, as in the case with older people who are stricken by infirmity and diseases, existential concerns will come to the fore. However, studies concerning experiences of existential loneliness (EL) are sparse and, in addition, there is no clear definition of EL. EL is described as a complex phenomenon and referred to as a condition of life, an experience, and a process of inner growth. Listening to someone who knows the older person well, as significant others often do, may be one way of learning more about EL. This study is part of a larger research project on EL, the LONE study, where EL is explored through interviews with frail older people, their significant others and health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore frail older (>75) persons' EL, as interpreted by their significant others. The study is qualitative and based on eighteen narrative interviews with nineteen significant others of older persons. The data was analysed using Hsieh and Shannon's conventional content analysis. According to the interpretation of significant others, the older persons experience EL (1) when they are increasingly limited in body and space, (2) when they are in a process of disconnecting, and (3) when they are disconnected from the outside world. The result can be understood as if the frail older person is in a process of letting go of life. This process involves the body, in that the older person is increasingly limited in his/her physical abilities. The older person's long-term relationships are gradually lost, and finally the process entails the older person's increasingly withdrawing into him- or herself and turning off the outside world. The result of this study is consistent with previous research that has shown that EL is a complex phenomenon, but
War veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have poorer family and parenting functioning, but little research has focused on these impairments. This paper presented how the series of drawings and the group art therapy process enhanced bridging the psychological barriers of a 33-year-old male PTSD war veteran to engagement with the child. After two years of deployment he returned home and suffered mostly from PTSD numbness and avoidance symptoms. The veteran had the family readjustment difficulties and felt guilty for being detached from his 3-year-old son. He under-went integrative treatment in the Day Unit Program. The drawings series were made by free associations. Clinical observations and group discussions were recorded in the group art therapy protocols. The presented patient got gratifications and support from the group members for his illustration of popular cartoon heroes, and decided to draw Mickey Mouse at home. On the next session he shared his satisfaction for bridging the gap between him and his son, having done the same drawings with his son at home. Beck's depression inventory (BDI) was used for self-rating of depression and a reduction of BDI score from 18 to 6 during the treatment course was recorded. Series of drawings illustrated shift from war related past toward current family life of the war veteran. Group art therapy gave him gratification and support with hope and a sense of belonging, thus facilitated his parenting readjustment.
Quadri, E; Farè, C; Palmero, E; Campioni, G; Chessa, M; Callus, E
The current work is the presentation of a new project at the IRCSS San Donato Milanese University hospital, in the sphere of Psychocardiology. Hospitalised children and adolescents often face psychosocial difficulties and the psychological condition of their parents frequently has an impact on their wellbeing. A strong need to take care, beyond the mere cure, is necessary in the hospital settings - that is a need to pay attention also to psychological aspects apart from the medical ones. Art therapy could be an answer for this need: the literature has outlined its efficacy in hospital, also due to the higher inclination of children and adolescents toward creativity. By providing and analysing the drawings of 10 young patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), this study outlines how the art therapy program gives these patients the opportunity to freely and directly express fears and anxieties about medical procedures and their disease. Moreover, through the creation of a tangible product, psychologists can better evaluate the psychological troubles of young patients and provide them and their parents with more focused and personalized support. This study also focuses on the perception of the utility that parents have of this new therapeutic intervention, offered at the Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, confirming that art therapy is perceived as being effective and is definitely a good instrument in helping to "take care" of children and adolescents suffering from CHD.
Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Sung Don
Patients with stroke suffer from physical disabilities, followed by mental instability. Their caregivers also suffer from mental instability. The present study attempted to address the degree and the change of the level of Purpose in Life (PIL) in patients with stroke and caregivers by applying art therapy using colors. Twenty-eight stroke patients with a good functional recovery or a moderate disability and their 28 caregivers were selected and evaluated. The period of the study between the stroke and color therapy was more than 6 months. Patients and caregivers were divided into the color therapy (28) and control groups (28). A questionnaire, which measures the level of PIL was conducted separately for patients and caregivers prior to the first session of color therapy (2 hours per week, total 16 sessions). The final examination was performed 5 months after the last color therapy session. There was significant difference between before and after color therapy when the level of PIL was measured both in patients and caregivers (pcolor therapy group, compared with the control group (pcolor therapy progressed to the late phase, patients and caregivers applied increasing number of colors and color intensity. These results prove that color therapy will improve PIL of the patients with post-stroke disability and caregivers. Furthermore, color therapy would be a useful adjuvant for improving the quality of life of the patients with stroke and their caregivers.
Crawford, MJ; Killaspy, H; Barnes, TR; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Clayton, K; Dinsmore, J; Floyd, S; Hoadley, A; Johnson, T; Kalaitzaki, E; King, M; Leurent, B; Maratos, A; O'Neill, FA
OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of referral to group art therapy plus standard care, compared with referral to an activity group plus standard care and standard care alone, among people with schizophrenia. DESIGN A three-arm, parallel group, single-blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted blocks, stratified by study centre. SETTING Study partic...
T. V. Lysokolenko
A comparative analysis of understanding of the game by J. Huizinga, H. Hesse, E. Berne and L. Wittgenstein is being held. The result of this analysis is the assumption that H. Hesse and J. Huizinga are united by the fact that they both seek to ensure that the games remained appolonian element as a harmonious start in their understanding of the game - is a cultural universal. The position of the L.Wittgenstein differs significantly from the above indicated. For him the game - this is a language game that does not always harmonious, is not always clearly constructed composition typical for the games by H. Hesse. Playing field for L.Wittgenstein are «forms of life», which may indicate that his game as well as J. Huizinga, existential, the difference is only in the position of the interpreter, in a shift of emphasis from meaning to the action. J. Huizinga focuses on the classification of games that are played by the representatives of different cultures and L.Wittgenstein focuses on communication, without which it is impossible to play as such.
Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Bingham, John
Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures which are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM therapies (ACT-CIM) allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, eight of which investigated sensory art therapies, as defined by the authors. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, efficacy, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The article deals with education of coexistence as training of life art (technē tou biou. The major thesis is the following: our existence has been educated in the life environment together with other agents of life world (Lebenswelt, while the latter are educated in the background of our existential project to be realized during our life. This major thesis presupposes the minor ones developed in the article: existential education means the change of the roles between the agents of life enwironment; existential education covers an ironic relationship between the teacher and a disciple; the teacher educates an unique combination of the disciple’s charachteristics to be nourished in his (her existential perspective instead of forcing the equal way for everybody; every community has been educated while an individual changes life environment by realization of his (her existential utopia; education is a kind of existential tradition’s transfer through the new communicative channels; philosophy of education based on existential phenomenology stresses the aspects of responsible coexistence in the life-world to be created; education is the training of our life’s art as responsible creation inseparable from becoming of life-world as the environment of our coexistence; education deals with a miracle of breaking educational circle while a disciple excels the teacher and changes the educational environment. By analysing the problems of existential education the author uses the approaches of both existential phenomenology and cultural regionalistics.
Shuster, Justin M; Sterk, Claire E; Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos
The HIV/AIDS epidemic has profoundly impacted South Africa's healthcare system, greatly hampering its ability to scale-up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). While one way to provide comprehensive care and prevention in sub-Saharan African countries has been through collaboration with traditional healers, long-term support specifically for ART has been low within this population. An exploratory, qualitative research project was conducted among 25 self-identified traditional healers between June and August of 2006 in the Lukhanji District of South Africa. By obtaining the opinions of traditional healers currently interested in biomedical approaches to HIV/AIDS care and prevention, this formative investigation identified a range of motivational factors that were believed to promote a deeper acceptance of and support for ART. These factors included cultural consistencies between traditional and biomedical medicine, education, as well as legal and financial incentives to collaborate. Through an incorporation of these factors into future HIV/AIDS treatment programs, South Africa and other sub-Saharan countries may dramatically strengthen their ability to provide ART in resource-poor settings.
Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.
Levy, Fran J.
This book examines the field of dance therapy from its inception in the 1940's to the present. A detailed analysis is conducted of the theory and practice of the major pioneers. The book covers biographical reports and the influence of many dance therapy leaders. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is discussed as well as dance therapy in specific…
Gatell Artigas, Josep María; Arribas López, José Ramón; Lázaro Y de Mercado, Pablo; Blasco Bravo, Antonio Javier
The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA) proposes "preferred regimens" (PR) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. In 2013, the recommended regimens were all triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy of a dual therapy (DT) combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC). Our objective is to evaluate the GESIDA PR and the DT regimen LPV/r+3TC cost/efficacy ratios. Decision tree models were built. probability of having viral load cost: costs of ART, adverse effects, and drug resistance tests during the first 48 weeks. Cost/efficacy ratios varied between 5,817 and 13,930 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for the DT of LPV/r+3TC and tenofovir DF/emtricitabine+raltegravir, respectively. Taking into account the official Spanish prices of ART, the most efficient regimen was DT of LPV/r+3TC, followed by the triple therapy with non-nucleoside containing regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Hannah J. [College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)
The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was “viral.” What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy.
Knowledge, perception about antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) and adherence to ART among HIV positive women in the Ashanti Region, Ghana: a cross-sectional study.
Boateng, Daniel; Kwapong, Golda Dokuaa; Agyei-Baffour, Peter
Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) has been identified as the greatest means of HIV infection among children. Adherence to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to prevent drug resistance and MTCT of HIV among HIV positive women. However, there is a gap in clients' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) which influence their decision to adhere to ART. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study involved 229 HIV positive women in reproductive age (18 - 49 years) and had been on ART for at least six months. Fourteen health workers were also included in the qualitative study. Respondents were selected from three ART centers in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. HIV positive women who had consistently missed two or more ART appointments within the previous two months were classified as defaulters. Data was analyzed with SPSS 19 and STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. The ART defaulter rate was 27% and clients had good knowledge about ART and PMTCT. More than 90% of the HIV positive women had inadequate knowledge about ART and PMTCT and these women were more likely to default ART (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.89, 6.21). The educational background of HIV positive women did not have significant influence on their knowledge of ART and PMTCT. Mothers, knowledge and understanding of ART and PMTCT could influence their adherence to ART. Educational interventions which target the understanding of both the literate and illiterate women in society are necessary to develop positive behaviors and enhance adherence to ART.
Knowledge, perception about antiretroviral therapy (ART and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT and adherence to ART among HIV positive women in the Ashanti Region, Ghana: a cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT has been identified as the greatest means of HIV infection among children. Adherence to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to prevent drug resistance and MTCT of HIV among HIV positive women. However, there is a gap in clients’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of antiretroviral therapy (ART and Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT which influence their decision to adhere to ART. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study involved 229 HIV positive women in reproductive age (18 – 49 years and had been on ART for at least six months. Fourteen health workers were also included in the qualitative study. Respondents were selected from three ART centers in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. HIV positive women who had consistently missed two or more ART appointments within the previous two months were classified as defaulters. Data was analyzed with SPSS 19 and STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results The ART defaulter rate was 27% and clients had good knowledge about ART and PMTCT. More than 90% of the HIV positive women had inadequate knowledge about ART and PMTCT and these women were more likely to default ART (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.89, 6.21. The educational background of HIV positive women did not have significant influence on their knowledge of ART and PMTCT. Conclusions Mothers, knowledge and understanding of ART and PMTCT could influence their adherence to ART. Educational interventions which target the understanding of both the literate and illiterate women in society are necessary to develop positive behaviors and enhance adherence to ART.
Gantt, Linda M.
Examines four factors that may cause art therapists to reject the scientific method. Gives an overview of historical developments in science to provide a background for a discussion of each factor. Includes material from anthropology, psychoanalysis, and alternative health care. Offers suggestions for training art therapists in scientific…
Full Text Available Introduction. War veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have poorer family and parenting functioning, but little research has focused on these impairments. Case re-port. This paper presented how the series of drawings and the group art therapy process enhanced bridging the psychological barriers of a 33-year-old male PTSD war veteran to engagement with the child. After two years of deployment he returned home and suffered mostly from PTSD numbness and avoidance symptoms. The veteran had the family readjustment difficulties and felt guilty for being detached from his 3-year-old son. He under-went integrative treatment in the Day Unit Program. The drawings series were made by free associations. Clinical observations and group discussions were recorded in the group art therapy protocols. The presented patient got gratifications and support from the group members for his illustration of popular cartoon heroes, and decided to draw Mickey Mouse at home. On the next session he shared his satisfaction for bridging the gap between him and his son, having done the same drawings with his son at home. Beck's depression inventory (BDI was used for self-rating of depression and a reduction of BDI score from 18 to 6 during the treatment course was recorded. Conclusions. Series of drawings illustrated shift from war related past toward current family life of the war veteran. Group art therapy gave him gratification and support with hope and a sense of belonging, thus facilitated his parenting readjustment.
Ana Tereza Costa Galvanese
Full Text Available From 1996 to 2009, the Laboratory for Studies and Research in Art, Body and Occupational Therapy established a cooperation with the Museum of Contemporary Art of USP (MAC USP, working in partnership with the Leisure and Art to the Elderly Program of the Education and Technical-Scientific Division of MAC USP. The program offers an introduction in contemporary artistic practice to the elderly. This paper presents the interdisciplinary experience developed in this partnership in 2006. The method adopted in the program is referenced in the Triangular Approach to Teaching Art. Therefore, the appreciation of works of art and the contextualization of selected artists formed the basis on which participants developed their own poetics. The preparatory work was developed in group dynamics, including activities of body awareness and conversation circles coordinated by occupational therapists and students. They also accompanied the participants in their demands related to the challenges of constructing access to socio-cultural territories. The relevance of this living process was evident in the topics proposed by participants in conversations, or arisen during the body work. The aesthetic quality of the participants’ production resulted in personal and collective satisfaction and provoked admiration of the public who visited the workshop and exhibition, organized from this production.
Salazar, O.M.; Creech, R.H.
This review article with 70 references discusses the state of the art in defining the role of radiotherapy in managing small cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC). It reviews the history of therapeutic approaches to SCBC. Several issues of particular interest to limited disease are discussed. They are: local radiation therapy for limited disease, combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy in limited disease, combination chemotherapy alone for limited disease, and an overview of the treatment of limited disease. A section on extensive disease discusses the role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, chemotherapy only for extensive disease, and an overview of the treatment of extensive disease. An additional section discusses the use of elective brain irradiation in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma
Full Text Available The current work is the presentation of a new project at the IRCSS San Donato Milanese University hospital, in the sphere of Psychocardiology. Hospitalised children and adolescents often face psychosocial difficulties and the psychological condition of their parents frequently has an impact on their wellbeing. A strong need to take care, beyond the mere cure, is necessary in the hospital settings - that is a need to pay attention also to psychological aspects apart from the medical ones. Art therapy could be an answer for this need: the literature has outlined its efficacy in hospital, also due to the higher inclination of children and adolescents toward creativity. By providing and analysing the drawings of 10 young patients with congenital heart disease (CHD, this study outlines how the art therapy program gives these patients the opportunity to freely and directly express fears and anxieties about medical procedures and their disease. Moreover, through the creation of a tangible product, psychologists can better evaluate the psychological troubles of young patients and provide them and their parents with more focused and personalized support. This study also focuses on the perception of the utility that parents have of this new therapeutic intervention, offered at the Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, confirming that art therapy is perceived as being effective and is definitely a good instrument in helping to “take care” of children and adolescents suffering from CHD.
Full Text Available The article illustrates a particular existential-phenomenological view of the emotion of fear and its connection to self-educative process of grasping the world and gaining self-knowledge. According to this view, originally promoted by Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 and in educational philosophy Otto Friedrich Bollnow (1907-1991, fear is closely connected to a specific understanding of 'unconcealment', or 'disclosure' of truths. In the article it is shown, that this understanding sheds special educational insights on the connection between fear and gaining knowledge.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess academic experiential learning in relation to academic lectures' perceived personal and professional growth. Sixteen PhD students (age ranged between 23 and 46, 10 male, 6 females participated in an introduction to expressive art therapy. Qualitative methods according to phenomenological methodology was used. At the beginning and end of the 48-h course they were asked to draw themselves, and explain the differences between the two drawings. In addition participants were semi-structured interviewed about the course and its personal and professional aspects at the end of the course. The main themes were the carousal of emotional experience, the use of art means for growth, and, professional growth. Findings revealed a perceived growth in terms of family relationships, inter—personal skills, and professional role performance.
Gouse, Hetta; Henry, Michelle; Robbins, Reuben N; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Joska, John A
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-readiness counseling has been deemed critical to adherence, instilling knowledge, and promoting positive beliefs and attitudes. In the landscape of changing policy in South Africa, some ART initiators have had prior ART-readiness counseling (e.g., for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission [PMTCT] programs). The extent to which previous counseling resulted in retained knowledge and belief is unknown, which may be important to the promotion of women's ART adherence. We compared 320 women living with HIV and initiating ART, with and without prior PMTCT on HIV knowledge, treatment, beliefs, and attitudes. The PMTCT group held more accurate beliefs and more positive attitudes about ART. Both groups lacked understanding of basic HIV biology. Nondisclosure of HIV status was high. Thus, in individuals re-initiating therapy, some knowledge about HIV and its treatment was not well retained. Tailored education and counseling may be critical to adherence, with a focus on biological concepts that impact ART resistance. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dance Movement Therapy is a complementary method which includes using and analyzing of different aspects of body-experience and body-expression such us movement, mimics, pantomime, touch… In Dance Movement Therapy body is dominant media of therapeutic process. So this kind of therapy may have positive influence on physiological awareness, body expression of emotions, inducing unconscious impulses, and improving new strategies of behaviour through exploring new patterns and qualities of mov...
Music as the Art of Anxiety: A Philosophical Approach to the Existential-Ontological Meaning of Music. The present research studies music as an art of anxiety from the points of view of both Martin Heidegger s thought and phenomenological philosophy in general. In the Heideggerian perspective, anxiety is understood as a fundamental mode of being (Grundbefindlichkeit) in human existence. Taken as an existential-ontological concept, anxiety is conceived philosophically and not psychologica...
Claude M. J. Braun
Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART is crucial for measuring program success and accurate drug forecasting. However, compiling data from patient registers to measure retention in ART is labour-intensive. To address this challenge, we conducted a pilot study in Malawi to assess whether patient ART retention could be determined using pharmacy records as compared to estimates of retention based on standardized paper- or electronic based cohort reports. Methods Twelve ART facilities were included in the study: six used paper-based registers and six used electronic data systems. One ART facility implemented an electronic data system in quarter three and was included as a paper-based system facility in quarter two only. Routine patient retention cohort reports, paper or electronic, were collected from facilities for both quarter two [April–June] and quarter three [July–September], 2010. Pharmacy stock data were also collected from the 12 ART facilities over the same period. Numbers of ART continuation bottles recorded on pharmacy stock cards at the beginning and end of each quarter were documented. These pharmacy data were used to calculate the total bottles dispensed to patients in each quarter with intent to estimate the number of patients retained on ART. Information for time required to determine ART retention was gathered through interviews with clinicians tasked with compiling the data. Results Among ART clinics with paper-based systems, three of six facilities in quarter two and four of five facilities in quarter three had similar numbers of patients retained on ART comparing cohort reports to pharmacy stock records. In ART clinics with electronic systems, five of six facilities in quarter two and five of seven facilities in quarter three had similar numbers of patients retained on ART when comparing retention numbers from electronically generated cohort reports to pharmacy stock records. Among
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT, as a new group intervention in recent psychotherapy, inreducing depression, anxiety, stress and improving the quality of life among postmenopausal women. Methods & Materials: Using semi-experimental pre-test post-test with control group design, the number of 17 postmenopausal women, between 47 to 60 years old, were selected using voluntary sampling method, and short version of the depression, anxiety, stress scales, and world health organization quality of life questionnaire were administrated in two experimental (n=9 and control groups (n=8. The experimental group attended in ten sessions MBAT protocol. One month after the intervention, both groups were assessed again using the same tools. Data were evaluated by MANCOVA. Results: Implementation of the MBAT in experimental group decreases depression, and stress. It also increases the quality of life, but has not significant effects on the anxiety. Conclusion: The MBAT, as a new intervention method which combines art therapy and psychotherapy, seems to decrease depression, stress, and improve quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, using MBAT is recommended in large scale in the population of postmenopausal women.
Vázquez, Maria Yolanda García; Sexto, Carlos Ferrás; Rocha, Álvaro; Aguilera, Adrián
Mobile phones are becoming a communication tool commonly used by people all over the world; and they are started to be adopted in psychosocial therapies involving vulnerable people. We are herein presenting the results of an academic literature review. We identified scientific papers published between 2006 and 2015 resorting to academic databases available on the Internet, applying a systematic selection method based on quality criteria. Secondly, we analysed contents, highlighting the scarcity of research involving vulnerable people. The available literature specialized in psychosocial therapies offers investigation results which involve mobile phones and patients in general, focusing particularly on the clinical psychology field and, to a lesser extent, on the social work field. Particularly significant are the investigation works developed in the United States. In the present paper we introduce a first "state of the art", identifying opportunities and also the limitations surrounding the use of mobile phones in psychosocial therapies targeting the vulnerable. Issues concerning privacy and data confidentiality, and the access of vulnerable people to mobile phones and how they use them, pose significant challenges; but they offer the opportunity to reach isolated or impoverished populations, or even to facilitate access to social and healthcare services. We close this paper formulating possible orientations, hypotheses and goals to design new investigation works involving vulnerable populations.
Hernandez, Diego F; Waits, Wendi; Calvio, Lisseth; Byrne, Mary
Recent outcomes for Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy indicate that as many as 60-72% of patients retain their PTSD diagnosis after treatment with CPT or PE. One emerging therapy with the potential to augment existing trauma focused therapies is Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART). ART is currently being used along with evidence based approaches at Fort Belvoir Community Hospital and by report has been both positive for clients as well as less taxing on professionals trained in ART. The following is an in-practice theoretical comparison of CPT, EMDR and ART with case examples from Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. While all three approaches share common elements and interventions, ART distinguishes itself through emphasis on the rescripting of traumatic events and the brevity of the intervention. While these case reports are not part of a formal study, they suggest that ART has the potential to augment and enhance the current delivery methods of mental health care in military environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teranishi, Isamu; Oyama, Takuro; Ogata, Wakaha
We say that a signature scheme is strongly existentially unforgeable (SEU) if no adversary, given message/signature pairs adaptively, can generate a signature on a new message or a new signature on a previously signed message. We propose a general and efficient conversion in the standard model that transforms a secure signature scheme to SEU signature scheme. In order to construct that conversion, we use a chameleon commitment scheme. Here a chameleon commitment scheme is a variant of commitment scheme such that one can change the committed value after publishing the commitment if one knows the secret key. We define the chosen message security notion for the chameleon commitment scheme, and show that the signature scheme transformed by our proposed conversion satisfies the SEU property if the chameleon commitment scheme is chosen message secure. By modifying the proposed conversion, we also give a general and efficient conversion in the random oracle model, that transforms a secure signature scheme into a SEU signature scheme. This second conversion also uses a chameleon commitment scheme but only requires the key only attack security for it.
Rogers, James R.; Bromley, Jamie L.; McNally, Christopher J.; Lester, David
A sample of 40 suicide notes were analyzed for motivational content in relation to an existential-constructivist theory of suicide. Results generally supported the 4 theoretical categories of somatic, relational, spiritual, and psychological motivations, with 39 notes having content that could be classified according to the aforementioned…
it means to be human. I will try to illustrate this by presenting three different "gnostic" existential interpretations of death, namely Heidegger's idea of existence (or Dasein) as being-to-death, Tanabe/Takeuchi's Buddhist-inspired idea of existence as being neither-dead-nor-alive, and Henry Corbin...
Fuller, J R
The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.
Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Sung Don
Purpose Patients with stroke suffer from physical disabilities, followed by mental instability. Their caregivers also suffer from mental instability. The present study attempted to address the degree and the change of the level of Purpose in Life (PIL) in patients with stroke and caregivers by applying art therapy using colors. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight stroke patients with a good functional recovery or a moderate disability and their 28 caregivers were selected and evaluated. The pe...
Braun, Lisa Nelson
Describes experiences in using art with the homeless in an open studio approach. Discusses how offering open studio time with a range of materials showed that the homeless, each with a unique style and personal interests, were eager to create art objects and present them to the public. (RJM)
Using art in psychotherapy could become an interesting instrument for the cure and the prevention of psychological and psychiatric problems. This belongs to that trend that sees the mediation of art as having big potential to go beyond the spoken word. Everybody knows that our emotions, thoughts, feelings, and so on, are living in the body and speaking through the body, in fact the symbolic dimension (art, music, dance, painting and so on) reconfigures the experience of living. In this form of therapy we use Art as a means of accessing ourselves and opening ourselves up to the world. The forms of artistic mediation that we mainly describe in the paper are the basic elements of tango and performative theatrical technique (Theatre of the Oppressed and Physical Theatre). In the final part of this paper a series of images illustrate specific cases in which the method and its outcomes are described.
Colvin, Christopher J.; Konopka, Sarah; Chalker, John C.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen
Background Despite global progress in the fight to reduce maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain persistently high, particularly in much of Africa. Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) appears to be the most effective way to prevent these deaths, but the rates of three key outcomes—ART initiation, retention in care, and long-term ART adherence—remain low. This systematic review synthesized evidence on health systems factors affecting these outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population of interest (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), the intervention of interest (ART), and the outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. A four-stage narrative synthesis design was used to analyze findings. Review findings from 42 included studies were categorized according to five themes: 1) models of care, 2) service delivery, 3) resource constraints and governance challenges, 4) patient-health system engagement, and 5) maternal ART interventions. Results Low prioritization of maternal ART and persistent dropout along the maternal ART cascade were key findings. Service delivery barriers included poor communication and coordination among health system actors, poor clinical practices, and gaps in provider training. The few studies that assessed maternal ART interventions demonstrated the importance of multi-pronged, multi-leveled interventions. Conclusions There has been a lack of emphasis on the experiences, needs and vulnerabilities particular to HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Supporting these women to successfully traverse the maternal ART cascade requires carefully designed and targeted interventions throughout the steps. Careful design of integrated service delivery models is of critical importance in this effort. Key knowledge gaps and research
Sergio González A
Full Text Available Desde Homero en adelante, los textos griegos abundan en menciones a la función terapéutica de las bellas artes. En los diálogos platónicos se encuentra el sistema más acabado respecto a este tema en sus diversas manifestaciones, sin embargo los múltiples análisis aristotélicos se encuentran dispersos y aislados. Para empezar, se expone la visión de la salud como armonía en el pensamiento de Aristóteles, a continuación se describen y comparan los conceptos de tékhne y phrónesis, se demuestra la necesidad del arte para la paideía, y se detalla el uso terapéutico de diferentes artes para preservar o restaurar la salud.From Homer onwards, Greek texts show abundant references to the therapeutic applications of the fine arts. The most complete system dealing with this issue in its diverse manifestations is to be found in the Platonic dialogues. However, Aristotle's manifold analyses are scattered and isolated. First, the view of health as harmony in Aristotle's thought is expounded, then the concepts of tékhne and phrónesis are described and compared, the necessity of art to paideía is demonstrated, and finally the therapeutic use of the different arts in order to preserve or restore health is examined'm detall.
MELERO GONZÁLEZ, ESTHER
[EN] This final degree Project aims to be an experiential introduction to the field of A rtistic Mediation and the Art Therapy through a basic study about the fundamental concepts of both in order to apply them in the way that our degree trains us and adding the support and monitoring of professionals from this field of knowledge along with my tutor and director of the Master in Art Therapy at our university. We worked in a...
Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin Rincon, C.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Dena Espinel, E. de; Gomez Llorente, P. L.; Fernandez Bordes, M.
The radiotherapy unit TIT-Art TomoTherapy allows the realization of intensity modulated treatments in a helical manner through design, consisting of a linear accelerator installed on a rotating gantry in combination with the longitudinal movement of the treatment table and a multi leaf collimator (MLC) binary. The acceptance tests include, among other things, the acquisition of a set of dosimetric data (profiles and PDD), for later comparison with a reference set of measures taken at the factory, called the gold standard. Being pre commissioning from the factory, the unit will be accepted provided that the measured data meet the gold standard within preset tolerances. The dosimetric equipment used in the test of acceptance is provided by the manufacturer and so far is done with water tank, camera, software electrometer and associate of Standard Imaging and marketed by TomoTherapy Inc. The objective of this study is to compare the measures obtained with a semiconductor diode with the gold standard. (Author)
Vietta, E P
The author establishes a research line based on a theoretical-methodological referential for the qualitative investigation of psychiatric nursing and mental health. Aspects of humanist and existential philosophies and personalism were evaluated integrating them in a unique perspective. In order to maintain the scientific method of research in this referential the categorization process which will be adopted in this kind of investigation was explained.
Haeyen, S.W.; Hooren, S. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
Art therapy (AT) is frequently used in the treatment of patients diagnosed with cluster B/C personality disorders, but there is little evidence for its efficacy. This study aimed to provide insight into the perceived effects of AT. We interviewed 29 adult patients in individual and focus-group in-depth interviews, including a ‘negative case’, starting with a topic list coming from the literature study. Data were gathered and analysed using the Grounded Theory Approach in order to generate con...
Believes the therapeutic situation that offers the greatest awareness with the least amount of dehumanization is a synthesis of the gestalt and the existential humanistic (EH) orientations. Considers the relationship and possible synthesis of the existential and gestalt positions. (Author/RK)
Grassi, Luigi; Mezzich, Juan E; Nanni, Maria Giulia; Riba, Michelle B; Sabato, Silvana; Caruso, Rosangela
The psychiatric, psychosocial, and existential/spiritual pain determined by chronic medical disorders, especially if in advanced stages, have been repeatedly underlined. The right to approach patients as persons, rather than symptoms of organs to be repaired, has also been reported, from Paul Tournier to Karl Jaspers, in opposition and contrast with the technically-enhanced evidence-based domain of sciences that have reduced the patients to 'objects' and weakened the physician's identity deprived of its ethical value of meeting, listening, and treating subjects. The paper will discuss the main psychosocial and existential burden related to chronic and advanced medical illnesses, and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications for a dignity preserving care within a person-centred approach in medicine, examined in terms of care of the person (of the person's whole health), for the person (for the fulfilment of the person's health aspirations), by the person (with physicians extending themselves as total human beings), and with the person (working respectfully with the medically ill person).
Abstract. Background. The provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being rolled out across South Africa. Little evidence exists on the cost of running clinics for ART provision. Objectives. To determine the cost per patient-month enrolled in an ART programme and per patient-visit for a dedicated, public-sector ART clinic in a ...
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M
Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it rema...
Jonas, Eva; Fritsche, Immo
War means threat to people's lives. Research derived from terror management theory (TMT) illustrates that the awareness of death leads people to defend cultural ingroups and their worldviews to attain a sense of symbolic immortality and thereby buffer existential anxiety. This can result in hostile effects of mortality salience (MS), such as derogation of outgroup members, prejudice, stereotyping, aggression, and racism, which, in turn, can lead to the escalation of violent intergroup conflict and, thus, the escalation of war. Yet, escalation of destructive conflict following MS is not automatic. Instead, research on TMT suggests that MS does not necessarily result in conflict and intolerance but can also foster positive tendencies, such as intergroup fairness or approval of pacifism, depending on how existential threat is perceived, whether the need for symbolic self-transcendence is satisfied, which social norms are salient, and how social situations are interpreted. In the present article, we review current TMT research with the aim of reconciling the seemingly contradictory findings of hostile and peaceful reactions to reminders of death. We present a terror management model of escalation and de-escalation of violent intergroup conflicts, which takes into account the interaction between threat salience and features of the social situation. We also discuss possible intervention strategies to override detrimental consequences of existential threat and argue that war is not the inevitable consequence of threat. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Dominique J Pepper
Full Text Available In the developing world, the principal cause of death among HIV-infected patients is tuberculosis (TB. The initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during TB therapy significantly improves survival, however it is not known which barriers prevent eligible TB patients from initiating life-saving ART.Setting. A South African township clinic with integrated tuberculosis and HIV services. Design. Logistic regression analyses of a prospective cohort of HIV-1 infected adults (≥18 years who commenced TB therapy, were eligible for ART, and were followed for 6 months.Of 100 HIV-1 infected adults eligible for ART during TB therapy, 90 TB patients presented to an ART clinic for assessment, 66 TB patients initiated ART, and 15 TB patients died. 34% of eligible TB patients (95%CI: 25-43% did not initiate ART. Male gender and younger age (<36 years were associated with failure to initiate ART (adjusted odds ratios of 3.7 [95%CI: 1.25-10.95] and 3.3 [95%CI: 1.12-9.69], respectively. Death during TB therapy was associated with a CD4+ count <100 cells/µL.In a clinic with integrated services for tuberculosis and HIV, one-third of eligible TB patients--particularly young men--did not initiate ART. Strategies are needed to promote ART initiation during TB therapy, especially among young men.
Ziff, Katherine; Pierce, Lori; Johanson, Susan; King, Margaret
This article describes the pilot of a school-based creative group-counseling program for children called ArtBreak, a choice-based studio art experience based on the restorative possibilities of art making delineated in the expressive therapies continuum (ETC; Kagin & Lusebrink, 1978). The ETC features a developmental hierarchy in relation to how…
Golin, Carol E; Earp, Joanne; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Stewart, Paul; Porter, Carol; Howie, Lynn
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling technique that has been used effectively to change a number of health-related behaviors. We sought to assess the impact on patients' antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence of a multicomponent, MI-based ART adherence intervention compared with that of an HIV informational control program. Two-arm, randomized, controlled trial. One hundred forty adult HIV-infected patients attending a large, academic center infectious diseases clinic who were either failing or newly initiating an ART regimen. STUDY ENDPOINTS: (1) Mean adherence level (% of prescribed doses take in the prior month) at the week 12 visit, (2) change in mean adherence, (3) percentage of patients achieving >95% adherence in the third 4-week block, and (4) change in viral load. The MI group's mean adherence improved by 4.5% compared with a decrease in the control group's adherence by 3.83% (P = 0.10). In the treatment group, 29% achieved >95% adherence compared with only 17% in the control group (P = 0.13). When we controlled for ethnicity, the intervention group had 2.75 times higher odds of achieving more than 95% adherence than did the controls (P = 0.045; 95% confidence interval: 1.023, 7.398). Although a number of mediating variables (beliefs about ART, coping style, social support, and goals set) had statistically significant changes in the expected direction in the MI group compared with controls, in the intent-to-treat analysis, the mean adherence at study exit for the intervention group was 76% (SD = 27%) and 71% (SD = 27%) for the control group (P = 0.62). Although not definitive, this study provides some evidence that MI offers an effective approach to improving adherence. Future studies able to build MI into the intervention for longer than 3 months may have a greater impact.
This article describes an art-based inquiry that explored two contemplative strategies--the conceptual strategy and the awareness strategy--through observation of art images and processes of creation, conceptual understanding, assessment, and the inner movements of self-awareness. Art media and directives were used to subjectively test key…
Playing Games with Games People Play. Contributions of Gestalt Theory to Individual Counseling. Self-Discovery through Art: A Group Experience. A Review of Personal Research on Experimental-Gestalt Growth Groups. Gestalt Dreamwork as a Method for Self Discovery.
Guinan, James F.; And Others
The existential Gestalt approach to facilitating the human growth process is discussed, from somewhat different vantage points, in these papers. Two seek to elaborate the basic principles and facilitating "techniques" of Gestalt therapy, while maintaining that one can truly understand only by experiencing. The use of Focus Groups, in which a focal…
In this article I will examine how the language of diagnosis can engage with existential epistemology to develop a concept of Progressively Empowered Internalisation (PEI). This, I will argue, challenges conceptualisations of diagnosis as articulating and maintaining a static self-concept. It enables the individual to synthesise the language of a particular mental experience within the wider engagement of their own active process of self-becoming. I will suggest that this construction of PEI addresses the limitations of stigmatisation and static self-concepts. In seeing the language of diagnosis as a helpful tool for understanding a part of one's self-experience, it presents an alternative to the illness-based model of mental health. This conceptualisation engages with Kierkegaard's existential epistemology, as a means of using language to understand the task of becoming oneself and relating to others. Furthermore, it explores how mental health diagnosis requires communal engagement to enable the wellbeing of its members. Diagnosis is thereby seen as a process of further empowering the individual with the language to explain a particular part of their experience within the overall movement of developing an integrated self-concept.
Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has transformed HIV infection into a treatable, chronic condition. However, the need to continue treatment for decades rather than years, calls for a long-term perspective of ART. Adherence to the regimen is essential for successful treatment and sustained viral control. Studies have indicated that at least 95% adherence to ART regimens is optimal. It has been demonstrated that a 10% higher level of adherence results in a 21% reduction in disease progression. The various factors affecting success of ART are social aspects like motivation to begin therapy, ability to adhere to therapy, lifestyle pattern, financial support, family support, pros and cons of starting therapy and pharmacological aspects like tolerability of the regimen, availability of the drugs. Also, the regimen′s pill burden, dosing frequency, food requirements, convenience, toxicity and drug interaction profile compared with other regimens are to be considered before starting ART. The lack of trust between clinician and patient, active drug and alcohol use, active mental illness (e.g. depression, lack of patient education and inability of patients to identify their medications, lack of reliable access to primary medical care or medication are considered to be predictors of inadequate adherence. Interventions at various levels, viz. patient level, medication level, healthcare level and community level, boost adherence and overall outcome of ART.
Morris, Kasey Lynn; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Heflick, Nathan A
Research and theorizing suggest that objectification entails perceiving a person not as a human being but, quite literally, as an object. However, the motive to regard the self as an object is not well understood. The current research tested the hypothesis that literal self-objectification can serve a terror management function. From this perspective, the female body poses a unique existential threat on account of its role in reproduction, and regarding the self as an object is posited to shield women from this threat because objects, in contrast to humans, are not mortal. Across 5 studies, 3 operationalizations of literal self-objectification were employed (a denial of essentially human traits to the self, overlap in the explicit assignment of traits to the self and objects, and implicit associations between self and objects using an implicit association test) in response to 3 aspects of women's bodies involved in reproduction (pregnancy, menstruation, and breastfeeding). In each study, priming mortality led women (but not men, included in Studies 1, 3, 4, and 5) to literally self-objectify in conditions where women's reproductive features were salient. In addition, literal self-objectification was found to mediate subsequent responsiveness to death-related stimuli (Study 4). Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate a direct link between mortality salience, women's role in reproduction, and their self-objectification, supporting an existential function of self-objectification in women.
Full Text Available Based on a personal experience of workshop with university master's students for over ten years, the article shows how a dance-movement therapy course can quickly open up new existential perspectives, enabling new narrative about one’s relationship with the world and increasing reflexive capacity and self-awareness. The students seem to find a way for integrating different parts of themselves, for accepting their difficulties and weaknesses, for reflecting and developing deep contacts, overcoming insecurity and discovering their value and their own creative abilities.
Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F
INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and propo......INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers...... and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study...... the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath...
Borges, Álvaro H
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...
... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...
Tomasdottir, Margret Olafia; Sigurdsson, Johann Agust; Petursson, Halfdan; Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Ivar Lund Nilsen, Tom; Hetlevik, Irene; Getz, Linn
Multimorbidity is prevalent, and knowledge regarding its aetiology is limited. The general pathogenic impact of adverse life experiences, comprising a wide-ranging typology, is well documented and coherent with the concept allostatic overload (the long-term impact of stress on human physiology) and the notion embodiment (the conversion of sociocultural and environmental influences into physiological characteristics). Less is known about the medical relevance of subtle distress or unease. The study aim was to prospectively explore the associations between existential unease (coined as a meta-term for the included items) and multimorbidity. Our data are derived from an unselected Norwegian population, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, phases 2 (1995-1997) and 3 (2006-2008), with a mean of 11 years follow-up. The analysis includes 20 365 individuals aged 20-59 years who participated in both phases and was classified without multimorbidity (with 0-1 disease) at baseline. From HUNT2, we selected 11 items indicating 'unease' in the realms of self-esteem, well-being, sense of coherence and social relationships. Poisson regressions were used to generate relative risk (RR) of developing multimorbidity, according to the respondents' ease/unease profile. A total of 6277 (30.8%) participants developed multimorbidity. They were older, more likely to be women, smokers and with lower education. 10 of the 11 'unease' items were significantly related to the development of multimorbidity. The items 'poor self-rated health' and 'feeling dissatisfied with life' exhibited the highest RR, 1.55 and 1.44, respectively (95% CI 1.44 to 1.66 and 1.21 to 1.71). The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with the number of 'unease' factors, from 26.7% for no factor to 49.2% for 6 or more. In this prospective study, 'existential unease' was associated with the development of multimorbidity in a dose-response manner. The finding indicates that existential unease increases people
Jones, Robin M. N.; Hays, Nancy Scheller
Ronald E. Hays is the former Director of the Hahnemann Creative Arts in Therapy Department at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the cofounder of the graduate art therapy program at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia. At the age of 62 he was diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia. In…
Full Text Available From Foucault (1977 through to Cohen (1985 and Feeley and Simon (1992 criminological thinking about punishment has been dominated by penal rationalities of power and control. This has led to an under-theorised notion of the individual in criminology (Green 2011. As society and penality become increasingly ‘re-emotionalised’ (Karstedt 2011 justice and punishment are invested with a new narrative and expressive dimensions. Drawing on Sartre’s (2010 existential philosophy about choice and authenticity and the social theory of Norbert Elias (2000 and Anthony Giddens (1986 the aim is to locate individual freedom and agency within these wider social conditions and through this begin to provide the basis for a broader conception for criminology of power that is both enabling and liberating as well as oppressive and controlling. De Foucault (1977 a Cohen (1985 y Feeley y Simon (1992, el pensamiento criminológico sobre el castigo ha estado dominado por las racionalidades penales del poder y el control. En criminología, esto ha llevado a una noción del individuo infra-teorizada (Green 2011. A medida que se han “re-emocionalizado” la sociedad y la penalización (Karstedt 2011, se ha investido a la justicia y al castigo de una nueva dimensión narrativa y expresiva. Inspirándose en la filosofía existencial de Sartre (2010 sobre la elección y autenticidad, y la teoría social de Norbert Elias (2000 y Anthony Giddens (1986, el objetivo de este artículo es situar la libertad y acción individual dentro de estas condiciones sociales más amplias, para después comenzar a ofrecer la base para una concepción más amplia de la criminología del poder, que sea tanto facilitadora y liberadora, como opresiva y controladora. DOWNLOAD THIS ARTICLE FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622078
Dr. Saroj Kothari
Arts have consistently been part of life as well as healing throughout the history of humankind. Today, expressive therapies have an increasingly recognized role in mental health, rehabilitation and medicine. The expressive therapies are defined as the use of art, music, dance/movement drama, poetry/creative writing, play and sand play within the context of psychotherapy, counseling, rehabilitation or health care. Through the centuries, the healing nature of these expressive therapies has bee...
Full Text Available The article demonstrates different meanings of the motif of Hamlet in the Estonian culture. Hamlet as a literary figure has been very important and influential, a symbol of will and a fighter in a hopeless situation. Paul-Eerik Rummo’s poem “Hamlet’s Songs” (1964 forms the centre around which revolve not only written texts but also many such cultural texts as theatre performances and music, all connected by allusions to Hamlet. Rummo’s poem is one of the most innovative poems from the 1960s in Estonian literature. The generation of the 1960s was influenced by several important contemporary theories, including existentialism. Many young writers systematically undermined the Soviet regime in their works. The use of the motif of Hamlet reveals a similarity between the existential and romantic rebellions. Rummo’s dialogue with Hamlet in his poem expresses optimism in a hopeless situation in a way different from Shakespeare’s.
One of the obstacles to scaling up paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in resource-limited settings is the relative complexity of paediatric dosing. There is a need to simplify ART in order to facilitate treatment initiation and ongoing management of infants and children by health care providers, as well as to support ...
de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.
The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…
Ronkainen, Noora; Harrison, Marlen Elliot; Ryba, Tatiana
In this research, we explore the negotiation of a conflicted runner identity in a Finnish runner's short-term migration to Beijing, China. We examine the historical and cultural construction of the runner identity and discuss the current discourses that constitute the modern runner subjectivities...... and migration studies as well as practical considerations for the use of autoethnography in psychological research and practice.......In this research, we explore the negotiation of a conflicted runner identity in a Finnish runner's short-term migration to Beijing, China. We examine the historical and cultural construction of the runner identity and discuss the current discourses that constitute the modern runner subjectivities....... From there, we continue with a Heideggerian existential-phenomenological analysis of the ‘boundary situation’ when the project of competitive running is challenged due to environmental and cultural barriers in the migration. Our empirical inquiry is based on the first author's autoethnographic account...
Girardi, Enrico; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Angeletti, Claudio; Vanacore, Paola; Matteelli, Alberto; Gori, Andrea; Carbonara, Sergio; Ippolito, Giuseppe
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has progressively decreased mortality of HIV-associated tuberculosis .To date, however, limited data on tuberculosis treatment outcomes among coinfected patients who are not ART-naive at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis are available. A multicenter, observational study enrolled 246 HIV-infected patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, in 96 Italian infectious diseases hospital units, who started tuberculosis treatment. A polytomous logistic regression model was used to identify baseline factors associated with the outcome. A Poisson regression model was used to explain the effect of ART during tuberculosis treatment on mortality, as a time-varying covariate, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment were as follows: 130 (52.8%) were successfully treated, 36 (14.6%) patients died in a median time of 2 months (range: 0-16), and 80 (32.6%) had an unsuccessful outcome. Being foreign born or injecting drug users was associated with unsuccessful outcomes. In multivariable Poisson regression, cART during tuberculosis treatment decreased the risk of death, while this risk increased for those who were not ART-naive at tuberculosis diagnosis. ART during tuberculosis treatment is associated with a substantial reduction of death rate among HIV-infected patients. However, patients who are not ART-naive when they develop tuberculosis remain at elevated risk of death.
N. B. Petrenko
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic of speech disorders correction in 4-6 yrs children by ergo and art therapy means. Material: during academic year three groups of children (n=97 were being observed: two groups - with speech disorders (control and main and one group of healthy children. Psycho-motor and cognitive functions were assessed with the help of tests for motor coordination (speed of their fulfillment, verbal thinking. Results: it was found that characteristic feature of such children is critical estimation of own speech insufficiency and conscious avoiding oral answers. By cluster analysis results increase of homogeneity in psycho-physical condition’s positive changes, cognitive functions and dance abilities resulted from dance-correction training program were shown. Conclusions: the worked out dance-correction choreographic trainings helps in the following: developing rhythm sense; strengthening of skeleton and muscles; memory, attention, thinking and imagination simulation. Acquiring of such experience will help a child to further successfully train different art-creative and sports kinds of activities; to master choreography and gymnastic as well as different musical instruments.
Nan, Joshua K M; Ho, Rainbow T H
Depression has become a critical global health problem, affecting millions of people. Cost-effective nonpharmacological treatment in community settings has been proposed to complement medical treatment. Short-term clay art therapy (CAT) is an alternative treatment that promotes the enhancement of various aspects of mental health for depressed individuals. One-hundred and six adults with depression were randomized into a CAT group or visual art (VA) control group for six 2.5-h weekly sessions. Intervention effects were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (Chinese version), Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being Inventory, and 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Chinese version) at baseline, immediately postintervention (T1), and 3-weeks postintervention (T2). Multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated a more significant time × group effect for CAT than for VA on depressive signs, general health, and body-mind-spirit well-being (all phealth in adults. The short duration of the intervention suggests additional application value in treating depression. Further investigation is warranted regarding the potential effect of CAT on alleviating physical symptoms and improving social function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansana, Visanou; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Durham, Jo; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Boonyaleepun, Suwanna; Schelp, Frank Peter
Since 2001, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) has been available in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A key factor in the effectiveness of ART is good adherence to the prescribed regimen for both individual well-being and public health. Poor adherence can contribute to the emergence of drug resistant strains of the virus and transmission during risky behaviors. Increased access to ART in low-income country settings has contributed to an interest in treatment adherence in resource-poor contexts. This study aims to investigate the proportion of adherence to ART and identify possible factors related to non-adherence to ART among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Lao PDR. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living with HIV receiving free ART at Setthathirath hospital in the capital Vientiane and Savannakhet provincial hospitals from June to November 2011. Three hundred and forty six PLHIV were interviewed using an anonymous questionnaire. The estimation of the adherence rate was based on the information provided by the PLHIV about the intake of medicine during the previous three days. The statistical software Epidata 3.1 and Stata 10.1 were used for data analysis. Frequencies and distribution of each variable were calculated by conventional statistical methods. The chi square test, Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression were used for bivariate analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of non-adherence to ART. A p-value ART. Reasons for not taking medicine as required were being busy (97.0%), and being forgetful (62.2%). In the multivariate analysis, educational level at secondary school (OR=3.7, 95% CI:1.3-10.1, p=0.012); illicit drug use (OR=16.1, 95% CI:1.9-128.3, p=0.011); dislike exercise (OR=0.6, 95% CI:0.4-0.9, p=0.028), and forgetting to take ARV medicine during the last month (OR=2.3, 95% CI:1.4-3.7, p=0.001) were independently associated with non
Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary
The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples.
Full Text Available The contemporary integrative theoretical and therapeutic concepts of social phobia in developmental period have been presented in the study. Besides current neurobiological theories, a very important hypothesis about behavioral inhibition has been represented as a predisposition of social phobia. The cognitive-behavioral theories of social phobia are dominant among psychological theories. The integrative concept of social phobia is the most realistic approach to this disorder and the bridge between biological and psychological theories. The interaction between biological and psychological etiological factors is represented through different therapeutical approaches to social phobia. Therapy of social phobia is integrative and involves different therapeutical modalities in different phases of therapy. In integrative psychotherapy, we use cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic oriented supportive psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and phenomenological-existential psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral therapy yields the best results. The medicaments in use are the following: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mono-amine oxidase inhibitors, high-potency benzodiazepines, new antiepileptic drugs and rarely (3-blockers. The combination of integrative psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is the most optimal therapeutic approach to social phobia. This integrative and to patient adapted treatment will produce the best results in management of children's and adolescent's social phobia.
Stenderup, Mogens Larsen; Nørgaard, Britta Kusk
“In Situ Didatics” - creating moments of universal and existential quality and beauty. Written by: Senior Lecturers Mogens Larsen Stenderup and Britta Nørgaard, ( UCN ) University College of Northern Denmark ( email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org), published April 2016. Læs den på www.academi.edu "Il existe...... certes un moment où l’une s’ouvre à l’autre – et c’est cette situation que nous appellerons enseignement" ( Lévinas, E. (2009)) Inspired by paradox experiences working with learning processes in different educational environments and cultural settings we are anxious to investigate and open up a new...... and unconsciously preventing actual change in how we organize schools and work with learning processes. This new direction contains more recognition of the importance of relational values and knowledge as part of learning processes to be active educationally....
One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.
Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P
Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect ...
Stem cell research and associated or derivative biotechnologies are proceeding at a pace that has left bioethics behind as a discipline that is more or less reactionary to their developments. Further, much of the available ethical deliberation remains determined by the conceptual framework of late modern metaphysics and the correlative ethical theories of utilitarianism and deontology. Lacking, to any meaningful extent, is a sustained engagement with ontological and epistemological critiques, such as with “postmodern” thinking like that of Heidegger’s existential phenomenology. Some basic “Heideggerian” conceptual strategies are reviewed here as a way of remedying this deficiency and adding to ethical deliberation about current stem cell research practices. PMID:20521117
Ana Stela Vieira Mendes Câmara
Full Text Available In the face of factual, conceptual and scientific uncertainties surrounding the finitude of life, and assuming the search for the ideal of a dignified, natural and proper death without prepayments or undue extensions, this research has the scope to investigate the reasonableness of the parameters that establish limitations on existential autonomy, due to the preservation of life of unconscious people. Identifies, based on heteronomous component of human dignity, the existence of a bundle of basic legal duties of protection of these individuals whose ownership rests with the family and the state. The methodology is qualitative, interdisciplinary bibliographic and documentary, in which it is used hypothetical-deductive approach.
Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen
Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes , the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies ( controlling and realizing ) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony () and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven () with mind and virtue (). A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun , and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin's (1946) top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students) revealed empirical supports. Y ang type of career praxes tends to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tends to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future development. Acceptance and dialectic thinking often
In the last sixty years the West-European religious landscape has changed radically. People, and also religious and humanist communities, in a post-secular world are challenged to develop a new existential, ethical and spiritual language that fits to their global and pluralistic surroundings. This
Fatti, Geoffrey; Grimwood, Ashraf; Bock, Peter
There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC) facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults from 59 facilities in four provinces in South Africa, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Kaplan-Meier estimates, competing-risks Cox regression, generalised estimating equation population-averaged models and logistic regression were used to compare death, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and virological suppression (VS) between PHC, district and regional hospitals. 29 203 adults from 47 PHC facilities, nine district hospitals and three regional hospitals were included. Patients at PHC facilities had more advanced WHO stage disease when starting ART. Retention in care was 80.1% (95% CI: 79.3%-80.8%), 71.5% (95% CI: 69.1%-73.8%) and 68.7% (95% CI: 67.0%-69.7%) at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment (Phospitals (aHR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.47) and mortality was independently elevated at district hospitals (aHR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99) compared to PHC facilities after 12 months of ART. District and regional hospital patients had independently reduced probabilities of VS, aOR 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.75) respectively compared to PHC facilities over 24 months of treatment. ART outcomes were superior at PHC facilities, despite PHC patients having more advanced clinical stage disease when starting ART, suggesting that ART can be adequately provided at this level and supporting the South African government's call for rapid up-scaling of ART at the primary level of care. Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which outcome differences are attributable to either facility level characteristics or patient co-morbidity at hospital level.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults from 59 facilities in four provinces in South Africa, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Kaplan-Meier estimates, competing-risks Cox regression, generalised estimating equation population-averaged models and logistic regression were used to compare death, loss to follow-up (LTFU and virological suppression (VS between PHC, district and regional hospitals. 29 203 adults from 47 PHC facilities, nine district hospitals and three regional hospitals were included. Patients at PHC facilities had more advanced WHO stage disease when starting ART. Retention in care was 80.1% (95% CI: 79.3%-80.8%, 71.5% (95% CI: 69.1%-73.8% and 68.7% (95% CI: 67.0%-69.7% at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment (P<0.0001. In adjusted regression analyses, LTFU was independently increased at regional hospitals (aHR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.47 and mortality was independently elevated at district hospitals (aHR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99 compared to PHC facilities after 12 months of ART. District and regional hospital patients had independently reduced probabilities of VS, aOR 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97 and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.75 respectively compared to PHC facilities over 24 months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ART outcomes were superior at PHC facilities, despite PHC patients having more advanced clinical stage disease when starting ART, suggesting that ART can be adequately provided at this level and supporting the South African government's call for rapid up-scaling of ART at the primary level of care. Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which
Langebeek, Nienke; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Reiss, Peter; Vervoort, Sigrid C; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Richter, Clemens; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T
Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of adherence-enhancing interventions. Our objective was to review evidence on predictors/correlates of adherence to ART, and to aggregate findings into quantitative estimates of their impact on adherence. We searched PubMed for original English-language papers, published between 1996 and June 2014, and the reference lists of all relevant articles found. Studies reporting on predictors/correlates of adherence of adults prescribed ART for chronic HIV infection were included without restriction to adherence assessment method, study design or geographical location. Two researchers independently extracted the data from the same papers. Random effects models with inverse variance weights were used to aggregate findings into pooled effects estimates with 95% confidence intervals. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used as the common effect size. The impact of study design features (adherence assessment method, study design, and the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) of the country in which the study was set) was investigated using categorical mixed effects meta-regression. In total, 207 studies were included. The following predictors/correlates were most strongly associated with adherence: adherence self-efficacy (SMD = 0.603, P = 0.001), current substance use (SMD = -0.395, P = 0.001), concerns about ART (SMD = -0.388, P = 0.001), beliefs about the necessity/utility of ART (SMD = 0.357, P = 0.001), trust/satisfaction with the HIV care provider (SMD = 0.377, P = 0.001), depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.305, P = 0.001), stigma about HIV (SMD = -0.282, P = 0.001), and social support (SMD = 0.237, P = 0.001). Smaller but significant associations were observed for the
In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.
Maixenchs, M.; Boene, H.; Anselmo, R.; Mindu, C.; Alonso, P.; Menéndez, C.; Macete, E.; Pool, R.; Letang, E.; Naniche, D.; Munguambe, K.
Objective The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how clinical symptoms may affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients, and to explore factors, perceptions and attitudes related to adherence to therapy. Design A qualitative study was carried out in the context of
Full Text Available In this article, the author examines the combination of arts-based research and art therapy within Bedouin women's empowerment groups. The art fulfills a double role within the group of both helping to illuminate the women's self-defined concerns and goals, and simultaneously enriching and moving these goals forward. This creates a research tool that adheres to the feminist principles of finding new ways to learn from lower income women from a different culture, together with creating a research context that is of direct potential benefit and enrichment for the women. The author, through examples of the use of art within lower income Bedouin women's groups, examines the theoretical connection between arts-based research and art therapy, two areas that often overlap but whose connection has not been addressed theoretically.
Hansen, Margaret M; Jones, Reo; Tocchini, Kirsten
Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: "Shinrin-yoku" AND/OR "forest bathing" AND/OR "nature therapy", 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into "physiological," "psychological," "sensory metrics" and "frameworks" sub-groups. Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day "stress-state" and "technostress.".
Full Text Available We have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs linking the brain to external devices. BCIs can be utilized to treat neurological conditions and even to augment brain functions. BCIs offer a promising treatment for mental disorders, including disorders of attention. Here we review the current state of the art and challenges of attention-based BCIs, with a focus on visual attention. Attention-based BCIs utilize electroencephalograms (EEGs or other recording techniques to generate neurofeedback, which patients use to improve their attention, a complex cognitive function. Although progress has been made in the studies of neural mechanisms of attention, extraction of attention-related neural signals needed for BCI operations is a difficult problem. To attain good BCI performance, it is important to select the features of neural activity that represent attentional signals. BCI decoding of attention-related activity may be hindered by the presence of different neural signals. Therefore, BCI accuracy can be improved by signal processing algorithms that dissociate signals of interest from irrelevant activities. Notwithstanding recent progress, optimal processing of attentional neural signals remains a fundamental challenge for the development of efficient therapies for disorders of attention.
Tavormina, Romina; Diamare, Sara; D'Alterio, Vittorio; Nappi, Bianca; Ruocco, Claudia; Guida, Enrico
Individuals, who work in an organization, develop a shared perception that influences their behavior and emotions. This perception guides operators in the interpretation of the main business processes and in the modes of decision-making. The Italian Ministry of Public Administration in 2004 issued a directive to improve the organizational well-being and the emotional state of the environment in the workplace. This law identifies the necessity of an organizational climate that fosters creativity at the workplace, for the development and the efficiency of public administration. Several studies have shown that the development of creativity in the operators becomes a resource for the organization to facilitate the adaptation to change and to the solution of problems. So the techniques of creativity can be used as a training strategy for the quality management and human resources, optimizing services. The following pilot study evaluates the effectiveness of a training course for veterinary staff of ASL Napoli 1 Centre The aim of the course has been promoting the well-being, the development of life skills and the resilience of the learners using techniques of creativity and art therapy.
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…
D'Almeida, Kayigan W; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary
Disparities in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) outcomes have been consistently reported among people living with HIV (PLWHIV). The present study aims at investigating the mechanisms underlying those disparities among PLWHIV in France. We used data from the Vespa2 survey, a large national cross-sectional survey, representative of HIV-infected people followed at hospitals in 2011. Among participants diagnosed ≥1996, HIV treatment-naive at the time of cART initiation and on cART for at least 12 months, the frequency of sustained virological suppression (SVS; undetectable viral load [accounting for clinical and biological determinants of response to cART. Among 1,246 participants, 77.7% had achieved SVS. SVS was less frequent among those unemployed (0.6 [range 0.3-1.0]) and those with the lowest level of education (0.4 [range 0.2-0.9]). The late presenters, diagnosed at a CD4 + T-cell count 200 but initiating cART at CD4 + T-cell count issues should also be investigated.
Levy, Fran J.
The concern of this text is the need that many individuals have for nonverbal, primarily physical forms of expression, and how this need has fueled the development of a new psychomotor discipline. The book treats the theory and practice of dance therapy, and examines the entire field from its inception through the present. Dance therapy, the use…
Noronha, Konrad J
Schizophrenia often requires a lifetime of treatment. This study used art as a therapeutic tool in therapy with a client diagnosed with schizophrenia, along with medical management. The purpose of using art was to enable the non-communicative client to communicate. The clients' drawings were used as a process medium. Progress was seen in changes in social behaviours and communication evidenced by him speaking more, expressing feelings and gaining better insight.
Full Text Available Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value.Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death.This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109 were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109 of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798, statistically significant factors included CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at the time of cART initiation (AOR 1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.05, ART naïve (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.09-2.61; p = 0.019 and age <39 years (AOR 2.96, 95%CI 1.77-4.96.For the AIDS patients that were deceased, only those who initiated cART while at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 were less likely to die from AIDS-related causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.
Full Text Available The most recent version of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society’s adult antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines was published in December 2014. In the 27 August 2015 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, two seminal randomised controlled trials that addressed the optimal timing of ART in HIV-infected patients with high CD4 counts were published: Strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START and TEMPRANO ANRS 12136 (Early antiretroviral treatment and/or early isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. The findings of these two trials were consistent: there was significant individual clinical benefit from starting ART immediately in patients with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells/μL rather than deferring until a certain lower CD4 threshold or clinical indication was met. The findings add to prior evidence showing that ART reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Therefore, early ART initiation has the public health benefits of potentially reducing both HIV incidence and morbidity. Given this new and important evidence, the Society took the decision to provide a specific update on the section of the adult ART guidelines relating to when ART should be initiated.
A key element in dealing with HIV/AIDS in South Africa depends on the resolution of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradox: while a universal First-World-style ART programme is unaffordable, a rationed treatment programme that includes ART is not only affordable but also vital for basic human rights reasons, to enhance ...
Elmi Abar Aden
Full Text Available Abstract In this study we report the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistant HIV-1 genotypes of virus isolated from Djiboutian patients who failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART and from ART naïve patients. Patients and methods A total of 35 blood samples from 16 patients who showed first-line ART failure (>1000 viral genome copies/ml and 19 ART-naïve patients were collected in Djibouti from October 2009 to December 2009. Both the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT genes were amplified and sequenced using National Agency for AIDS Research (ANRS protocols. The Stanford HIV database algorithm was used for interpretation of resistance data and genotyping. Results Among the 16 patients with first-line ART failure, nine (56.2% showed reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strains: two (12.5% were resistant to nucleoside (NRTI, one (6.25% to non-nucleoside (NNRTI reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and six (37.5% to both. Analysis of the DNA sequencing data indicated that the most common mutations conferring drug resistance were M184V (38% for NRTI and K103N (25% for NNRTI. Only NRTI primary mutations K101Q, K103N and the PI minor mutation L10V were found in ART naïve individuals. No protease inhibitor resistant strains were detected. In our study, we found no detectable resistance in ∼ 44% of all patients who experienced therapeutic failure which was explained by low compliance, co-infection with tuberculosis and malnutrition. Genotyping revealed that 65.7% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C. Conclusion The results of this first study about drug resistance mutations in first-line ART failures show the importance of performing drug resistance mutation test which guides the choice of a second-line regimen. This will improve the management of HIV-infected Djiboutian patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found
Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk; Lau, Carmen Ka-Yan; Kan, Wai Yin; Lam, Wai Man; Fung, Connie Yuen Yee
Palliative care patients experience a variety of needs and perceive their quality of life as being only fair. This study adopted a single-group repeated-measure design to investigate the effect of horticultural therapy on the quality of life of palliative care patients using the Quality of Life Concern in End of Life Questionnaire. Significant differences in the domains of "existential distress" and "health care concern" were observed immediately postintervention and at 4 weeks postintervention, respectively. No other significant differences were seen in the other domains or in the total mean score of the outcome measure.
Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at 6–9 weeks of age has been shown to reduce early infant mortality by 76% and HIV progression by 75% compared with cART deferred until clinical or CD4 criteria were met. In the landmark Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial, although the ...
Wang, Liyan; Ge, Lin; Wang, Lu; Morano, Jamie P; Guo, Wei; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Qin, Qianqian; Ding, Zhengwei; Sun, Dingyong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Hongbing; Tillman, Jonas; Cui, Yan
Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value. Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death. This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109) were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109) of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798), statistically significant factors included CD4 count causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.
Radiation therapy has a critical role in the treatment of esophageal cancer. To improve the treatment outcome of radiotherapy, not only strengthening the treatment intensity but also decreasing the long term toxicity is needed. To reduce the long term cardiopulmonary toxicity of chemoradiation, JCOG is now running a clinical trial which combines three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and mild irradiation dose. New techniques of radiation therapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or particle therapy are also promising in both treatment intensity and decreased toxicity. (author)
The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.
Krentz, Hartmut B; Gill, M John
Improved survival achieved by many patients with HIV/AIDS has complicated their medical care as increasing numbers of co-morbidities leads to polypharmacy, increased pill burdens, and greater risks of drug-drug interactions potentially compromising antiretroviral treatment (ART). We examined the impact of non-antiretroviral polypharmacy on ART for all adults followed at the Southern Alberta Clinic, Calgary, Canada. Polypharmacy was defined as ≥5 daily medications. We compared the impact of polypharmacy on continuous (i.e., remaining on same ART for ≥6 months) vs. non-continuous (i.e., discontinuing or switching ART) ART dosing frequency, number of ART pills, number of non-ART medications, and age. Of 1190 (89.5%) patients on ART, 95% were on three-drug regimens, 63.9% on QD ART, and 62% ≥3 ART pills daily; 32.2% were experiencing polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was associated with lower CD4, AIDS, >180 months living with HIV, higher numbers of ART pills, and older age (all p ART. Polypharmacy increased the risk for non-continuous ART (36.8% vs. 30.0%; p ART increased with daily ART pill count but not increased age. Non-adherence and adverse effects accounted for the majority of non-continuous ART. We found a strong association between polypharmacy and non-continuous ART, potentially leading to effective ART being compromised. Collaborative approaches are needed to anticipate the negative impacts of polypharmacy.
Estes, Jacob D.; Reilly, Cavan; Trubey, Charles M.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Cory, Theodore J.; Piatak, Michael; Russ, Samuel; Anderson, Jodi; Reimann, Thomas G.; Star, Robert; Smith, Anthony; Tracy, Russell P.; Berglund, Anna; Schmidt, Thomas; Coalter, Vicky; Chertova, Elena; Smedley, Jeremy; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Schacker, Timothy W.
Even with prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART), many human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have <500 CD4+ T cells/µL, and CD4+ T cells in lymphoid tissues remain severely depleted, due in part to fibrosis of the paracortical T-cell zone (TZ) that impairs homeostatic mechanisms required for T-cell survival. We therefore used antifibrotic therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques to determine whether decreased TZ fibrosis would improve reconstitution of peripheral and lymphoid CD4+ T cells. Treatment with the antifibrotic drug pirfenidone preserved TZ architecture and was associated with significantly larger populations of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Combining pirfenidone with an ART regimen was associated with greater preservation of CD4+ T cells than ART alone and was also associated with higher pirfenidone concentrations. These data support a potential role for antifibrotic drug treatment as adjunctive therapy with ART to improve immune reconstitution. PMID:25246534
Kyakuwa, Margaret; Hardon, Anita; Goldstein, Zoe
The implementation of the greater involvement of people living with HIV (GIPA) principle in Ugandan AIDS care is described by focusing on the engagement of expert clients in two rural health centers during a time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. We contrast how the expert clients help overburdened nurses to manage the well-attended ART programs in the public and in the nongovernmental organization clinic. They are unpaid, but acquire preferential status in the ART program because of their knowledge of AIDS medicines (and its adverse effects) and because of the compassionate care that they provide. Despite the assistance provided, nurses in the public facility felt threatened in their professional status by these expert clients, who were seen to overstep the boundaries of their role. We pay particular attention to the double burden for HIV-positive nurses, who fear stigma, and (unlike the expert patients) keep their HIV status secret.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between literature, religion and existential knowledge in the memorial work of François-René de Chateaubriand. The first main problem is the transmission of universal values represented by Christianity. The second problem are narrator’s tragic experiences that become a source of precious knowledge communicated to the reader. These narrative stakes, reinforced by rhetorical persuasion, are crucial to ensure immortality of the author through the pertinence of his voice addressed to posterity.
Sogarwal, Ruchi; Bachani, Damodar
Drug adherence and quality of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services are the keys for the successful ART programme. Hence, an attempt has been made to assess ART centres in India from client perspectives that are receiving services from the centres. Data were gathered through exit interviews with 1366 clients from 27 ART centres that were selected on the basis of drug adherence and client load. Analyses revealed that more than 80 per cent of the clients reported overall satisfaction with the services availed from the centre and 60 per cent reported that the quality of life has improved to a great extent after getting ART. Most of the clients strongly demanded to open ART centre in each district for better access as that will increase drug adherence and eventually control the HIV progression. It has been found that as many as 14% of respondents, ever been on ART, reported non-adherence and 70% of them cited distance and economic factors as the reasons for non-adherence. Study concludes that while majority of the clients were satisfied with ART services, shortage of staff, high level of non-drug adherence, long distances and poor referring system are the weak areas requiring attention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART cannot be experienced if they are not taken as prescribed. Yet, not all causes of non-adherence are dependent on the patient. Having to pay for medication reduces adherence rates. Non- adherence has severe public health implications which must be addressed locally and globally. This paper seeks to describe the trends in adherence rates reported in Cameroon and to investigate the determinants of adherence to ART in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS trial. Methods We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE and PSYCINFO for publications on adherence to ART in Cameroon (from January 1999 to May 2012 and described the trend in reported adherence rates and the factors associated with adherence. Data were extracted in duplicate. We used multivariable analyses on the baseline data for 200 participants in the CAMPS trial to determine the factors associated with adherence in four models using different measures of adherence (more than 90% or 95% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and a composite measure: 100% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and all pills taken on time. Results We identified nine studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Adherence to ART in Cameroon has risen steadily between 2000 and 2010, corresponding to reductions in the cost of medication. The factors associated with adherence to ART in Cameroon are grouped into patient, medication and disease related factors. We also identified factors related to the health system and the patient-provider relationship. In the CAMPS trial, education, side effects experienced and number of reminder methods were found to improve adherence, but only using multiple reminder methods was associated with better adherence in all the regression models (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.11, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.89, 8.93; p Conclusions Reducing the
Kirshbaum, Marilynne N; Ennis, Gretchen; Waheed, Nasreena; Carter, Fiona
In contrast to art-therapy, little is known about the role of art-making for people who have been diagnosed with cancer, and even less is known about program-based art-making. This study explored the experience of participation in a visual art-making program for people during and after cancer treatment in the Northern Territory of Australia. A longitudinal, qualitative, single cohort study was undertaken. Eight women diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer participated in weekly art-making sessions over eight weeks, facilitated by two professional artists. Data were collected before, during and after the sessions by interviews and group discussions. The Energy Restoration Framework was used to document and analyse the benefits of participation in terms of the a priori themes of: Expansive, Belonging, Nurturing and Purposeful. The four a priori themes were retained and an additional attribute of an energy restoration activity called Stimulating was added, along with sub-themes, which broadened and deepened understanding of the art-making experience within cancer care. Involvement in an activity that was expansive, new, beautiful and fascinating was highly valued in addition to the appreciation for being with and belonging to a supportive and accepting group facilitated by dynamic artists. There is much scope for continued research and promotion of art-making programs as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This viewpoint appeared in its original form as the catalogue essay that accompanied the exhibition "Multiplicity and Self-Identity: Trauma and Integration in Shirley Mason's Art," curated by the author for Gallery 2110, Sacramento, CA, and the 2010 Annual Conference of the American Art Therapy Association. The exhibition featured 17 artworks by…
Full Text Available Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, our VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers adapting and appreciating strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our VEC model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony (安身以法以和 and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven (天道 with mind and virtue (立命以心以德. A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun, and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin’s (1946 top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students revealed empirical supports. Yang type of career praxes tend to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tend to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future
Il’ya N. Chernyshev
Full Text Available The article considers the semantic prerequisites for the use of images associated with movement in S. Beckett’s novel «More Pricks than Kicks» and their functioning in the context of the existential problematic of the work. A great influence on the author’s early prose was made by the modernist tradition and, in particular, the work of J. Joyce. Numerous allusions and a complex system of characters, the distinguishing features of which are the peculiarities of their movement, allowed the writer to express his views on the problem of human existence. This study suggests looking at the figurative component of S. Beckett’s early work from the viewpoint of phenomenological analysis.
Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.
Full Text Available Early Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava theologians developed a unique path of Hindu devotion during the 16th century through which an aspirant cultivates a rapturous form of selfless love (premā for Kṛṣṇa, who is recognized as the supreme and personal deity. In the course and consequence of cultivating this selfless love, the recommended practices of devotion are claimed to free one from the basic existential condition of bondage that is of concern for a wide range of South Asian religious and philosophical traditions. One of the principle cognitive tendencies characterizing this condition is to have thoughts and feelings of possessiveness over objects of the world, or what is referred to as the state of “my-ness” (mamatā, e.g., my home, my children, or my wealth. Using the therapeutic model of schema therapy as a heuristic analogue, this article explores the relationship between recommended practices of rule-based devotion (vaidhi-bhakti and the modulation of thoughts and feelings of possessiveness towards mundane objects. I argue that such practices function as learning strategies that can systematically rework and modulate how one relates to and responds to these objects in theologically desirable ways. I conclude by suggesting that connectionist theories of cognition and learning may offer a promising explanatory framework for understanding the dynamics of this kind of relationship.
Full Text Available Discourse on global art or art history arguably dominates the field of art history today in terms of curriculum and research. This discourse cuts across time and space, impacting all art historical specializations, from prehistoric to contemporary, and from Africa to the Americas. Yet, the mainstream theoretical discourse on global art or art history focuses almost explicitly on contemporary and, to a lesser extent, modern art, operating from the premise that only these arts were created in an age of globalization and, thus, emphasize hybridity. This essay seeks to expand the mainstream theoretical discourse regarding global art to pre-modern examples, given that artistic exchange and hybridity dates as early as the prehistoric era all over the world and is not dependent on newer technologies. Indeed, one might argue that the study of pre-modern examples of global art could provide a powerful historical lens through which to analyze contemporary global art.
Johnston, Bridget; Lawton, Sally; Pringle, Jan
Dementia is a progressive condition that impacts on individuals, families and care professionals. Maintaining quality of life through engagement with the person with dementia is an important part of their care. Dignity Therapy is an interactive, psychotherapeutic intervention that uses a trained dignity therapist to guide the person with dementia through an interview that then creates a written legacy called a generativity document. This can provide knowledge to inform care, as the condition progresses. Generativity documents were analysed using framework analysis. Main themes from the analysis were origin of values, essence and affirmation of self, forgiveness and resolution and existentialism/ meaning of life. These themes provide evidence of the type, scope and contribution that information generated from Dignity Therapy can make to the care and support of people with dementia. They provide information about the values, self-identity and the people and events that have been important to them and influenced their lives.
having helped some clients. Over the past half century, psychotherapy has faced a series of crises concerned with its transformation from an art to a...clinical science . These include validation of the effectiveness of various forms of therapy, validating elements of treatment programs and
Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)
Full Text Available The article combines both philosophical and psychological approaches to argue that art and theatre performance especially can be grasped as a revelation of the universal and basic human concern, which is existential anxiety. The author presents an opinion, that via performative acts on stage, spectators and performers/actors are interconnected in hermeneutic situation (Hans-Georg Gadamer, in which they play their existential experience. Therefore, the universal death anxiety (Irvin D. Yalom can be understood as a possible platform for interpersonal and intercultural dialogue (Martin Buber. The article concludes, that archetypes (Carl Gustav Jung are such a place for mutual understanding, representing both mental and physical answers to the basic existential experience of humankind.
Timothy J Henrich
Full Text Available It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI following 32 weeks of continuous ART.Colorectal and lymph node tissues, bone marrow, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF, plasma, and very large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained longitudinally from both participants and were studied for HIV persistence in several laboratories using molecular and culture-based detection methods, including a murine viral outgrowth assay (mVOA. Both participants initiated PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine during very early Fiebig stage I (detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, antibody negative followed by 4-drug ART intensification. Following peak viral loads, both participants experienced full suppression of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Over the following 2 years, no further HIV could be detected in blood or tissue from PrEP Participant A despite extensive sampling from ileum, rectum, lymph nodes, bone marrow, CSF, circulating CD4+ T cell subsets, and plasma. No HIV was detected from tissues obtained from PrEP Participant B, but low-level HIV RNA or DNA was intermittently detected from various CD4+ T cell subsets. Over 500 million CD4+ T cells were assayed from both participants in a humanized mouse outgrowth assay. Three of 8 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant B developed viremia (50 million input cells/surviving mouse, but only 1 of 10 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant A (53 million input
Cécile L Tremblay
Full Text Available Many clinical trials have shown that initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at higher rather than lower CD4 T cell-positive counts results in survival benefit. Early treatment can help prevent end-organ damage associated with HIV replication and can decrease infectivity. The mainstay of treatment is either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. While effective at combating HIV, ART can produce adverse alterations of lipid parameters, with some studies suggesting a relationship between some anti-retroviral agents and cardiovascular disease. As the HIV-positive population ages, issues such as hypertension and diabetes must be taken into account when initiating ART. Adhering to ART can be difficult; however, nonoptimal adherence to ART can result in the development of resistance; thus, drug characteristics and the patient’s preparedness to begin therapy must be considered. Reducing the pill burden through the use of fixed-dose antiretroviral drug combinations can facilitate adherence.
This article examines the teaching approach of art educator Friedl Dicker-Brandeis as a historical antecedent to the art therapy profession. Dicker-Brandeis's philosophy and her specific methods of teaching art to children in the Terezin concentration camp in Czechoslovakia between 1942 and 1944 are described. The influence of the Bauhaus…
Gu, Z; Lu, X
The most important influence of art of changes on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was reflected in the formation of the basic theory of TCM. Some innovations were achieved by using the theory of art of changes to research medicine in later ages. However, the specific therapies and the prognostication of diseases inferred by using the art of mathematics were mostly unreliable. Though the researches on the art of changes were helpful to the exploration of the cause and effect of TMC, yet, its practical significance should be evaluated properly.
Häggblom, Amanda; Santacatterina, Michele; Neogi, Ujjwal; Gisslen, Magnus; Hejdeman, Bo; Flamholc, Leo; Sönnerborg, Anders
Switch from first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) to second-line ART is common in clinical practice. However, there is limited knowledge of to which extent different reason for therapy switch are associated with differences in long-term consequences and sustainability of the second line ART. Data from 869 patients with 14601 clinical visits between 1999-2014 were derived from the national cohort database. Reason for therapy switch and viral load (VL) levels at first-line ART failure were compared with regard to outcome of second line ART. Using the Laplace regression model we analyzed the median, 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th percentile of time to viral failure (VF). Most patients (n = 495; 57.0%) switched from first-line to second-line ART without VF. Patients switching due to detectable VL with (n = 124; 14.2%) or without drug resistance mutations (DRM) (n = 250; 28.8%) experienced VF to their second line regimen sooner (median time, years: 3.43 (95% CI 2.90-3.96) and 3.20 (95% 2.65-3.75), respectively) compared with those who switched without VF (4.53 years). Furthermore level of VL at first-line ART failure had a significant impact on failure of second-line ART starting after 2.5 years of second-line ART. In the context of life-long therapy, a median time on second line ART of 4.53 years for these patients is short. To prolong time on second-line ART, further studies are needed on the reasons for therapy changes. Additionally patients with a high VL at first-line VF should be more frequently monitored the period after the therapy switch.
Full Text Available Switch from first line antiretroviral therapy (ART to second-line ART is common in clinical practice. However, there is limited knowledge of to which extent different reason for therapy switch are associated with differences in long-term consequences and sustainability of the second line ART.Data from 869 patients with 14601 clinical visits between 1999-2014 were derived from the national cohort database. Reason for therapy switch and viral load (VL levels at first-line ART failure were compared with regard to outcome of second line ART. Using the Laplace regression model we analyzed the median, 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th percentile of time to viral failure (VF.Most patients (n = 495; 57.0% switched from first-line to second-line ART without VF. Patients switching due to detectable VL with (n = 124; 14.2% or without drug resistance mutations (DRM (n = 250; 28.8% experienced VF to their second line regimen sooner (median time, years: 3.43 (95% CI 2.90-3.96 and 3.20 (95% 2.65-3.75, respectively compared with those who switched without VF (4.53 years. Furthermore level of VL at first-line ART failure had a significant impact on failure of second-line ART starting after 2.5 years of second-line ART.In the context of life-long therapy, a median time on second line ART of 4.53 years for these patients is short. To prolong time on second-line ART, further studies are needed on the reasons for therapy changes. Additionally patients with a high VL at first-line VF should be more frequently monitored the period after the therapy switch.
Hannemann, Beat Ted
Creative activities could be stimulating for dementia patients. This article gives a review of practical forms of treating dementia patients with art therapeutic indications. It is also a ground for long-term research objective: in brief, I take exception to such a view, contrary to the common belief in the society and some professionals in the healthcare of dementia patients, on the ground that the patients do not have the capacity to improve their own creativity. The theory of cognition tells us about the principle of being creative as a basis for human life. This specific principle is effective for the aged as well. In the long-term, the creative potential of old patients will be unblocked in individual and group therapy sessions. Creative activity has been shown to reduce depression and isolation, offering the power of choice and decisions. Towards the end of life, art and creativity offer a path of opening up the windows to people's emotional interiors. Creative- and art therapy provides possibilities that are mostly indicated to sharpen the capacity of the senses and the patients' propensity to act themselves. Nonverbal therapy methods, such as painting, music, etc., are able to influence the well-being of the patients positively, within the modern healthcare system in nursing homes. The elderly and some of the dementia patients take the initiative to combine creativity and arts and to define his/her feeling for aesthetical matters. Furthermore, group therapy sessions help against isolation and lack of life perspective and hope. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
文章从认知语言学、语言人类学和认知心理学的角度讨论藏语的系词（yin 与 red）“是”和处所／存在动词（yod、dug、yog．red）“在、有”的功能分布，并且与喜马拉雅语言的存在类动词进行了比较。通过亲属语言之间跨语言的比较，了解存在类动词之间概念的关联性。探索存在类动词在这些语言中概念结构的相似性和差异性。%In this paper,we describe and analyze functional distribution of copulas yin,red and locative-existential verbs yod,dug,yog.red in varieties of Tibetan,in the meantime,we compare Tibetan copulas and locative-existential verbs with those of Himalayan languages.We finally provide similarities and differences of conceptual structures of copulas and locative-existential verbs between Tibetan and Himalayan languages in terms of cognitive linguistics,linguistic anthropology and cogni-tive psychology.
Martin, Lily; Bauer, Katharina; Nottensteiner, Alina; Mergheim, Katja
Stress is one of the world’s largest health problems, leading to exhaustion, burnout, anxiety, a weak immune system, or even organ damage. In Germany, stress-induced work absenteeism costs about 20 billion Euros per year. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Central Federal Association of the public Health Insurance Funds in Germany ascribes particular importance to stress prevention and stress management as well as health enhancing measures. Building on current integrative and embodied stress theories, Creative Arts Therapies (CATs) or arts interventions are an innovative way to prevent stress and improve stress management. CATs encompass art, music, dance/movement, and drama therapy as their four major modalities. In order to obtain an overview of CATs and arts interventions’ efficacy in the context of stress reduction and management, we conducted a systematic review with a search in the following data bases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Medline, Psyndex, PsycINFO and SocINDEX. Studies were included employing the PICOS principle and rated according to their evidence level. We included 37 studies, 73% of which were randomized controlled trials. 81.1% of the included studies reported a significant reduction of stress in the participants due to interventions of one of the four arts modalities. PMID:29470435
Full Text Available Stress is one of the world’s largest health problems, leading to exhaustion, burnout, anxiety, a weak immune system, or even organ damage. In Germany, stress-induced work absenteeism costs about 20 billion Euros per year. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Central Federal Association of the public Health Insurance Funds in Germany ascribes particular importance to stress prevention and stress management as well as health enhancing measures. Building on current integrative and embodied stress theories, Creative Arts Therapies (CATs or arts interventions are an innovative way to prevent stress and improve stress management. CATs encompass art, music, dance/movement, and drama therapy as their four major modalities. In order to obtain an overview of CATs and arts interventions’ efficacy in the context of stress reduction and management, we conducted a systematic review with a search in the following data bases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Medline, Psyndex, PsycINFO and SocINDEX. Studies were included employing the PICOS principle and rated according to their evidence level. We included 37 studies, 73% of which were randomized controlled trials. 81.1% of the included studies reported a significant reduction of stress in the participants due to interventions of one of the four arts modalities.
Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV
Full Text Available Dr. Lori Reynolds has an interest in therapeutic gardens and the creation of living spaces that promote wellbeing for older adults. Dr. Reynolds educates various stakeholders on the benefits of occupational therapy, including landscape architects and senior living administrators. Her advocacy to expand occupational therapy beyond its mainstream roles is infectious. She speaks passionately about her work in helping to create therapeutic gardens and how her role as an occupational therapist offers great perspective in this process. She appreciates the environmental impact on an individual’s health and well-being and practices from a personenvironment-occupation theory
Luda, Carolin; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Hansel, Cordula; Nischalke, Hans-Dieter; Lutz, Philipp; Mohr, Raphael; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Strassburg, Christian P.; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt; Spengler, Ulrich
Hepatic steatosis can occur with any antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to predispose to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, their role for treatment-associated steatosis in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. We determined the frequency of PNPLA3 (rs738409), CSPG3/NCAN (rs2228603), GCKR (rs780094), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), TM6SF (rs8542926), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855) and MBOAT7 (rs626283) by RT-PCR in 117 HIV-positive patients on cART and stratified participants based on their “controlled attenuation parameter” (CAP) into probable (CAP: 215–300 dB/m) and definite (CAP >300 dB/m) hepatic steatosis. We analyzed CAP values and routine metabolic parameters according to the allele frequencies. Sixty-five (55.6%) and 13 (11.1%) patients were allocated to probable and definite steatosis. CAP values (p = 0.012) and serum triglycerides (p = 0.043) were increased in carriers of the GCKR (rs780094) A allele. Cox logistic regression identified triglycerides (p = 0.006), bilirubin (p = 0.021) and BMI (p = 0.068), but not the genetic parameters as risk factors for the occurrence of hepatic steatosis. Taken together, according to the limited sample size, this exploratory study generates the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms seem to exert minor effects on the risk for fatty liver disease in HIV-positive patients on cART. Nevertheless, SNPs may modify metabolic complications once metabolic abnormalities have developed. Hence, subsequent analysis of a larger cohort is needed. PMID:28594920
Full Text Available In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina. Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1 love, (2 trust, (3 holding, and (4 helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas.The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patients philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis and the process of healing (salutogenesis. At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.
the imperatives of the visual media in the discourse of the existential realities of the ... social enquiry these all engaged in the encrypt age and embalming for all ..... photograph suggests a road, and shrub land that would ultimately disappear in ...
O. M. Nosenko
Full Text Available The article presents literature data on modern approaches to diagnosis and treatment of vaginal dysbiosis caused by fungi of the genus Candida and personal data on the effectiveness of vaginal dysbiosis treatment in women with recurrent miscarriage occurring in ART cycles by combined local therapy with sertaconazole and povidone-iodine. 240 patients of reproductive age with habitual miscarriage of pregnancy after ART and 30 conditionally healthy fertile women were examined. The state of vaginal microbiota was studied using PCR and culture. It were carried out a species identification of the fungi of the genus Candida and their susceptibility to antimycotics. It has been established that among women with a recurrent miscarriage after cycles of ART that repeatedly receive antibacterial therapy in preparation in the ART cycles and after abortion, in the vaginal microbiota Vaginal dysbiosis was observed in 54.58% of the cases, in which increased colonization by bacterial-fungal associates was noted in 67.18% of individuals. The authors prove that Sertaconazole in combination with povidone iodine is a highly effective regimen of vaginal microbiota normalization in patients with ART with a recurrent miscarriage, even in individuals with the development of cross-resistance to antimycotic therapy.