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Sample records for exhibits enhanced transcriptional

  1. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  2. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Galán-Vásquez

    Full Text Available The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs.

  3. Enhancement of CIITA transcriptional function by ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Susanna F; Zika, Eleni; Conti, Brian; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2003-11-01

    Although increasing evidence indicates that there is a direct link between ubiquitination and mono-ubiquitination and transcription in yeast, this link has not been demonstrated in higher eukaryotes. Here we show that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA), which is required for expression of genes encoding MHC class II molecules, is ubiquitinated. This ubiquitination enhanced the association of CIITA with both MHC class II transcription factors and the MHC class II promoter, resulting in an increase in transactivation function and in the expression of MHC class II mRNA. The degree of CIITA ubiquitination was controlled by histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), indicating that the crucial cellular processes mediated by these enzymes are linked to regulate transcription. Thus, ubiquitin positively regulates a mammalian coactivator by enhancing its assembly at the promoter.

  4. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...... the science centre. Eye-tracking glasses and qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Before entering the PULSE exhibition, one adult in each family group and one child in each school group were asked to wear eye-tracking equipment while interacting with various installations. Primarily adult test...

  5. Surface Conductive Graphene-Wrapped Micromotors Exhibiting Enhanced Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Katuri, Jaideep; Zeng, Yongfei; Zhao, Yanli; Sanchez, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Surface-conductive Janus spherical motors are fabricated by wrapping silica particles with reduced graphene oxide capped with a thin Pt layer. These motors exhibit a 100% enhanced velocity as compared to standard SiO2 -Pt motors. Furthermore, the versatility of graphene may open up possibilities for a diverse range of applications from active drug delivery systems to water remediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enhanced sialyltransferases transcription in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Morales, Dolores; Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Valenzuela, Olivia; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    2009-03-01

    Altered sialylation observed during oncogenic transformation, tumor metastases and invasion, has been associated with enhanced sialyltransferases (STs) transcription. Increased mRNA expression of STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III) has been detected in invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. A study of the sialic acid concentration in local tissue of cervix and in serum showed a slight elevation in benign inflammatory lesions and a moderate elevation in severe neoplasia, but to date, altered expression of STs in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has not yet been evaluated. This study investigates the changes in mRNA expression of three STs (ST6Gal I, ST3Gal III, and ST3Gal IV) in cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN). Alterations of these STs mRNA expression were examined in 35 cervix specimens classified as normal, CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3, by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of the three STs was enhanced in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 with respect to normal tissue, with a significant difference of p altered expression of ST3Gal III, ST3Gal IV and ST6Gal I in CIN could play an important role during malignant transformation and could be related with the enhanced sialic acid expression detected in neoplasic tissues.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  10. The phzA2-G2 transcript exhibits direct RsmA-mediated activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ren

    Full Text Available In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1 and phzA2-G2 (phz2, each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5'-untranslated region (UTR of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3, located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an advantage to P. aeruginosa over other pseudomonads containing only a single phz cluster in their genomes.

  11. Imatinib treatment causes substantial transcriptional changes in adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro exhibiting pleiotropic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Buro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome parasites cause schistosomiasis, one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. For decades Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug widely used for controlling schistosomiasis. The absence of a vaccine and fear of PZQ resistance have motivated the search for alternatives. Studies on protein kinases (PKs demonstrated their importance for diverse physiological processes in schistosomes. Among others two Abl tyrosine kinases, SmAbl1 and SmAbl2, were identified in Schistosoma mansoni and shown to be transcribed in the gonads and the gastrodermis. SmAbl1 activity was blocked by Imatinib, a known Abl-TK inhibitor used in human cancer therapy (Gleevec/Glivec. Imatinib exhibited dramatic effects on the morphology and physiology of adult schistosomes in vitro causing the death of the parasites.Here we show modeling data supporting the targeting of SmAbl1/2 by Imatinib. A biochemical assay confirmed that SmAbl2 activity is also inhibited by Imatinib. Microarray analyses and qRT-PCR experiments were done to unravel transcriptional processes influenced by Imatinib in adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrating a wide influence on worm physiology. Surface-, muscle-, gut and gonad-associated processes were affected as evidenced by the differential transcription of e.g. the gynecophoral canal protein gene GCP, paramyosin, titin, hemoglobinase, and cathepsins. Furthermore, transcript levels of VAL-7 and egg formation-associated genes such as tyrosinase 1, p14, and fs800-like were affected as well as those of signaling genes including a ribosomal protein S6 kinase and a glutamate receptor. Finally, a comparative in silico analysis of the obtained microarray data sets and previous data analyzing the effect of a TGFβR1 inhibitor on transcription provided first evidence for an association of TGFβ and Abl kinase signaling. Among others GCP and egg formation-associated genes were identified as common targets.The data affirm broad negative effects of

  12. Trypanosoma equiperdum minicircles encode three distinct primary transcripts which exhibit guide RNA characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, V W; Hajduk, S L

    1991-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomes is composed of maxicircle and minicircle DNAs catenated into a network, called the kinetoplast. Maxicircles encode proteins and RNAs necessary for mitochondrial assembly. Minicircles encode small transcripts which are believed to serve as guide RNAs in the process of RNA editing of maxicircle transcripts. Trypanosoma equiperdum minicircles contain three transcription units which produce three distinct transcripts. The genes for these transcripts are flanked by imperfect 18-bp repeats separated by approximately 110 bp. The transcripts have a 5' triphosphate, indicating that they are primary transcripts. Minicircle transcription initiates at a purine within a conserved sequence, 5'-AYAYA-3', where Y is a pyrimidine, 32 bp from the upstream inverted repeat, suggesting that the repeats may function in transcript initiation. Transcripts from a single minicircle transcription unit range in size from 55 to 70 nucleotides. This size heterogeneity within a single sequence class is due to the variable length of nontemplated uridine residues composing a 3' tail. The size range and heterogeneous polyuridylate 3' end of the minicircle transcripts appear to be conserved features and may be related to transcript function. Images PMID:1825348

  13. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  14. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2 promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants, three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8 selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  15. Enhanced teleoperation exhibiting tele-autonomy and tele-collaboration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Yule, T. J.; Colgate, E.; Peshkin, M.

    2002-05-17

    This paper presents enhanced remote manipulation of tools for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with teleautonomy and tele-collaboration. This work builds on a reactive, agent-based control architecture, which is well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and cobot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with passive force-feedback control. Developed methodologies are tested using simulation, and then planned to be implemented using a structured light sensor and cobot hand controller on a dual-arm system to measure the enhanced performance of key tool operations that are tedious and difficult to perform purely by teleoperation. This work significantly leverages some 2000 hours of operational experience gained during the D&D of the CP-5 reactor at ANL using a dual-arm remote manipulator system, as well as DOE's investment in the dual-arm system itself, which will serve as a test bed for the proposed investigations.

  16. Gene isoform specificity through enhancer-associated antisense transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Onodera

    Full Text Available Enhancers and antisense RNAs play key roles in transcriptional regulation through differing mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhancers are often associated with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, yet the functional role of these enhancer:ncRNA associations is unclear. Using RNA-Sequencing to interrogate the transcriptomes of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and their derived neural precursor cells (NPs, we identified two novel enhancer-associated antisense transcripts that appear to control isoform-specific expression of their overlapping protein-coding genes. In each case, an enhancer internal to a protein-coding gene drives an antisense RNA in mESCs but not in NPs. Expression of the antisense RNA is correlated with expression of a shorter isoform of the associated sense gene that is not present when the antisense RNA is not expressed. We demonstrate that expression of the antisense transcripts as well as expression of the short sense isoforms correlates with enhancer activity at these two loci. Further, overexpression and knockdown experiments suggest the antisense transcripts regulate expression of their associated sense genes via cis-acting mechanisms. Interestingly, the protein-coding genes involved in these two examples, Zmynd8 and Brd1, share many functional domains, yet their antisense ncRNAs show no homology to each other and are not present in non-murine mammalian lineages, such as the primate lineage. The lack of homology in the antisense ncRNAs indicates they have evolved independently of each other and suggests that this mode of lineage-specific transcriptional regulation may be more widespread in other cell types and organisms. Our findings present a new view of enhancer action wherein enhancers may direct isoform-specific expression of genes through ncRNA intermediates.

  17. Transcriptional enhancers in the HLA-DQ subregion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, K E; Peterlin, B M

    1987-01-01

    Using transient expression assays, the HLA-DQ alpha and HLA-DQ beta genes of the human major histocompatibility complex were screened for cis-acting regulatory elements. Two regions in the HLA-DQ alpha gene and one in the HLA-DQ beta gene were identified which fulfilled the criteria for transcriptional enhancers.

  18. Responder and nonresponder patients exhibit different peripheral transcriptional signatures during major depressive episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzeaux, R; Bergon, A; Jeanjean, V; Loriod, B; Formisano-Tréziny, C; Verrier, L; Loundou, A; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Boyer, L; Gall, V; Gabert, J; Nguyen, C; Azorin, J-M; Naudin, J; Ibrahim, E C

    2012-01-01

    To date, it remains impossible to guarantee that short-term treatment given to a patient suffering from a major depressive episode (MDE) will improve long-term efficacy. Objective biological measurements and biomarkers that could help in predicting the clinical evolution of MDE are still warranted. To better understand the reason nearly half of MDE patients respond poorly to current antidepressive treatments, we examined the gene expression profile of peripheral blood samples collected from 16 severe MDE patients and 13 matched controls. Using a naturalistic and longitudinal design, we ascertained mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks later. On a genome-wide scale, we detected transcripts with roles in various biological processes as significantly dysregulated between MDE patients and controls, notably those involved in nucleotide binding and chromatin assembly. We also established putative interactions between dysregulated mRNAs and miRNAs that may contribute to MDE physiopathology. We selected a set of mRNA candidates for quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) to validate that the transcriptional signatures observed in responders is different from nonresponders. Furthermore, we identified a combination of four mRNAs (PPT1, TNF, IL1B and HIST1H1E) that could be predictive of treatment response. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of studies investigating the tight relationship between peripheral transcriptional changes and the dynamic clinical progression of MDE patients to provide biomarkers of MDE evolution and prognosis. PMID:23149449

  19. Suppression and enhancement of transcriptional noise by DNA looping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose M. G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2014-06-01

    DNA looping has been observed to enhance and suppress transcriptional noise but it is uncertain which of these two opposite effects is to be expected for given conditions. Here, we derive analytical expressions for the main quantifiers of transcriptional noise in terms of the molecular parameters and elucidate the role of DNA looping. Our results rationalize paradoxical experimental observations and provide the first quantitative explanation of landmark individual-cell measurements at the single molecule level on the classical lac operon genetic system [Choi, L. Cai, K. Frieda, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 442 (2008), 10.1126/science.1161427].

  20. The fetal/neonatal mouse liver exhibits transcriptional features of the adult pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics through the expression of xenobiotic metabolism enxymes (XME). The fetus and neonate have been hypothesized to exhibit increased sensitivity to xenobiotic toxicity. T...

  1. A dual switch controls bacterial enhancer-dependent transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, Simone C.; Burrows, Patricia C.; Buck, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are targets for antibiotics. Myxopyronin binds to the RNAP switch regions to block structural rearrangements needed for formation of open promoter complexes. Bacterial RNAPs containing the major variant σ54 factor are activated by enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) and transcribe genes whose products are needed in pathogenicity and stress responses. We show that (i) enhancer-dependent RNAPs help Escherichia coli to survive in the presence of myxopyronin, (ii) enhancer-dependent RNAPs partially resist inhibition by myxopyronin and (iii) ATP hydrolysis catalysed by bEBPs is obligatory for functional interaction of the RNAP switch regions with the transcription start site. We demonstrate that enhancer-dependent promoters contain two barriers to full DNA opening, allowing tight regulation of transcription initiation. bEBPs engage in a dual switch to (i) allow propagation of nucleated DNA melting from an upstream DNA fork junction and (ii) complete the formation of the transcription bubble and downstream DNA fork junction at the RNA synthesis start site, resulting in switch region-dependent RNAP clamp closure and open promoter complex formation. PMID:22965125

  2. Disruption of the Transcriptional Regulator Cas5 Results in Enhanced Killing of Candida albicans by Fluconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasicek, Erin M.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Bruno, Vincent M.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Barker, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (O. R. Homann, J. Dea, S. M. Noble, and A. D. Johnson, PLoS Genet. 5:e1000783, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000783), four strains exhibited marked reductions in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFCs) in both RPMI and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) media. One of these genes, UPC2, was previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/ml after 72 h in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations resulted in moderate reductions in MICs and MFCs. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in the presence of fluconazole and was consistent with the suggested role of CAS5 in cell wall organization while also suggesting a role in iron transport and homeostasis. These findings suggest that Cas5 regulates a transcriptional network that influences the response of C. albicans to fluconazole. Further delineation of this transcriptional network may identify targets for potential cotherapeutic strategies to enhance the activity of the azole class of antifungals

  3. Disruption of the transcriptional regulator Cas5 results in enhanced killing of Candida albicans by Fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasicek, Erin M; Berkow, Elizabeth L; Bruno, Vincent M; Mitchell, Aaron P; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Barker, Katherine S; Rogers, P David

    2014-11-01

    Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (O. R. Homann, J. Dea, S. M. Noble, and A. D. Johnson, PLoS Genet. 5:e1000783, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000783), four strains exhibited marked reductions in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFCs) in both RPMI and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) media. One of these genes, UPC2, was previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/ml after 72 h in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations resulted in moderate reductions in MICs and MFCs. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in the presence of fluconazole and was consistent with the suggested role of CAS5 in cell wall organization while also suggesting a role in iron transport and homeostasis. These findings suggest that Cas5 regulates a transcriptional network that influences the response of C. albicans to fluconazole. Further delineation of this transcriptional network may identify targets for potential cotherapeutic strategies to enhance the activity of the azole class of antifungals

  4. Coral larvae exhibit few measurable transcriptional changes during the onset of coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christine E; Weis, Virginia M

    2010-06-01

    The cellular mechanisms controlling the successful establishment of a stable mutualism between cnidarians and their dinoflagellate partners are largely unknown. The planula larva of the solitary Hawaiian scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria and its dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium sp. type C1f represents an ideal model for studying the onset of cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis due to the predictable availability of gametes, the ability to raise non-symbiotic larvae and establish the symbiosis experimentally, and the ability to precisely quantify infection success. The goal of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed in F. scutaria larvae during the initiation of endosymbiosis with Symbiodinium sp. C1f. Newly symbiotic larvae were compared to non-symbiotic larvae using a custom cDNA microarray. The 5184-feature array was constructed with cDNA libraries from newly symbiotic and non-symbiotic F. scutaria larvae, including 3072 features (60%) that were enriched for either state by subtractive hybridization. Our analyses revealed very few changes in the F. scutaria transcriptome as a result of infection with Symbiodinium sp. C1f, similar to other studies focused on the early stages of this symbiotic interaction. We suggest that these results may be due, in part, to an inability to detect the transcriptional signal from the small percentage of infected cells compared to uninfected cells. We discuss several other potential explanations for this result, including suggesting that certain types of Symbiodinium sp. may have evolved mechanisms to suppress or circumvent cnidarian host responses to infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unspliced precursors of NMD-sensitive β-globin transcripts exhibit decreased steady-state levels in erythroid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Morgado

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a quality control mechanism that detects and rapidly degrades mRNAs carrying premature translation-termination codons (PTCs. Mammalian NMD depends on both splicing and translation, and requires recognition of the premature stop codon by the cytoplasmic ribosomes. Surprisingly, some published data have suggested that nonsense codons may also affect the nuclear metabolism of the nonsense-mutated transcripts. To determine if nonsense codons could influence nuclear events, we have directly assessed the steady-state levels of the unspliced transcripts of wild-type and PTC-containing human β-globin genes stably transfected in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL cells, after erythroid differentiation induction, or in HeLa cells. Our analyses by ribonuclease protection assays and reverse transcription-coupled quantitative PCR show that β-globin pre-mRNAs carrying NMD-competent PTCs, but not those containing a NMD-resistant PTC, exhibit a significant decrease in their steady-state levels relatively to the wild-type or to a missense-mutated β-globin pre-mRNA. On the contrary, in HeLa cells, human β-globin pre-mRNAs carrying NMD-competent PTCs accumulate at normal levels. Functional analyses of these pre-mRNAs in MEL cells demonstrate that their low steady-state levels do not reflect significantly lower pre-mRNA stabilities when compared to the normal control. Furthermore, our results also provide evidence that the relative splicing efficiencies of intron 1 and 2 are unaffected. This set of data highlights potential nuclear pathways that might be promoter- and/or cell line-specific, which recognize the NMD-sensitive transcripts as abnormal. These specialized nuclear pathway(s may be superimposed on the general NMD mechanism.

  6. Chromosomal regions associated with prostate cancer risk localize to lamin B-deficient microdomains and exhibit reduced gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Brian T; Wang, Yuanyuan; Pfleghaar, Katrin; Shimi, Takeshi; Taimen, Pekka; Shumaker, Dale K

    2012-04-01

    The lamins are major determinants of nuclear shape and chromatin organization and these features are frequently altered in prostate cancer (CaP). Human CaP cell lines frequently have nuclear lobulations, which are enriched in A-type lamins but lack B-type lamins and have been defined as lamin B-deficient microdomains (LDMDs). LDMD frequency is correlated with CaP cell line aggressiveness and increased cell motility. In addition, LNCaP cells grown in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) show an increased frequency of LDMDs. The LDMDs are enriched in activated RNA polymerase II (Pol IIo) and androgen receptor (AR) and A-type lamins form an enlarged meshwork that appears to co-align with chromatin fibres and AR. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated that chromosomal regions associated with CaP susceptibility are preferentially localized to LDMDs. Surprisingly, these regions lack histone marks for transcript elongation and exhibit reduced BrU incorporation, suggesting that Pol II is stalled within LDMDs. Real-time PCR of genes near androgen response elements (AREs) was used to compare transcription between cells containing LDMDs and controls. Genes preferentially localized to LDMDs showed significantly decreased expression, while genes in the main nuclear body were largely unaffected. Furthermore, LDMDs were observed in human CaP tissue and the frequency was correlated with increased Gleason grade. These results imply that lamins are involved in chromatin organization and Pol II transcription, and provide insights into the development and progression of CaP. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum with distinct modes of resistance exhibit dissimilar transcriptional regulation during Diuraphis noxia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death – symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1, tolerance (Dn2, and antixenosis (Dn5. However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response.

  8. Class-C SOX Transcription Factors Control GnRH Gene Expression via the Intronic Transcriptional Enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Dae; Choe, Han Kyoung; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Seong, Jae Young

    2011-01-01

    GnRH is a pivotal hypothalamic neurohormone governing reproduction and sexual development. Because transcriptional regulation is crucial for the spatial and temporal expression of the GnRH gene, a region approximately 3.0 kb upstream of the mammalian GnRH promoter has been extensive studied. In the present study, we demonstrate a transcription-enhancer located in the first intron (intron A) region of the GnRH gene. This transcriptional enhancer harbors putative sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) family transcription factor-binding sites, which are well conserved across many mammalian species. The class-C SOX member proteins (SOX-C) (SOX4 and SOX11) specifically augment this transcriptional activation by binding to these SOX-binding sites. In accordance, SOX11 is highly enriched in immortalized GnRH-producing GT1-1 cells, and suppression of its expression significantly decreases GnRH gene expression as well as GnRH secretion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that endogenous SOX-C factors recognize and bind to the intronic enhancer in GT1-1 cells and the hypothalamus. Accompanying immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that SOX4 or SOX11 are highly expressed in the majority of hypothalamic GnRH neurons in adult mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SOX-C transcription factors function as important transcriptional regulators of cell type-specific GnRH gene expression by acting on the intronic transcriptional enhancer. PMID:21527504

  9. A Meloidogyne incognita effector is imported into the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Davies, Laura J; Elling, Axel A

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are sedentary biotrophic endoparasites that maintain a complex interaction with their host plants. Nematode effector proteins are synthesized in the oesophageal glands of nematodes and secreted into plant tissue through a needle-like stylet. Effectors characterized to date have been shown to mediate processes essential for nematode pathogenesis. To gain an insight into their site of action and putative function, the subcellular localization of 13 previously isolated Meloidogyne incognita effectors was determined. Translational fusions were created between effectors and EGFP-GUS (enhanced green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase) reporter genes, which were transiently expressed in tobacco leaf cells. The majority of effectors localized to the cytoplasm, with one effector, 7H08, imported into the nuclei of plant cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the nuclear localization of 7H08 was mediated by two novel independent nuclear localization domains. As a result of the nuclear localization of the effector, 7H08 was tested for the ability to activate gene transcription. 7H08 was found to activate the expression of reporter genes in both yeast and plant systems. This is the first report of a plant-parasitic nematode effector with transcriptional activation activity. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.

    2017-06-22

    Water deficit (drought stress) massively restricts plant growth and the yield of crops; reducing the deleterious effects of drought is therefore of high agricultural relevance. Drought triggers diverse cellular processes including the inhibition of photosynthesis, the accumulation of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, and gene expression reprogramming, besides others. Transcription factors (TF) are central regulators of transcriptional reprogramming and expression of many TF genes is affected by drought, including members of the NAC family. Here, we identify the NAC factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a regulator of drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of tomato JUB1 (SlJUB1) is enhanced by various abiotic stresses, including drought. Inhibiting SlJUB1 by virus-induced gene silencing drastically lowers drought tolerance concomitant with an increase in ion leakage, an elevation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels, and a decrease of the expression of various drought-responsive genes. In contrast, overexpression of AtJUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana increases drought tolerance in tomato, alongside with a higher relative leaf water content during drought and reduced H2 O2 levels. AtJUB1 was previously shown to stimulate expression of DREB2A, a TF involved in drought responses, and of the DELLA genes GAI and RGL1. We show here that SlJUB1 similarly controls the expression of the tomato orthologs SlDREB1, SlDREB2, and SlDELLA. Furthermore, AtJUB1 directly binds to the promoters of SlDREB1, SlDREB2 and SlDELLA in tomato. Our study highlights JUB1 as a transcriptional regulator of drought tolerance and suggests considerable conservation of the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory networks controlled by this NAC factor between Arabidopsis and tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells exhibit enhanced responses against myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romee, Rizwan; Rosario, Maximillian; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M.; Wagner, Julia A.; Jewell, Brea A.; Schappe, Timothy; Leong, Jeffrey W.; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Willey, Sarah; Neal, Carly C.; Yu, Liyang; Oh, Stephen T.; Lee, Yi-Shan; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans; Cooper, Megan A.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML. PMID:27655849

  12. Enhancing yeast transcription analysis through integration of heterogeneous data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarray technology enables the simultaneous measurement of the transcript level of thousands of genes. Primary analysis can be done with basic statistical tools and cluster analysis, but effective and in depth analysis of the vast amount of transcription data requires integration with data...

  13. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Manjul; Barthe, Gary; Irey, Michael; Grosser, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2) promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree.

  14. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Dutt

    Full Text Available Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB, a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2 promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree.

  15. Mice deficient in Sfrp1 exhibit increased adiposity, dysregulated glucose metabolism, and enhanced macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Gauger

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1, is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain, glucose homeostasis and inflammation in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO. Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body fat percentage, visceral white adipose tissue (WAT mass, and adipocyte size. Moreover, Sfrp1 deficiency increases the mRNA levels of key de novo lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Acaca, Acly, Elovl, Scd1 and the transcription factors that regulate their expression (Lxr-α, Srebp1, Chreb, and Nr1h3 in WAT. Fasting glucose levels are elevated, glucose clearance is impaired, hepatic gluconeogenesis regulators are aberrantly upregulated (G6pc and Pck1, and glucose transporters are repressed (Slc2a2 and Slc2a4 in Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD. Additionally, we observed increased steatosis in the livers of Sfrp1(-/- mice. When there is an expansion of adipose tissue there is a sustained inflammatory response accompanied by adipokine dysregulation, which leads to chronic subclinical inflammation. Thus, we assessed the inflammatory state of different tissues and revealed that Sfrp1(-/- mice fed a HFD exhibited increased macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory markers including IL-6, Nmnat, Tgf-β2, and SerpinE1. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of Sfrp1 is a critical factor required for maintaining appropriate cellular signaling in response to the onset of obesity.

  16. Discriminative identification of transcriptional responses of promoters and enhancers after stimulus

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2016-10-17

    Promoters and enhancers regulate the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of expression levels in spatial and temporal manner. Recent findings stemming from the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) demonstrate that promoters and enhancers, based on their expression profiles after stimulus, belong to different transcription response subclasses. One of the most promising biological features that might explain the difference in transcriptional response between subclasses is the local chromatin environment. We introduce a novel computational framework, PEDAL, for distinguishing effectively transcriptional profiles of promoters and enhancers using solely histone modification marks, chromatin accessibility and binding sites of transcription factors and co-activators. A case study on data from MCF-7 cell-line reveals that PEDAL can identify successfully the transcription response subclasses of promoters and enhancers from two different stimulations. Moreover, we report subsets of input markers that discriminate with minimized classification error MCF-7 promoter and enhancer transcription response subclasses. Our work provides a general computational approach for identifying effectively cell-specific and stimulation-specific promoter and enhancer transcriptional profiles, and thus, contributes to improve our understanding of transcriptional activation in human.

  17. Transgenic tobacco expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin exhibits enhanced growth and altered metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, N; Lilius, G; Bailey, J E; Bülow, L

    1997-03-01

    The gene for Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has been introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabaccum (tobacco). Transgenic tobacco plants expressing VHb exhibited enhanced growth, on average 80-100% more dry weight after 35 days of growth compared to wild-type controls. Furthermore, germination time is reduced from 6-8 days for wild-type tobacco to 3-4 days and the growth phase from germination to flowering was 3-5 days shorter for the VHb-expressing transgenes. Transgenic plants contained, on average, 30-40% more chlorophyll and 34% more nicotine than controls. VHb expression also resulted in an altered distribution of secondary metabolites: In the trangenic tobacco plants anabasine content was decreased 80% relative to control plants.

  18. Long distance relationships: enhancer-promoter communication and dynamic gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Judith; Horsfield, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional regulation of gene transcription involves loop formation between enhancer and promoter elements, controlling spatiotemporal gene expression in multicellular organisms. Enhancers are usually located in non-coding DNA and can activate gene transcription by recruiting transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and RNA Polymerase II. Research over the last few years has revealed that enhancers have tell-tale characteristics that facilitate their detection by several approaches, although the hallmarks of enhancers are not always uniform. Enhancers likely play an important role in the activation of genes by functioning as a primary point of contact for transcriptional activators, and by making physical contact with gene promoters often by means of a chromatin loop. Although numerous transcriptional regulators participate in the formation of chromatin loops that bring enhancers into proximity with promoters, the mechanism(s) of enhancer-promoter connectivity remain enigmatic. Here we discuss enhancer function, review some of the many proteins shown to be involved in establishing enhancer-promoter loops, and describe the dynamics of enhancer-promoter contacts during development, differentiation and in specific cell types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure through thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohsuke Hanaoka

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme, its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.

  20. Cockayne Syndrome exhibits dysregulation of p21 and other gene products that may be independent of transcription coupled repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Hefner, E.; Laposa, R.R.; Karentz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a progressive childhood neurodegenerative disorder associated with a DNA repair defect caused by mutations in either of two genes, CSA and CSB. These genes are involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) light, other bulky chemical adducts and reactive oxygen in transcriptionally active genes (transcription coupled repair, TCR). For a long period it has been assumed that the symptoms of CS patients are all due to reduced TCR of endogenous DNA damage in the brain, together with unexplained unique sensitivity of specific neural cells in the cerebellum. Not all the symptoms of CS patients are however easily related to repair deficiencies, so we hypothesize that there are additional pathways relevant to the disease, particularly those that are downstream consequences of a common defect in the E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with the CSA and CSB gene products. We have found that the CSB defect results in altered expression of anti-angiogenic and cell cycle genes and proteins at the level of both gene expression and protein lifetime. We find an over-abundance of p21 due to reduced protein turnover, possibly due to the loss of activity of the CSA/CSB E3 ubiquitylation pathway. Increased levels of p21 can result in growth inhibition, reduced repair from the p21-PCNA interaction, and increased generation of reactive oxygen. Consistent with increased reactive ozygen levels we find that CS-A and -B cells grown under ambient oxygen show increased DNA breakage, as compared to xeroderma pigmentosum cells. Thus the complex symptoms of CS may be due to multiple, independent downstream targets of the E3 ubiquitylation system that results in increased DNA damage, reduced transcription coupled repair, and inhibition of cell cycle progression and growth. PMID:17055654

  1. A 5' splice site enhances the recruitment of basal transcription initiation factors in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Kahns, Søren; Lykke-Andersen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are interdependent events. Although mechanisms governing the effects of transcription on splicing are becoming increasingly clear, the means by which splicing affects transcription remain elusive. Using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 or β-globin mRNAs, harb...... a promoter-proximal 5′ splice site via its U1 snRNA interaction can feed back to stimulate transcription initiation by enhancing preinitiation complex assembly.......Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are interdependent events. Although mechanisms governing the effects of transcription on splicing are becoming increasingly clear, the means by which splicing affects transcription remain elusive. Using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 or β-globin mRNAs......, harboring wild-type or various 5′ splice site mutations, we demonstrate a strong positive correlation between splicing efficiency and transcription activity. Interestingly, a 5′ splice site can stimulate transcription even in the absence of splicing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show enhanced...

  2. Coordinate enhancement of transgene transcription and translation in a lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Soledad

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinate enhancement of transgene transcription and translation would be a potent approach to significantly improve protein output in a broad array of viral vectors and nonviral expression systems. Many vector transgenes are complementary DNA (cDNA. The lack of splicing can significantly reduce the efficiency of their translation. Some retroviruses contain a 5' terminal post-transcriptional control element (PCE that facilitates translation of unspliced mRNA. Here we evaluated the potential for spleen necrosis virus PCE to stimulate protein production from HIV-1 based lentiviral vector by: 1 improving translation of the internal transgene transcript; and 2 functionally synergizing with a transcriptional enhancer to achieve coordinate increases in RNA synthesis and translation. Results Derivatives of HIV-1 SIN self-inactivating lentiviral vector were created that contain PCE and cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer (CMV IE. Results from transfected cells and four different transduced cell types indicate that: 1 PCE enhanced transgene protein synthesis; 2 transcription from the internal promoter is enhanced by CMV IE; 3 PCE and CMV IE functioned synergistically to significantly increase transgene protein yield; 4 the magnitude of translation enhancement by PCE was similar in transfected and transduced cells; 5 differences were observed in steady state level of PCE vector RNA in transfected and transduced cells; 6 the lower steady state was not attributable to reduced RNA stability, but to lower cytoplasmic accumulation in transduced cells. Conclusion PCE is a useful tool to improve post-transcriptional expression of lentiviral vector transgene. Coordinate enhancement of transcription and translation is conferred by the combination of PCE with CMV IE transcriptional enhancer and increased protein yield up to 11 to 17-fold in transfected cells. The incorporation of the vector provirus into chromatin correlated with reduced

  3. CarNAC4, a NAC-type chickpea transcription factor conferring enhanced drought and salt stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingwang; Liu, Yanmin; Wang, Shuang; Tao, Yuan; Wang, Zhankui; Shu, Yingjie; Peng, Hui; Mijiti, Abudoukeyumu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao

    2016-03-01

    CarNAC4 is a typical stress-responsive NAC transcription factor and enhances drought and salt stress tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is relatively vulnerable to abiotic stress conditions, but the tolerance mechanisms for such stresses in chickpea are largely unknown. To identify stress-related factors in chickpea, we previously constructed a cDNA library of chickpea leaves exposed to drought stress conditions. A cDNA encoding a putative NAC transcription factor (CarNAC4) was identified as a putative stress-responsive gene. Our study indicated that the transcript levels of CarNAC4 were enhanced in response to several abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of CarNAC4. CarNAC4 is localized in the nucleus and binds to the DNA sequence containing CGT[G/A], while the C-terminal region of CarNAC4 contains a transcriptional activation domain. Over-expression of CarNAC4 in Arabidopsis plants improved tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Transgenic plants exhibited greater reduced rates of water loss and more proline accumulation than Col-0 plants under drought stress and less MDA contents than Col-0 plants under salt stress. In addition, over-expression of CarNAC4 enhanced the expression of stress-responsive genes such as RD29A, ERD10, COR15A, COR47, KIN1 and DREB2A. These results indicated that CarNAC4 functions as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of drought and salt stress response.

  4. Transcribed enhancers lead waves of coordinated transcription in transitioning mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arner, Erik; Daub, Carsten O.; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, ...

  5. LSD1 Controls Timely MyoD Expression via MyoD Core Enhancer Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Scionti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available MyoD is a master regulator of myogenesis. Chromatin modifications required to trigger MyoD expression are still poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that the histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1a is recruited on the MyoD core enhancer upon muscle differentiation. Depletion of Lsd1 in myoblasts precludes the removal of H3K9 methylation and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II on the core enhancer, thereby preventing transcription of the non-coding enhancer RNA required for MyoD expression (CEeRNA. Consistently, Lsd1 conditional inactivation in muscle progenitor cells during embryogenesis prevented transcription of the CEeRNA and delayed MyoD expression. Our results demonstrate that LSD1 is required for the timely expression of MyoD in limb buds and identify a new biological function for LSD1 by showing that it can activate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of enhancers.

  6. RNA polymerase III promoter elements enhance transcription of RNA polymerase II genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviero, S.; Monaci, P.

    1988-02-25

    Using transient expression assays in cultured human cells the authors have observed that RNA Polymerase III promoter sequences exert a positive cis-acting enhancer effect on RNA Polymerase II transcription. A DNA segment containing a copy of the Alu repeated element enhances transcription of the liver specific Haptoglobin related (Hpr) promoter in Hepatoma cell lines but not in HeLa cells. A tRNA/sup pro/ gene acts as enhancer of the SV40 promoter both in Hepatoma and in HeLa cell lines. Transcription from the SV40 promoter is also enhanced by DNA segments containing only the box A or the box B of the tRNA/sup pro/ promoter.

  7. A Nanotube Surface Reinforced Graphite Fiber Exhibiting Significantly Enhanced Properties Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanotechnology which includes carbon nanotubes has the potential to produce materials that exhibit properties beyond those expected from conventional materials which...

  8. Butyrate transcriptionally enhances peptide transporter PepT1 expression and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dalmasso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PepT1, an intestinal epithelial apical di/tripeptide transporter, is normally expressed in the small intestine and induced in colon during chronic inflammation. This study aimed at investigating PepT1 regulation by butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by commensal bacteria and accumulated inside inflamed colonocyte. RESULTS: We found that butyrate treatment of human intestinal epithelial Caco2-BBE cells increased human PepT1 (hPepT1 promoter activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with maximal activity observed in cells treated with 5 mM butyrate for 24 h. Under this condition, hPepT1 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression levels were increased as assessed by luciferase assay, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. hPepT1 transport activity was accordingly increased by approximately 2.5-fold. Butyrate did not alter hPepT1 mRNA half-life indicating that butyrate acts at the transcriptional level. Molecular analyses revealed that Cdx2 is the most important transcription factor for butyrate-induced increase of hPepT1 expression and activity in Caco2-BBE cells. Butyrate-activated Cdx2 binding to hPepT1 promoter was confirmed by gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Moreover, Caco2-BBE cells overexpressing Cdx2 exhibited greater hPepT1 expression level than wild-type cells. Finally, treatment of mice with 5 mM butyrate added to drinking water for 24 h increased colonic PepT1 mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as enhanced PepT1 transport activity in colonic apical membranes vesicles. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that butyrate increases PepT1 expression and activity in colonic epithelial cells, which provides a new understanding of PepT1 regulation during chronic inflammation.

  9. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity.

  10. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takeya; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Doiguchi, Masamichi; Imamura, Yuko; Higashi, Miki; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity.

  11. The transcriptional regulator Aire binds to and activates super-enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Kushagra; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2017-03-01

    Aire is a transcription factor that controls T cell tolerance by inducing the expression of a large repertoire of genes specifically in thymic stromal cells. It interacts with scores of protein partners of diverse functional classes. We found that Aire and some of its partners, notably those implicated in the DNA-damage response, preferentially localized to and activated long chromatin stretches that were overloaded with transcriptional regulators, known as super-enhancers. We also identified topoisomerase 1 as a cardinal Aire partner that colocalized on super-enhancers and was required for the interaction of Aire with all of its other associates. We propose a model that entails looping of super-enhancers to efficiently deliver Aire-containing complexes to local and distal transcriptional start sites.

  12. Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

    This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

  13. Regulatory Enhancer-Core-Promoter Communication via Transcription Factors and Cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidi, Muhammad A; Stark, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Gene expression is regulated by genomic enhancers that recruit transcription factors and cofactors to activate transcription from target core promoters. Over the past years, thousands of enhancers and core promoters in animal genomes have been annotated, and we have learned much about the domain structure in which regulatory genomes are organized in animals. Enhancer-core-promoter targeting occurs at several levels, including regulatory domains, DNA accessibility, and sequence-encoded core-promoter specificities that are likely mediated by different regulatory proteins. We review here current knowledge about enhancer-core-promoter targeting, regulatory communication between enhancers and core promoters, and the protein factors involved. We conclude with an outlook on open questions that we find particularly interesting and that will likely lead to additional insights in the upcoming years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inactivation of the MDM2 RING domain enhances p53 transcriptional activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Tackmann, Nicole R; Jin, Aiwen; Zheng, Junnian; Zhang, Yanping

    2017-11-09

    The MDM2 RING domain harbors E3 ubiquitin ligase activity critical for regulating the degradation of tumor suppressor p53, which controls many cellular pathways. The MDM2 RING domain also is required for an interaction with MDMX. Mice containing a substitution in the MDM2 RING domain, MDM2C462A, disrupting MDM2 E3 function and the MDMX interaction, die during early embryogenesis that can be rescued by p53 deletion. To investigate whether MDM2C462A, which retains p53 binding, has p53-suppressing activity, we generated Mdm2C462A/C462A;p53ER/- mice, in which we replaced the endogenous p53 alleles with an inducible p53ER/- allele, and compared survival with that of similarly generated Mdm2-/-;p53ER/- mice. Adult Mdm2-null mice died ~7 days after tamoxifen-induced p53 activation, indicating that in the absence of MDM2, MDMX cannot suppress p53. Surprisingly, Mdm2C462A/C462A;p53ER/- mice died ~5 days after tamoxifen injection, suggesting that p53 activity is higher in the presence of MDM2C462A than in the absence of MDM2. Indeed, in MDM2C462A-expressing mouse tissues and embryonic fibroblasts, p53 exhibited higher transcriptional activity than in those expressing no MDM2 or no MDM2 and MDMX. This observation indicated that MDM2C462A not only is unable to suppress p53 but may have gained the ability to enhance p53 activity. We also found that p53 acetylation, a measure of p53 transcriptional activity, was higher in the presence of MDM2C462A than in the absence of MDM2. These results reveal an unexpected role of MDM2C462A in enhancing p53 activity and suggest the possibility that compounds targeting MDM2 RING domain function could produce even more robust p53 activation. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. A mathematical model of muscle containing heterogeneous half-sarcomeres exhibits residual force enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart G; Hatfield, P Chris; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2011-09-01

    A skeletal muscle fiber that is stimulated to contract and then stretched from L₁ to L₂ produces more force after the initial transient decays than if it is stimulated at L₂. This behavior has been well studied experimentally, and is known as residual force enhancement. The underlying mechanism remains controversial. We hypothesized that residual force enhancement could reflect mechanical interactions between heterogeneous half-sarcomeres. To test this hypothesis, we subjected a computational model of interacting heterogeneous half-sarcomeres to the same activation and stretch protocols that produce residual force enhancement in real preparations. Following a transient period of elevated force associated with active stretching, the model predicted a slowly decaying force enhancement lasting >30 seconds after stretch. Enhancement was on the order of 13% above isometric tension at the post-stretch muscle length, which agrees well with experimental measurements. Force enhancement in the model was proportional to stretch magnitude but did not depend strongly on the velocity of stretch, also in agreement with experiments. Even small variability in the strength of half-sarcomeres (2.1% standard deviation, normally distributed) was sufficient to produce a 5% force enhancement over isometric tension. Analysis of the model suggests that heterogeneity in half-sarcomeres leads to residual force enhancement by storing strain energy introduced during active stretch in distributions of bound cross-bridges. Complex interactions between the heterogeneous half-sarcomeres then dissipate this stored energy at a rate much slower than isolated cross-bridges would cycle. Given the variations in half-sarcomere length that have been observed in real muscle preparations and the stochastic variability inherent in all biological systems, half-sarcomere heterogeneity cannot be excluded as a contributing source of residual force enhancement.

  16. A mathematical model of muscle containing heterogeneous half-sarcomeres exhibits residual force enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Campbell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A skeletal muscle fiber that is stimulated to contract and then stretched from L₁ to L₂ produces more force after the initial transient decays than if it is stimulated at L₂. This behavior has been well studied experimentally, and is known as residual force enhancement. The underlying mechanism remains controversial. We hypothesized that residual force enhancement could reflect mechanical interactions between heterogeneous half-sarcomeres. To test this hypothesis, we subjected a computational model of interacting heterogeneous half-sarcomeres to the same activation and stretch protocols that produce residual force enhancement in real preparations. Following a transient period of elevated force associated with active stretching, the model predicted a slowly decaying force enhancement lasting >30 seconds after stretch. Enhancement was on the order of 13% above isometric tension at the post-stretch muscle length, which agrees well with experimental measurements. Force enhancement in the model was proportional to stretch magnitude but did not depend strongly on the velocity of stretch, also in agreement with experiments. Even small variability in the strength of half-sarcomeres (2.1% standard deviation, normally distributed was sufficient to produce a 5% force enhancement over isometric tension. Analysis of the model suggests that heterogeneity in half-sarcomeres leads to residual force enhancement by storing strain energy introduced during active stretch in distributions of bound cross-bridges. Complex interactions between the heterogeneous half-sarcomeres then dissipate this stored energy at a rate much slower than isolated cross-bridges would cycle. Given the variations in half-sarcomere length that have been observed in real muscle preparations and the stochastic variability inherent in all biological systems, half-sarcomere heterogeneity cannot be excluded as a contributing source of residual force enhancement.

  17. Uncoupling evolutionary changes in DNA sequence, transcription factor occupancy and enhancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoueiry, Pierre; Girardot, Charles; Ciglar, Lucia; Peng, Pei-Chen; Gustafson, E Hilary; Sinha, Saurabh; Furlong, Eileen Em

    2017-08-09

    Sequence variation within enhancers plays a major role in both evolution and disease, yet its functional impact on transcription factor (TF) occupancy and enhancer activity remains poorly understood. Here, we assayed the binding of five essential TFs over multiple stages of embryogenesis in two distant Drosophila species (with 1.4 substitutions per neutral site), identifying thousands of orthologous enhancers with conserved or diverged combinatorial occupancy. We used these binding signatures to dissect two properties of developmental enhancers: (1) potential TF cooperativity, using signatures of co-associations and co-divergence in TF occupancy. This revealed conserved combinatorial binding despite sequence divergence, suggesting protein-protein interactions sustain conserved collective occupancy. (2) Enhancer in-vivo activity, revealing orthologous enhancers with conserved activity despite divergence in TF occupancy. Taken together, we identify enhancers with diverged motifs yet conserved occupancy and others with diverged occupancy yet conserved activity, emphasising the need to functionally measure the effect of divergence on enhancer activity.

  18. Rainbow Enhancers Regulate Restrictive Transcription in Teleost Green, Red, and Blue Cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Guo, Chuanyu; Wei, Xiangyun

    2017-03-15

    Photoreceptor-specific transcription of individual genes collectively constitutes the transcriptional profile that orchestrates the structural and functional characteristics of each photoreceptor type. It is challenging, however, to study the transcriptional specificity of individual photoreceptor genes because each gene's distinct spatiotemporal transcription patterns are determined by the unique interactions between a specific set of transcription factors and the gene's own cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which remain unknown for most of the genes. For example, it is unknown what CREs underlie the zebrafish mpp5bponli (ponli) and crumbs2b (crb2b) apical polarity genes' restrictive transcription in the red, green, and blue (RGB) cones in the retina, but not in other retinal cell types. Here we show that the intronic enhancers of both the ponli and crb2b genes are conserved among teleost species and that they share sequence motifs that are critical for RGB cone-specific transcription. Given their similarities in sequences and functions, we name the ponli and crb2b enhancers collectively rainbow enhancers. Rainbow enhancers may represent a cis-regulatory mechanism to turn on a group of genes that are commonly and restrictively expressed in RGB cones, which largely define the beginning of the color vision pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dim-light achromatic vision and bright-light color vision are initiated in rod and several types of cone photoreceptors, respectively; these photoreceptors are structurally distinct from each other. In zebrafish, although quite different from rods and UV cones, RGB cones (red, green, and blue cones) are structurally similar and unite into mirror-symmetric pentamers (G-R-B-R-G) by adhesion. This structural commonality and unity suggest that a set of genes is commonly expressed only in RGB cones but not in other cells. Here, we report that the rainbow enhancers activate RGB cone-specific transcription of the ponli and crb2b genes. This

  19. Identification of Gene Transcription Start Sites and Enhancers Responding to Pulmonary Carbon Nanotube Exposure in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lilje, Berit; Boyd, Mette; Jørgensen, Mette; Chen, Yun; Vitezic, Morana; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Berthing, Trine; Bressendorff, Simon; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Andersson, Robin; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Yauk, Carole L; Halappanavar, Sabina; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla; Sandelin, Albin

    2017-04-25

    Increased use of nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products has raised concerns over their toxicity. To ensure safe use of nanomaterials, understanding their biological effects at the molecular level is crucial. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the cascade of genes activated by nanomaterial exposure are not well-characterized. To this end, we profiled the genome-wide usage of gene transcription start sites and linked active enhancer regions in lungs of C57BL/6 mice 24 h after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) Mitsui-7. Our results revealed a massive gene regulatory response, where expression of key inflammatory genes (e.g., Csf3, Il24, and Fgf23) was increased >100-fold 24 h after Mitsui-7 exposure. Many of the Mitsui-7-responsive transcription start sites were alternative transcription start sites for known genes, and the number of alternative transcription start sites used in a given gene was correlated with overall Mitsui-7 response. Strikingly, genes that were up-regulated after Mitsui-7 exposure only through their main annotated transcription start site were linked to inflammatory and defense responses, while genes up-regulated only through alternative transcription start sites were functionally heterogeneous and not inflammation-associated. Furthermore, we identified almost 12 000 active enhancers, many of which were Mitsui-7-responsive, and we identified similarly responding putative target genes. Overall, our study provides the location and activity of Mitsui-7-induced enhancers and transcription start sites, providing a useful resource for targeted experiments elucidating the biological effects of nanomaterials and the identification of biomarkers for early detection of MWCNT-induced inflammation.

  20. Functional organization of an Mbp enhancer exposes striking transcriptional regulatory diversity within myelinating glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionne, Nancy; Dib, Samar; Finsen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    in oligodendrocytes requiring the upstream M3 enhancer. To further characterize the mechanism regulating mbp transcription, we defined M3 structure/function relationships by evaluating its evolutionary conservation, DNA footprints and the developmental programing conferred in mice by M3 derivatives. Multiple M3...

  1. Sickle cell mice exhibit mechanical allodynia and enhanced responsiveness in light touch cutaneous mechanoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrison Sheldon R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with both acute vaso-occlusive painful events as well as chronic pain syndromes, including heightened sensitivity to touch. We have previously shown that mice with severe SCD (HbSS mice; express 100% human sickle hemoglobin in red blood cells; RBCs have sensitized nociceptors, which contribute to increased mechanical sensitivity. Yet, the hypersensitivity in these neural populations alone may not fully explain the mechanical allodynia phenotype in mouse and humans. Findings Using the Light Touch Behavioral Assay, we found HbSS mice exhibited increased responses to repeated application of both innocuous punctate and dynamic force compared to control HbAA mice (100% normal human hemoglobin. HbSS mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in percent response to a 0.7mN von Frey monofilament when compared to control HbAA mice. Moreover, HbSS mice exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in percent response to the dynamic light touch “puffed” cotton swab stimulus. We further investigated the mechanisms that drive this behavioral phenotype by focusing on the cutaneous sensory neurons that primarily transduce innocuous, light touch. Low threshold cutaneous afferents from HbSS mice exhibited sensitization to mechanical stimuli that manifested as an increase in the number of evoked action potentials to suprathreshold force. Rapidly adapting (RA Aβ and Aδ D-hair fibers showed the greatest sensitization, each with a 75% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to controls. Slowly adapting (SA Aβ afferents had a 25% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to HbAA controls. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate mice with severe SCD exhibit mechanical allodynia to both punctate and dynamic light touch and suggest that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated in part by the sensitization of light touch cutaneous afferent fibers to suprathreshold force. These findings indicate that Aβ fibers can be

  2. Heat Pipe Performance Enhancement with Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the impact of Marangoni phenomena, with low mixture concentrations of alcohol and water, to enhance thermal transport capability of gravity-assisted heat pipes. The use of binary mixture working fluids in gravity-assisted heat pipes are shown to improve the critical heat flux (CHF) and operating performance, more so than with pure fluids. The CHF is responsible for dryout when the pumping rate of a liquid flow structure is not sufficient to provide enough fluid to t...

  3. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E; Hager, Gordon L

    2017-03-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  5. Characterization of a lamellocyte transcriptional enhancer located within the misshapen gene of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tokusumi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila has emerged as an excellent model system in which to study cellular and genetic aspects of hematopoiesis. Under normal developmental conditions and in wild-type genetic backgrounds, Drosophila possesses two types of blood cells, crystal cells and plasmatocytes. Upon infestation by a parasitic wasp or in certain altered genetic backgrounds, a third hemocyte class called the lamellocyte becomes apparent. Herein we describe the characterization of a novel transcriptional regulatory module, a lamellocyte-active enhancer of the misshapen gene. This transcriptional control sequence appears to be inactive in all cell types of the wild-type larva, including crystal cells and plasmatocytes. However, in lamellocytes induced by wasp infestation or by particular genetic conditions, the enhancer is activated and it directs reporter GFP or DsRed expression exclusively in lamellocytes. The lamellocyte control region was delimited to a 140-bp intronic sequence that contains an essential DNA recognition element for the AP-1 transcription factor. Additionally, mutation of the kayak gene encoding the dFos subunit of AP-1 led to a strong suppression of lamellocyte production in tumorous larvae. As misshapen encodes a protein kinase within the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway that functions to form an active AP-1 complex, the lamellocyte-active enhancer likely serves as a transcriptional target within a genetic auto-regulatory circuit that promotes the production of lamellocytes in immune-challenged or genetically-compromised animals.

  6. Enhanced 3D localization of individual RNA transcripts via astigmatic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Evan P.; De Haro, Leyma; Phipps, Mary E.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Dunn, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Douglas P.; Werner, James H.

    2014-03-01

    Here we present an automated microscope capable of 3D multi-color single molecule localization of individual messenger RNA molecules in a wide range of cell types. We have implemented astigmatic imaging with a cylindrical lens to improve z-localization, and a maximum likelihood estimator on a graphics processing unit to improve localization precision and speed. This microscope will aid in gene expression analysis by its capability to perform high throughput imaging of thick cells and tissues while still maintaining sufficient z resolution to resolve single RNA transcripts in three dimensions. Enhanced z-localization allows for resolving membrane localized and co-localized transcripts.

  7. Coral kin aggregations exhibit mixed allogeneic reactions and enhanced fitness during early ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick Nanette E

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated settlement of kin larvae in sessile marine invertebrates may result in a complex array of compatible and incompatible allogeneic responses within each assemblage. Each such aggregate can, therefore, be considered as a distinct self-organizing biological entity representing adaptations that have evolved to maximize the potential benefits of gregarious settlement. However, only sparse information exists on the selective forces and ecological consequences of allogeneic coalescence. Results We studied the consequences of aggregated settlement of kin larvae of Stylophora pistillata (a Red Sea stony coral, under controlled laboratory settings. When spat came into contact, they either fused, establishing a chimera, or rejected one another. A one-year study on growth and survivorship of 544 settled S. pistillata genotypes revealed six types of biological entities: (1 Single genotypes (SG; (2 Bi-chimeras (BC; (3 Bi-rejecting genotypes (BR; (4 Tri-chimera entities (TC; (5 Three-rejecting genotypes (TR; and (6 Multi-partner entities (MP; consisting of 7.5 ± 2.6 partners. Analysis of allorecognition responses revealed an array of effector mechanisms: real tissue fusions, transitory fusions and six other histoincompatible reactions (borderline formation, sutures, overgrowth, bleaching, rejection, and partner death, disclosing unalike onsets of ontogeny and complex modes of appearance within each aggregate. Evaluations at the entity level revealed that MP entities were the largest, especially in the first two months (compared with SG: 571% in the first month and 162% in the seventh month. However, at the genotype level, the SG entities were the largest and the colonies with the highest-cost-per-genotype were the TR and the MP colonies. The cost was calculated as reduced average genotype size, from 27% and 12% in the first month to 67% and 64% in the seventh month, respectively. In general, MP exhibited the highest survivorship

  8. Coral kin aggregations exhibit mixed allogeneic reactions and enhanced fitness during early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Keren-Or; Chadwick, Nanette E; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2008-04-30

    Aggregated settlement of kin larvae in sessile marine invertebrates may result in a complex array of compatible and incompatible allogeneic responses within each assemblage. Each such aggregate can, therefore, be considered as a distinct self-organizing biological entity representing adaptations that have evolved to maximize the potential benefits of gregarious settlement. However, only sparse information exists on the selective forces and ecological consequences of allogeneic coalescence. We studied the consequences of aggregated settlement of kin larvae of Stylophora pistillata (a Red Sea stony coral), under controlled laboratory settings. When spat came into contact, they either fused, establishing a chimera, or rejected one another. A one-year study on growth and survivorship of 544 settled S. pistillata genotypes revealed six types of biological entities: (1) Single genotypes (SG); (2) Bi-chimeras (BC); (3) Bi-rejecting genotypes (BR); (4) Tri-chimera entities (TC); (5) Three-rejecting genotypes (TR); and (6) Multi-partner entities (MP; consisting of 7.5 +/- 2.6 partners). Analysis of allorecognition responses revealed an array of effector mechanisms: real tissue fusions, transitory fusions and six other histoincompatible reactions (borderline formation, sutures, overgrowth, bleaching, rejection, and partner death), disclosing unalike onsets of ontogeny and complex modes of appearance within each aggregate. Evaluations at the entity level revealed that MP entities were the largest, especially in the first two months (compared with SG: 571% in the first month and 162% in the seventh month). However, at the genotype level, the SG entities were the largest and the colonies with the highest-cost-per-genotype were the TR and the MP colonies. The cost was calculated as reduced average genotype size, from 27% and 12% in the first month to 67% and 64% in the seventh month, respectively. In general, MP exhibited the highest survivorship rate (85%, after one year) and

  9. Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; He, Fang; Zhu, Xi; Tang, Fu; Li, Lidong

    2014-03-01

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.

  10. Eleclazine exhibits enhanced selectivity for long QT syndrome type 3-associated late Na(+) current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bizri, Nesrine; Xie, Cheng; Liu, Lynda; Limberis, James; Krause, Michael; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Nguyen, Steven; Tabuena, Dennis R; Belardinelli, Luiz; Kahlig, Kristopher M

    2017-10-07

    Eleclazine (GS-6615) is a sodium channel blocker designed to improve the selectivity for cardiac late Na(+) current (INa) over peak INa. The goals of this study were to investigate the inhibition of late INa by eleclazine using a sample of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) and overlap LQT3/Brugada syndrome mutant channels; to compare the apparent binding rates for eleclazine with those for other class 1 antiarrhythmic agents; and to investigate the binding site. Wild-type human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (hNaV1.5) and 21 previously reported variants were studied using patch clamp recordings from a heterologous expression system. Eleclazine inhibited anemone toxin II-enhanced late INa from wild-type hNaV1.5 with a drug concentration that causes 50% block of 0.62 ± 0.12 μM (84-fold selectivity over peak INa). The drug concentration that causes 50% block of eleclazine to inhibit the enhanced late INa from LQT3 mutant channels ranged from 0.33 to 1.7 μM. At predicted therapeutic concentrations, eleclazine and ranolazine inhibited peak INa to a similar degree as assessed with 4 overlap LQT3/Brugada syndrome mutations. Eleclazine was found to interact with hNaV1.5 significantly faster than ranolazine and 6 other class 1 antiarrhythmic agents. Engineered mutations (F1760A/Y1767A) located within the local anesthetic binding site decreased the inhibition of late INa and peak INa by eleclazine. At predicted therapeutic concentrations, eleclazine elicits potent inhibition of late INa across a cohort of NaV1.5 mutant channels. These properties are consistent with a class 1b antiarrhythmic agent that associates with unusually rapid binding/unbinding rates. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arabidopsis mutants lacking phenolic sunscreens exhibit enhanced ultraviolet-B injury and oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, L.G.; Last, R.L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Chapple, C.C.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    We have assessed ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced injury in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and two mutants with altered aromatic secondary product biosynthesis. Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ability to synthesize UV-B-absorbing compounds (flavonoids in transparent testa 5 [tt5] and sinapate esters in ferulic acid hydroxylase 1 [fah 1]) are more sensitive to UV-B than is the wild-type Landsberg erecta. Despite its ability to accumulate UV-absorptive flavonoid compounds, the ferulic acid hydroxylase mutant fah1 exhibits more physiological injury (growth inhibition and foliar lesions) than either wild type or tt5. The extreme UV-B sensitivity of fah1 demonstrates the importance of hydroxycinnamate esters as UV-B protectants. Consistent with the whole-plant response, the highest levels of lipid and protein oxidation products were seen in fah1. Ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity was also increased in the leaves of UV-B-treated plants in a dose- and genotype-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, in A. thaliana, hydryoxycinnamates are more effective UV-B protectants than flavonoids. The data also indicate that A. thaliana responds to UV-B as an oxidative stress, and sunscreen compounds reduce the oxidative damage caused by UV-B. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Role of architecture in the function and specificity of two Notch-regulated transcriptional enhancer modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Posakony, James W

    2012-07-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, cis-regulatory modules that are activated by the Notch cell-cell signaling pathway all contain two types of transcription factor binding sites: those for the pathway's transducing factor Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and those for one or more tissue- or cell type-specific factors called "local activators." The use of different "Su(H) plus local activator" motif combinations, or codes, is critical to ensure that only the correct subset of the broadly utilized Notch pathway's target genes are activated in each developmental context. However, much less is known about the role of enhancer "architecture"--the number, order, spacing, and orientation of its component transcription factor binding motifs--in determining the module's specificity. Here we investigate the relationship between architecture and function for two Notch-regulated enhancers with spatially distinct activities, each of which includes five high-affinity Su(H) sites. We find that the first, which is active specifically in the socket cells of external sensory organs, is largely resistant to perturbations of its architecture. By contrast, the second enhancer, active in the "non-SOP" cells of the proneural clusters from which neural precursors arise, is sensitive to even simple rearrangements of its transcription factor binding sites, responding with both loss of normal specificity and striking ectopic activity. Thus, diverse cryptic specificities can be inherent in an enhancer's particular combination of transcription factor binding motifs. We propose that for certain types of enhancer, architecture plays an essential role in determining specificity, not only by permitting factor-factor synergies necessary to generate the desired activity, but also by preventing other activator synergies that would otherwise lead to unwanted specificities.

  13. Promiscuity of enhancer, coding and non-coding transcription functions in ultraconserved elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanges Remo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultraconserved elements (UCEs are highly constrained elements of mammalian genomes, whose functional role has not been completely elucidated yet. Previous studies have shown that some of them act as enhancers in mouse, while some others are expressed in both normal and cancer-derived human tissues. Only one UCE element so far was shown to present these two functions concomitantly, as had been observed in other isolated instances of single, non ultraconserved enhancer elements. Results We used a custom microarray to assess the levels of UCE transcription during mouse development and integrated these data with published microarray and next-generation sequencing datasets as well as with newly produced PCR validation experiments. We show that a large fraction of non-exonic UCEs is transcribed across all developmental stages examined from only one DNA strand. Although the nature of these transcripts remains a mistery, our meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets indicates that they are unlikely to be short RNAs and that some of them might encode nuclear transcripts. In the majority of cases this function overlaps with the already established enhancer function of these elements during mouse development. Utilizing several next-generation sequencing datasets, we were further able to show that the level of expression observed in non-exonic UCEs is significantly higher than in random regions of the genome and that this is also seen in other regions which act as enhancers. Conclusion Our data shows that the concurrent presence of enhancer and transcript function in non-exonic UCE elements is more widespread than previously shown. Moreover through our own experiments as well as the use of next-generation sequencing datasets, we were able to show that the RNAs encoded by non-exonic UCEs are likely to be long RNAs transcribed from only one DNA strand.

  14. Understanding Transcriptional Enhancement in Monoclonal Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Sarah E.

    With the demand for monoclonal antibody (mAB) therapeutics continually increasing, the need to better understand what makes a high productivity clone has gained substantial interest. Monoclonal antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with different productivities were provided by a biopharmaceutical company for investigation. Gene copy numbers, mRNA levels, and mAb productivities were previously determined for two low producing clones and their amplified progeny. These results showed an increase in mRNA copy number in amplified clones, which correlated to the observed increases in specific productivity of these clones. The presence of multiple copies of mRNA per one copy of DNA in the higher productivity clones has been coined as transcriptional enhancement. The methylation status of the CMV promoter as well as transcription factor/promoter interactions were evaluated to determine the cause of transcriptional enhancement. Methylation analysis via bisulfite sequencing revealed no significant difference in overall methylation status of the CMV promoter. These data did, however, reveal the possibility of differential interactions of transcription factors between the high and low productivity cell clones. This finding was further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitations previously performed in the lab, as well as literature studies. Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) binding proteins were constructed and utilized to selectively immunoprecipitate the CMV promoter along with its associated transcription factors in the different CHO cell clones. Cells were transfected with the TALE proteins, harvested and subjected to a ChIP-like procedure. Results obtained from the TALE ChIP demonstrated the lack of binding of the protein to the promoter and the need to redesign the TALE. Overall, results obtained from this study were unable to give a clear indication as to the causes of transcriptional enhancement in the amplified CHO cell clones. Further

  15. Enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao using the homologous BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Sergio L; Erwin, Rachel L; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-05-16

    Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree, is an important economic crop in East Africa, South East Asia, and South and Central America. Propagation of elite varieties has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis (SE) but low efficiencies and genotype dependence still presents a significant limitation for its propagation at commercial scales. Manipulation of transcription factors has been used to enhance the formation of SEs in several other plant species. This work describes the use of the transcription factor Baby Boom (BBM) to promote the transition of somatic cacao cells from the vegetative to embryonic state. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBM gene (AtBBM) was characterized in T. cacao (TcBBM). TcBBM expression was observed throughout embryo development and was expressed at higher levels during SE as compared to zygotic embryogenesis (ZE). TcBBM overexpression in A. thaliana and T. cacao led to phenotypes associated with SE that did not require exogenous hormones. While transient ectopic expression of TcBBM provided only moderate enhancements in embryogenic potential, constitutive overexpression dramatically increased SE proliferation but also appeared to inhibit subsequent development. Our work provides validation that TcBBM is an ortholog to AtBBM and has a specific role in both somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, our studies revealed that TcBBM transcript levels could serve as a biomarker for embryogenesis in cacao tissue. Results from transient expression of TcBBM provide confirmation that transcription factors can be used to enhance SE without compromising plant development and avoiding GMO plant production. This strategy could compliment a hormone-based method of reprogramming somatic cells and lead to more precise manipulation of SE at the regulatory level of transcription factors. The technology would benefit the propagation of elite varieties with low regeneration potential as well as the production of transgenic plants, which

  16. One-dimensional poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) assemblies exhibit potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fon; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chang, Sue-Joan; Fan, Nai-Shin; Wang, Chung-Teng; Wu, Chao-Liang; Jan, Jeng-Shiung

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the oncolytic activity of cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed from coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides for cancer therapy. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via the mitochondria-lytic effect. The concept is analogous to that of 1D drug carriers that exhibit enhanced cell penetration. In comparison to free PLL chains, PLL-b-PLT fibril assemblies exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, low hemolysis activity, enhanced membranolytic activity, and a different apoptosis pathway, which may be due to differences in the peptide-membrane interactions. Antitumor studies using a metastatic LL2 lung carcinoma model indicate that the fibril assemblies significantly inhibited tumor growth, improved survival in tumor-bearing mice and suppressed lung metastasis without obvious body weight loss. An additive efficacy was also observed for treatment with both PLL-b-PLT and cisplatin. These results support the feasibility of using 1D fibril assemblies as potential apoptotic anticancer therapeutics. We report that cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed by coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides exhibited potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via mitochondria-lytic effect. Moreover, the fibril assemblies exhibited low hemolytic activity and selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cell, which is advantageous as compared to PLL and most antimicrobial/anticancerous peptides. This study provides a new concept of using cationic, 1D fibril assemblies for cancer therapy

  17. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  18. Giant larvaceans: biologically equivalent flapping flexible foils exhibit bending modes that enhance fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, Kakani; Sherman, Alana; Robison, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet remains one of the least explored. Little-known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed life strategies that contribute to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. A group of midwater organisms, known as giant larvaceans (genus Bathochordaeus), beat their tails to drive food and particle-laden water through complex, mucus filtering structures to feed. Giant larvaceans, whose motion and kinematics resemble flapping flexible foils, range in size from 1 to 10 cm in length, and can be found between the surface and 400 m. Using remotely-operated vehicles and DeepPIV, an instrument that enables in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, the filtration rates and kinematics of giant larvaceans were investigated. These measurements yielded filtration rates for giant larvaceans as high as 80 L/hr, which exceeds expected filtration rates by a factor of 2 when compared with other larvacean groups. Comparing tail kinematics between Bathochordeaus and smaller larvaceans reveals differences in tail bending modes, where a hinge is present throughout the tail beat in giant larvaceans. Using laboratory PIV measurements with swimming animals and soft-bodied mechanical mimics, we reveal how these differences in tail kinematics can lead to enhanced fluid transport. This work has been supported by the Packard Foundation.

  19. Retinoids enhance glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of T cells by facilitating glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, K; Sarang, Z; Scholtz, B; Brázda, P; Ghyselinck, N; Chambon, P; Fésüs, L; Szondy, Z

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is one of the first recognized forms of programmed cell death. It was shown to require gene activation induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocated into the nucleus following ligand binding. In addition, the necessity of the glucocorticoid-induced, but transcription-independent phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has also been shown. Here we report that retinoic acids, physiological ligands for the nuclear retinoid receptors, enhance glucocorticoid-induced death of mouse thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The effect is mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers, and occurs when both RARα and RXR are ligated by retinoic acids. We show that the ligated RARα/RXR interacts with the ligated GR, resulting in an enhanced transcriptional activity of the GR. The mechanism through which this interaction promotes GR-mediated transcription does not require DNA binding of the retinoid receptors and does not alter the phosphorylation status of Ser232, known to regulate the transcriptional activity of GR. Phosphorylation of PI-PLC was not affected. Besides thymocytes, retinoids also promoted glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of various T-cell lines, suggesting that they could be used in the therapy of glucocorticoid-sensitive T-cell malignancies. PMID:21072052

  20. DNA breaks and chromatin structural changes enhance the transcription of autoimmune regulator target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Mithu; Saare, Mario; Maslovskaja, Julia; Kisand, Kai; Liiv, Ingrid; Haljasorg, Uku; Tasa, Tõnis; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Peterson, Pärt

    2017-04-21

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is the key factor in thymic negative selection of autoreactive T cells by promoting the ectopic expression of tissue-specific genes in the thymic medullary epithelium. Mutations in AIRE cause a monogenic autoimmune disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE has been shown to promote DNA breaks via its interaction with topoisomerase 2 (TOP2). In this study, we investigated topoisomerase-induced DNA breaks and chromatin structural alterations in conjunction with AIRE-dependent gene expression. Using RNA sequencing, we found that inhibition of TOP2 religation activity by etoposide in AIRE-expressing cells had a synergistic effect on genes with low expression levels. AIRE-mediated transcription was not only enhanced by TOP2 inhibition but also by the TOP1 inhibitor camptothecin. The transcriptional activation was associated with structural rearrangements in chromatin, notably the accumulation of γH2AX and the exchange of histone H1 with HMGB1 at AIRE target gene promoters. In addition, we found the transcriptional up-regulation to co-occur with the chromatin structural changes within the genomic cluster of carcinoembryonic antigen-like cellular adhesion molecule genes. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of AIRE can trigger molecular events leading to an altered chromatin landscape and the enhanced transcription of low-expressed genes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Nonbinding site-directed mutants of transferrin binding protein B exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and protective capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Calmettes, Charles; Fegan, Jamie; Costa, Estela; Curran, Dave; Yu, Rong-Hua; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F; Moraes, Trevor F; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2015-03-01

    Host-adapted Gram-negative bacterial pathogens from the Pasteurellaceae, Neisseriaceae, and Moraxellaceae families normally reside in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tracts of their hosts and rely on utilizing iron from host transferrin (Tf) for growth and survival. The surface receptor proteins that mediate this critical iron acquisition pathway have been proposed as ideal vaccine targets due to the critical role that they play in survival and disease pathogenesis in vivo. In particular, the surface lipoprotein component of the receptor, Tf binding protein B (TbpB), had received considerable attention as a potential antigen for vaccines in humans and food production animals but this has not translated into the series of successful vaccine products originally envisioned. Preliminary immunization experiments suggesting that host Tf could interfere with development of the immune response prompted us to directly address this question with site-directed mutant proteins defective in binding Tf. Site-directed mutants with dramatically reduced binding of porcine transferrin and nearly identical structure to the native proteins were prepared. A mutant Haemophilus parasuis TbpB was shown to induce an enhanced B-cell and T-cell response in pigs relative to native TbpB and provide superior protection from infection than the native TbpB or a commercial vaccine product. The results indicate that binding of host transferrin modulates the development of the immune response against TbpBs and that strategies designed to reduce or eliminate binding can be used to generate superior antigens for vaccines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Roy

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0 during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0 and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis.

  3. Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti

  4. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  5. Transcription factor binding at enhancers: shaping a genomic regulatory landscape in flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert-Jan ePalstra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian genome is packed tightly in the nucleus of the cell. This packing is primarily facilitated by histone proteins and results in an ordered organization of the genome in chromosome territories that can be roughly divided in heterochromatic and euchromatic domains. On top of this organization several distinct gene regulatory elements on the same chromosome or other chromosomes are thought to dynamically communicate via chromatin looping. Advances in genome-wide technologies have revealed the existence of a plethora of these regulatory elements in various eukaryotic genomes. These regulatory elements are defined by particular in vitro assays as promoters, enhancers, insulators and boundary elements. However, recent studies indicate that the in vivo distinction between these elements is often less strict. Regulatory elements are bound by a mixture of common and lineage specific transcription factors which mediate the long-range interactions between these elements. Inappropriate modulation of the binding of these transcription factors can alter the interactions between regulatory elements, which in turn leads to aberrant gene expression with disease as an ultimate consequence. Here we discuss the bi-modal behavior of regulatory elements that act in cis (with a focus on enhancers, how their activity is modulated by transcription factor binding and the effect this has on gene regulation.

  6. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dingke@med.uestc.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Zhong, E-mail: zyang1999@163.com [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Repression of HNF1α-mediated transcription by amino-terminal enhancer of split (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Hee; Gorman, Amanda A; Singh, Puja; Chi, Young-In

    HNF1α (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α) is one of the master regulators in pancreatic beta-cell development and function, and the mutations in Hnf1α are the most common monogenic causes of diabetes mellitus. As a member of the POU transcription factor family, HNF1α exerts its gene regulatory function through various molecular interactions; however, there is a paucity of knowledge in their functional complex formation. In this study, we identified the Groucho protein AES (Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split) as a HNF1α-specific physical binding partner and functional repressor of HNF1α-mediated transcription, which has a direct link to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta-cells that is impaired in the HNF1α mutation-driven diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-Range Transcriptional Control of the Il2 Gene by an Intergenic Enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Parul; Wells, Andrew D

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent cytokine with roles in both immunity and tolerance. Genetic studies in humans and mice demonstrate a role for Il2 in autoimmune disease susceptibility, and for decades the proximal Il2 upstream regulatory region has served as a paradigm of tissue-specific, inducible gene regulation. In this study, we have identified a novel long-range enhancer of the Il2 gene located 83 kb upstream of the transcription start site. This element can potently enhance Il2 transcription in recombinant reporter assays in vitro, and the native region undergoes chromatin remodeling, transcribes a bidirectional enhancer RNA, and loops to physically interact with the Il2 gene in vivo in a CD28-dependent manner in CD4(+) T cells. This cis regulatory element is evolutionarily conserved and is situated near a human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with multiple autoimmune disorders. These results indicate that the regulatory architecture of the Il2 locus is more complex than previously appreciated and suggest a novel molecular basis for the genetic association of Il2 polymorphism with autoimmune disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. E2F1 enhances glycolysis through suppressing Sirt6 transcription in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Seto, Edward; Zhang, Jingsong

    2015-05-10

    The fast proliferation of cancer cells requires reprogramming of its energy metabolism with aerobic glycolysis as a major energy source. Sirt6, a class III histone deacetylase, has been shown to down regulate glycolysis by inhibiting the expression of several key glycolytic genes. Based on the published study on the metabolic phenotype of E2F1 -/- mice and SIRT6 -/- mice, we hypothesize that E2F1 enhances glycolysis and inhibits the expression of Sirt6. Indeed, over-expressing of E2F1, but not its DNA binding deficient mutant, significantly enhanced glucose uptake and lactate production in bladder and prostate cancer cell lines. E2F1 over-expression also suppressed Sirt6 expression and function. Moreover, E2F1 directly bound to Sirt6 promoter and suppressed Sirt6 promoter activity under both normoxic and hypoxic culture conditions. E2F1 siRNA blocked the up-regulation of E2F1 under hypoxia, increased Sirt6 expression and decreased glycolysis compared to those of scrambled siRNA transected cells. Furthermore, HDAC1 deacetylated E2F1 and diminished its transcription suppression of Sirt6 promoter. Treatment with the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), suppressed Sirt6 promoter activity with increased binding of acetylated E2F1 to Sirt6 promoter. Mutating the E2F1 binding site on the proximal Sirt6 promoter abolished the suppression of Sirt6 transcription by TSA. These data indicate a novel oncogenic role of E2F1, i.e. enhancing glycolysis by suppressing Sirt6 transcription.

  11. HOCOMOCO: expansion and enhancement of the collection of transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2015-11-19

    Models of transcription factor (TF) binding sites provide a basis for a wide spectrum of studies in regulatory genomics, from reconstruction of regulatory networks to functional annotation of transcripts and sequence variants. While TFs may recognize different sequence patterns in different conditions, it is pragmatic to have a single generic model for each particular TF as a baseline for practical applications. Here we present the expanded and enhanced version of HOCOMOCO (http://hocomoco.autosome.ru and http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco10), the collection of models of DNA patterns, recognized by transcription factors. HOCOMOCO now provides position weight matrix (PWM) models for binding sites of 601 human TFs and, in addition, PWMs for 396 mouse TFs. Furthermore, we introduce the largest up to date collection of dinucleotide PWM models for 86 (52) human (mouse) TFs. The update is based on the analysis of massive ChIP-Seq and HT-SELEX datasets, with the validation of the resulting models on in vivo data. To facilitate a practical application, all HOCOMOCO models are linked to gene and protein databases (Entrez Gene, HGNC, UniProt) and accompanied by precomputed score thresholds. Finally, we provide command-line tools for PWM and diPWM threshold estimation and motif finding in nucleotide sequences.

  12. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Niels van; Rolloos, Martijn; Pinas, Johan E; Henkel, Christiaan V; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties.

  13. HOCOMOCO: expansion and enhancement of the collection of transcription factor binding sites models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Vorontsov, Ilya E; Yevshin, Ivan S; Soboleva, Anastasiia V; Kasianov, Artem S; Ashoor, Haitham; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Kolpakov, Fedor A; Makeev, Vsevolod J

    2016-01-04

    Models of transcription factor (TF) binding sites provide a basis for a wide spectrum of studies in regulatory genomics, from reconstruction of regulatory networks to functional annotation of transcripts and sequence variants. While TFs may recognize different sequence patterns in different conditions, it is pragmatic to have a single generic model for each particular TF as a baseline for practical applications. Here we present the expanded and enhanced version of HOCOMOCO (http://hocomoco.autosome.ru and http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco10), the collection of models of DNA patterns, recognized by transcription factors. HOCOMOCO now provides position weight matrix (PWM) models for binding sites of 601 human TFs and, in addition, PWMs for 396 mouse TFs. Furthermore, we introduce the largest up to date collection of dinucleotide PWM models for 86 (52) human (mouse) TFs. The update is based on the analysis of massive ChIP-Seq and HT-SELEX datasets, with the validation of the resulting models on in vivo data. To facilitate a practical application, all HOCOMOCO models are linked to gene and protein databases (Entrez Gene, HGNC, UniProt) and accompanied by precomputed score thresholds. Finally, we provide command-line tools for PWM and diPWM threshold estimation and motif finding in nucleotide sequences. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Repression of HNF1α-mediated transcription by amino-terminal enhancer of split (AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Hee [Section of Structural Biology, Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Gorman, Amanda A. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Singh, Puja [Section of Structural Biology, Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Chi, Young-In, E-mail: ychi@hi.umn.edu [Section of Structural Biology, Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    HNF1α (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α) is one of the master regulators in pancreatic beta-cell development and function, and the mutations in Hnf1α are the most common monogenic causes of diabetes mellitus. As a member of the POU transcription factor family, HNF1α exerts its gene regulatory function through various molecular interactions; however, there is a paucity of knowledge in their functional complex formation. In this study, we identified the Groucho protein AES (Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split) as a HNF1α-specific physical binding partner and functional repressor of HNF1α-mediated transcription, which has a direct link to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta-cells that is impaired in the HNF1α mutation-driven diabetes. - Highlights: • We identified AES as a transcriptional repressor for HNF1α in pancreatic beta-cell. • AES's repressive activity was HNF1α-specific and was not observed with HNF1β. • AES interacts with the transactivation domain of HNF1α. • Small molecules can be designed or discovered to disrupt this interaction and improve insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  15. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinas, Johan E.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; van der Zaal, Bert J.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties. PMID:28358915

  16. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the Divalent Metal Transporter 1 Exhibit Iron Accumulation and Enhanced Parkin Expression in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Tai, Yee Kit; Chai, Bing-Han; Chew, Katherine C M; Ang, Eng-Tat; Tsang, Fai; Tan, Bryce W Q; Hong, Eugenia T E; Asad, Abu Bakar Ali; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Lim, Kah-Leong; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2017-07-10

    Exposure to divalent metals such as iron and manganese is thought to increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Under normal circumstances, cellular iron and manganese uptake is regulated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Accordingly, alterations in DMT1 levels may underlie the abnormal accumulation of metal ions and thereby disease pathogenesis. Here, we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing DMT1 under the direction of a mouse prion promoter and demonstrated its robust expression in several regions of the brain. When fed with iron-supplemented diet, DMT1-expressing mice exhibit rather selective accumulation of iron in the substantia nigra, which is the principal region affected in human PD cases, but otherwise appear normal. Alongside this, the expression of Parkin is also enhanced, likely as a neuroprotective response, which may explain the lack of phenotype in these mice. When DMT1 is overexpressed against a Parkin null background, the double-mutant mice similarly resisted a disease phenotype even when fed with iron- or manganese-supplemented diet. However, these mice exhibit greater vulnerability toward 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that iron accumulation alone is not sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that multiple hits are required to promote PD.

  17. Plant-produced anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies exhibit reduced antibody-dependent enhancement of infection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Paul, Amber M; Sun, Haiyan; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Ming; Esqueda, Adrian; Bai, Fengwei; Steinkellner, Herta; Chen, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The mAb E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian-cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo, and treated animals more susceptible to developing more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60. The mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamianaWT and a ∆XFT line, a glycosylation mutant lacking plant-specific N-glycan residues. The mAb was efficiently expressed and assembled in leaves and exhibited highly homogenous N-glycosylation profiles, i.e. GnGnXF3 or GnGn structures, depending on the expression host. Both E60 glycovariants demonstrated equivalent antigen-binding specificity and in vitro neutralization potency against DENV serotypes 2 and 4 compared with their mammalian-cell-produced counterpart. By contrast, plant-produced E60 exhibited reduced ADE activity in Fc gamma receptor expressing human cells. Our results suggest the ability of plant-produced antibodies to minimize ADE, which may lead to the development of safe and highly efficacious antibody-based therapeutics against DENV and other ADE-prone viral diseases. Our study provides so far unknown insight into the relationship between mAb N-glycosylation and ADE, which contributes to our understanding of how sugar moieties of antibodies modulate Fc-mediated functions and viral pathogenesis.

  18. Nascent RNA sequencing reveals a dynamic global transcriptional response at genes and enhancers to the natural medicinal compound celastrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukler, Noah; Booth, Gregory T; Huang, Yi-Fei; Tippens, Nathaniel; Waters, Colin T; Danko, Charles G; Lis, John T; Siepel, Adam

    2017-10-12

    Most studies of responses to transcriptional stimuli measure changes in cellular mRNA concentrations. By sequencing nascent RNA instead, it is possible to detect changes in transcription in minutes rather than hours and thereby distinguish primary from secondary responses to regulatory signals. Here, we describe the use of PRO-seq to characterize the immediate transcriptional response in human cells to celastrol, a compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine that has potent anti-inflammatory, tumor-inhibitory, and obesity-controlling effects. Celastrol is known to elicit a cellular stress response resembling the response to heat shock, but the transcriptional basis of this response remains unclear. Our analysis of PRO-seq data for K562 cells reveals dramatic transcriptional effects soon after celastrol treatment at a broad collection of both coding and noncoding transcription units. This transcriptional response occurred in two major waves, one within 10 min, and a second 40-60 min after treatment. Transcriptional activity was generally repressed by celastrol, but one distinct group of genes, enriched for roles in the heat shock response, displayed strong activation. Using a regression approach, we identified key transcription factors that appear to drive these transcriptional responses, including members of the E2F and RFX families. We also found sequence-based evidence that particular transcription factors drive the activation of enhancers. We observed increased polymerase pausing at both genes and enhancers, suggesting that pause release may be widely inhibited during the celastrol response. Our study demonstrates that a careful analysis of PRO-seq time-course data can disentangle key aspects of a complex transcriptional response, and it provides new insights into the activity of a powerful pharmacological agent. © 2017 Dukler et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. A photo-degradable gene delivery system for enhanced nuclear gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Yeji; Schweickert, Patrick G; Konieczny, Stephen F; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    There currently exists a significant gap in our understanding of how the detailed chemical characteristics of polycation gene carriers influence their delivery performances in overcoming an important cellular-level transport barrier, i.e., intranuclear gene transcription. In this study, a UV-degradable gene carrier material (ENE4-1) was synthesized by crosslinking low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (bPEI-2k) molecules using UV-cleavable o-nitrobenzyl urethane (NBU) as the linker molecule. NBU degrades upon exposure to mild UV irradiation. Therefore, this UV-degradable carrier allows us to control the chemical characteristics of the polymer/DNA complex (polyplex) particles at desired locations within the intracellular environment. By using this photolytic DNA carrier, we found that the exact timing of the UV degradation significantly influences the gene transfection efficiencies of ENE4-1/DNA(pGL2) polyplexes in HeLa cells. Interestingly, even if the polyplexes were UV-degraded at different intracellular locations/times, their nuclear entry efficiency was not influenced by the location/timing of UV degradation. The UV treatment did not influence the size or binding strength of the polyplexes. However, we confirmed that the degradation of the carrier molecules impacts the chemical characteristics of the polyplexes (it produces carbamic acid and nitrosobenzyl aldehyde groups on ENE4-1). We believe that these anionic acid groups enhance the interaction of the polyplexes with nuclear transcription proteins and thus the final gene expression levels; this effect was found to occur, even though UV irradiation itself has a general effect of reducing transfection efficiencies. Excess (uncomplexed) ENE4-1 polymers appear to not play any role in the UV-enhanced gene transcription phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pokemon promotes the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma by enhancing MEF2D transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangqian; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-01

    Pokemon, a master oncogene crucial for the tumorigenicity and progression of a variety of cancers, has been demonstrated to enhance the proliferation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the contribution of Pokemon to the invasiveness of HCC has not yet been studied. In this study, we employed HCC cells to investigate the role of Pokemon in the invasion of HCC with multidisciplinary approaches. Pokemon overexpression was found to be closely associated with invasion and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC in clinical specimens. Suppression of Pokemon attenuated the invasion of HCC cells by in vitro transwell and wound-healing assays. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), an oncogene that can promote the invasiveness of HCC, was found to be underexpressed during Pokemon silencing in HCC cells. Restoration of MEF2D abolished the effect of Pokemon downregulation on the migration of HCC cells. Further experiments verified that Pokemon binds two putative recognition sites located within the upstream region of the MEF2D promoter and enhances its transcription. The association between Pokemon and MEF2D was further confirmed in HCC specimens. Animal experiments further confirmed that Pokemon downregulation attenuated the metastasis of HCC cells in mice. Collectively, Pokemon was found to enhance the migration and invasion of HCC by increasing MEF2D expression. Thus, targeting Pokemon and MEF2D may be an effective strategy to suppress the metastasis of HCC.

  1. The over-expression of a chrysanthemum WRKY transcription factor enhances aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

    2015-10-01

    Members of the large WRKY transcription factor family are responsible for the regulation of plant growth, development and the stress response. Here, five WRKY members were isolated from chrysanthemum. They each contained a single WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger motif, so were classified into group II. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that all five were expressed in the nucleus, although CmWRKY42 was also expressed in the cytoplasm. When expressed heterologously in yeast, the products of CmWRKY22 and CmWRKY48 exhibited transactivation activity, while those of CmWRKY21, CmWRKY40 and CmWRKY42 did not. The transcription of the five CmWRKY genes was profiled when the plants were challenged with a variety of abiotic and biotic stress agents, as well as being treated with various phytohormones. CmWRKY21 proved to be markedly induced by salinity stress, and suppressed by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY22 was induced by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY40 was highly induced by salinity stress, and treatment with either abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA); CmWRKY42 was up-regulated by salinity stress, low temperature, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation; CmWRKY48 was induced by drought stress, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation. The function of CmWRKY48 was further investigated by over-expressing it transgenically. The constitutive expression of this transcription factor inhibited the aphids' population growth capacity, suggesting that it may represent an important component of the plant's defense machinery against aphids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Drosophila Transcription Factors Tinman and Pannier Activate and Collaborate with Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 to Promote Heart Cell Fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TyAnna L Lovato

    Full Text Available Expression of the MADS domain transcription factor Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2 is regulated by numerous and overlapping enhancers which tightly control its transcription in the mesoderm. To understand how Mef2 expression is controlled in the heart, we identified a late stage Mef2 cardiac enhancer that is active in all heart cells beginning at stage 14 of embryonic development. This enhancer is regulated by the NK-homeodomain transcription factor Tinman, and the GATA transcription factor Pannier through both direct and indirect interactions with the enhancer. Since Tinman, Pannier and MEF2 are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, and since their vertebrate homologs can convert mouse fibroblast cells to cardiomyocytes in different activator cocktails, we tested whether over-expression of these three factors in vivo could ectopically activate known cardiac marker genes. We found that mesodermal over-expression of Tinman and Pannier resulted in approximately 20% of embryos with ectopic Hand and Sulphonylurea receptor (Sur expression. By adding MEF2 alongside Tinman and Pannier, a dramatic expansion in the expression of Hand and Sur was observed in almost all embryos analyzed. Two additional cardiac markers were also expanded in their expression. Our results demonstrate the ability to initiate ectopic cardiac fate in vivo by the combination of only three members of the conserved Drosophila cardiac transcription network, and provide an opportunity for this genetic model system to be used to dissect the mechanisms of cardiac specification.

  3. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  4. Notch Inhibition Enhances Cardiac Reprogramming by Increasing MEF2C Transcriptional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes represents a potential means of restoring cardiac function after myocardial infarction, but so far this process remains inefficient and little is known about its molecular mechanisms. Here we show that DAPT, a classical Notch inhibitor, enhances the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac-like myocytes by the transcription factors GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5. DAPT cooperates with AKT kinase to further augment this process, resulting in up to 70% conversion efficiency. Moreover, DAPT promotes the acquisition of specific cardiomyocyte features, substantially increasing calcium flux, sarcomere structure, and the number of spontaneously beating cells. Transcriptome analysis shows that DAPT induces genetic programs related to muscle development, differentiation, and excitation-contraction coupling. Mechanistically, DAPT increases binding of the transcription factor MEF2C to the promoter regions of cardiac structural genes. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the reprogramming process and may have important implications for cardiac regeneration therapies.

  5. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

  6. Nitrogen treatment enhances sterols and withaferin A through transcriptional activation of jasmonate pathway, WRKY transcription factors, and biosynthesis genes in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shaifali; Yadav, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Anup Kumar; Rastogi, Shubhra; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Pal, Anirban; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plant Withania somnifera is researched extensively to increase the quantity of withanolides and specifically withaferin A, which finds implications in many pharmacological activities. Due to insufficient knowledge on biosynthesis and unacceptability of transgenic approach, it is preferred to follow alternative physiological methods to increase the yield of withanolides. Prior use of elicitors like salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, fungal extracts, and even mechanical wounding have shown to increase the withanolide biosynthesis with limited success; however, the commercial viability and logistics of application are debatable. In this investigation, we tested the simple nitrogeneous fertilizers pertaining to the enhancement of withaferin A biosynthesis. Application of ammonium sulfate improved the sterol contents required for the withanolide biosynthesis and correlated to higher expression of pathway genes like FPPS, SMT1, SMT2, SMO1, SMO2, and ODM. Increased expression of a gene homologous to allene oxide cyclase, crucial in jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, suggested the involvement of jasmonate signaling. High levels of WRKY gene transcripts indicated transcriptional regulation of the pathway genes. Increase in transcript level could be correlated with a corresponding increase in the protein levels for WsSMT1 and WsWRKY1. The withaferin A increase was also demonstrated in the potted plants growing in the glasshouse and in the open field. These results implicated simple physiological management of nitrogen fertilizer signal to improve the yield of secondary metabolite through probable involvement of jasmonate signal and WRKY transcription factor for the first time, in W. somnifera besides improving the foliage.

  7. Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by positively regulating the transcriptional activity of PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Younho; Lee, Sung Ho; Bahn, Minjin; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2016-11-15

    Pin1 is a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase and it has a unique enzymatic activity of catalyzing isomerization of the peptide bond between phospho-serine/threonine and proline. Through the conformational change of its substrates, Pin1 regulates diverse biological processes including adipogenesis. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, overexpression of Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation whereas inhibition of Pin1 activity suppresses it. However, the precise functions of Pin1 during adipogenesis are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the potential targets of Pin1 during adipogenesis. We found that Pin1 interacts directly with and regulates the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. In addition, ERK activity and Ser273 of PPARγ, a potential ERK phosphorylation target site, are important for the regulation of PPARγ function by Pin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism of Pin1 during adipogenesis, in which Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by regulating the function of PPARγ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. StAR Enhances Transcription of Genes Encoding the Mitochondrial Proteases Involved in Its Own Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629

  9. Resveratrol enhances antitumor activity of TRAIL in prostate cancer xenografts through activation of FOXO transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthakar Ganapathy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (3, 4', 5 tri-hydroxystilbene, a naturally occurring polyphenol, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumor activities. We have recently shown that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells through multiple mechanisms in vitro. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate whether resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in a xenograft model of prostate cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67 staining and inducing apoptosis (TUNEL staining. The combination of resveratrol and TRAIL was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than single agent alone. In xenografted tumors, resveratrol upregulated the expressions of TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, Bax and p27(/KIP1, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. Treatment of mice with resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited angiogenesis (as demonstrated by reduced number of blood vessels, and VEGF and VEGFR2 positive cells and markers of metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9. The combination of resveratrol with TRAIL further inhibited number of blood vessels in tumors, and circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial cells than single agent alone. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of FKHRL1 resulting in its enhanced activation as demonstrated by increased DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL by activating FKHRL1 and its target genes. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, and enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL suggests that resveratrol alone or in combination with TRAIL can be used for the management of prostate cancer.

  10. Mdm2 RING mutation enhances p53 transcriptional activity and p53-p300 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary V Clegg

    Full Text Available The p53 transcription factor and tumor suppressor is regulated primarily by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquitinates p53 to target it for proteasomal degradation. Aside from its ubiquitin ligase function, Mdm2 has been believed to be capable of suppressing p53's transcriptional activity by binding with and masking the transactivation domain of p53. The ability of Mdm2 to restrain p53 activity by binding alone, without ubiquitination, was challenged by a 2007 study using a knockin mouse harboring a single cysteine-to-alanine point mutation (C462A in Mdm2's RING domain. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with this mutation, which abrogates Mdm2's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity without affecting its ability to bind with p53, were unable to suppress p53 activity. In this study, we utilized the Mdm2(C462A mouse model to characterize in further detail the role of Mdm2's RING domain in the control of p53. Here, we show in vivo that the Mdm2(C462A protein not only fails to suppress p53, but compared to the complete absence of Mdm2, Mdm2(C462A actually enhances p53 transcriptional activity toward p53 target genes p21/CDKN1A, MDM2, BAX, NOXA, and 14-3-3σ. In addition, we found that Mdm2(C462A facilitates the interaction between p53 and the acetyltransferase CBP/p300, and it fails to heterodimerize with its homolog and sister regulator of p53, Mdmx, suggesting that a fully intact RING domain is required for Mdm2's inhibition of the p300-p53 interaction and for its interaction with Mdmx. These findings help us to better understand the complex regulation of the Mdm2-p53 pathway and have important implications for chemotherapeutic agents targeting Mdm2, as they suggest that inhibition of Mdm2's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity may be sufficient for increasing p53 activity in vivo, without the need to block Mdm2-p53 binding.

  11. Conglutinin exhibits a complement-dependent enhancement of the respiratory burst of phagocytes stimulated by E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, P; Svehag, S E; Andersen, Ove

    1991-01-01

    . Conglutinin enhances, in a dose-dependent manner, the respiratory burst of spleen cells stimulated with serum-opsonized Escherichia coli. The enhancement was only demonstrable in the presence of a functional complement system. The conglutinin-mediated enhancement of the respiratory burst was inhibited...

  12. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Enhanced production of steviol glycosides in mycorrhizal plants: a concerted effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on transcription of biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Singh, Ved Pal; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-04-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) produces steviol glycosides (SGs)--stevioside (stev) and rebaudioside-A (reb-A) that are valued as low calorie sweeteners. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) augments SGs production, though the effect of this interaction on SGs biosynthesis has not been studied at molecular level. In this study transcription profiles of eleven key genes grouped under three stages of the SGs biosynthesis pathway were compared. The transcript analysis showed upregulation of genes encoding 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes viz.,1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 2-C-methyl-D-erytrithol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) in mycorrhizal (M) plants. Zn and Mn are imperative for the expression of MDS and their enhanced uptake in M plants could be responsible for the increased transcription of MDS. Furthermore, in the second stage of SGs biosynthesis pathway, mycorrhization enhanced the transcription of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH). Their expression is decisive for SGs biosynthesis as CPPS regulates flow of metabolites towards synthesis of kaurenoid precursors and KAH directs these towards steviol synthesis instead of gibberellins. In the third stage glucosylation of steviol to reb-A by four specific uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) occurs. While higher transcription of all the three characterized UGTs in M plants explains augmented production of SGs; higher transcript levels of UGT76G1, specifically improved reb-A to stev ratio implying increased sweetness. The work signifies that AM symbiosis upregulates the transcription of all eleven SGs biosynthesis genes as a result of improved nutrition and enhanced sugar concentration due to increased photosynthesis in M plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers......, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....

  15. Distinct Transcriptional Profiles and Phenotypes Exhibited by Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates Related to the 2006 Spinach-Associated Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Craig T.; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Huynh, Steven; Carter, Michelle Q.; Brandl, Maria T.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was linked to the consumption of ready-to-eat bagged baby spinach in the United States. The likely sources of preharvest spinach contamination were soil and water that became contaminated via cattle or feral pigs in the proximity of the spinach fields. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of 12 E. coli O157:H7 isolates that possess the same two-enzyme pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile and are related tempor...

  16. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  17. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  19. Distinct transcriptional profiles and phenotypes exhibited by Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates related to the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Craig T; Kyle, Jennifer L; Huynh, Steven; Carter, Michelle Q; Brandl, Maria T; Mandrell, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was linked to the consumption of ready-to-eat bagged baby spinach in the United States. The likely sources of preharvest spinach contamination were soil and water that became contaminated via cattle or feral pigs in the proximity of the spinach fields. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of 12 E. coli O157:H7 isolates that possess the same two-enzyme pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile and are related temporally or geographically to the above outbreak. These E. coli O157:H7 isolates included three clinical isolates, five isolates from separate bags of spinach, and single isolates from pasture soil, river water, cow feces, and a feral pig. The three clinical isolates and two spinach bag isolates grown in cultures to stationary phase showed decreased expression of many σ(S)-regulated genes, including gadA, osmE, osmY, and katE, compared with the soil, water, cow, feral pig, and the other three spinach bag isolates. The decreased expression of these σ(S)-regulated genes was correlated with the decreased resistance of the isolates to acid stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress but increases in scavenging ability. We also observed that intraisolate variability was much more pronounced among the clinical and spinach isolates than among the environmental isolates. Together, the transcriptional and phenotypic differences of the spinach outbreak isolates of E. coli O157:H7 support the hypothesis that some variants within the spinach bag retained characteristics of the preharvest isolates, whereas other variants with altered gene expression and phenotypes infected the human host.

  20. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress.

  1. Human eosinophils express RAGE, produce RAGE ligands, exhibit PKC-delta phosphorylation and enhanced viability in response to the RAGE ligand, S100B

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Colleen S.; Bertics, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human eosinophils produce ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), express RAGE and exhibit RAGE-mediated responses. In examining our microarray data, we identified the presence of RAGE and RAGE ligand (S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, S100P, HMGB1) transcripts. Expression of eosinophil RAGE mRNA was also compared with a known positive control and further assessed via bioinformatics and sequence analysis of RAGE cDNA. P...

  2. Enhancing Visitors' Interest in Science--A Possibility or a Paradox? A Study of What Scientific Content Staff Members Focus on when Planning a New Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Within the enterprise of science and technology centres there exists explicit aims and ambitions to enhance visitors' interest in and knowledge about science. Meanwhile, several researchers question the choice of the scientific content in exhibitions when arguing that a too unproblematic view of science commonly is presented. But how do staff…

  3. Conglutinin exhibits a complement-dependent enhancement of the respiratory burst of phagocytes stimulated by E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, P; Svehag, S E; Andersen, Ove

    1991-01-01

    . Conglutinin enhances, in a dose-dependent manner, the respiratory burst of spleen cells stimulated with serum-opsonized Escherichia coli. The enhancement was only demonstrable in the presence of a functional complement system. The conglutinin-mediated enhancement of the respiratory burst was inhibited......Conglutinin is a mammalian C-type lectin which shows anti-bacterial activity when tested in vivo and in vitro. This study concerns the effect of conglutinin on the respiratory burst of murine spleen cells, using a chemiluminescence assay for measurement of generated reactive oxygen metabolites...

  4. A Gene Family Coding for Salivary Proteins (SHOT) of the Polyphagous Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Exhibits Fast Host-Dependent Transcriptional Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Wim; Dermauw, Wannes; Khalighi, Mousaalreza; Pavlidi, Nena; Reubens, Wim; Baggerman, Geert; Tirry, Luc; Menschaert, Gerben; Kant, Merijn R; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-11-02

    The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.

  5. The archaeal TFIIE homologue facilitates transcription initiation by enhancing TATA-box recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, S.D.; Brinkman, A.B.; Oost, van der J.; Jackson, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Transcription from many archaeal promoters can be reconstituted in vitro using recombinant TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor B (TFB)—homologues of eukaryal TBP and TFIIB—together with purified RNA polymerase (RNAP). However, all archaeal genomes sequenced to date reveal the

  6. Dexamethasone Enhances 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Effects by Increasing Vitamin D Receptor Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Deeb, Kristin K.; Pike, J. Wesley; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, in combination with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) has been shown to increase the antitumor effects of calcitriol in squamous cell carcinoma. In this study we found that pretreatment with Dex potentiates calcitriol effects by inhibiting cell growth and increasing vitamin D receptor (VDR) and VDR-mediated transcription. Treatment with actinomycin D inhibits Vdr mRNA synthesis, indicating that Dex regulates VDR expression at transcriptional level. Real time PCR shows that treatment with Dex increases Vdr transcripts in a time- and a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Dex directly regulates expression of Vdr. RU486, an inhibitor of glucocorticoids, inhibits Dex-induced Vdr expression. In addition, the silencing of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) abolishes the induction of Vdr by Dex, indicating that Dex increases Vdr transcripts in a GR-dependent manner. A fragment located 5.2 kb upstream of Vdr transcription start site containing two putative glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) was evaluated using a luciferase-based reporter assay. Treatment with 100 nm Dex induces transcription of luciferase driven by the fragment. Deletion of the GRE distal to transcription start site was sufficient to abolish Dex induction of luciferase. Also, chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals recruitment of GR to distal GRE with Dex treatment. We conclude that Dex increases VDR and vitamin D effects by increasing Vdr de novo transcription in a GR-dependent manner. PMID:21868377

  7. Identification of Gene Transcription Start Sites and Enhancers Responding to Pulmonary Carbon Nanotube Exposure in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lilje, Bait

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products has raised concerns over their toxicity. To ensure safe use of nanomaterials, understanding their biological effects at the molecular level is crucial. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the cascade...... for known genes, and the number of alternative transcription start sites used in a given gene was correlated with overall Mitsui-7 response. Strikingly, genes that were up-regulated after Mitsui-7 exposure only through their main annotated transcription start site were linked to inflammatory and defense...... genes. Overall, our study provides the location and activity of Mitsui-7-induced enhancers and transcription start sites, providing a useful resource for targeted experiments elucidating the biological effects of nanomaterials and the identification of biomarkers for early detection of MWCNT...

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togi, Sumihito; Nakasuji, Misa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi, E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR.

  9. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  10. A temporal gate for viral enhancers to co-opt Toll-like-receptor transcriptional activation pathways upon acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai A Kropp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral engagement with macrophages activates Toll-Like-Receptors (TLRs and viruses must contend with the ensuing inflammatory responses to successfully complete their replication cycle. To date, known counter-strategies involve the use of viral-encoded proteins that often employ mimicry mechanisms to block or redirect the host response to benefit the virus. Whether viral regulatory DNA sequences provide an opportunistic strategy by which viral enhancer elements functionally mimic innate immune enhancers is unknown. Here we find that host innate immune genes and the prototypical viral enhancer of cytomegalovirus (CMV have comparable expression kinetics, and positively respond to common TLR agonists. In macrophages but not fibroblasts we show that activation of NFκB at immediate-early times of infection is independent of virion-associated protein, M45. We find upon virus infection or transfection of viral genomic DNA the TLR-agonist treatment results in significant enhancement of the virus transcription-replication cycle. In macrophage time-course infection experiments we demonstrate that TLR-agonist stimulation of the viral enhancer and replication cycle is strictly delimited by a temporal gate with a determined half-maximal time for enhancer-activation of 6 h; after which TLR-activation blocks the viral transcription-replication cycle. By performing a systematic siRNA screen of 149 innate immune regulatory factors we identify not only anticipated anti-viral and pro-viral contributions but also new factors involved in the CMV transcription-replication cycle. We identify a central convergent NFκB-SP1-RXR-IRF axis downstream of TLR-signalling. Activation of the RXR component potentiated direct and indirect TLR-induced activation of CMV transcription-replication cycle; whereas chromatin binding experiments using wild-type and enhancer-deletion virus revealed IRF3 and 5 as new pro-viral host transcription factor interactions with the CMV enhancer in

  11. The oncogene EVI1 enhances transcriptional and biological responses of human myeloid cells to all-trans retinoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Birgit; Hackl, Hubert; Slabáková, Eva; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Smějová, Monika; Spittler, Andreas; Arbesu, Itziar; Shehata, Medhat; Souček, Karel; Wieser, Rotraud

    2014-01-01

    The product of the ecotropic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) gene, whose overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in myeloid leukemias and some epithelial tumors, regulates gene transcription both through direct DNA binding and through modulation of the activity of other sequence specific transcription factors. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that EVI1 influenced transcription regulation in response to the myeloid differentiation inducing agent, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), in a dual manner: it enhanced ATRA induced transcription of the RARβ gene, but repressed the ATRA induction of the EVI1 gene itself. In the present study, we asked whether EVI1 would modulate the ATRA regulation of a larger number of genes, as well as biological responses to this agent, in human myeloid cells. U937 and HL-60 cells ectopically expressing EVI1 through retroviral transduction were subjected to microarray based gene expression analysis, and to assays measuring cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. These experiments showed that EVI1 modulated the ATRA response of several dozens of genes, and in fact reinforced it in the vast majority of cases. A particularly strong synergy between EVI1 and ATRA was observed for GDF15, which codes for a member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines. In line with the gene expression results, EVI1 enhanced cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to ATRA, and knockdown of GDF15 counteracted some of these effects. The potential clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25486480

  12. Modulation of enhancer looping and differential gene targeting by Epstein-Barr virus transcription factors directs cellular reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McClellan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV epigenetically reprogrammes B-lymphocytes to drive immortalization and facilitate viral persistence. Host-cell transcription is perturbed principally through the actions of EBV EBNA 2, 3A, 3B and 3C, with cellular genes deregulated by specific combinations of these EBNAs through unknown mechanisms. Comparing human genome binding by these viral transcription factors, we discovered that 25% of binding sites were shared by EBNA 2 and the EBNA 3s and were located predominantly in enhancers. Moreover, 80% of potential EBNA 3A, 3B or 3C target genes were also targeted by EBNA 2, implicating extensive interplay between EBNA 2 and 3 proteins in cellular reprogramming. Investigating shared enhancer sites neighbouring two new targets (WEE1 and CTBP2 we discovered that EBNA 3 proteins repress transcription by modulating enhancer-promoter loop formation to establish repressive chromatin hubs or prevent assembly of active hubs. Re-ChIP analysis revealed that EBNA 2 and 3 proteins do not bind simultaneously at shared sites but compete for binding thereby modulating enhancer-promoter interactions. At an EBNA 3-only intergenic enhancer site between ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 EBNA 3C was also able to independently direct epigenetic repression of both genes through enhancer-promoter looping. Significantly, studying shared or unique EBNA 3 binding sites at WEE1, CTBP2, ITGAL (LFA-1 alpha chain, BCL2L11 (Bim and the ADAMs, we also discovered that different sets of EBNA 3 proteins bind regulatory elements in a gene and cell-type specific manner. Binding profiles correlated with the effects of individual EBNA 3 proteins on the expression of these genes, providing a molecular basis for the targeting of different sets of cellular genes by the EBNA 3s. Our results therefore highlight the influence of the genomic and cellular context in determining the specificity of gene deregulation by EBV and provide a paradigm for host-cell reprogramming through

  13. Structural and functional analysis of the related transcriptional enhancer factor-1 and NF-κB interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieliang; Zhang, Li; Tipton, Aaron R; Wu, Jiaping; Messmer-Blust, Angela F; Philbrick, Melissa J; Qi, Yajuan; Liu, Song-Tao; Liu, Hongsheng; Li, Jian; Guo, Shaodong

    2014-01-15

    The related transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (RTEF-1) increases gene transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and enhances angiogenesis in endothelium. Both hypoxia and inflammatory factor TNF-α regulate gene expression of HIF-1α, but how RTEF-1 and TNF-α coordinately regulate HIF-1α gene transcription is unclear. Here, we found that RTEF-1 interacts with p65 subunit of NF-κB, a primary mediator of TNF-α. RTEF-1 increased HIF-1α promoter activity, whereas expression of p65 subunit inhibited the stimulatory effect. By contrast, knockdown of p65 markedly enhanced RTEF-1 stimulation on the HIF-1α promoter activity (7-fold). A physical interaction between RTEF-1 and p65 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments in cells and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull-down assays. A computational analysis of RTEF-1 crystal structures revealed that a conserved surface of RTEF-1 potentially interacts with p65 via four amino acid residues located at T347, Y349, R351, and Y352. We performed site-directed mutagenesis and GST-pull-down assays and demonstrated that Tyr352 (Y352) in RTEF-1 is a key site for the formation of RTEF-1 and p65-NF-κB complex. An alanine mutation at Y352 of RTEF-1 disrupted the interaction of RTEF-1 with p65. Moreover, expression of RTEF-1 decreased TNF-α-induced HIF-1α promoter activity, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA levels in cells; however, the effect of RTEF-1 was largely lost when Y352 was mutated to alanine. These results indicate that RTEF-1 interacts with p65-NF-κB through Y352 and that they antagonize each other for HIF-1α transcriptional activation, suggesting a novel mechanism by which RTEF-1 regulates gene expression, linking hypoxia to inflammation.

  14. A novel GH secretagogue, A233, exhibits enhanced growth activity and innate immune system stimulation in teleosts fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebeca; Ubieta, Kenia; Herrera, Fidel; Forellat, Alina; Morales, Reynold; de la Nuez, Ania; Rodriguez, Rolando; Reyes, Osvaldo; Oliva, Ayme; Estrada, Mario P

    2012-09-01

    In teleosts fish, secretion of GH is regulated by several hypothalamic factors that are influenced by the physiological state of the animal. There is an interaction between immune and endocrine systems through hormones and cytokines. GH in fish is involved in many physiological processes that are not overtly growth related, such as saltwater osmoregulation, antifreeze synthesis, and the regulation of sexual maturation and immune functions. This study was conducted to characterize a decapeptide compound A233 (GKFDLSPEHQ) designed by molecular modeling to evaluate its function as a GH secretagogue (GHS). In pituitary cell culture, the peptide A233 induces GH secretion and it is also able to increase superoxide production in tilapia head-kidney leukocyte cultures. This effect is blocked by preincubation with the GHS receptor antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6. Immunoneutralization of GH by addition of anti-tilapia GH monoclonal antibody blocked the stimulatory effect of A233 on superoxide production. These experiments propose a GH-mediated mechanism for the action of A233. The in vivo biological action of the decapeptide was also demonstrated for growth stimulation in goldfish and tilapia larvae (P<0.001). Superoxide dismutase levels, antiprotease activity, and lectin titer were enhanced in tilapia larvae treated with this novel molecule. The decapeptide A233 designed by molecular modeling is able to function as a GHS in teleosts and enhance parameters of the innate immune system in the fish larvae.

  15. Exhibiting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases, it identif......This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases...

  16. The Tax oncogene enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing protein complexes to activate transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fufa, Temesgen D; Byun, Jung S; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso G; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Gardner, Kevin

    2015-09-11

    The eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein (ELL) is a key regulator of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription pause site entry and release by dynamically interacting with p300 and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). In this study, we investigated the role of ELL during the HTLV-1 Tax oncogene induced transactivation. We show that ectopic expression of Tax enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing transcriptional complexes and the subsequent recruitment of these complexes to target genes in vivo. Depletion of ELL abrogates Tax induced transactivation of the immediate early genes Fos, Egr2 and NF-kB, suggesting that ELL is an essential cellular cofactor of the Tax oncogene. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism of ELL-dependent transactivation of immediate early genes by Tax and provides the rational for further defining the genome-wide targets of Tax and ELL. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. ZBTB7A Enhances Osteosarcoma Chemoresistance by Transcriptionally Repressing lncRNALINC00473-IL24 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance remains a major drawback to osteosarcoma treatment. ZBTB7A, a member of the POK transcription repressor family, was shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the effect of ZBTB7A on osteosarcoma chemoresistance is completely unknown. In this study, we found that ZBTB7A is increased in cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma cells and that elevated ZBTB7A inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing LINC00473 expression. Further mechanistic studies revealed that ZBTB7A directly binds to the promoter and suppresses the transcription of LINC00473. Additionally, our data indicate that LINC00473 interacts with the transcript factor C/EBPβ, facilitating its binding to the promoter of IL24, leading to decrease chemoresistance. Thus, these findings indicate that the ZBTB7A-mediated LINC00473-C/EBPβ-IL24 pathway is a promising novel target for overcoming cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from indwelling catheters exhibit enhanced biofilm dispersal and "self-renewal" through downregulation of agr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lu; Yang, Liang; Parsons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se) has become a major nosocomial pathogen and the most common cause of infections of implanted prostheses and other indwelling devices. This is due in part to avid biofilm formation by Se on device surfaces. However, it still remains unknown...... of the autolysin gene atlE. Isogenic deletion of the agr system in Se 1457 confirmed that agr negatively regulating atlE resulted in enhanced initial cell attachment, extracellular DNA release, cell autolysis and biofilm formation abilities. In contrast, double deletion of agr and atlE significantly abolished...... these features.Conclusions: Collectively, these data reveal the role of agr system in long-term biofilm development and pathogenesis during Se caused indwelling devices-related relapsed infection....

  19. Minus-end-directed motor Ncd exhibits processive movement that is enhanced by microtubule bundling in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Ken'ya; Toyoshima, Yoko Yano

    2008-01-22

    Drosophila Ncd, a kinesin-14A family member, is essential for meiosis and mitosis. Ncd is a minus-end-directed motor protein that has an ATP-independent microtubule binding site in the tail region, which enables it to act as a dynamic crosslinker of microtubules to assemble and maintain the spindle. Although a tailless Ncd has been shown to be nonprocessive, the role of the Ncd tail in single-molecule motility is unknown. Here, we show that individual Ncd dimers containing the tail region can move processively along microtubules at very low ionic strength, which provides the first evidence of processivity for minus-end-directed kinesins. The movement of GFP-Ncd consists of both a unidirectional and a diffusive element, and it was sensitive to ionic strength. Motility of a truncation series of Ncd and removal of the tubulin tail suggested that the Ncd tail serves as an electrostatic tether to microtubules. Under higher ionic conditions, Ncd showed only a small bias in diffusion along "single" microtubules, whereas it exhibited processive movement along "bundled" microtubules. This property may allow Ncd to accumulate preferentially in the vicinity of focused microtubules and then to crosslink and slide microtubules, possibly contributing to dynamic spindle self-organization.

  20. Novel NAC transcription factor TaNAC67 confers enhanced multi-abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Mao

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.

  1. Genome shuffling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced glutathione yield and relative gene expression analysis using fluorescent quantitation reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua; Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Zhao, Junfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    Genome shuffling is an efficient and promising approach for the rapid improvement of microbial phenotypes. In this study, genome shuffling was applied to enhance the yield of glutathione produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YS86. Six isolates with subtle improvements in glutathione yield were obtained from populations generated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis. These yeast strains were then subjected to recursive pool-wise protoplast fusion. A strain library that was likely to yield positive colonies was created by fusing the lethal protoplasts obtained from both UV irradiation and heat treatments. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant YSF2-19 strain that exhibited 3.2- and 3.3-fold increases in glutathione production in shake flask and fermenter respectively was obtained. Comparative analysis of synthetase gene expression was conducted between the initial and shuffled strains using FQ (fluorescent quantitation) RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Delta CT (threshold cycle) relative quantitation analysis revealed that glutathione synthetase gene (GSH-I) expression at the transcriptional level in the YSF2-19 strain was 9.9-fold greater than in the initial YS86. The shuffled yeast strain has a potential application in brewing, other food, and pharmaceutical industries. Simultaneously, the analysis of improved phenotypes will provide more valuable data for inverse metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoanodes with Fully Controllable Texture: The Enhanced Water Splitting Efficiency of Thin Hematite Films Exhibiting Solely (110) Crystal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Stepan; Schmuki, Patrik; Hubicka, Zdenek; Machala, Libor; Kirchgeorg, Robin; Liu, Ning; Wang, Lei; Lee, Kiyoung; Olejnicek, Jiri; Cada, Martin; Gregora, Ivan; Zboril, Radek

    2015-07-28

    Hematite, α-Fe2O3, is considered as one of the most promising materials for sustainable hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water splitting with a theoretical solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 17%. However, the poor electrical conductivity of hematite is a substantial limitation reducing its efficiency in real experimental conditions. Despite of computing models suggesting that the electrical conductivity is extremely anisotropic, revealing up to 4 orders of magnitude higher electron transport with conduction along the (110) hematite crystal plane, synthetic approaches allowing the sole growth in that direction have not been reported yet. Here, we present a strategy for controlling the crystal orientation of very thin hematite films by adjusting energy of ion flux during advanced pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The texture and effect of the deposition mode on the film properties were monitored by XRD, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM, PEC water splitting, IPCE, transient photocurrent measurements, and Mott-Schottky analysis. The precise control of the synthetic conditions allowed to fabricate hematite photoanodes exhibiting fully textured structures along (110) and (104) crystal planes with huge differences in photocurrents of 0.65 and 0.02 mA cm(-2) (both at 1.55 V versus RHE), respectively. The photocurrent registered for fully textured (110) film is among record values reported for thin planar films. Moreover, the developed fine-tuning of crystal orientation having a huge impact on the photoefficiency would induce further improvement of thin hematite films mainly if cation doping will be combined with the controllable texture.

  3. Dental pulp stem cells from traumatically exposed pulps exhibited an enhanced osteogenic potential and weakened odontogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Yan, Ming; Wang, Zhanwei; Wu, Jintao; Wang, Zilu; Zheng, Yangyu; Yu, Jinhua

    2013-11-01

    Traumatic pulp exposure can bring about some permanent damages to tooth tissues including dental pulps. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of traumatic pulp exposure on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Rat incisors were artificially fractured and dental pulps were exposed to the oral environment for 48 h. Then, multi-colony-derived DPSCs from the injured pulps (iDPSCs) were isolated. Their osteo/odontogenic differentiation and the involvement of NF-κB pathway were subsequently investigated. iDPSCs presented a lower proliferative capacity than normal DPSCs (nDPSCs), as indicated by MTT and FCM assay. ALP levels in iDPSCs were significantly higher (Ppulp complex while all iDPSCs pellets formed the osteodentin-like tissues which were immunopositive for OCN. Mechanistically, iDPSCs expressed the higher levels of cytoplasmic phosphorylated IκBα/P65 and nuclear P65 than nDPSCs, indicating an active cellular NF-κB pathway in iDPSCs. After the inhibition of NF-κB pathway, the osteogenic potential in iDPSCs was significantly down-regulated while odontogenic differentiation was up-regulated, as indicated by the decreased Alp/Runx2/Ocn and uprised Dspp expression. Pulp exposure for 48 h decreased the odontogenic capacity and enhanced the osteogenic potential of DPSCs via the NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients With High Bone Mass Phenotype Exhibit Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibition of Adipogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Andersen, Tom; Bollerslev, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Genetic mutations in the LRP5 gene affect Wnt signaling and lead to changes in bone mass in humans. Our in vivo and in vitro results show that activated mutation T253I of LRP5 enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis. Inactivating mutation T244M of LRP5 exerts opposite effects. Introduction......: Mutations in the Wnt co-receptor, LRP5, leading to decreased or increased canonical Wnt signaling, result in osteoporosis or a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, respectively. However, the mechanisms whereby mutated LRP5 causes changes in bone mass are not known. Materials and Methods: We studied bone marrow composition...... in iliac crest bone biopsies from patients with the HBM phenotype and controls. We also used retrovirus-mediated gene transduction to establish three different human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) strains stably expressing wildtype LRP5 (hMSC-LRP5WT), LRP5T244 (hMSC-LRP5T244, inactivation mutation leading...

  5. Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  6. Tetrandrine, an alkaloid from S. tetrandra exhibits anti-hypertensive and sleep-enhancing effects in SHR via different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Cui, Su-Ying; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Cao, Qing; Ding, Hui; Song, Jin-Zhi; Hu, Xiao; Ye, Hui; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-12-15

    Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect. Sleep-wake behavior of the SHRs was detected by electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. Blood pressure was measured by noninvasive blood pressure tail cuff test. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the noradrenergic neuronal activity. The level of norepinephrine (NE) was detected by HPLC-ECD. Amlodipine (100mg/kg, i.g.), the well-known L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs) exhibited remarkable antihypertensive activities in SHRs, but did not show effects on sleep of SHRs. Tetrandrine (30 and 60mg/kg/day, i.g.) significantly suppressed blood pressure of SHRs. Meanwhile, tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) remarkably increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) time, bouts and mean duration. The hypnotic effect of tetrandrine was potentiated by prazosin (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) but attenuated by yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.). Administration of tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) not only significantly decreased c-Fos positive ratio of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), but also significantly decrease NE in the endogenous sleep-wake regulating pathways including LC, hypothalamus and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). In spite of a good potency in blocking L-type Ca2+ channel, the hypnotic effects of tetrandrine may be related to its suppressing effects on the noradrenergic system other than to block calcium channels. As a multi-targets drug, tetrandrine

  7. Glutathione-Disrupted Biofilms of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Exhibit an Enhanced Antibiotic Effect and a Novel Biofilm Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, William; Das, Theerthankar; Ibugo, Amaye; Buckle, Edwina; Manefield, Mike; Manos, Jim

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections result in high morbidity and mortality rates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), with premature death often occurring. These infections are complicated by the formation of biofilms in the sputum. Antibiotic therapy is stymied by antibiotic resistance of the biofilm matrix, making novel antibiofilm strategies highly desirable. Within P. aeruginosa biofilms, the redox factor pyocyanin enhances biofilm integrity by intercalating with extracellular DNA. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) reacts with pyocyanin, disrupting intercalation. This study investigated GSH disruption by assaying the physiological effects of GSH and DNase I on biofilms of clinical CF isolates grown in CF artificial sputum medium (ASMDM+). Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that 2 mM GSH, alone or combined with DNase I, significantly disrupted immature (24-h) biofilms of Australian epidemic strain (AES) isogens AES-1R and AES-1M. GSH alone greatly disrupted mature (72-h) AES-1R biofilms, resulting in significant differential expression of 587 genes, as indicated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism, and translational machinery. Biofilm disruption with GSH revealed a cellular physiology distinct from those of mature and dispersed biofilms. RNA-seq results were validated by biochemical and quantitative PCR assays. Biofilms of a range of CF isolates disrupted with GSH and DNase I were significantly more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and increased antibiotic effectiveness was achieved by increasing the GSH concentration. This study demonstrated that GSH, alone or with DNase I, represents an effective antibiofilm treatment when combined with appropriate antibiotics, pending in vivo studies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Enhanced bone formation in the vicinity of porous β-TCP scaffolds exhibiting slow release of collagen-derived tripeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikura, Keita; Minatoya, Tsutomu; Terada-Nakaishi, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Sakai, Yasuo; Furusawa, Toshitake; Matsushima, Yuta; Unuma, Hidero

    2017-09-01

    It has been experimentally proven that orally ingested collagen-derived tripeptides (Ctp) are quickly absorbed in the body and effectively promote the regeneration of connective tissues including bone and skin. Ctp are capable to activate osteoblasts and fibroblasts, which eventually promotes tissue regeneration. Based on these findings, a hypothesis was formulated in this study that direct delivery of Ctp to bone defect would also facilitate tissue regeneration as well as oral administration. To test the hypothesis, we prepared a bone augmentation material with the ability to slowly release Ctp, and investigated its in vivo bone regeneration efficacy. The implant material was porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold which was coated with a co-precipitated layer of bone-like hydroxyapatite and Ctp. The β-TCP was impregnated with approximately 0.8%(w/w) Ctp. Then, the Ctp-modified β-TCP was implanted into bone defects of Wistar rats to evaluate in vivo efficacy of Ctp directly delivered from the material to the bone defects. The control was pristine porous β-TCP. In vitro tests showed that Ctp were steadily released from the co-precipitated layer for approximately two weeks. The Ctp-modified scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation in vivo in their vicinity as compared with pristine β-TCP scaffolds; 6 weeks after the implantation, Ctp-modified scaffolds promoted twice as much bone formation as the control implants. Consequently, we achieved the slow and steady release of Ctp, and found that direct delivery of Ctp from implant materials was effective for bone regeneration as well as oral administration. A β-TCP scaffold capable of slowly releasing bone-enhancing substances significantly promoted bone formation.

  9. Enhancement of the optical Kerr effect exhibited by an integrated configuration of silicon quantum dots and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Suarez, A; Benami, A; Tamayo-Rivera L; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Cheang-Wong, J C; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Crespo-Sosa, A; Oliver, A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); R Rangel-Rojo [Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion CientIfica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C, E-mail: rrangel@cicese.mx [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Z, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We present nonlinear refractive results for three different systems produced by ion implantation: high purity silica substrates with silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs), silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), and one sample containing both. We used a femtosecond optical Kerr gate (OKG) with 80 fs pulses at 830 nm to investigate the magnitude and response time of their nonlinear response. The Ag-NPs samples were prepared implanting 2 MeV Ag{sup 2+} ions at different fluencies. A sample with 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} showed no discernible Kerr signal, while for one with 2.4x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} we measured |{chi}{sup (3)}|{sub 1111} = 5.1x10{sup -11} esu. The Si-QDs sample required irradiation with 1.5 MeV Si{sup 2+} ions, at a 2.5x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence in order that the OKG results for this sample yielded a similar |{chi}{sup (3)}|{sub 1111} value. The sample containing the Si-QDs was then irradiated by 1 MeV Ag2+ ions at a 4.44 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence and thermally treated, for which afterward we measured |{chi}{sup (3)}|{sub 1111} 1.7x10{sup -10} esu. In all cases the response time was quasi-instantaneous. These results imply that the inclusion of Ag-NPs at low fluence, enhances the nonlinearity of the composite by a factor of around three, and that this is purely electronic in nature. Pump-probe results show that there is not any nonlinear absorption present. We estimate that the confinement effect of the Si-QDs in the sample plays an important role for the excitation of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) related to the Ag-NPs. A theoretical model that describes the modification of the third order nonlinearity is also presented.

  10. Enhanced NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity associated with antiestrogen resistant breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Dan H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFκB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Methods Two cell line models of tamoxifen-resistant ER-positive breast cancer, MCF7/HER2 and BT474, showing increased AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, were studied to compare tamoxifen effects on NFκB and AP-1 regulated reporter genes relative to tamoxifen-sensitive MCF7 cells. The model cell lines were treated with the IKK inhibitor parthenolide (PA or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS341, alone and in combination with tamoxifen. Expression microarray data available from 54 UCSF node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases with known clinical outcome were used to search for potential genes signifying upregulated NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activity in association with tamoxifen resistance. The association of these genes with patient outcome was further evaluated using node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases identified from three other published data sets (Rotterdam, n = 209; Amsterdam, n = 68; Basel, n = 108, each having different patient age and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment characteristics. Results Doses of parthenolide and bortezomib capable of sensitizing the two endocrine resistant breast cancer models to tamoxifen were capable of suppressing NFκB and AP-1 regulated gene expression in combination with tamoxifen and also increased ER recruitment of the transcriptional co-repressor, NCoR. Transcript profiles from the UCSF breast cancer cases revealed three NFκB and AP-1 upregulated genes – cyclin D1, uPA and VEGF – capable of dichotomizing node-negative ER-positive cases into early and late relapsing subsets despite adjuvant tamoxfien therapy and most prognostic for younger age cases. Across the four independent sets of node-negative ER-positive breast cancer cases

  11. Automated discovery of tissue-targeting enhancers and transcription factors from binding motif and gene function data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetu Tuteja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying enhancers regulating gene expression remains an important and challenging task. While recent sequencing-based methods provide epigenomic characteristics that correlate well with enhancer activity, it remains onerous to comprehensively identify all enhancers across development. Here we introduce a computational framework to identify tissue-specific enhancers evolving under purifying selection. First, we incorporate high-confidence binding site predictions with target gene functional enrichment analysis to identify transcription factors (TFs likely functioning in a particular context. We then search the genome for clusters of binding sites for these TFs, overcoming previous constraints associated with biased manual curation of TFs or enhancers. Applying our method to the placenta, we find 33 known and implicate 17 novel TFs in placental function, and discover 2,216 putative placenta enhancers. Using luciferase reporter assays, 31/36 (86% tested candidates drive activity in placental cells. Our predictions agree well with recent epigenomic data in human and mouse, yet over half our loci, including 7/8 (87% tested regions, are novel. Finally, we establish that our method is generalizable by applying it to 5 additional tissues: heart, pancreas, blood vessel, bone marrow, and liver.

  12. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  13. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    , this book draws on unique archival material, including photographs, documentary evidence and newspaper articles, newly discovered in Copenhagen. This opens for new insights and perspectives on these European exhibitions. The book employs post-colonial and feminist approaches to the material to shed fresh...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  14. Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying enhanced in vitro adipocyte differentiation by the brominated flame retardant BDE-47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstra, Jorke H; Hruba, Eva; Blumberg, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    . The mechanisms by which EDCs direct preadipocytes to form adipocytes are poorly understood. Here, we examined transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the induction of in vitro adipocyte differentiation by BDE-47. Quantitative high content microscopy revealed concentration-dependent enhanced...... promoter after exposure to both BDE-47 and TROG in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. This study shows the potential of BDE-47 to induce adipocyte differentiation through various mechanisms that include Pparγ2 gene induction and promoter demethylation accompanied by activation of PPARγ, and possible disruption...

  15. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murano, Tatsuro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi, E-mail: rokamoto.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  16. Digital dictation and voice transcription software enhances outpatient clinic letter production: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinesh; Harbord, Marcus

    2012-07-01

    Digital voice transcription has been introduced widely in the National Health Service (NHS), though primarily in radiology departments. There has been a long-standing problem with recruitment of medical secretaries within the NHS, leading to long delays in the production of correspondence from outpatient clinics. To determine whether use of widely available digital transcription software improves efficiency and the time taken to produce correspondence. The project used a prospective, crossover trial design in a 'real-world' environment. Correspondence from clinics was transcribed after dictation by a secretary using conventional analogue audio tape or the dictation software. After a 2-week washout period the same clinics' dictations were transcribed using the other method to produce identical correspondence. The two sets of letters were compared. The mean time for the secretary to produce letters for a complete clinic using digital dictation was 66 min whereas analogue dictation took 121 min (p0.05). Voice transcription software significantly decreased the time taken to transcribe outpatient clinic letters with minimal training of secretarial staff, resulting in improved efficiency.

  17. The novel wheat transcription factor TaNAC47 enhances multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Na eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol (PEG and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.

  18. Integrative Transcript and Metabolite Analysis of Nutritionally Enhanced DE-ETIOLATED1 Downregulated Tomato Fruit[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfissi, Eugenia M.A.; Barneche, Fredy; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Lichtlé, Christiane; Gerrish, Christopher; McQuinn, Ryan P.; Giovannoni, James J.; Lopez-Juez, Enrique; Bowler, Chris; Bramley, Peter M.; Fraser, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Fruit-specific downregulation of the DE-ETIOLATED1 (DET1) gene product results in tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) containing enhanced nutritional antioxidants, with no detrimental effects on yield. In an attempt to further our understanding of how modulation of this gene leads to improved quality traits, detailed targeted and multilevel omic characterization has been performed. Metabolite profiling revealed quantitative increases in carotenoid, tocopherol, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and anthocyanidins. Qualitative differences could also be identified within the phenolics, including unique formation in fruit pericarp tissues. These changes resulted in increased total antioxidant content both in the polar and nonpolar fractions. Increased transcription of key biosynthetic genes is a likely mechanism producing elevated phenolic-based metabolites. By contrast, high levels of isoprenoids do not appear to result from transcriptional regulation but are more likely related to plastid-based parameters, such as increased plastid volume per cell. Parallel metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the widespread effects of DET1 downregulation on diverse sectors of metabolism and sites of synthesis. Correlation analysis of transcripts and metabolites independently indicated strong coresponses within and between related pathways/processes. Interestingly, despite the fact that secondary metabolites were the most severely affected in ripe tomato fruit, our integrative analyses suggest that the coordinated activation of core metabolic processes in cell types amenable to plastid biogenesis is the main effect of DET1 loss of function. PMID:20435899

  19. The Novel Wheat Transcription Factor TaNAC47 Enhances Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerances in Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2015-01-01

    NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol and exogenous abscisic acid. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt, and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.

  20. The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tiffany; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Yu, Shuyang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Kee, Barbara L; Verykokakis, Mihalis

    2015-05-04

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce cytokines that impact antimicrobial immune responses, asthma, and autoimmunity. These cells acquire multiple effector fates during their thymic development that parallel those of CD4(+) T helper cells. The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c-myc. LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-γ. Our data reveal LEF1 as a central regulator of iNKT cell number and Th2-type effector differentiation. © 2015 Carr et al.

  1. Sex-biased transcription enhancement by a 5' tethered Gal4-MOF histone acetyltransferase fusion protein in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belikoff Esther J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In male Drosophila melanogaster, the male specific lethal (MSL complex is somehow responsible for a two-fold increase in transcription of most X-linked genes, which are enriched for histone H4 acetylated at lysine 16 (H4K16ac. This acetylation requires MOF, a histone acetyltransferase that is a component of the MSL complex. MOF also associates with the non-specific lethal or NSL complex. The MSL complex is bound within active genes on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias. In contrast, the NSL complex is enriched at promoter regions of many autosomal and X-linked genes in both sexes. In this study we have investigated the role of MOF as a transcriptional activator. Results MOF was fused to the DNA binding domain of Gal4 and targeted to the promoter region of UAS-reporter genes in Drosophila. We found that expression of a UAS-red fluorescent protein (DsRed reporter gene was strongly induced by Gal4-MOF. However, DsRed RNA levels were about seven times higher in female than male larvae. Immunostaining of polytene chromosomes showed that Gal4-MOF co-localized with MSL1 to many sites on the X chromosome in male but not female nuclei. However, in female nuclei that express MSL2, Gal4-MOF co-localized with MSL1 to many sites on polytene chromosomes but DsRed expression was reduced. Mutation of conserved active site residues in MOF (Glu714 and Cys680 reduced HAT activity in vitro and UAS-DsRed activation in Drosophila. In the presence of Gal4-MOF, H4K16ac levels were enriched over UAS-lacZ and UAS-arm-lacZ reporter genes. The latter utilizes the constitutive promoter from the arm gene to drive lacZ expression. In contrast to the strong induction of UAS-DsRed expression, UAS-arm-lacZ expression increased by about 2-fold in both sexes. Conclusions Targeting MOF to reporter genes led to transcription enhancement and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16. Histone acetyltransferase activity was required for the full transcriptional

  2. A calcium-accumulating region, CAR, in the channel Orai1 enhances Ca(2+) permeation and SOCE-induced gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischauf, Irene; Zayats, Vasilina; Deix, Michael; Hochreiter, Anna; Jardin, Isaac; Muik, Martin; Lackner, Barbara; Svobodová, Barbora; Pammer, Teresa; Litviňuková, Monika; Sridhar, Amrutha Arumbakam; Derler, Isabella; Bogeski, Ivan; Romanin, Christoph; Ettrich, Rüdiger H; Schindl, Rainer

    2015-12-22

    The Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel mediates Ca(2+) influx in a plethora of cell types, thereby controlling diverse cellular functions. The channel complex is composed of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing protein, and Orai1, a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel. Channels composed of STIM1 and Orai1 mediate Ca(2+) influx even at low extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. We investigated whether the activity of Orai1 adapted to different environmental Ca(2+) concentrations. We used homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to predict the presence of an extracellular Ca(2+)-accumulating region (CAR) at the pore entrance of Orai1. Furthermore, simulations of Orai1 proteins with mutations in CAR, along with live-cell experiments, or simulations and electrophysiological recordings of the channel with transient, electrostatic loop3 interacting with loop1 (the site of CAR) determined that CAR enhanced Ca(2+) permeation most efficiently at low external Ca(2+) concentrations. Consistent with these results, cells expressing Orai1 CAR mutants exhibited impaired gene expression stimulated by the Ca(2+)-activated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). We propose that the Orai1 channel architecture with a close proximity of CAR to the selectivity filter, which enables Ca(2+)-selective ion permeation, enhances the local extracellular Ca(2+) concentration to maintain Ca(2+)-dependent gene regulation even in environments with relatively low Ca(2+)concentrations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Aluminum Enhances Growth and Sugar Concentration, Alters Macronutrient Status and Regulates the Expression of NAC Transcription Factors in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alvarado, Marcos; García-Morales, Soledad; Trejo-Téllez, Libia Iris; Hidalgo-Contreras, Juan Valente; Gómez-Merino, Fernando Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a beneficial element for some plant species, especially when used at low concentrations. Though some transcription factors are induced by exposure to this element, no data indicate that Al regulates the expression of NAC genes in rice. In this study we tested the effect of applying 200 μM Al on growth, chlorophyll, amino acids, sugars, macronutrient concentration and regulation of NAC transcription factors gene expression in 24-day-old plants of four rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) cultivars: Cotaxtla, Tres Ríos, Huimanguillo and Temporalero, grown hydroponically under greenhouse conditions. Twenty days after treatment, we observed that Al enhanced growth in the four cultivars studied. On average, plants grown in the presence of Al produced 140% more root dry biomass and were 30% taller than control plants. Cotaxtla and Temporalero showed double the root length, while Huimanguillo and Cotaxtla had three times more root fresh biomass and 2.5 times more root dry biomass. Huimanguillo plants showed 1.5 times more shoot height, while Cotaxtla had almost double the root dry biomass. With the exception of Tres Ríos, the rest of the cultivars had almost double the chlorophyll concentration when treated with Al, whereas amino acid and proline concentrations were not affected by Al. Sugar concentration was also increased in plants treated with Al, almost 11-fold in comparison to the control. Furthermore, we observed a synergic response of Al application on P and K concentration in roots, and on Mg concentration in shoots. Twenty-four hours after Al treatment, NAC transcription factors gene expression was measured in roots by quantitative RT-PCR. Of the 57 NAC transcription factors genes primer-pairs tested, we could distinguish that 44% (25 genes) showed different expression patterns among rice cultivars, with most of the genes induced in Cotaxtla and Temporalero plants. Of the 25 transcription factors up-regulated, those showing differential expression

  4. Human endothelin subtype A receptor enhancement during tissue culture via de novo transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Edvinsson, Lars

    2002-01-01

    . Contractions were inhibited by both FR139317 (a specific ET(A) receptor antagonist) and bosentan (a mixed ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonist), in a manner indicating the sole presence of contractile ET(A) receptors. An inconsistent dilative response to the selective ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c...... was observed; the response was preserved in some segments and abolished in others, and potentiation of the precontraction was observed in yet other segments. No isolated contractile response to sarafotoxin 6c was observed, however. In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays, both ET(A) and ET...

  5. Treatment of bile duct-ligated rats with the nitric oxide synthase transcription enhancer AVE 9488 ameliorates portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biecker, Erwin; Trebicka, Jonel; Kang, Alice; Hennenberg, Martin; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Heller, Jörg

    2008-03-01

    Nitric oxide levels are decreased in the cirrhotic liver and increased in the systemic vasculature. We investigated whether the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) transcription enhancer AVE 9488 ameliorates portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats. Rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis [bile duct ligation (BDL)] were treated with AVE 9488. BDL animals without treatment served as controls. Blood flow was determined with the microsphere technique. Intrahepatic resistance was measured by in situ perfusion. NOS-3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver, aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were measured. Arterial pressure did not differ between treated and non-treated animals. Portal pressure, hepatic portal-vascular resistance and perfusion pressure of the in situ perfused liver were lower in the AVE 9488-treated animals. Arterial splanchnic resistance, portal venous inflow and shunt volume were increased by AVE 9488. N (G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester abolished the effect of AVE 9488. AVE 9488-treated rats had higher liver NOS-3 mRNA and protein levels, whereas NOS-3 mRNA and protein in the aorta and the SMA did not vary between groups. Phosphorylation of liver vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and NOS-3 as well as hepatic nitrite/nitrate was increased by AVE 9488. Treatment of BDL rats with the NOS transcription enhancer AVE 9488 induces an increase in NOS-3 mRNA and protein in the liver. This is associated with an amelioration of portal hypertension.

  6. Enhancement of biomass and lipid productivity by overexpression of a bZIP transcription factor in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sohee; Kang, Nam Kyu; Koh, Hyun Gi; Shin, Sung-Eun; Lee, Bongsoo; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae are considered as excellent platforms for biomaterial production that can replace conventional fossil fuel-based fuels and chemicals. Genetic engineering of microalgae is prerequisite to maximize production of materials and to reduce costs for the production. Transcription factors (TFs) are emerging as key regulators of metabolic pathways to enhance production of molecules for biofuels and other materials. TFs with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain have been known as stress regulators and are associated with lipid metabolism in plants. We overexpressed a bZIP TF, NsbZIP1, in Nannochloropsis salina, and found that transformants showed enhanced growth with concomitant increase in lipid contents. The improved phenotypes were also notable under stress conditions including N limitation and high salt. To understand the mechanism underlying improved phenotypes, we analyzed expression patterns of predicted target genes involved in lipid metabolism via quantitative RT-PCR, confirming increases transcript levels. NsbZIP1 appeared to be one of type C bZIPs in plants that has been known to regulate lipid metabolism under stress. Taken together, we demonstrated that NsbZIP1 could improve both growth and lipid production, and TF engineering can serve as an excellent genetic engineering tool for production of biofuels and biomaterials in microalgae. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bmal1 regulates inflammatory responses in macrophages by modulating enhancer RNA transcription

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yumiko Oishi; Shinichiro Hayashi; Takayuki Isagawa; Motohiko Oshima; Atsushi Iwama; Shigeki Shimba; Hitoshi Okamura; Ichiro Manabe

    2017-01-01

    ...) activation by modulating enhancer activity. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that deletion of Arntl perturbed the time-dependent inflammatory responses elicited by TLR4 activation by Kdo2-lipid A (KLA...

  8. Enhancement of single guide RNA transcription for efficient CRISPR/Cas-based genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Maruyama, Shohei; Nakano, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    Genomic engineering using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein is a promising approach for targeting the genomic DNA of virtually any organism in a sequence-specific manner. Recent remarkable advances in CRISPR/Cas technology have made it a feasible system for use in therapeutic applications and biotechnology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, a guide RNA (gRNA), interacting with the Cas protein, recognizes a genomic region with sequence complementarity, and the double-stranded DNA at the target site is cleaved by the Cas protein. A widely used gRNA is an RNA polymerase III (pol III)-driven single gRNA (sgRNA), which is produced by artificial fusion of CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activation crRNA (tracrRNA). However, we identified a TTTT stretch, known as a termination signal of RNA pol III, in the scaffold region of the sgRNA. Here, we revealed that sgRNA carrying a TTTT stretch reduces the efficiency of sgRNA transcription due to premature transcriptional termination, and decreases the efficiency of genome editing. Unexpectedly, it was also shown that the premature terminated sgRNA may have an adverse effect of inducing RNA interference. Such disadvantageous effects were avoided by substituting one base in the TTTT stretch.

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants over expressing cold regulated protein CbCOR15b from Capsella bursa-pastoris exhibit enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Zhou, Mingqi; Shen, Chen; Liang, Jing; Lin, Juan

    2012-09-15

    Low temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses, restricting the habitats of sessile plants and reducing crop productivity. Cold regulated (COR) genes are low temperature-responsive genes expressing under regulation of a specific signal transduction pathway, which is designated C-repeat-binding-factor (CBF) signaling pathway. In the present article, cold bioassay showed that the transcript level of cold regulated gene CbCOR15b from shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) was obviously elevated under cold treatments. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and GUS report system revealed that unlike AtCOR15b, CbCOR15b expressed not only in leaves but also in stems and maturation zone of roots. When transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing CbCOR15b were exposed to chilling and freezing temperatures, they displayed more cold tolerance compared to control plants. According to the electrolyte leakage, the relative water content, the glucose content and the phenotype observation, CbCOR15b transformants suffered less damage under cold stress. Further investigation of the subcellular localization of CbCOR15b by transient expression of fusion protein CbCOR15b-GFP revealed that it was localized exclusively in the chloroplasts of tobacco mesophyll cells and in the cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. It can be concluded that CbCOR15b which located in the chloroplasts and in the cytoplasm of cells without chloroplasts was involved in cold response of C. bursa-pastoris and conferred enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar ultraviolet radiation is necessary to enhance grapevine fruit ripening transcriptional and phenolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Diago, Maria-Paz; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Tardáguila, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2014-07-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation modulates secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which affects the final composition of both grapes and wines. The expression of several phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes is regulated by UV radiation in grape berries. However, the complete portion of transcriptome and ripening processes influenced by solar UV radiation in grapes remains unknown. Whole genome arrays were used to identify the berry skin transcriptome modulated by the UV radiation received naturally in a mid-altitude Tempranillo vineyard. UV radiation-blocking and transmitting filters were used to generate the experimental conditions. The expression of 121 genes was significantly altered by solar UV radiation. Functional enrichment analysis of altered transcripts mainly pointed out that secondary metabolism-related transcripts were induced by UV radiation including VvFLS1, VvGT5 and VvGT6 flavonol biosynthetic genes and monoterpenoid biosynthetic genes. Berry skin phenolic composition was also analysed to search for correlation with gene expression changes and UV-increased flavonols accumulation was the most evident impact. Among regulatory genes, novel UV radiation-responsive transcription factors including VvMYB24 and three bHLH, together with known grapevine UV-responsive genes such as VvMYBF1, were identified. A transcriptomic meta-analysis revealed that genes up-regulated by UV radiation in the berry skin were also enriched in homologs of Arabidopsis UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor-dependent UV-B -responsive genes. Indeed, a search of the grapevine reference genomic sequence identified UV-B signalling pathway homologs and among them, VvHY5-1, VvHY5-2 and VvRUP were up-regulated by UV radiation in the berry skin. Results suggest that the UV-B radiation-specific signalling pathway is activated in the skin of grapes grown at mid-altitudes. The biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are appreciated in winemaking and

  11. Identification of a novel intronic enhancer responsible for the transcriptional regulation of musashi1 in neural stem/progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawase Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1 protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins, is a marker for neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs in the embryonic and post-natal central nervous system (CNS. Msi1 regulates the translation of its downstream targets, including m-Numb and p21 mRNAs. In vitro experiments using knockout mice have shown that Msi1 and its isoform Musashi2 (Msi2 keep NS/PCs in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. Msi1 is expressed not only in NS/PCs, but also in other somatic stem cells and in tumours. Based on previous findings, Msi1 is likely to be a key regulator for maintaining the characteristics of self-renewing stem cells. However, the mechanisms regulating Msi1 expression are not yet clear. Results To identify the DNA region affecting Msi1 transcription, we inserted the fusion gene ffLuc, comprised of the fluorescent Venus protein and firefly Luciferase, at the translation initiation site of the mouse Msi1 gene locus contained in a 184-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC. Fluorescence and Luciferase activity, reflecting the Msi1 transcriptional activity, were observed in a stable BAC-carrying embryonic stem cell line when it was induced toward neural lineage differentiation by retinoic acid treatment. When neuronal differentiation was induced in embryoid body (EB-derived neurosphere cells, reporter signals were detected in Msi1-positive NSCs and GFAP-positive astrocytes, but not in MAP2-positive neurons. By introducing deletions into the BAC reporter gene and conducting further reporter experiments using a minimized enhancer region, we identified a region, "D5E2," that is responsible for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs. Conclusions A regulatory element for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs is located in the sixth intron of the Msi1 gene. The 595-bp D5E2 intronic

  12. Why eukaryotic cells use introns to enhance gene expression: Splicing reduces transcription-associated mutagenesis by inhibiting topoisomerase I cutting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu-Fei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The costs and benefits of spliceosomal introns in eukaryotes have not been established. One recognized effect of intron splicing is its known enhancement of gene expression. However, the mechanism regulating such splicing-mediated expression enhancement has not been defined. Previous studies have shown that intron splicing is a time-consuming process, indicating that splicing may not reduce the time required for transcription and processing of spliced pre-mRNA molecules; rather, it might facilitate the later rounds of transcription. Because the densities of active RNA polymerase II on most genes are less than one molecule per gene, direct interactions between the splicing apparatus and transcriptional complexes (from the later rounds of transcription are infrequent, and thus unlikely to account for splicing-mediated gene expression enhancement. Presentation of the hypothesis The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF can inhibit the DNA topoisomerase I activity that removes negative supercoiling of DNA generated by transcription. Consequently, splicing could make genes more receptive to RNA polymerase II during the later rounds of transcription, and thus affect the frequency of gene transcription. Compared with the transcriptional enhancement mediated by strong promoters, intron-containing genes experience a lower frequency of cut-and-paste processes. The cleavage and religation activity of DNA strands by DNA topoisomerase I was recently shown to account for transcription-associated mutagenesis. Therefore, intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression could reduce transcription-associated genome instability. Testing the hypothesis Experimentally test whether transcription-associated mutagenesis is lower in intron-containing genes than in intronless genes. Use bioinformatic analysis to check whether exons flanking lost introns have higher frequencies of short deletions. Implications of the hypothesis The mechanism of intron

  13. Transcriptional coactivator NT-PGC-1α promotes gluconeogenic gene expression and enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Suk; Jun, Hee-Jin; Park, Minsung

    2016-10-01

    The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of NT-PGC-1α in primary hepatocytes strongly stimulated the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase), leading to increased glucose production. To further understand NT-PGC-1α function in hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo, we took advantage of a previously reported FL-PGC-1α -/- mouse line that lacks full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α) but retains a slightly shorter and functionally equivalent form of NT-PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α 254 ). In FL-PGC-1α -/- mice, NT-PGC-1α 254 was induced by fasting in the liver and recruited to the promoters of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. The enrichment of NT-PGC-1α 254 at the promoters was closely associated with fasting-induced increase in PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression and efficient production of glucose from pyruvate during a pyruvate tolerance test in FL-PGC-1α -/- mice. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α -/- primary hepatocytes showed a significant increase in gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production after treatment with dexamethasone and forskolin, suggesting that NT-PGC-1α 254 is sufficient to stimulate the gluconeogenic program in the absence of FL-PGC-1α Collectively, our findings highlight the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in stimulating gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. The transcription factor STAT2 enhances proteasomal degradation of RCAN1 through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jae Youn; Lee, Eun Jung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Yoon, Joo Heon; Seo, Su Ryeon; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2012-04-06

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder and is characterized by three copies of chromosome 21. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located close to the Down syndrome critical region (distal part of chromosome 21), and its product functions as an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling. RCAN1 protein stability is regulated by several inflammatory signaling factors, though the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that RCAN1 interacts with the inflammation-linked transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) in mammalian cells. STAT2 overexpression decreased levels of RCAN1 protein. Decreases in RCAN1 were blocked by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that STAT2 regulates RCAN1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblot analyses showed that STAT2 enhanced RCAN1 ubiquitination through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7. This pathway appeared to be physiologically relevant, as treatment of cells with interferon-α reduced RCAN1 levels through the activation of STAT2 and FBW7. Together, these results suggest that STAT2 influences diverse cellular processes linked to RCAN1 by negatively affecting RCAN1 protein stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancer of Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) Is a Novel Transcriptional Co-Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Takeya Nakagawa; Tsuyoshi Ikehara; Masamichi Doiguchi; Yuko Imamura; Miki Higashi; Mitsuhiro Yoneda; Takashi Ito

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) famil...

  16. Osterix acetylation at K307 and K312 enhances its transcriptional activity and is required for osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jianlei; Qu, Shuang; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    increased after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A and hydroxamic acid. Meanwhile, the results of immunoprecipitation indicated that Osx was an acetylated protein and that the CREB binding protein (CBP), and less efficiently p300, acetylated Osx. The interaction and colocalization...... of CBP and Osx were demonstrated by Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. In addition, K307 and K312 were identified as the acetylated sites of Osx. By contrast, HDAC4, a histone deacetylase (HDAC), was observed to interact and co-localize with Osx. HDAC4 was demonstrated...... to mediate the deacetylation of Osx. Moreover, we found that acetylation of Osx enhanced its stability, DNA binding ability and transcriptional activity. Finally, we demonstrated that acetylation of Osx was required for the osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Taken together, our results provide...

  17. The Arsenic Resistance-Associated Listeria Genomic Island LGI2 Exhibits Sequence and Integration Site Diversity and a Propensity for Three Listeria monocytogenes Clones with Enhanced Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmi; Ward, Todd J; Jima, Dereje D; Parsons, Cameron; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-11-01

    In the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes , arsenic resistance is encountered primarily in serotype 4b clones considered to have enhanced virulence and is associated with an arsenic resistance gene cluster within a 35-kb chromosomal region, Listeria genomic island 2 (LGI2). LGI2 was first identified in strain Scott A and includes genes putatively involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, DNA integration, conjugation, and pathogenicity. However, the genomic localization and sequence content of LGI2 remain poorly characterized. Here we investigated 85 arsenic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains, mostly of serotype 4b. All but one of the 70 serotype 4b strains belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1), CC2, and CC4, three major clones associated with enhanced virulence. PCR analysis suggested that 53 strains (62.4%) harbored an island highly similar to LGI2 of Scott A, frequently (42/53) in the same location as Scott A ( LMOf2365_2257 homolog). Random-primed PCR and whole-genome sequencing revealed seven novel insertion sites, mostly internal to chromosomal coding sequences, among strains harboring LGI2 outside the LMOf2365_2257 homolog. Interestingly, many CC1 strains harbored a noticeably diversified LGI2 (LGI2-1) in a unique location ( LMOf2365_0902 homolog) and with a novel additional gene. With few exceptions, the tested LGI2 genes were not detected in arsenic-resistant strains of serogroup 1/2, which instead often harbored a Tn 554 -associated arsenic resistance determinant not encountered in serotype 4b. These findings indicate that in L. monocytogenes , LGI2 has a propensity for certain serotype 4b clones, exhibits content diversity, and is highly promiscuous, suggesting an ability to mobilize various accessory genes into diverse chromosomal loci. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in the environment and causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease with high mortality and morbidity. Arsenic and other heavy metals can powerfully shape the

  18. Development of a single vector system that enhances trans-splicing of SMN2 transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan H Coady

    Full Text Available RNA modalities are developing as a powerful means to re-direct pathogenic pre-mRNA splicing events. Improving the efficiency of these molecules in vivo is critical as they move towards clinical applications. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is caused by loss of SMN1. A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. We previously reported a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA that re-directed SMN2 splicing. Now we show that reducing the competition between endogenous splices sites enhanced the efficiency of trans-splicing. A single vector system was developed that expressed the SMN tsRNA and a splice-site blocking antisense (ASO-tsRNA. The ASO-tsRNA vector significantly elevated SMN levels in primary SMA patient fibroblasts, within the central nervous system of SMA mice and increased SMN-dependent in vitro snRNP assembly. These results demonstrate that the ASO-tsRNA strategy provides insight into the trans-splicing mechanism and a means of significantly enhancing trans-splicing activity in vivo.

  19. The mouse Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1): a novel mammalian gene related to Drosophila and yeast transcriptional regulator genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, R; Schoor, M; Henseling, U; Tepe, C; Kisters-Woike, B; Rossant, J; Gossler, A

    1992-11-01

    A novel mouse gene, Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1), was identified in close proximity to a lacZ enhancer trap integration in the mouse genome showing a specific beta-galactosidase staining pattern during development. In situ analysis revealed a widespread but not ubiquitous expression of Etl-1 throughout development with particularly high levels in the central nervous system and epithelial cells. The amino acid sequence of the Etl-1 protein deduced from the cDNA shows strong similarity, over a stretch of 500 amino acids, to the Drosophila brahma protein involved in the regulation of homeotic genes and to the yeast transcriptional activator protein SNF2/SWI2 as well as to the RAD54 protein and the recently described helicase-related yeast proteins STH1 and MOT1. Etl-1 is the first mammalian member of this group of proteins that are implicated in gene regulation and/or influencing chromatin structure. The homology to the regulatory proteins SNF2/SWI2 and brahma and the expression pattern during embryogenesis suggest that Etl-1 protein might be involved in gene regulating pathways during mouse development.

  20. Lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular breast cancer are characterized by enhanced expression of transcription factor AP-2β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Mieke; Gronewold, Malte; Christgen, Henriette; Glage, Silke; Bentires-Alj, Mohammad; Koren, Shany; Derksen, Patrick W; Boelens, Mirjam; Jonkers, Jos; Lehmann, Ulrich; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Kuehnle, Elna; Gluz, Oleg; Kates, Ronald; Nitz, Ulrike; Harbeck, Nadia; Kreipe, Hans H; Christgen, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Transcription factor AP-2β (TFAP2B) regulates embryonic organ development and is overexpressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a rare childhood malignancy. Gene expression profiling has implicated AP-2β in breast cancer (BC). This study characterizes AP-2β expression in the mammary gland and in BC. AP-2β protein expression was assessed in the normal mammary gland epithelium, in various reactive, metaplastic and pre-invasive neoplastic lesions and in two clinical BC cohorts comprising >2000 patients. BCs from various genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models were also evaluated. Human BC cell lines served as functional models to study siRNA-mediated inhibition of AP-2β. The normal mammary gland epithelium showed scattered AP-2β-positive cells in the luminal cell layer. Various reactive and pre-invasive neoplastic lesions, including apocrine metaplasia, usual ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) showed enhanced AP-2β expression. Cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were more often AP-2β-negative (Pinvasive BC cohorts, AP-2β-positivity was associated with the lobular BC subtype (Plobular BC cell lines in vitro. In summary, AP-2β is a new mammary epithelial differentiation marker. Its expression is preferentially retained and enhanced in LCIS and invasive lobular BC and has prognostic implications. Our findings indicate that AP-2β controls tumor cell proliferation in this slow-growing BC subtype.

  1. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Rama Kothapalli

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR and the 3' enhancer (3'E, and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms.

  2. SCL/TAL1-mediated transcriptional network enhances megakaryocytic specification of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Miguel G; Navarro-Montero, Oscar; Ayllon, Veronica; Ramos-Mejia, Veronica; Guerrero-Carreno, Xiomara; Bueno, Clara; Romero, Tamara; Lamolda, Mar; Cobo, Marien; Martin, Francisco; Menendez, Pablo; Real, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a unique in vitro model for studying human developmental biology and represent a potential source for cell replacement strategies. Platelets can be generated from cord blood progenitors and hESCs; however, the molecular mechanisms and determinants controlling the in vitro megakaryocytic specification of hESCs remain elusive. We have recently shown that stem cell leukemia (SCL) overexpression accelerates the emergence of hemato-endothelial progenitors from hESCs and promotes their subsequent differentiation into blood cells with higher clonogenic potential. Given that SCL participates in megakaryocytic commitment, we hypothesized that it may potentiate megakaryopoiesis from hESCs. We show that ectopic SCL expression enhances the emergence of megakaryocytic precursors, mature megakaryocytes (MKs), and platelets in vitro. SCL-overexpressing MKs and platelets respond to different activating stimuli similar to their control counterparts. Gene expression profiling of megakaryocytic precursors shows that SCL overexpression renders a megakaryopoietic molecular signature. Connectivity Map analysis reveals that trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), both histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, functionally mimic SCL-induced effects. Finally, we confirm that both TSA and SAHA treatment promote the emergence of CD34(+) progenitors, whereas valproic acid, another HDAC inhibitor, potentiates MK and platelet production. We demonstrate that SCL and HDAC inhibitors are megakaryopoiesis regulators in hESCs.

  3. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread.

  4. Influence of promoter/enhancer region haplotypes on MGMT transcriptional regulation: a potential biomarker for human sensitivity to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meixiang; Nekhayeva, Ilona; Cross, Courtney E; Rondelli, Catherine M; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2014-03-01

    The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) encodes the direct reversal DNA repair protein that removes alkyl adducts from the O6 position of guanine. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist in the MGMT promoter/enhancer (P/E) region. However, the haplotype structure encompassing these SNPs and their functional/biological significance are currently unknown. We hypothesized that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, alter MGMT transcription and can thus alter human sensitivity to alkylating agents. To identify the haplotype structure encompassing the MGMT P/E region SNPs, we sequenced 104 DNA samples from healthy individuals and inferred the haplotypes using the data generated. We identified eight SNPs in this region, namely T7C (rs180989103), T135G (rs1711646), G290A (rs61859810), C485A (rs1625649), C575A (rs113813075), G666A (rs34180180), C777A (rs34138162) and C1099T (rs16906252). Phylogenetics and Sequence Evolution analysis predicted 21 potential haplotypes that encompass these SNPs ranging in frequencies from 0.000048 to 0.39. Of these, 10 were identified in our study population as 20 paired haplotype combinations. To determine the functional significance of these haplotypes, luciferase reporter constructs representing these haplotypes were transfected into glioblastoma cells and their effect on MGMT promoter activity was determined. Compared with the most common (reference) haplotype 1, seven haplotypes significantly upregulated MGMT promoter activity (18-119% increase; P haplotype had no effect. Mechanistic studies conducted support the conclusion that MGMT P/E haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, differentially regulate MGMT transcription and could thus play a significant role in human sensitivity to environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents.

  5. TCF-1, a T cell-specific transcription factor of the HMG box family, interacts with sequence motifs in the TCR beta and TCR delta enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwegel, M A; van de Wetering, M L; Holstege, F C; Prosser, H M; Owen, M J; Clevers, H C

    1991-11-01

    We have recently identified and cloned TCF-1, a T cell-specific transcription factor with specificity for the AACAAAG motif in the CD3 epsilon enhancer and for the TTCAAAG motif in the TCR alpha enhancer. TCF-1 belongs to the family of transcription-regulating proteins which share a region of homology termed the HMG-box. Here, we show by gel retardation analysis that TCF-1 specifically recognizes the T beta 5 element of the TCR beta enhancer and the T delta 7 element of the TCR delta enhancer. Comparison of the sequences of all elements recognized by TCF-1 defines a consensus motif A/T A/T C A A/G A G. These observations imply that TCF-1 is involved in the control of several T cell-specific genes and might thus play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of the mature T cell phenotype.

  6. Tandemly Integrated HPV16 Can Form a Brd4-Dependent Super-Enhancer-Like Element That Drives Transcription of Viral Oncogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine E. Dooley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer cells associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infections, the viral genome is very often found integrated into the cellular genome. The viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are transcribed from the viral promoter, and integration events that alter transcriptional regulation of this promoter contribute to carcinogenic progression. In this study, we detected highly enriched binding of the super-enhancer markers Brd4, MED1, and H3K27ac, visible as a prominent nuclear focus by immunofluorescence, at the tandemly integrated copies of HPV16 in cells of the cervical neoplasia cell line W12 subclone 20861. Tumor cells are often addicted to super-enhancer-driven oncogenes and are particularly sensitive to disruption of transcription factor binding to the enhancers. Treatment of 20861 cells with bromodomain inhibitors displaced Brd4 from the HPV integration site, greatly decreased E6/E7 transcription, and inhibited cellular proliferation. Thus, Brd4 activates viral transcription at this integration site, and strong selection for E6/E7 expression can drive the formation of a super-enhancer-like element to promote oncogenesis.

  7. Stepping Up: Improving Progression in English and Math from High School to College. Student Transcript-Enhanced Placement Study. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Terrence; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    How do we determine if incoming students are ready for college-level work? California's community college system is currently working to address this complex question in a more nuanced, comprehensive, and equitable way. This research brief offers insights that can inform these efforts resulting from the Student Transcript-Enhanced Placement Study…

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from Synovial Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells on a Matrigel Coating Exhibited Enhanced Proliferation and Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yang-Peng; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Rui; Li, Wen-Yu; Zheng, You-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) serve as a promising source for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. However, optimal methods for transforming iPSCs into MSCs and the characteristics of iPSC-MSCs obtained from different methods remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a one-step method for obtaining iPSC-MSCs (CD146+STRO-1+ MSCs) from human synovial fluid MSC-derived induced iPSCs (SFMSC-iPSCs). CD146-STRO-1-SFMSCs were reprogrammed into iPSCs by transduction with lentivirus-mediated Sox2, Oct-3/4, klf4, and c-Myc. SFMSC-iPSCs were maintained with mTeSR1 medium in Matrigel-coated culture plates. Single dissociated cells were obtained by digesting the SFMSC-iPSCs with trypsin. The dissociated cells were then plated into Matrigel-coated culture plate with alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1× Glutamax, and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Cells were then passaged in standard cell culture plates with alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1× Glutamax. After passaging in vitro, the cells showed a homogenous spindle-shape similar to their ancestor cells (SFMSCs), but with more robust proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed typical MSC surface markers, including expression of CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD44 and lack of CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, and HLA-DR. However, these cells were positive for CD146 and stro-1, which the ancestor cells were not. Moreover, the cells could also be induced to differentiate in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The differentiation potential was improved compared with the ancestor cells in vitro. The cells were not found to exhibit oncogenicity in vivo. Therefore, the method presented herein facilitated the generation of STRO-1+CD146+ MSCs from SFMSC-iPSCs exhibiting enhanced proliferation and differentiation potential.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from Synovial Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells on a Matrigel Coating Exhibited Enhanced Proliferation and Differentiation Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Liang Zheng

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs serve as a promising source for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. However, optimal methods for transforming iPSCs into MSCs and the characteristics of iPSC-MSCs obtained from different methods remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a one-step method for obtaining iPSC-MSCs (CD146+STRO-1+ MSCs from human synovial fluid MSC-derived induced iPSCs (SFMSC-iPSCs. CD146-STRO-1-SFMSCs were reprogrammed into iPSCs by transduction with lentivirus-mediated Sox2, Oct-3/4, klf4, and c-Myc. SFMSC-iPSCs were maintained with mTeSR1 medium in Matrigel-coated culture plates. Single dissociated cells were obtained by digesting the SFMSC-iPSCs with trypsin. The dissociated cells were then plated into Matrigel-coated culture plate with alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1× Glutamax, and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Cells were then passaged in standard cell culture plates with alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1× Glutamax. After passaging in vitro, the cells showed a homogenous spindle-shape similar to their ancestor cells (SFMSCs, but with more robust proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed typical MSC surface markers, including expression of CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD44 and lack of CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, and HLA-DR. However, these cells were positive for CD146 and stro-1, which the ancestor cells were not. Moreover, the cells could also be induced to differentiate in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The differentiation potential was improved compared with the ancestor cells in vitro. The cells were not found to exhibit oncogenicity in vivo. Therefore, the method presented herein facilitated the generation of STRO-1+CD146+ MSCs from SFMSC-iPSCs exhibiting enhanced proliferation and differentiation potential.

  10. The ABA receptor PYL8 promotes lateral root growth by enhancing MYB77-dependent transcription of auxin-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xing, Lu; Wang, Xingang; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Pengcheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is mediated by a group of receptors known as the PYR1/PYL/RCAR family, which includes the pyrabactin resistance 1-like protein PYL8. Under stress conditions, ABA signaling activates SnRK2 protein kinases to inhibit lateral root growth after emergence from the primary root. However, even in the case of persistent stress, lateral root growth eventually recovers from inhibition. We showed that PYL8 is required for the recovery of lateral root growth, following inhibition by ABA. PYL8 directly interacted with the transcription factors MYB77, MYB44, and MYB73. The interaction of PYL8 and MYB77 increased the binding of MYB77 to its target MBSI motif in the promoters of multiple auxin-responsive genes. Compared to wild-type seedlings, the lateral root growth of pyl8 mutant seedlings and myb77 mutant seedlings was more sensitive to inhibition by ABA. The recovery of lateral root growth was delayed in pyl8 mutant seedlings in the presence of ABA, and the defect was rescued by exposing pyl8 mutant seedlings to the auxin IAA (3-indoleacetic acid). Thus, PYL8 promotes lateral root growth independently of the core ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway by enhancing the activities of MYB77 and its paralogs, MYB44 and MYB73, to augment auxin signaling. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. BeReTa: a systematic method for identifying target transcriptional regulators to enhance microbial production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsuk; Sun, Gwanggyu; Lee, Dong-Yup; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of regulatory circuits governing the metabolic processes is a crucial step for developing microbial cell factories. Despite the prevalence of in silico strain design algorithms, most of them are not capable of predicting required modifications in regulatory networks. Although a few algorithms may predict relevant targets for transcriptional regulator (TR) manipulations, they have limited reliability and applicability due to their high dependency on the availability of integrated metabolic/regulatory models. We present BeReTa (Beneficial Regulator Targeting), a new algorithm for prioritization of TR manipulation targets, which makes use of unintegrated network models. BeReTa identifies TR manipulation targets by evaluating regulatory strengths of interactions and beneficial effects of reactions, and subsequently assigning beneficial scores for the TRs. We demonstrate that BeReTa can predict both known and novel TR manipulation targets for enhanced production of various chemicals in Escherichia coli Furthermore, through a case study of antibiotics production in Streptomyces coelicolor, we successfully demonstrate its wide applicability to even less-studied organisms. To the best of our knowledge, BeReTa is the first strain design algorithm exclusively designed for predicting TR manipulation targets. MATLAB code is available at https://github.com/kms1041/BeReTa (github). byungkim@snu.ac.krSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated metabolic engineering for enhanced fatty acids production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    Targeted engineering of microbial genomes holds much promise for diverse biotechnological applications. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems are capable of efficiently editing microbial genomes, including that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we demonstrate the use of TALENs to edit the genome of S.cerevisiae with the aim of inducing the overproduction of fatty acids. Heterodimeric TALENs were designed to simultaneously edit the FAA1 and FAA4 genes encoding acyl-CoA synthetases in S.cerevisiae. Functional yeast double knockouts generated using these TALENs over-produce large amounts of free fatty acids into the cell. This study demonstrates the use of TALENs for targeted engineering of yeast and demonstrates that this technology can be used to stimulate the enhanced production of free fatty acids, which are potential substrates for biofuel production. This proof-of-principle study extends the utility of TALENs as excellent genome editing tools and highlights their potential use for metabolic engineering of yeast and other organisms, such as microalgae and plants, for biofuel production. © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

  13. A NF-κB-dependent dual promoter-enhancer initiates the lipopolysaccharide-mediated transcriptional activation of the chicken lysozyme in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Witham

    Full Text Available The transcriptional activation of the chicken lysozyme gene (cLys by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in macrophages is dependent on transcription of a LPS-Inducible Non-Coding RNA (LINoCR triggering eviction of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF from a negative regulatory element upstream of the lysozyme transcription start site. LINoCR is transcribed from a promoter originally characterized as a hormone response enhancer in the oviduct. Herein, we report the characterization of this cis-regulatory element (CRE. In activated macrophages, a 60 bp region bound by NF-κB, AP1 and C/EBPβ controls this CRE, which is strictly dependent on NF-κB binding for its activity in luciferase assays. Moreover, the serine/threonine kinase IKKα, known to be recruited by NF-κB to NF-κB-dependent genes is found at the CRE and within the transcribing regions of both cLys and LINoCR. Such repartition suggests a simultaneous promoter and enhancer activity of this CRE, initiating cLys transcriptional activation and driving CTCF eviction. This recruitment was transient despite persistence of both cLys transcription and NF-κB binding to the CRE. Finally, comparing cLys with other LPS-inducible genes indicates that IKKα detection within transcribing regions can be correlated with the presence of the elongating form of RNA polymerase II or concentrated in the 3' end of the gene.

  14. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor α Gene to Transcription Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthésy; Nabholz, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2Rα transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2Rα expression. In c...

  15. On involvement of transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, activator protein-1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in photodynamic therapy-induced death of crayfish neurons and satellite glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnaya, Elena; Neginskaya, Marya; Kovaleva, Vera; Sharifulina, Svetlana; Ischenko, Irina; Komandirov, Maxim; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used in the treatment of brain tumors. However, not only malignant cells but also neighboring normal neurons and glial cells are damaged during PDT. In order to study the potential role of transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), activator protein (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3)-in photodynamic injury of normal neurons and glia, we photosensitized the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor consisting of a single sensory neuron enveloped by glial cells. Application of different inhibitors and activators showed that transcription factors NF-κB (inhibitors caffeic acid phenethyl ester and parthenolide, activator betulinic acid), AP-1 (inhibitor SR11302), and STAT-3 (inhibitors stattic and cucurbitacine) influenced PDT-induced death and survival of neurons and glial cells in different ways. These experiments indicated involvement of NF-κB in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and apoptosis of glial cells. However, in glial cells, it played the antinecrotic role. AP-1 was not involved in PDT-induced necrosis of neurons and glia, but mediated glial apoptosis. STAT-3 was involved in PDT-induced apoptosis of glial cells and necrosis of neurons and glia. Therefore, signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival in neurons and glial cells are different. Using various inhibitors or activators of transcription factors, one can differently influence the sensitivity and resistance of neurons and glial cells to PDT.

  16. Activation of the Anti-Aging and Cognition-Enhancing Gene Klotho by CRISPR-dCas9 Transcriptional Effector Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ci-Di; Zeldich, Ella; Li, Yuexuan; Yuste, Andrea; Abraham, Carmela R

    2018-02-01

    Multiple lines of evidence show that the anti-aging and cognition-enhancing protein Klotho fosters neuronal survival, increases the anti-oxidative stress defense, and promotes remyelination of demyelinated axons. Thus, upregulation of the Klotho gene can potentially alleviate the symptoms and/or prevent the progression of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we used a CRISPR-dCas9 complex to investigate single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the Klotho promoter region for efficient transcriptional activation of the Klotho gene. We tested the sgRNAs within the - 1 to - 300 bp of the Klotho promoter region and identified two sgRNAs that can effectively enhance Klotho gene transcription. We examined the transcriptional activation of the Klotho gene using three different systems: a Firefly luciferase (FLuc) and NanoLuc luciferase (NLuc) coincidence reporter system, a NLuc knock-in in Klotho 3'-UTR using CRISPR genomic editing, and two human cell lines: neuronal SY5Y cells and kidney HK-2 cells that express Klotho endogenously. The two sgRNAs enhanced Klotho expression at both the gene and protein levels. Our results show the feasibility of gene therapy for targeting Klotho using CRISPR technology. Enhancing Klotho levels has a therapeutic potential for increasing cognition and treating age-associated neurodegenerative, demyelinating and other diseases, such as chronic kidney disease and cancer.

  17. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  18. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Wangjie; Hardin, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO) contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  19. Downregulation of E-Cadherin enhances proliferation of head and neck cancer through transcriptional regulation of EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Dong M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been reported to downregulate E-cadherin (E-cad; however, whether the downregulation of E-cad has any effect on EGFR expression has not been elucidated. Our previous studies have found an inverse correlation between EGFR and E-cad expression in tissue specimens of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN. To understand the biological mechanisms underlying this clinical observation, we knocked down E-cad expression utilizing E-cad siRNA in four SCCHN cell lines. Results It was observed that downregulation of E-cad upregulated EGFR expression compared with control siRNA-transfected cells after 72 hours. Cellular membrane localization of EGFR was also increased. Consequently, downstream signaling molecules of the EGFR signaling pathway, p-AKT, and p-ERK, were increased at 72 hours after the transfection with E-cad siRNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR showed EGFR mRNA was upregulated by E-cad siRNA as early as 24 hours. In addition, RT-PCR revealed this upregulation was due to the increase of EGFR mRNA stability, but not protein stability. Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay indicated growth of E-cad knocked down cells was enhanced up to 2-fold more than that of control siRNA-transfected cells at 72-hours post-transfection. The effect of E-cad reduction on cell proliferation was blocked by treating the E-cad siRNA-transfected cells with 1 μM of the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Conclusion Our results suggest for the first time that reduction of E-cad results in upregulation of EGFR transcriptionally. It also suggests that loss of E-cad may induce proliferation of SCCHN by activating EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways.

  20. Gene transcripts encoding hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) exhibit tissue- and muscle fiber type-dependent responses to hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristin M; Follett, Chandler R; Burnett, Louis E; Lema, Sean C

    2012-09-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that under low environmental oxygen regulates the expression of suites of genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, immune function, and growth. Here, we isolated and sequenced partial cDNAs encoding hif-α and arnt/hif-β from the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, an estuarine species that frequently encounters concurrent hypoxia (low O(2)) and hypercapnia (elevated CO(2)). We then examined the effects of acute exposure (1h) to hypoxia (H) and hypercapnic hypoxia (HH) on relative transcript abundance for hif-α and arnt/hif-β in different tissues (glycolytic muscle, oxidative muscle, hepatopancreas, gill, and gonads) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our results indicate that hif-α and arnt/hif-β mRNAs were constitutively present under well-aerated normoxia (N) conditions in all tissues examined. Further, H and HH exposure resulted in both tissue-specific and muscle fiber type-specific effects on relative hif-α transcript abundance. In the gill and glycolytic muscle, relative hif-α mRNA levels were significantly lower under H and HH, compared to N, while no change (or a slight increase) was detected in oxidative muscle, hepatopancreas and gonadal tissues. H and HH did not affect relative transcript abundance for arnt/hif-β in any tissue or muscle fiber type. Thus, in crustaceans the HIF response to H and HH appears to involve changes in hif transcript abundance, with variation in hif-α and arnt/hif-β transcriptional dynamics occurring in both a tissue- and muscle fiber type-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O'Neil, Shawn T; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Degraded RNA transcript stable regions (StaRs) as targets for enhanced forensic RNA body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Han; Albani, Patricia P; Fleming, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is becoming common practice for forensic body fluid identification. However, the degraded and scarce nature of RNA from forensic samples mean that mRNA transcripts are not consistently detected or remain undetected in practice. Conventional primer design for RT-PCR (and quantitative RT-PCR) includes targeting primers to span exon-exon boundaries or by having the primers on two separate exons, and satisfying common primer thermodynamic criteria. We have found that the conventional placement of primers is not always optimal for obtaining reproducible results from degraded samples. Using massively parallel sequencing data from degraded body fluids, we designed primers to amplify transcript regions of high read coverage, hence, higher stability, and compared these with primers designed using conventional methodology. Our findings are that primers designed for transcript regions of higher read coverage resulted in vastly improved detection of mRNA transcripts that were not previously detected or were not consistently detected in the same samples using conventional primers. We developed a new concept whereby primers targeted to transcript stable regions (StaRs) are able to consistently and specifically amplify a wide range of RNA biomarkers in various body fluids of varying degradation levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious bursal disease virus recovery from Vero cells transfected with RNA transcripts is enhanced by expression of the structural proteins in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M A; Lin, T L; Wu, C C

    2005-11-01

    Positive sense RNA transcripts of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genome segments A and B have previously been shown to be infectious. In this study we demonstrate that recovery of IBD virus from the transfection of Vero cells with positive sense RNA transcripts of genome segments A and B was enhanced by expression of the viral structural proteins VP2 with VP3 or by expression of viral polyprotein VP243 from DNA plasmids in trans. Expression of individual viral proteins VP2, VP3, or VP4 alone from DNA plasmids did not enhance IBD virus recovery. Earliest virus recovery from transfection of positive sense RNA transcripts of genomic segments A and B was at 36 h and mean titers were 10(1.8) pfu/ml. IBD virus was recovered 6 hours after transfection in cells concurrently expressing either VP2 with VP3 or VP243 and mean titers were 10(8.5) pfu/ml or 10(9.2) pfu/ml, respectively. Likewise, expression of the viral polyprotein from DNA plasmid increased the permissiveness of Vero cells for infection with non-culture adapted IBD virus. The titer of recovered non-culture adapted virus from 10(3.3) pfu/ml to 10(10.3) pfu/ml with expression of the viral polyprotein. This report is the first to describe a reverse genetics model for IBD virus with high efficiency of virus recovery for non-culture adapted strains.

  5. ICE1 of Pyrus ussuriensis functions in cold tolerance by enhancing PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with PuHHP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-12-01

    ICE1 transcription factor plays an important role in plant cold stress via regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. In this study, a PuICE1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. The expression levels of the PuICE1 were induced by cold, dehydration and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PuICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind specifically to the MYC element in the PuDREBa promoter. The PuICE1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain to have transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of the PuICE1 in tomato conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress at cold temperatures, less electrolyte leakage, less MDA content, higher chlorophyll content, higher survival rate, higher proline content, higher activities of enzymes. In additon, steady-state mRNA levels of six stress-responsive genes coding for either functional or regulatory genes were induced to higher levels in the transgenic lines by cold stress. Yeast two-hybrid, transient assay, split luciferase complementation and BiFC assays all revealed that PuHHP1 protein can physically interact with PuICE1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PuICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to enhancement of PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with the PuHHP1.

  6. Sesamol and sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil enhance macrophage cholesterol efflux via up-regulation of PPARγ1 and LXRα transcriptional activity in a MAPK-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Ro, Hyo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Cholesterol clearance by macrophages is a vital process to eliminate excess cholesterol from the body. Internalization of modified cholesterol by macrophages triggers overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 (PPARγ1) and liver X receptor α (LXRα), two transcription factors that are critically involved in macrophage cholesterol efflux. Recent studies demonstrate that oral administration of sesamol derivative (INV-403) and sesame oil leads to a significant attenuation of atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits and LDLR(-/-) mice, respectively. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying such anti-atherogenic effects remain largely unrevealed. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to assess the effects of sesamol and sesame oil on PPARγ1 and LXRα gene expression. The potential of sesamol and sesame oil to modulate cholesterol efflux was evaluated using (3)H-cholesterol efflux assays. Sesamol and sesame oil treatments lead to a significant up-regulation of PPARγ1 and LXRα expression and transcriptional activity in a MAPK-dependent manner. Importantly, primary macrophages display a significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux potential upon treatment with sesamol and sesame oil, and this stimulatory effect is mediated by MAPK signaling. Our findings suggest that the previously reported anti-atherogenic effects of sesamol and sesame oil could be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced PPARγ1 and LXRα expression and transcriptional activity leading to improved macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our study is novel in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sesamol and sesame oil against atherosclerosis.

  7. Computational identification of developmental enhancers:conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clustersin drosophila melanogaster and drosophila psedoobscura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Benjamin P.; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Laverty, Todd R.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, SusanE.

    2004-08-06

    The identification of sequences that control transcription in metazoans is a major goal of genome analysis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that searching for clusters of predicted transcription factor binding sites could discover active regulatory sequences, and identified 37 regions of the Drosophila melanogaster genome with high densities of predicted binding sites for five transcription factors involved in anterior-posterior embryonic patterning. Nine of these clusters overlapped known enhancers. Here, we report the results of in vivo functional analysis of 27 remaining clusters. We generated transgenic flies carrying each cluster attached to a basal promoter and reporter gene, and assayed embryos for reporter gene expression. Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of neighboring genes; the remaining 18 do not appear to have enhancer activity. We used the Drosophila pseudoobscura genome to compare patterns of evolution in and around the 15 positive and 18 false-positive predictions. Although conservation of primary sequence cannot distinguish true from false positives, conservation of binding-site clustering accurately discriminates functional binding-site clusters from those with no function. We incorporated conservation of binding-site clustering into a new genome-wide enhancer screen, and predict several hundred new regulatory sequences, including 85 adjacent to genes with embryonic patterns. Measuring conservation of sequence features closely linked to function--such as binding-site clustering--makes better use of comparative sequence data than commonly used methods that examine only sequence identity.

  8. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  9. Regulation of a novel isoform of Receptor Expression Enhancing Protein REEP6 in rod photoreceptors by bZIP transcription factor NRL

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Hong; Veleri, Shobi; Sun, Bo; Kim, Douglas S.; Keeley, Patrick W.; Kim, Jung-Woong; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Yadav, Sharda P.; Manjunath, Souparnika H.; Sood, Raman; Liu, Paul; Reese, Benjamin E; Swaroop, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The Maf-family leucine zipper transcription factor NRL is essential for rod photoreceptor development and functional maintenance in the mammalian retina. Mutations in NRL are associated with human retinopathies, and loss of Nrl in mice leads to a cone-only retina with the complete absence of rods. Among the highly down-regulated genes in the Nrl−/− retina, we identified receptor expression enhancing protein 6 (Reep6), which encodes a member of a family of proteins involved in shaping of membr...

  10. Stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases transcriptional levels in presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate resulting to enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroshi; Gokhale, Digambar; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The present study revealed the effect of nitrogen sources on lactic acid production and stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of parent Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368 and its mutant RM2-24 generated after UV mutagenesis. Both the parent and mutant strains were evaluated for d-lactic acid production in control and modified media. The modified media did not show remarkable effect on lactic acid production in case of parent whereas mutant exhibited significant enhancement in d-lactic acid production along with the appearance of l-lactic acid in the broth. Both LDH activities and specific activities were found to be higher in mutant than the parent strain. These results suggested that the diammonium hydrogen phosphate in modified media triggered the expression of LDH genes leading to enhanced lactic acid production. This observation has been proved by studying the expression levels of d- and l-LDH genes of parent and mutant in control and modified media using quantitative RT-PCR technique. In case of mutant, the transcriptional levels of d-LDH and l-LDH increased ∼17 fold and ∼1.38 fold respectively in modified medium compared to the values obtained with control medium. In case of parent, no significant change in transcriptional levels of d- and l-LDH was found when the cells were grown in either control medium or modified medium. This study suggested that the mutant, RM2-24 has l-LDH gene which is expressed in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 resulting in l-lactic acid production. Co-production of l-lactic acid in d-lactic acid fermentation may be detrimental in the PLA production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Loss of human ribosomal gene CpG methylation enhances cryptic RNA polymerase II transcription and disrupts ribosomal RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Kugler, Thérèse; Langlois, Frédéric; Stefanovsky, Victor; Lessard, Frédéric; Moss, Tom

    2009-08-28

    Epigenetic methyl-CpG silencing of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is thought to downregulate rRNA synthesis in mammals. In contrast, we now show that CpG methylation in fact positively influences rRNA synthesis and processing. Human HCT116 cells, inactivated for DNMT1 and DNMT3b or treated with aza-dC, lack CpG methylation and reactivate a large fraction of normally silent rRNA genes. Unexpectedly, these cells display reduced rRNA synthesis and processing and accumulate unprocessed 45S rRNA. Reactivation of the rRNA genes is associated with their cryptic transcription by RNA polymerase II. Ectopic expression of cryptic rRNA gene transcripts recapitulates the defects associated with loss of CpG methylation. The data demonstrate that rRNA gene silencing prevents cryptic RNA polymerase II transcription of these genes. Lack of silencing leads to the partial disruption of rRNA synthesis and rRNA processing, providing an explanation for the cytotoxic effects of loss of CpG methylation.

  12. ALDH+ tumor-initiating cells exhibiting gain in NOTCH1 gene copy number have enhanced regrowth sensitivity to a γ-secretase inhibitor and irinotecan in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaroli, John J; Powell, Rebecca W; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik Choon; Quackenbush, Kevin S; Pitts, Todd M; Gao, Dexiang; Spreafico, Anna; Dasari, Arvind; Touban, Basel M; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-06-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to be upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) and important for the self-renewal of cancer stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PF-03084014, a γ-secretase inhibitor, in combination with irinotecan to identify the effects of treatment on tumor recurrence and the tumor-initiating population in our CRC preclinical explant model. The combination of PF-03084014 and irinotecan had the greatest effect at reducing tumor growth on four CRC tumors when compared with treatment with PF-03084014 or irinotecan alone. The combination significantly reduced tumor recurrence in two CRC explants (CRC001 and CRC036) after treatment was discontinued. Both of these tumors exhibited elevated baseline levels of Notch pathway activation as well as an increase in NOTCH1 gene copy number when compared with the two CRC explants (CRC026 and CRC027) where tumors reappeared quickly after termination of treatment. Isolation and injection of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(+) and ALDH(-)) cells in an in vivo explant model demonstrated that the ALDH(+) cell population were tumorigenic. Evaluation of the ALDH(+) cells after 28 days of treatment showed that the combination reduced the ALDH(+) population in the tumors that did not regrow. Furthermore, ALDH(+) cells from CRC001 and CRC027 were injected in vivo and treated immediately for 28 days. Two months after treatment, tumors were evident in the combination treatment group for CRC027 but not for CRC036. These results indicate the combination of PF-03084014 and irinotecan may be effective in reducing tumor recurrence in CRC patients whose tumors exhibit elevated levels of the Notch pathway. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The AaDREB1 Transcription Factor from the Cold-Tolerant Plant Adonis amurensis Enhances Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Mei Zong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB transcription factors (TFs play important roles in the regulation of plant resistance to environmental stresses and can specifically bind to dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat element (DRE/CRT proteins (G/ACCGAC and activate expression of many stress-inducible genes. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel gene (AaDREB1 encoding the DREB1 transcription factor from the cold-tolerant plant Adonis amurensis. Quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR results indicated that AaDREB1 expression was induced by salt, drought, cold stress, and abscisic acid application. A yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated that AaDREB1 encodes a transcription activator and specifically binds to DRE/CRT. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis and rice harboring AaDREB1 showed enhanced tolerance to salt, drought, and low temperature. These results indicated that AaDREB1 might be useful in genetic engineering to improve plant stress tolerance.

  14. Arg156 in the AP2-domain exhibits the highest binding activity among the 20 individuals to the GCC box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a mutant ERF transcription factor from Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156, Mu3 (Arg156, and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins.

  15. Arg156 in the AP2-Domain Exhibits the Highest Binding Activity among the 20 Individuals to the GCC Box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a Mutant ERF Transcription Factor from Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jing; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Bei; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156), Mu3 (Arg156), and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins.

  16. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKYs to enhance the expression of pathogenesis-related genes against Colletotrichum musae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Plants respond to pathogen attack by the modulation of a large set of genes, which are regulated by different types of transcription factor (TF). NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) and WRKY are plant-specific families of TFs, and have received much attention as transcriptional regulators in plant pathogen defence. However, the cooperation between NAC and WRKY TFs in the disease response remains largely unknown. Our previous study has revealed that two banana fruit WRKY TFs, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2, are involved in salicylic acid (SA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced resistance against Colletotrichum musae via binding to promoters of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we found that MaNAC1, MaNAC2 and MaNAC5 were up-regulated after C. musae infection, and were also significantly enhanced by SA and MeJA treatment. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that MaNAC5 physically interacted with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2. More importantly, dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay revealed that MaNAC5, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 were transcriptional activators, and individually or cooperatively activated the transcriptional activities of MaPR1-1, MaPR2, MaPR10c and MaCHIL1 genes. Collectively, our results indicate that MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 to regulate the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response, and to contribute at least partially to SA- and MeJA-induced pathogen resistance. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Universal Stress Protein exhibits a redox-dependent chaperone function in Arabidopsis and enhances plant tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung eYoung Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a wide range of physiological information on Universal Stress Proteins (USPs is available from many organisms, their biochemical and molecular functions remain unidentified. The biochemical function of AtUSP (At3g53990 from Arabidopsis thaliana was therefore investigated. Plants over-expressing AtUSP showed a strong resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress, compared with wild-type and Atusp knock-out plants, confirming the crucial role of AtUSP in stress tolerance. AtUSP was present in a variety of structures including monomers, dimers, trimers, and oligomeric complexes, and switched in response to external stresses from low molecular weight (LMW species to high molecular weight (HMW complexes. AtUSP exhibited a strong chaperone function under stress conditions in particular, and this activity was significantly increased by heat treatment. Chaperone activity of AtUSP was critically regulated by the redox status of cells and accompanied by structural changes to the protein. Over-expression of AtUSP conferred a strong tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress upon Arabidopsis, primarily via its chaperone function.

  18. Inhibition of cyclic AMP response element-directed transcription by decoy oligonucleotides enhances tumor-specific radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Serk In, E-mail: serkin@korea.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The BK21 Plus Program for Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine and Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Park, Sung-Jun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Obesity and Aging Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lee, Junghan; Kim, Hye Eun; Park, Su Jin; Sohn, Jeong-Won [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Gyu, E-mail: parkyg@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The radiation stress induces cytotoxic responses of cell death as well as cytoprotective responses of cell survival. Understanding exact cellular mechanism and signal transduction pathways is important in improving cancer radiotherapy. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family proteins act as a survival factor and a signaling molecule in response to stress. We postulated that CREB inhibition via CRE decoy oligonucleotide increases tumor cell sensitization to γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxic stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that CREB phosphorylation and CREB DNA-protein complex formation increased in time- and radiation dose-dependent manners, while there was no significant change in total protein level of CREB. In addition, CREB was phosphorylated in response to γ-irradiation through p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation revealed that CREB blockade by decoy oligonucleotides functionally inhibited transactivation of CREB, and significantly increased radiosensitivity of multiple human cancer cell lines including TP53- and/or RB-mutated cells with minimal effects on normal cells. We also demonstrate that tumor cells ectopically expressing dominant negative mutant CREB (KCREB) and the cells treated with p38 MAPK inhibitors were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than wild type parental cells or control-treated cells. Taken together, we conclude that CREB protects tumor cells from γ-irradiation, and combination of CREB inhibition plus ionizing radiation will be a promising radiotherapeutic approach. - Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-directed transcription in tumor. • γ-Irradiation-induced transcriptional activation of CREB was via p38 MAPK pathway. • CRE blockade increased radiosensitivity of tumor cells but not of normal cells. • CRE decoy oligonucleotides or p38 MAPK inhibitors can be used as radiosensitizers.

  19. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seol Ah, E-mail: s6022029@korea.ac.kr; Choi, Young-Im, E-mail: yichoi99@forest.go.kr; Cho, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jinsung3932@gmail.com; Lee, Hyoshin, E-mail: hslee@forest.go.kr

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  20. Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: yuxiangqin@126.com [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Tian, Yanchen [The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A class II WRKY transcription factor, TaWRKY79 was isolated and characterized. •TaWRKY79 was induced by NaCl or abscisic acid. •843 bp regulatory segment was sufficient to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. •TaWRKY79 enhanced salinity and ionic tolerance while reduced sensitivity to ABA. •TaWRKY79 increased salinity and ionic tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 μM ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway.

  1. The upstream regulatory sequence of the light harvesting complex Lhcf2 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum enhances transcription in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Monia Teresa; Annunziata, Rossella; Sanges, Remo; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Falciatore, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a key phytoplankton group in the contemporary ocean, showing extraordinary adaptation capacities to rapidly changing environments. The recent availability of whole genome sequences from representative species has revealed distinct features in their genomes, like novel combinations of genes encoding distinct metabolisms and a significant number of diatom-specific genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms driving diatom gene expression are still largely uncharacterized. Considering the wide variety of fields of study orbiting diatoms, ranging from ecology, evolutionary biology to biotechnology, it is thus essential to increase our understanding of fundamental gene regulatory processes such as transcriptional regulation. To this aim, we explored the functional properties of the 5'-flanking region of the Phaeodatylum tricornutum Lhcf2 gene, encoding a member of the Light Harvesting Complex superfamily and we showed that this region enhances transcription of a GUS reporter gene in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion. This represents the first example of a cis-regulatory sequence with enhancer-like features discovered in diatoms and it is instrumental for the generation of novel genetic tools and diatom exploitation in different areas of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapamycin enhances lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma cells by increasing the transcriptional activities of immediate-early lytic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Yinfeng; Yao, Guoliang; Gu, Bianli

    2017-11-21

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, is linked to both epithelial and lymphoid malignancies. Induction of EBV reactivation is a potential therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated tumors. In this study, we assessed the effects of rapamycin on EBV reactivation in gastric carcinoma cells. We found that rapamycin upregulated expression of EBV lytic proteins and increased the viral proliferation triggered by the EBV lytic inducer sodium butyrate. Reverse transcription-qPCR, luciferase activity assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting were employed to explore the mechanism by which rapamycin promotes EBV reactivation. Our results showed that rapamycin treatment resulted in increased mRNA levels of EBV immediate-early genes. Rapamycin also enhanced the transcriptional activities of the EBV immediate-early lytic promoters Zp and Rp by strengthening Sp1 binding. Repression of the cellular ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/p53 pathway by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene significantly abrogated virus reactivation by rapamycin/sodium butyrate treatment, indicating that the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/p53 pathway is involved in rapamycin-promoted EBV reactivation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that rapamycin might have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of oncolytic viral therapies developed for EBV-associated malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-02-05

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice.

  4. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoen, Carolyn M.; DeStefano, Michelle S.; Hager, Cynthia C.; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D.; Gates, Hiriam O.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Kernodle, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness. PMID:26343849

  5. Enhanced Burst-Suppression and Disruption of Local Field Potential Synchrony in a Mouse Model of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Exhibiting Spike-Wave Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony J; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Results indicated that FL animals exhibit a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs), predominately during sleep (EEG), and an increase in the incidence of hyper-excitable burst/suppression activity under general anesthesia (extracellular recordings, 0.5%-3.0% isoflurane). Brief periods of burst activity in the local field potential (LFP) typically presented as an arrhythmic pattern of increased theta-alpha spectral peaks (4-12 Hz) on a background of low-amplitude delta activity (1-4 Hz), were associated with an increase in spontaneous spiking of cortical neurons, and were highly synchronized in control animals across recording sites in both cortical and subcortical layers (average cross-correlation values ranging from +0.73 to +1.0) with minimal phase shift between electrodes. However, in FL animals, cortical vs. subcortical burst activity was strongly out of phase with significantly lower cross-correlation values compared to controls (average values of -0.1 to +0.5, P field potential synchrony between cortical and subcortical brain regions near the site of the cortical malformation. Monitoring the altered electrophysiology of burst activity under general anesthesia with multi-dimensional micro-electrode arrays may serve to define distinct neurophysiological biomarkers of epileptogenesis in human brain and improve techniques for surgical resection of epileptogenic malformed brain tissue.

  6. Enhanced Burst-Suppression and Disruption of Local Field Potential Synchrony in a Mouse Model of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Exhibiting Spike-Wave Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1. Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old followed by 24 h cortical EEG recordings. Results indicated that FL animals exhibit a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs, predominately during sleep (EEG, and an increase in the incidence of hyper-excitable burst/suppression activity under general anesthesia (extracellular recordings, 0.5-3.0% isoflurane. Brief periods of burst activity in the local field potential (LFP typically presented as an arrhythmic pattern of increased theta-alpha spectral peaks (4-12 Hz on a background of low-amplitude delta activity (1-4 Hz, were associated with an increase in spontaneous spiking of cortical neurons, and were highly synchronized in control animals across recording sites in both cortical and subcortical layers (average cross-correlation values ranging from +0.73 to +1.0 with minimal phase shift between electrodes. However, in FL animals, cortical vs. subcortical burst activity was strongly out of phase with significantly lower cross-correlation values compared to controls (average values of -0.1 to +0.5, P<0.05 between groups. In particular, a marked reduction in the level of synchronous burst activity was observed the closer the recording electrodes were to the malformation (Pearson’s Correlation = 0.525, P<0.05. In a subset of FL animals (3/9, burst activity also included a spike or spike-wave pattern similar to the SWDs observed in unanesthetized animals. In summary, neonatal FLs increased the hyperexcitable pattern of burst activity induced by anesthesia and disrupted field

  7. The transcription factors SOX9 and SOX5/SOX6 cooperate genome-wide through super-enhancers to drive chondrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Feng; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    SOX9 is a transcriptional activator required for chondrogenesis, and SOX5 and SOX6 are closely related DNA-binding proteins that critically enhance its function. We use here genome-wide approaches to gain novel insights into the full spectrum of the target genes and modes of action of this chondrogenic trio. Using the RCS cell line as a faithful model for proliferating/early prehypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes, we uncover that SOX6 and SOX9 bind thousands of genomic sites, frequently and most efficiently near each other. SOX9 recognizes pairs of inverted SOX motifs, whereas SOX6 favors pairs of tandem SOX motifs. The SOX proteins primarily target enhancers. While binding to a small fraction of typical enhancers, they bind multiple sites on almost all super-enhancers (SEs) present in RCS cells. These SEs are predominantly linked to cartilage-specific genes. The SOX proteins effectively work together to activate these SEs and are required for in vivo expression of their associated genes. These genes encode key regulatory factors, including the SOX trio proteins, and all essential cartilage extracellular matrix components. Chst11, Fgfr3, Runx2 and Runx3 are among many other newly identified SOX trio targets. SOX9 and SOX5/SOX6 thus cooperate genome-wide, primarily through SEs, to implement the growth plate chondrocyte differentiation program. PMID:26150426

  8. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnebösel Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1 that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. Methods A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc. Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg. 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. Results The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p Conclusions Our current data indicate that lack of RE-1 is correlated with increased mesh induced MMP-2-gene expression for coated as well as for non-coated mesh materials. Gentamicin

  9. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnebösel, Marcel; von Trotha, Klaus T; Ricken, Christina; Klink, Christian D; Junge, Karsten; Conze, Joachim; Jansen, Marc; Neumann, Ulf P; Lynen Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-13

    A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1) that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc). Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg). 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining) and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining) were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each; 8 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each). Though the type I/III collagen ratio increased over time for all mesh modifications significant differences to the PVDF mesh were only detected for the 8 μg/mg group at all 3 time points (p < 0

  10. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  11. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  12. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Hansen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta. Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation.Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene.B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats.B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to the identification of novel microbial targets

  13. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jonathan J; Huang, Yong; Peterson, Daniel A; Goeser, Laura; Fan, Ting-Jia; Chang, Eugene B; Sartor, R Balfour

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta). Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg) rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg) rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation. Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene. B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats. B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to the identification of novel microbial targets for IBD

  14. Transplantation of human neural stem cells transduced with Olig2 transcription factor improves locomotor recovery and enhances myelination in the white matter of rat spinal cord following contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh-Kim Haeyoung

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contusive spinal cord injury is complicated by a delayed loss of oligodendrocytes, resulting in chronic progressive demyelination. Therefore, transplantation strategies to provide oligodendrocyte lineage cells and to enhance the extent of myelination appear to be justified for spinal cord repair. The present study investigated whether transplantation of human neural stem cells (NSCs genetically modified to express Olig2 transcription factor, an essential regulator of oligodendrocyte development, can improve locomotor recovery and enhance myelination in a rat contusive spinal cord injury model. Results HB1.F3 (F3 immortalized human NSC line was transduced with a retroviral vector encoding Olig2, an essential regulator of oligodendrocyte development. Overexpression of Olig2 in human NSCs (F3.Olig2 induced activation of NKX2.2 and directed differentiation of NSCs into oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro. Introduction of Olig2 conferred higher proliferative activity, and a much larger number of F3.Olig2 NSCs were detected by 7 weeks after transplantation into contused spinal cord than that of parental F3 NSCs. F3.Olig2 NSCs exhibited frequent migration towards the white matter, whereas F3 NSCs were mostly confined to the gray matter or around the lesion cavities. Most of F3.Olig2 NSCs occupying the spared white matter differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes. Transplantation of F3.Olig2 NSCs increased the volume of spared white matter and reduced the cavity volume. Moreover, F3.Olig2 grafts significantly increased the thickness of myelin sheath around the axons in the spared white matter. Finally, animals with F3.Olig2 grafts showed an improvement in the quality of hindlimbs locomotion. Conclusion Transplantation of NSCs genetically modified to differentiate into an oligodendrocytic lineage may be an effective strategy to improve functional outcomes following spinal cord trauma. The present study suggests that molecular

  15. Transplantation of human neural stem cells transduced with Olig2 transcription factor improves locomotor recovery and enhances myelination in the white matter of rat spinal cord following contusive injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dong H; Kim, Byung G; Kim, Eun J; Lee, Seung I; Joo, In S; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Sohn, Seonghyang; Kim, Seung U

    2009-01-01

    Background Contusive spinal cord injury is complicated by a delayed loss of oligodendrocytes, resulting in chronic progressive demyelination. Therefore, transplantation strategies to provide oligodendrocyte lineage cells and to enhance the extent of myelination appear to be justified for spinal cord repair. The present study investigated whether transplantation of human neural stem cells (NSCs) genetically modified to express Olig2 transcription factor, an essential regulator of oligodendrocyte development, can improve locomotor recovery and enhance myelination in a rat contusive spinal cord injury model. Results HB1.F3 (F3) immortalized human NSC line was transduced with a retroviral vector encoding Olig2, an essential regulator of oligodendrocyte development. Overexpression of Olig2 in human NSCs (F3.Olig2) induced activation of NKX2.2 and directed differentiation of NSCs into oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro. Introduction of Olig2 conferred higher proliferative activity, and a much larger number of F3.Olig2 NSCs were detected by 7 weeks after transplantation into contused spinal cord than that of parental F3 NSCs. F3.Olig2 NSCs exhibited frequent migration towards the white matter, whereas F3 NSCs were mostly confined to the gray matter or around the lesion cavities. Most of F3.Olig2 NSCs occupying the spared white matter differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes. Transplantation of F3.Olig2 NSCs increased the volume of spared white matter and reduced the cavity volume. Moreover, F3.Olig2 grafts significantly increased the thickness of myelin sheath around the axons in the spared white matter. Finally, animals with F3.Olig2 grafts showed an improvement in the quality of hindlimbs locomotion. Conclusion Transplantation of NSCs genetically modified to differentiate into an oligodendrocytic lineage may be an effective strategy to improve functional outcomes following spinal cord trauma. The present study suggests that molecular factors governing cell fate

  16. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activates insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription in osteoblasts. Identification of a novel cyclic AMP signaling pathway in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umayahara, Y.; Ji, C.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.; McCarthy, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a key role in skeletal growth by stimulating bone cell replication and differentiation. We previously showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other cAMP-activating agents enhanced IGF-I gene transcription in cultured primary rat osteoblasts through promoter 1, the major IGF-I promoter, and identified a short segment of the promoter, termed HS3D, that was essential for hormonal regulation of IGF-I gene expression. We now demonstrate that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) delta is a major component of a PGE2-stimulated DNA-protein complex involving HS3D and find that C/EBPdelta transactivates IGF-I promoter 1 through this site. Competition gel shift studies first indicated that a core C/EBP half-site (GCAAT) was required for binding of a labeled HS3D oligomer to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Southwestern blotting and UV-cross-linking studies showed that the HS3D probe recognized a approximately 35-kDa nuclear protein, and antibody supershift assays indicated that C/EBPdelta comprised most of the PGE2-activated gel-shifted complex. C/EBPdelta was detected by Western immunoblotting in osteoblast nuclear extracts after treatment of cells with PGE2. An HS3D oligonucleotide competed effectively with a high affinity C/EBP site from the rat albumin gene for binding to osteoblast nuclear proteins. Co-transfection of osteoblast cell cultures with a C/EBPdelta expression plasmid enhanced basal and PGE2-activated IGF-I promoter 1-luciferase activity but did not stimulate a reporter gene lacking an HS3D site. By contrast, an expression plasmid for the related protein, C/EBPbeta, did not alter basal IGF-I gene activity but did increase the response to PGE2. In osteoblasts and in COS-7 cells, C/EBPdelta, but not C/EBPbeta, transactivated a reporter gene containing four tandem copies of HS3D fused to a minimal promoter; neither transcription factor stimulated a gene with four copies of an HS3D mutant that was unable to bind osteoblast

  17. Overexpression of a novel cold-responsive transcript factor LcFIN1 from sheepgrass enhances tolerance to low temperature stress in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Li, Xiaoxia; Jia, Junting; Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Liu, Zhujiang; Ge, Liangfa; Chen, Shuangyan; Qi, Dongmei; Deng, Bo; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-03-01

    As a perennial forage crop broadly distributed in eastern Eurasia, sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel) is highly tolerant to low-temperature stress. Previous report indicates that sheepgrass is able to endure as low as -47.5 °C,allowing it to survive through the cold winter season. However, due to the lack of sufficient studies, the underlying mechanism towards the extraordinary low-temperature tolerance is unclear. Although the transcription profiling has provided insight into the transcriptome response to cold stress, more detailed studies are required to dissect the molecular mechanism regarding the excellent abiotic stress tolerance. In this work, we report a novel transcript factor LcFIN1 (L. chinensis freezing-induced 1) from sheepgrass. LcFIN1 showed no homology with other known genes and was rapidly and highly induced by cold stress, suggesting that LcFIN1 participates in the early response to cold stress. Consistently, ectopic expression of LcFIN1 significantly increased cold stress tolerance in the transgenic plants, as indicated by the higher survival rate, fresh weight and other stress-related indexes after a freezing treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that numerous stress-related genes were differentially expressed in LcFIN1-overexpressing plants, suggesting that LcFIN1 may enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance by transcriptional regulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and CHIP-qPCR showed that LcCBF1 can bind to the CRT/DRE cis-element located in the promoter region of LcFIN1, suggesting that LcFIN1 is directly regulated by LcCBF1. Taken together, our results suggest that LcFIN1 positively regulates plant adaptation response to cold stress and is a promising candidate gene to improve crop cold tolerance. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transcriptional reprogramming underpins enhanced plant growth promotion by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12 during antagonistic interactions with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sophie; Le Cocq, Kate; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Moore, Karen; Winsbury, Rebecca; de Torres Zabala, Marta; Studholme, David J; Salmon, Deborah; Thornton, Christopher R; Grant, Murray R

    2016-12-01

    The free-living soil fungus Trichoderma hamatum strain GD12 is notable amongst Trichoderma strains in both controlling plant diseases and stimulating plant growth, a property enhanced during its antagonistic interactions with pathogens in soil. These attributes, alongside its markedly expanded genome and proteome compared with other biocontrol and plant growth-promoting Trichoderma strains, imply a rich potential for sustainable alternatives to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers for the control of plant disease and for increasing yields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transcriptional responses of GD12 underpinning its biocontrol and plant growth promotion capabilities during antagonistic interactions with the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil. Using an extensive mRNA-seq study capturing different time points during the pathogen-antagonist interaction in soil, we show that dynamic and biphasic signatures in the GD12 transcriptome underpin its biocontrol and plant (lettuce) growth-promoting activities. Functional predictions of differentially expressed genes demonstrate the enrichment of transcripts encoding proteins involved in transportation and oxidation-reduction reactions during both processes and an over-representation of siderophores. We identify a biphasic response during biocontrol characterized by a significant induction of transcripts encoding small-secreted cysteine-rich proteins, secondary metabolite-producing gene clusters and genes unique to GD12. These data support the hypothesis that Sclerotinia biocontrol is mediated by the synthesis and secretion of antifungal compounds and that GD12's unique reservoir of uncharacterized genes is actively recruited during the effective biological control of a plurivorous plant pathogen. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Medicago truncatula R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene MtMYBS1 enhances salinity tolerance when constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Song, Yuguang; Zhao, Zhong; Qiu, Nian Wei; Liu, Xijiang; Guo, Weihua

    2017-08-19

    MYB-type proteins are known to participate in many stress responses, although their role in legumes is still less clear. Here, the isolation and characterization of MtMYBS1, an R2R3 MYB gene isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula, is described. MtMYBS1 transcription was inducible by NaCl, polyethylene glycol or abscisic acid (ABA). When tested in yeast, its product was shown to have transactivational activity. The constitutive expression of MtMYBS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings mitigated the restriction on root growth imposed by either salinity or osmotic stress and raised their sensitivity to ABA. It also resulted in the plants being able to overcome several growth constraints and promoted activity in both the ABA-dependent and -independent stress-responsive pathways. In particular, it enhanced the transcription of P5CS, a gene which encodes a component of proline synthesis. MtMYBS1 may prove to be a useful gene for manipulating the salinity tolerance of legumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Translocation of an immunoglobulin kappa locus to a region 3' of an unrearranged c-myc oncogene enhances c-myc transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, J; Nishikura, K; ar-Rushdi, A; Finan, J; Emanuel, B; Lenoir, G; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1983-01-01

    We have studied somatic cell hybrids between mouse myeloma and JI Burkitt lymphoma cells carrying a t(2;8) chromosome translocation for the expression of human kappa chains. and for the presence and rearrangements of the human c-myc oncogene and kappa chain genes. Our results indicate that the c-myc oncogene is unrearranged and remains on the 8q+ chromosome of JI cells. Two rearranged C kappa genes were detected: the expressed allele on normal chromosome 2 and the excluded kappa allele that was translocated from chromosome 2 to the involved chromosome 8 (8q+). The distribution of V kappa and C kappa genes in hybrid clones retaining different human chromosomes indicated that C kappa is distal to V kappa on 2p and that the breakpoint in this Burkitt lymphoma is within the region carrying V kappa genes. High levels of transcripts of the c-myc gene were found when it resided on the 8q+ chromosome but not on the normal chromosome 8, demonstrating that translocation of a kappa locus to region distal to the c-myc oncogene enhances c-myc transcription. Images PMID:6424112

  1. Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Tian, Yanchen; Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao

    2013-10-25

    The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 μM ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Enhanced Oxidative Stress Resistance through Activation of a Zinc Deficiency Transcription Factor in Brachypodium distachyon1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover-Cutter, Kira M.; Alderman, Stephen; Dombrowski, James E.; Martin, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of viable strategies to increase stress resistance of crops will become increasingly important for the goal of global food security as our population increases and our climate changes. Considering that resistance to oxidative stress is oftentimes an indicator of health and longevity in animal systems, characterizing conserved pathways known to increase oxidative stress resistance could prove fruitful for crop improvement strategies. This report argues for the usefulness and practicality of the model organism Brachypodium distachyon for identifying and validating stress resistance factors. Specifically, we focus on a zinc deficiency B. distachyon basic leucine zipper transcription factor, BdbZIP10, and its role in oxidative stress in the model organism B. distachyon. When overexpressed, BdbZIP10 protects plants and callus tissue from oxidative stress insults, most likely through distinct and direct activation of protective oxidative stress genes. Increased oxidative stress resistance and cell viability through the overexpression of BdbZIP10 highlight the utility of investigating conserved stress responses between plant and animal systems. PMID:25228396

  3. Expression of a maize Myb transcription factor driven by a putative silk-specific promoter significantly enhances resistance to Helicoverpa zea in transgenic maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T; Berhow, Mark A; Dowd, Patrick F

    2007-04-18

    Hi II maize (Zea mays) plants were engineered to express maize p1 cDNA, a Myb transcription factor, controlled by a putative silk specific promoter, for secondary metabolite production and corn earworm resistance. Transgene expression did not enhance silk color, but about half of the transformed plant silks displayed browning when cut, which indicated the presence of p1-produced secondary metabolites. Levels of maysin, a secondary metabolite with insect toxicity, were highest in newly emerged browning silks. The insect resistance of transgenic silks was also highest at emergence, regardless of maysin levels, which suggests that other unidentified p1-induced molecules likely contributed to larval mortality. Mean survivor weights of corn earworm larvae fed mature browning transgenic silks were significantly lower than weights of those fed mature nonbrowning transgenic silks. Some transgenic pericarps browned with drying and contained similar molecules found in pericarps expressing a dominant p1 allele, suggesting that the promoter may not be silk-specific.

  4. Evolution of human IgH3'EC duplicated structures: both enhancers HS1,2 are polymorphic with variation of transcription factor's consensus sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Fruscalzo, Alberto; Giufre', Maria; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Favaro, Marco; Rocchi, Mariano; Frezza, Domenico

    2005-02-14

    the 17-bp external element in hominids. The relevance of the polymorphisms in the HS1,2 enhancers is due to the variable number of binding sites for the transcription factors: NF-kappaB, CMYB, BSAP1/2, AP1/4, E47, MyoD and muE5 and thus to the possible influence of these variations on switch, production of Ig and on maturation of B cells.

  5. The Soybean Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor ORG3-Like Enhances Cadmium Tolerance via Increased Iron and Reduced Cadmium Uptake and Transport from Roots to Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolong Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most dangerous heavy metal pollutants in the environment and is toxic to animal and plant cells. On the other hand, iron (Fe is an essential element for plant growth and development. The chlorosis of plant leaves under cadmium stress is similar to the typical symptom of iron deficiency. Recently, several Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors have been identified that are involved in the interactions between Cd and Fe. In the present study, over-expression the ORG3-like gene GmORG3, a bHLH transcription factor OBP3-responsive gene (ORG, enhanced Cd tolerance and stabilized Fe homeostasis. The domain analysis of GmORG3 showed that the protein contains a conserved 61-residue bHLH domain belonging to subfamily II. Moreover, subcellular localization experiments showed that GmORG3 is a nucleoprotein. GmORG3 was transcribed only in soybean roots and was significantly induced by external Cd stress in soybean plants. Heterologous expression of GmORG3 enhanced Cd tolerance in yeast. Furthermore, the overexpression of GmORG3 in soybean mosaic seedlings using a hairy root system showed that overexpressing plants increased the translocation ratio of Fe but reduced Cd translocation from the roots to shoots. In addition, the ectopic expression of GmORG3 in tobacco reduced phytotoxic effects induced by Cd stress and Fe deficiency, including the blockage of root elongation and decreased chlorophyll content. By integrating all these results, we found that GmORG3 plays an important role in response to Cd stress. The results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance in soybean.

  6. Regulation of a novel isoform of Receptor Expression Enhancing Protein REEP6 in rod photoreceptors by bZIP transcription factor NRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hong; Veleri, Shobi; Sun, Bo; Kim, Douglas S; Keeley, Patrick W; Kim, Jung-Woong; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Yadav, Sharda P; Manjunath, Souparnika H; Sood, Raman; Liu, Paul; Reese, Benjamin E; Swaroop, Anand

    2014-08-15

    The Maf-family leucine zipper transcription factor NRL is essential for rod photoreceptor development and functional maintenance in the mammalian retina. Mutations in NRL are associated with human retinopathies, and loss of Nrl in mice leads to a cone-only retina with the complete absence of rods. Among the highly down-regulated genes in the Nrl(-/-) retina, we identified receptor expression enhancing protein 6 (Reep6), which encodes a member of a family of proteins involved in shaping of membrane tubules and transport of G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we demonstrate the expression of a novel Reep6 isoform (termed Reep6.1) in the retina by exon-specific Taqman assay and rapid analysis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) ends (5'-RACE). The REEP6.1 protein includes 27 additional amino acids encoded by exon 5 and is specifically expressed in rod photoreceptors of developing and mature retina. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay identified NRL binding within the Reep6 intron 1. Reporter assays in cultured cells and transfections in retinal explants mapped an intronic enhancer sequence that mediated NRL-directed Reep6.1 expression. We also demonstrate that knockdown of Reep6 in mouse and zebrafish resulted in death of retinal cells. Our studies implicate REEP6.1 as a key functional target of NRL-centered transcriptional regulatory network in rod photoreceptors. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. VuDREB2A, a novel DREB2-type transcription factor in the drought-tolerant legume cowpea, mediates DRE-dependent expression of stress-responsive genes and confers enhanced drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2014-09-01

    VuDREB2A exists in cowpea as a canonical DREB2-type transcription factor, having the ability to bind dehydration-responsive elements in vitro and confer enhanced drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important cultivated legume that can survive better in arid conditions than other crops. But the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of this species remain elusive with very few reported candidate genes. The Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding Protein2 (DREB2) group of transcription factors plays key roles in plant responses to drought. However, no DREB2 ortholog has been reported from cowpea so far. In this study, we isolated and characterized a gene from cowpea, namely VuDREB2A, encoding a protein of 377 amino acids exhibiting features of reported DREB2-type proteins. In cowpea, VuDREB2A transcript accumulation was highly induced by desiccation, heat and salt, but slightly by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. We also isolated the VuDREB2A promoter and predicted stress-responsive cis-elements in it using Arabidopsis microarray data. The E. coli-expressed VuDREB2A protein showed binding to synthetic oligonucleotides with Dehydration-Responsive Elements (DREs) from Arabidopsis, in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Heterologous expression of VuDREB2A in Arabidopsis significantly improved plant survival under drought. In addition, overexpression of a truncated version of VuDREB2A, after removal of a putative negative regulatory domain (between amino acids 132-182) led to a dwarf phenotype in the transgenic plants. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of VuDREB2A overexpressing Arabidopsis revealed up-regulation of stress-responsive genes having DRE overrepresented in their promoters. In summary, our results indicate that VuDREB2A conserves the basic functionality and mode of regulation of DREB2A in Arabidopsis and could be a potent candidate gene for the genetic improvement of drought

  8. Post-transcriptional m6A editing of HIV-1 mRNAs enhances viral gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Bogerd, Hal P.; Kornepati, Anand V. R.; Kang, Dong; Ghoshal, Delta; Marshall, Joy B.; Poling, Brigid C.; Tsai, Kevin; Gokhale, Nandan S.; Horner, Stacy M.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Covalent addition of a methyl group to the adenosine N6 (m6A) is an evolutionarily conserved and common RNA modification that is thought to modulate several aspects of RNA metabolism. While the presence of multiple m6A editing sites on diverse viral RNAs was reported starting almost 40 years ago, how m6A editing affects virus replication has remained unclear. Here, we used photo-crosslinking-assisted m6A sequencing techniques to precisely map several m6A editing sites on the HIV-1 genome and report that they cluster in the HIV-1 3’ untranslated region (3'UTR). Viral 3'UTR m6A sites or analogous cellular m6A sites strongly enhanced mRNA expression in cis by recruiting the cellular YTHDF m6A “reader” proteins. Reducing YTHDF expression inhibited, while YTHDF overexpression enhanced, HIV-1 protein and RNA expression, and virus replication in CD4+ T cells. These data identify m6A editing, and the resultant recruitment of YTHDF proteins, as major positive regulators of HIV-1 mRNA expression. PMID:27117054

  9. Visitors Center Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  10. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  11. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    The traveling exhibition titled "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and its Affinities" opened first at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and was then moved to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1976. Discusses the exhibition's historic value, how Fauvism passed through three fairly distinct stylistic phases, and the social…

  12. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  13. Overexpression of the transcription factor RAP2.6 leads to enhanced callose deposition in syncytia and enhanced resistance against the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is their source of nutrients throughout their life. A transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that gene expression in the syncytium is different from that of the root with thousands of genes upregulated or downregulated. Among the downregulated genes are many which code for defense-related proteins. One gene which is strongly downregulated codes for the ethylene response transcription factor RAP2.6. The genome of Arabidopsis contains 122 ERF transcription factor genes which are involved in a variety of developmental and stress responses. Results Expression of RAP2.6 was studied with RT-PCR and a promoter::GUS line. During normal growth conditions the gene was expressed especially in roots and stems. It was inducible by Pseudomonas syringae but downregulated in syncytia from a very early time point on. Overexpression of the gene enhanced the resistance against H. schachtii which was seen by a lower number of nematodes developing on these plants as well as smaller syncytia and smaller female nematodes. A T-DNA mutant had a reduced RAP2.6 transcript level but this did not further increase the susceptibility against H. schachtii. Neither overexpression lines nor mutants had an effect on P. syringae. Overexpression of RAP2.6 led to an elevated expression of JA-responsive genes during early time points after infection by H. schachtii. Syncytia developing on overexpression lines showed enhanced deposition of callose. Conclusions Our results showed that H. schachtii infection is accompanied by a downregulation of RAP2.6. It seems likely that the nematodes use effectors to actively downregulate the expression of this and other defense-related genes to avoid resistance responses of the host plant. Enhanced resistance of RAP2.6 overexpression lines seemed to be due to enhanced

  14. A Transcription Factor Pulse Can Prime Chromatin for Heritable Transcriptional Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberg-Badeaux, Aimee; Collombet, Samuel; Laurent, Benoit; van Oevelen, Chris; Chin, Kuo-Kai; Thieffry, Denis; Graf, Thomas; Shi, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in postmitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM) and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli. We find that a pulse of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) induces LTTM on a subset of target genes that survives nine cell divisions. The chromatin landscape at genes that acquire LTTM is more repressed than at those genes that do not exhibit memory, akin to a latent state. We show through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chemical inhibitor studies that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation is important for establishing memory in this model but that Pol II itself is not retained as part of the memory mechanism. More generally, our work reveals that a transcription factor involved in lineage specification can induce LTTM and that failure to rerepress chromatin is one epigenetic mechanism underlying transcriptional memory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Valporic acid enhances the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) mediated anti-hypertrophic activity by modulating the Npr1 gene transcription in H9c2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagam, Senthamizharasi; Velusamy, Tamilselvi; Sowndharajan, Boopathi; Chandrasekar, Navvi; Dhanusu, Suresh; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2017-10-15

    The present study was aimed to determine whether stimulating Npr1 gene activity using Valporic acid (VA), a small short chain fatty acid molecule can enhance ANP mediated anti-hypertrophic activity in isoproterenol (ISO) - treated H9c2 cells in vitro. H9c2 cells were treated with ISO (10 -5 M) and co-treated with VA (10 -5 M) in the presence and absence of ANP (10 -8 M), for 48h. ATRA (10 -5 M) was used as a positive inducer of Npr1 gene transcription. The mRNA expression of Npr1 and PKG-I genes, proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) and hypertrophic markers (ANP, BNP, α-sk and β-MyHC), genes were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The protein profiling of NPR-A, PKG-I and cGMP were evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorescence and ELISA respectively. A marked reduction in the level of expression of Npr1 (3- fold) and PKG-I (2.5-fold) genes and increased expression of proto-oncogenes (pANP mediated anti-hypertrophic activity was enhanced with either VA (pANP can be a novel therapeutical approach for the treatment and management of left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Type I interferon-enhanced IL-10 expression in human CD4 T cells is regulated by STAT3, STAT2, and BATF transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Umeshree; Corre, Béatrice; Bourdache, Yasmine; Pellegrini, Sandra; Michel, Frédérique

    2017-05-01

    Type I IFN can exert pro- and anti-inflammatory activities in the immune system. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which IFN-α enhances early expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human CD45RA + CD4 + T cells. With the use of transcriptomic and biochemical approaches, we found distinct and combined contributions of the IFN and the TCR signaling pathways to the induction of STAT1/2/3 and the basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor-like ( BATF ) family members. Moreover, IFN-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was prolonged by the TCR response, whereas IFN-induced STAT2 phosphorylation was of long duration. With the use of RNA interference (RNAi), we identified STAT3 as the major actor and STAT2 as a contributor of the IFN action on IL-10 Upon TCR/IFN costimulation, STAT3 directly bound at the IL-10 conserved noncoding sequence (CNS)- 9, an enhancer element known to recruit BATF in CD4 T cells. The cosilencing of the 3 BATFs resulted in an overall reduction of IL-10 expression, but the promoting activity of IFN-α was retained. These results support the notion that the IFN action is indexed on BATF function and provide evidence for a cooperation between BATFs and STAT3, the latter being activated via early IFN and delayed TCR effects. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Osthole Enhances Osteogenesis in Osteoblasts by Elevating Transcription Factor Osterix via cAMP/CREB Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Rong; Leung, Wing Nang; Li, Gang; Kong, Siu Kai; Lu, Xiong; Wong, Yin Mei; Chan, Chun Wai

    2017-06-08

    Anabolic anti-osteoporotic agents are desirable for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Osthole is a coumarin derivative extracted from the medicinal herbs Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson and Angelica pubescens Maxim.f. Osthole has been reported with osteogenic and anti-osteoporotic properties, whereas the underlying mechanism of its benefit still remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the osteopromotive action of osthole on mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and on mouse femoral fracture repair, and to explore the interaction between osthole-induced osteopromotive effect and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating effect. Osthole treatment promoted osteogenesis in osteoblasts by enhancing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. Oral gavage of osthole enhanced fracture repair and increased bone strength. Mechanistic study showed osthole triggered the cAMP/CREB pathway through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP level and activation of the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Blockage of cAMP/CREB downstream signals with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720 partially suppressed osthole-mediated osteogenesis by inhibiting the elevation of transcription factor, osterix. In conclusion, osthole shows osteopromotive effect on osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Osthole-mediated osteogenesis is related to activation of the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway and downstream osterix expression.

  18. Osthole Enhances Osteogenesis in Osteoblasts by Elevating Transcription Factor Osterix via cAMP/CREB Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Rong Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic anti-osteoporotic agents are desirable for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Osthole is a coumarin derivative extracted from the medicinal herbs Cnidium monnieri (L. Cusson and Angelica pubescens Maxim.f. Osthole has been reported with osteogenic and anti-osteoporotic properties, whereas the underlying mechanism of its benefit still remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the osteopromotive action of osthole on mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and on mouse femoral fracture repair, and to explore the interaction between osthole-induced osteopromotive effect and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP elevating effect. Osthole treatment promoted osteogenesis in osteoblasts by enhancing alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and mineralization. Oral gavage of osthole enhanced fracture repair and increased bone strength. Mechanistic study showed osthole triggered the cAMP/CREB pathway through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP level and activation of the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Blockage of cAMP/CREB downstream signals with protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor KT5720 partially suppressed osthole-mediated osteogenesis by inhibiting the elevation of transcription factor, osterix. In conclusion, osthole shows osteopromotive effect on osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Osthole-mediated osteogenesis is related to activation of the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway and downstream osterix expression.

  19. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  20. Activating Transcription Factor 3 regulates in part the enhanced tumour cell cytotoxicity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor M344 and cisplatin in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Germain Carly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activating Transcription Factor (ATF 3 is a key regulator of the cellular integrated stress response whose expression has also been correlated with pro-apoptotic activities in tumour cell models. Combination treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to enhance tumour cell cytotoxicity. We recently demonstrated a role for ATF3 in regulating cisplatin-induced apoptosis and others have shown that HDAC inhibition can also induce cellular stress. In this study, we evaluated the role of ATF3 in regulating the co-operative cytotoxicity of cisplatin in combination with an HDAC inhibitor. Results The HDAC inhibitor M344 induced ATF3 expression at the protein and mRNA level in a panel of human derived cancer cell lines as determined by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Combination treatment with M344 and cisplatin lead to increased induction of ATF3 compared with cisplatin alone. Utilizing the MTT cell viability assay, M344 treatments also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin in these cancer cell lines. The mechanism of ATF3 induction by M344 was found to be independent of MAPKinase pathways and dependent on ATF4, a known regulator of ATF3 expression. ATF4 heterozygote (+/- and knock out (-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were utilized in determining the mechanistic induction of ATF3 by M344. We also demonstrated that ATF3 regulates the enhanced cytotoxicity of M344 in combination with cisplatin as evidenced by attenuation of cytotoxicity in shRNAs targeting ATF3 expressing cells. Conclusion This study identifies the pro-apoptotic factor, ATF3 as a novel target of M344, as well as a mediator of the co-operative effects of cisplatin and M344 induced tumour cell cytotoxicity.

  1. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Niacin increases HDL biogenesis by enhancing DR4-dependent transcription of ABCA1 and lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin-Hua; Kamanna, Vaijinath S.; Ganji, Shobha H.; Xiong, Xi-Ming; Kashyap, Moti L.

    2012-01-01

    The lipidation of apoA-I in liver greatly influences HDL biogenesis and plasma HDL levels by stabilizing the secreted apoA-I. Niacin is the most effective lipid-regulating agent clinically available to raise HDL. This study was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms of niacin action in hepatic lipidation of apoA-I, a critical event involved in HDL biogenesis. In cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2), niacin increased: association of apoA-I with phospholipids and cholesterol by 46% and 23% respectively, formation of lipid-poor single apoA-I molecule-containing particles up to ∼ 2.4-fold, and pre β 1 and α migrating HDL particles. Niacin dose-dependently stimulated the cell efflux of phospholipid and cholesterol and increased transcription of ABCA1 gene and ABCA1 protein. Mutated DR4, a binding site for nuclear factor liver X receptor alpha (LXR α ) in the ABCA1 promoter, abolished niacin stimulatory effect. Further, knocking down LXR α or ABCA1 by RNA interference eliminated niacin-stimulated apoA-I lipidation. Niacin treatment did not change apoA-I gene expression. The present data indicate that niacin increases apoA-I lipidation by enhancing lipid efflux through a DR4-dependent transcription of ABCA1 gene in HepG2 cells. A stimulatory role of niacin in early hepatic formation of HDL particles suggests a new mechanism that contributes to niacin action to increase the stability of newly synthesized circulating HDL. PMID:22389325

  3. The phytohormone ethylene enhances bacterial cellulose production, regulates CRP/FNRKx transcription and causes differential gene expression within the cellulose synthesis operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vincent Augimeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  4. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy E Schwinn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.

  5. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  6. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  7. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  8. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  9. DEXAMETHASONE TRANSCRIPTIONALLY INCREASES THE EXPRESSION OF THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR AND SYNERGISTICALLY ENHANCES PYRETHROID ESFENVALERATE IN THE INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Deshi; Yang, Dongfang; Yan, Bingfang

    2010-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is recognized as a key regulator for the induction of a large number of genes in drug metabolism and transport. The transactivation of PXR is enhanced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone and the enhancement is linked to the induction of PXR in humans and rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism for the induction and ascertain the synergistic effect on the expression of CYP3A23, a rat PXR target. In primary hepatocytes, significant induction of PXR was detected as early as 2 h after the treatment and the maximal induction occurred at 1 μM dexamethasone. Similar induction kinetics was observed in the hepatoma line H4-II-E-C3. The induction was abolished by actinomycin D and dexamethasone efficaciously stimulated the rat PXR promoter. In addition, dexamethasone synergized esfenvalerate (an insecticide and a PXR activator) in inducing CYP3A23 and stimulating the CYP3A23 promoter. The full promoter of CYP3A23 (−1445/+74) was activated in a similar pattern as the changes in PXR mRNA in response to dexamethasone, esfenvalerate and co-treatment. In contrast, different responding patterns were detected on the stimulation of the CYP3A23 proximal promoter. Synergistic stimulation was also observed on the CYP3A4-DP-Luc reporter, the human counterpart of CYP3A23. These findings establish that transactivation is responsible for the induction of rat PXR and the induction presents potential interactions with insecticides in a species-conserved manner. The different responding patterns among CYP3A23 reporters point to an involvement of multiple transcriptional events in the regulation of CYP3A23 expression by dexamethasone, esfenvalerate and both. PMID:20599767

  10. Overexpression of FTL1/DDF1, an AP2 transcription factor, enhances tolerance to cold, drought, and heat stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Joonki; Kim, Bohwa; Jeong, Hana; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Hyo-Yeon; Lim, Pyung Ok

    2011-04-01

    Freezing temperatures control where and when plants can grow, and negatively influence crop quality and productivity. To identify key regulatory genes involved in cold adaptation, we screened activation-tagged Arabidopsis lines for mutants with greater freezing tolerance. One mutant, freezing tolerant line1 (ftl1-1D), manifested enhanced tolerance along with dwarfism and delayed flowering. This was caused by activation of DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1), a gene previously described as a regulatory component in salinity signaling. The induced gene encoded an AP2 transcription factor of the CBF/DREB1 subfamily. In addition to conferring tolerance to low temperatures and salt stress, ftl1-1D/ddf1 improved tolerance to drought and heat. Real-time PCR indicated that FTL1/DDF1 was up-regulated by those four types of stresses in wild-type Arabidopsis. Its increased expression in the mutant induced various stress-responsive genes under normal growing conditions, resulting in improved tolerances. However, phenotypes shown in the ftl1-1D/ddf1 were restored by treatment with exogenous gibberellin (GA₃), indicating the involvement of a GA pathway in FTL1/DDF1-mediated tolerance. Therefore, we conclude that FTL1/DDF1 plays a role in regulating responses to several abiotic stresses, perhaps via cross-talk in the pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  12. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  13. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  14. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  15. Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... This organism is also characterized by the ... microorganism enhanced yeast induction by more than. 63%. ... pH meter model APX 175 E/C in the 2000 ml beaker before dispensing 80 .... bud; (b) mature bud near detachment.

  16. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  17. Combined transcript, proteome, and metabolite analysis of transgenic maize seeds engineered for enhanced carotenoid synthesis reveals pleotropic effects in core metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourcelle, Mathilde; Perez-Fons, Laura; Baulande, Sylvain; Steiger, Sabine; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Hem, Sonia; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Fraser, Paul; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether endosperm-specific carotenoid biosynthesis influenced core metabolic processes in maize embryo and endosperm and how global seed metabolism adapted to this expanded biosynthetic capacity. Although enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis was targeted to the endosperm of maize kernels, a concurrent up-regulation of sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in the embryo was measured. Targeted terpenoid analysis, and non-targeted metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic profiling revealed changes especially in carbohydrate metabolism in the transgenic line. In-depth analysis of the data, including changes of metabolite pools and increased enzyme and transcript concentrations, gave a first insight into the metabolic variation precipitated by the higher up-stream metabolite demand by the extended biosynthesis capacities for terpenoids and fatty acids. An integrative model is put forward to explain the metabolic regulation for the increased provision of terpenoid and fatty acid precursors, particularly glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate or acetyl-CoA from imported fructose and glucose. The model was supported by higher activities of fructokinase, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase indicating a higher flux through the glycolytic pathway. Although pyruvate and acetyl-CoA utilization was higher in the engineered line, pyruvate kinase activity was lower. A sufficient provision of both metabolites may be supported by a by-pass in a reaction sequence involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Downregulation of transcription factor Oct4 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhancement of Ca{sup 2+} influx in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiajia; Qin, Kunhua; Zhang, Yan [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Gong, Junbo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Drug Delivery and High Efficiency in Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Na; Lv, Dan; Xiang, Rong [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tan, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyuetan@nankai.edu.cn [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the role of Oct4 in metastasis in cultured MCF-7 cells. {yields} The down regulation of Oct4 induces EMT and increases the capability of migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1 inhibits Oct4 expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners. {yields} The EMT induced by TGF-{beta}1 or down regulation of Oct4 could be abrogated by inhibitor of SOCE. {yields} The down regulation of STIM1 (one of the major components of the CRAC channel) alleviates the EMT induce by Oct4 silencing down. -- Abstract: The stem cell-related transcription factor Oct4 regulates tumor proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in tumor migration and invasion is still undefined. Here, we compared Oct4 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, two breast cancer cell lines with similar epithelial origins, but distinct invasive and metastatic characteristics. We found MCF-7 cells to express very high levels of Oct4, while no obvious expression was detected in MDA-MB-231 cells. We then downregulated Oct4 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to explore its effects on migration and invasion. Transwell assays showed that silencing Oct4 in MCF-7 cells improved their migration and invasion capabilities. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and western blots showed that E-cadherin expression decreased, and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin expression increased with Oct4 downregulation, which suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred. A potent EMT stimulus, TGF-{beta}1, significantly inhibited Oct4 expression in both dose- and time course-dependent manners. Silencing Oct4 also upregulated expression of two major components of store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry channels (SOCs), STIM1 and Orai1, and enhanced SOC-directed Ca{sup 2+} influx. Silencing STIM1 blocked the Ca{sup 2+} influx and rescued the EMT initiated by Oct4 downregulation. In conclusion, silencing Oct4 promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by inducing EMT

  19. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  20. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ isoforms as transcriptional regulators of the pro-invasive CDH3/P-cadherin gene in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Albergaria

    Full Text Available P-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule codified by the CDH3 gene, which expression is highly associated with undifferentiated cells in normal adult epithelial tissues, as well as with poorly differentiated carcinomas. In breast cancer, P-cadherin is frequently overexpressed in high-grade tumours and is a well-established indicator of aggressive tumour behaviour and poor patient prognosis. However, till now, the mechanisms controlling CDH3 gene activation have been poorly explored. Since we recently described the existence of several CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ transcription factor binding sites at the CDH3 promoter, the aim of this study was to assess if the distinct C/EBPβ isoforms were directly involved in the transcriptional activation of the CDH3 gene in breast cancer cells. DNA-protein interactions, mutation analysis and luciferase reporter assay studies have been performed. We demonstrated that C/EBPβ is co-expressed with P-cadherin in breast cancer cells and all the three isoforms function as transcriptional regulators of the CDH3 gene, directly interacting with specific regions of its promoter. Interestingly, this transcriptional activation was only reflected at the P-cadherin protein level concerning the LIP isoform. Taken together, our data show that CDH3 is a newly defined transcriptional target gene of C/EBPβ isoforms in breast cancer, and we also identified the binding sites that are relevant for this activation.

  1. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  2. Selenium biofortification in radish enhances nutritional quality via accumulation of methyl-selenocysteine and promotion of transcripts and metabolites related to glucosinolates, phenolics and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Schiavon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two selenium (Se fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus, as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7d before harvest at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1,200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3 fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots. The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 microM selenate for one week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 microg after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or one week of 5-10 microM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes

  3. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5-10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized selenate to

  4. The Enhancer of split transcription factor Her8a is a novel dimerisation partner for Her3 that controls anterior hindbrain neurogenesis in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloeckner Christian J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis control and the prevention of premature differentiation in the vertebrate embryo are crucial processes, allowing the formation of late-born cell types and ensuring the correct shape and cytoarchitecture of the brain. Members of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hairy/E(spl family of bHLH-Orange transcription factors, such as zebrafish Her3, 5, 9 and 11, are implicated in the local inhibition of neurogenesis to maintain progenitor pools within the early neural plate. To better understand how these factors exert their inhibitory function, we aimed to isolate some of their functional interactors. Results We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with Her5 as bait and recovered a novel zebrafish Hairy/E(spl factor - Her8a. Using phylogenetic and synteny analyses, we demonstrate that her8a evolved from an ancient duplicate of Hes6 that was recently lost in the mammalian lineage. We show that her8a is expressed across the mid- and anterior hindbrain from the start of segmentation. Through knockdown and misexpression experiments, we demonstrate that Her8a is a negative regulator of neurogenesis and plays an essential role in generating progenitor pools within rhombomeres 2 and 4 - a role resembling that of Her3. Her8a co-purifies with Her3, suggesting that Her8a-Her3 heterodimers may be relevant in this domain of the neural plate, where both proteins are co-expressed. Finally, we demonstrate that her8a expression is independent of Notch signaling at the early neural plate stage but that SoxB factors play a role in its expression, linking patterning information to neurogenesis control. Overall, the regulation and function of Her8a differ strikingly from those of its closest relative in other vertebrates - the Hes6-like proteins. Conclusions Our results characterize the phylogeny, expression and functional interactions involving a new Her factor, Her8a, and highlight the complex interplay of E(spl proteins that generates the

  5. Promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-21

    Genes in eukaryotic cells are typically regulated by complex promoters containing multiple binding sites for a variety of transcription factors, but how promoter dynamics affect transcriptional dynamics has remained poorly understood. In this study, we analyze gene models at the transcriptional regulation level, which incorporate the complexity of promoter structure (PS) defined as transcriptional exits (i.e., ON states of the promoter) and the transition pattern (described by a matrix consisting of transition rates among promoter activity states). We show that multiple exits of transcription are the essential origin of generating multimodal distributions of mRNA, but promoters with the same transition pattern can lead to multimodality of different modes, depending on the regulation of transcriptional factors. In turn, for similar mRNA distributions in the models, the mean ON or OFF time distributions may exhibit different characteristics, thus providing the supplemental information on PS. In addition, we demonstrate that the transcriptional noise can be characterized by a nonlinear function of mean ON and OFF times. These results not only reveal essential characteristics of promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics but also provide signatures useful for inferring PS based on characteristics of transcriptional outputs. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Progesterone receptor-B enhances estrogen responsiveness of breast cancer cells via scaffolding PELP1- and estrogen receptor-containing transcription complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A R; Gaviglio, A L; Knutson, T P; Ostrander, J H; D'Assoro, A B; Ravindranathan, P; Peng, Y; Raj, G V; Yee, D; Lange, C A

    2015-01-22

    Progesterone and estrogen are important drivers of breast cancer proliferation. Herein, we probed estrogen receptor-α (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) cross-talk in breast cancer models. Stable expression of PR-B in PR-low/ER+ MCF7 cells increased cellular sensitivity to estradiol and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), as measured in growth assays performed in the absence of exogenous progestin; similar results were obtained in PR-null/ER+ T47D cells stably expressing PR-B. Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that unliganded PR-B induced robust expression of a subset of estradiol-responsive ER target genes, including cathepsin-D (CTSD). Estradiol-treated MCF7 cells stably expressing PR-B exhibited enhanced ER Ser167 phosphorylation and recruitment of ER, PR and the proline-, glutamate- and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) to an estrogen response element in the CTSD distal promoter; this complex co-immunoprecipitated with IGF1 receptor (IGFR1) in whole-cell lysates. Importantly, ER/PR/PELP1 complexes were also detected in human breast cancer samples. Inhibition of IGF1R or phosphoinositide 3-kinase blocked PR-B-dependent CTSD mRNA upregulation in response to estradiol. Similarly, inhibition of IGF1R or PR significantly reduced ER recruitment to the CTSD promoter. Stable knockdown of endogenous PR or onapristone treatment of multiple unmodified breast cancer cell lines blocked estradiol-mediated CTSD induction, inhibited growth in soft agar and partially restored tamoxifen sensitivity of resistant cells. Further, combination treatment of breast cancer cells with both onapristone and IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 was more effective than either agent alone. In summary, unliganded PR-B enhanced proliferative responses to estradiol and IGF1 via scaffolding of ER-α/PELP1/IGF1R-containing complexes. Our data provide a strong rationale for targeting PR in combination with ER and IGF1R in patients with luminal breast cancer.

  7. The syp enhancer sequence plays a key role in transcriptional activation by the σ54-dependent response regulator SypG and in biofilm formation and host colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Valerie A; Eddy, Justin L; Hussa, Elizabeth A; Misale, Michael; Visick, Karen L

    2013-12-01

    Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process that requires multiple regulators. One such regulator, the NtrC-like response regulator SypG, controls biofilm formation and host colonization by V. fischeri via its impact on transcription of the symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) locus. SypG is predicted to activate syp transcription by binding to the syp enhancer (SE), a conserved sequence located upstream of four syp promoters. In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of the sequences necessary for SypG to promote syp transcription and biofilm formation. We found that the SE sequence is necessary for SypG-mediated syp transcription, identified individual bases necessary for efficient activation, and determined that SypG is able to bind to syp promoter regions. We also identified SE sequences outside the syp locus and established that SypG recognizes these sequences as well. Finally, deletion of the SE sequence upstream of sypA led to defects in both biofilm formation and host colonization that could be restored by reintroducing the SE sequence into its native location in the chromosome. This work thus fills in critical gaps in knowledge of the Syp regulatory circuit by demonstrating a role for the SE sequence in SypG-dependent control of biofilm formation and host colonization and by identifying new putative regulon members. It may also provide useful insights into other bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, that have syp-like loci and conserved SE sequences.

  8. Chalepin: A Compound fromRuta angustifoliaL. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  9. A Nucleolar Protein, Ribosomal RNA Processing 1 Homolog B (RRP1B), Enhances the Recruitment of Cellular mRNA in Influenza Virus Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Feng; Lee, Yi-Yuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2015-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) undergoes RNA transcription by a unique capped-mRNA-dependent transcription, which is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), consisting of the viral PA, PB1, and PB2 proteins. However, how the viral RdRp utilizes cellular factors for virus transcription is not clear. Previously, we conducted a genome-wide pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify host factors important for influenza A virus replication. Ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) was identified as one of the candidates. RRP1B is a nucleolar protein involved in ribosomal biogenesis. Upon IAV infection, part of RRP1B was translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where viral RNA synthesis likely takes place. The depletion of RRP1B significantly reduced IAV mRNA transcription in a minireplicon assay and in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, we showed that RRP1B interacted with PB1 and PB2 of the RdRp and formed a coimmunoprecipitable complex with RdRp. The depletion of RRP1B reduced the amount of capped mRNA in the RdRp complex. Taken together, these findings indicate that RRP1B is a host factor essential for IAV transcription and provide a target for new antivirals. Influenza virus is an important human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality and threatens the human population with epidemics and pandemics every year. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins might ultimately lose their effectiveness. An alternative strategy that explores the genetic stability of host factors indispensable for influenza virus replication would thus be desirable. Here, we characterized the rRNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) protein as an important cellular factor for influenza A virus transcription. We showed that silencing RRP1B hampered viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, which is responsible for virus transcription and replication. Furthermore, we reported that RRP1B is

  10. Genome-Wide Dynamics of Nascent Noncoding RNA Transcription in Porcine Heart After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Minna U; Halonen, Paavo; Liu, Oscar Hsin-Fu; Turunen, Tiia A; Pajula, Juho; Moreau, Pierre; Selvarajan, Ilakya; Tuomainen, Tomi; Aavik, Einari; Tavi, Pasi; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2017-06-01

    Microarrays and RNA sequencing are widely used to profile transcriptome remodeling during myocardial ischemia. However, the steady-state RNA analysis lacks in sensitivity to detect all noncoding RNA species and does not provide separation between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. Here, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of nascent RNA profiles of mRNAs, primary micro-RNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and enhancer RNAs in a large animal model of acute infarction. Acute infarction was induced by cardiac catheterization of domestic swine. Nuclei isolated from healthy, border zone, and ischemic regions of the affected heart were subjected to global run-on sequencing. Global run-on sequencing analysis indicated that half of affected genes are regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing. A gradient of induction of inflammatory mediators and repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and oxidative phosphorylation was detected when moving from healthy toward infarcted area. In addition, we interrogated the transcriptional regulation of primary micro-RNAs and provide evidence that several arrhythmia-related target genes exhibit repression at post-transcriptional level. We identified 450 long noncoding RNAs differently regulated by ischemia, including novel conserved long noncoding RNAs expressed in antisense orientation to myocardial transcription factors GATA-binding protein 4, GATA-binding protein 6, and Krüppel-like factor 6. Finally, characterization of enhancers exhibiting differential expression of enhancer RNAs pointed a central role for Krüppel-like factor, MEF2C, ETS, NFY, ATF, E2F2, and NRF1 transcription factors in determining transcriptional responses to ischemia. Global run-on sequencing allowed us to follow the gradient of gene expression occurring in the ischemic heart and identify novel noncoding RNAs regulated by oxygen deprivation. These findings highlight potential new targets for diagnosis and

  11. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  12. A distal Schwann cell-specific enhancer mediates axonal regulation of the Oct-6 transcription factor during peripheral nerve development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Mandemakers (Wim); R. Zwart (Ronald); M.M. Jaegle (Martine); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); P. Visser (Pim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D. Meijer (Daniëlle)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe POU domain transcription factor Oct-6 is a major regulator of Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. During nerve development and regeneration, expression of Oct-6 is under the control of axonal signals. Identification of the cis-acting elements

  13. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 enhances nuclear factor-kappa B transcriptional activity by a non-specific effect upon the ERK pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenkamp, KU; Tuyt, LML; Lummen, C; Wierenga, LTJ; Kruijer, W; Vellenga, E

    1 In the present study we investigated a possible role for the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in mediating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcriptional activity in the erythroleukaemic cell line TF-1. 2 TF-1 cells stimulated with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA)

  14. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  10. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Gene Transcription through the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Signaling Pathway*

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Yu-Pu; Wang, Di; Han, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Du-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Animal steroid hormones regulate gene transcription through genomic pathways by binding to nuclear receptors. These steroid hormones also rapidly increase intracellular calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and activate the protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) nongenomic pathways. However, the function and mechanism of the nongenomic pathways of the steroid hormones are unclear, and the relationship between the PKC and PKA pathways is also unclear. We propose t...

  12. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Is a Direct Enhancer of Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Sirieix, Marie; Makoukji, Joelle; Kimura, Shioko; Talbot, Monique; Caillou, Bernard; Massaad, Charbel; Massaad-Massade, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the normal development of thyroid gland, but its disregulation provokes the appearance of several types of cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) which are the most common thyroid tumours. The follow-up of PTC patients is based on the monitoring of serum thyroglobulin levels which is regulated by the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1): a tissue-specific transcription factor essential for the differentiation of the thyroid. We investigated whether the Wnt/β-catenin pathway might regulate TTF-1 expression in a human PTC model and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. Immunofluorescence analysis, real time RT-PCR and Western blot studies revealed that TTF-1 as well as the major Wnt pathway components are co-expressed in TPC-1 cells and human PTC tumours. Knocking-down the Wnt/β-catenin components by siRNAs inhibited both TTF-1 transcript and protein expression, while mimicking the activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride induced TTF-1 gene and protein expression. Functional promoter studies and ChIP analysis showed that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway exerts its effect by means of the binding of β-catenin to TCF/LEF transcription factors on the level of an active TCF/LEF response element at [−798, −792 bp] in TTF-1 promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a direct and forward driver of the TTF-1 expression. The localization of TCF-4 and TTF-1 in the same area of PTC tissues might be of clinical relevance, and justifies further examination of these factors in the papillary thyroid cancers follow-up. PMID:21814573

  13. Genetic mapping of putative Chrna7 and Luzp2 neuronal transcriptional enhancers due to impact of a transgene-insertion and 6.8 Mb deletion in a mouse model of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longnecker Richard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome (PWS and AS patients typically have an ~5 Mb deletion of human chromosome 15q11-q13, of opposite parental origin. A mouse model of PWS and AS has a transgenic insertion-deletion (TgPWS/TgAS of chromosome 7B/C subsequent to paternal or maternal inheritance, respectively. In this study, we define the deletion endpoints and examine the impact on expression of flanking genes. Results Using molecular and cytological methods we demonstrate that 13 imprinted and 11 non-imprinted genes are included in the TgPWS/TgAS deletion. Normal expression levels were found in TgPWS brain for genes extending 9.1- or 5.6-Mb centromeric or telomeric of the deletion, respectively. Our molecular cytological studies map the proximal deletion breakpoint between the Luzp2 and Siglec-H loci, and we show that overall mRNA levels of Luzp2 in TgPWS and TgAS brain are significantly reduced by 17%. Intriguingly, 5' Chrna7 shows 1.7-fold decreased levels in TgPWS and TgAS brain whereas there is a ≥15-fold increase in expression in neonatal liver and spleen of these mouse models. By isolating a Chrna7-Tg fusion transcript from TgAS mice, we mapped the telomeric deletion breakpoint in Chrna7 intron 4. Conclusion Based on the extent of the deletion, TgPWS/TgAS mice are models for PWS/AS class I deletions. Other than for the first gene promoters immediately outside the deletion, since genes extending 5.6–9.1 Mb away from each end of the deletion show normal expression levels in TgPWS brain, this indicates that the transgene array does not induce silencing and there are no additional linked rearrangements. Using gene expression, non-coding conserved sequence (NCCS and synteny data, we have genetically mapped a putative Luzp2 neuronal enhancer responsible for ~33% of allelic transcriptional activity. The Chrna7 results are explained by hypothesizing loss of an essential neuronal transcriptional enhancer required for ~80% of

  14. Transcriptional profiling of rice treated with MoHrip1 reveal the function of protein elicitor in enhancement of disease resistance and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS-based digital gene expression (DGE profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly.

  15. Comparison of constitutive and inducible transcriptional enhancement mediated by kappa B-related sequences: modulation of activity in B cells by human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauxion, F; Jamieson, C; Yoshida, M; Arai, K; Sen, R

    1991-03-15

    The kappa B sequence (GGGACTTTCC) binds a factor, NF-kappa B, that is constitutively found in its functional, DNA binding form only in B lymphocytes. A factor with apparently indistinguishable sequence specificity can be induced in many other cell types, where it is used to regulate inducible gene expression. For example, kappa B-related sequences have been shown to be important for the transcription of a few inducible genes, such as the interleukin 2 receptor alpha-chain gene and the beta-interferon gene. However, these genes are not constitutively active in B lymphocytes, suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms must play a role in determining the patterns of expression. We have investigated the constitutive and inducible transcriptional activity mediated by five kappa B-related sequence elements in two different cell types. We show that in S194 plasma cells the activity of each element correlates well with the relative affinity of B-cell-derived NF-kappa B for that element. This leads to significantly lower transcription enhancement by sites derived from the interleukin 2 receptor or T-cell receptor genes in S194 cells. However, in either EL-4 (T) cells or S194 cells, both lower-affinity sites can be significantly induced by the tax gene product of human T-cell leukemia virus type I, showing that NF-kappa B activity can be modulated even in a B-cell line that constitutively expresses this factor.

  16. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  17. Enhanced Cardiac Akt/Protein Kinase B Signaling Contributes to Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Part by Impairing Mitochondrial Function via Transcriptional Repression of Mitochondrion-Targeted Nuclear Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Adam R.; O'Neill, Brian T.; Bugger, Heiko; Riehle, Christian; Tuinei, Joseph; Buchanan, Jonathan; Tsushima, Kensuke; Wang, Li; Caro, Pilar; Guo, Aili; Sloan, Crystal; Kim, Bum Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Pereira, Renata O.; McCrory, Mark A.; Nye, Brenna G.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Shioi, Tetsuo; Weimer, Bart C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained Akt activation induces cardiac hypertrophy (LVH), which may lead to heart failure. This study tested the hypothesis that Akt activation contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in pathological LVH. Akt activation induced LVH and progressive repression of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways. Preventing LVH by inhibiting mTOR failed to prevent the decline in mitochondrial function, but glucose utilization was maintained. Akt activation represses expression of mitochondrial regulatory, FAO, and oxidative phosphorylation genes in vivo that correlate with the duration of Akt activation in part by reducing FOXO-mediated transcriptional activation of mitochondrion-targeted nuclear genes in concert with reduced signaling via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/PGC-1α and other transcriptional regulators. In cultured myocytes, Akt activation disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics, which could be partially reversed by maintaining nuclear FOXO but not by increasing PGC-1α. Thus, although short-term Akt activation may be cardioprotective during ischemia by reducing mitochondrial metabolism and increasing glycolysis, long-term Akt activation in the adult heart contributes to pathological LVH in part by reducing mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PMID:25535334

  18. CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein α Is a Crucial Regulator of Human Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene Transcription and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several susceptibility loci have been reported associated with obesity and T2DM in GWAS. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI and risk for diabetes in diverse patient populations. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. While much is known about the epigenetic mutations contributing to obesity and T2DM, less is certain with the expression regulation of FTO gene. In this study, a highly conserved canonical C/EBPα binding site was located around position −45~−54 bp relative to the human FTO gene transcriptional start site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative C/EBPα binding sites decreased FTO promoter activity. Overexpression and RNAi studies also indicated that C/EBPα was required for the expression of FTO. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiment was carried out and the result shows direct binding of C/EBPα to the putative binding regions in the FTO promoter. Collectively, our data suggest that C/EBPα may act as a positive regulator binding to FTO promoter and consequently, activates the gene transcription.

  19. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  20. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  1. Stress-induced Oryza sativa BAT1 dual helicase exhibits unique bipolar translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tarique, Mohammed; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Renu

    2015-11-01

    HLA-B associated transcript 1 (BAT1) protein, also named as spliceosome RNA helicase UAP56, is a member of the DExD/H-box family of helicases. However, regulation under stress, biochemical properties, and functions of plant homologue of BAT1 are poorly understood. Here, we report the purification and detailed biochemical characterization of the Oryza sativa homologue of BAT1 (OsBAT1/UAP56) protein (52 kDa) and regulation of its transcript under abiotic stress. OsBAT1 transcript levels are enhanced in rice seedlings in response to abiotic stress including salt stress and abscisic acid. Purified OsBAT1 protein exhibits the DNA- and RNA-dependent ATPase, RNA helicase, and DNA- and RNA-binding activities. Interestingly OsBAT1 also exhibits unique DNA helicase activity, which has not been reported so far in any BAT1 homologue. Moreover, OsBAT1 translocates in both the 3' to 5' and 5' to 3' directions, which is also a unique property. The K m value for OsBAT1 DNA helicase is 0.9753 nM and for RNA helicase is 1.7536 nM, respectively. This study demonstrates several unique characteristics of OsBAT1 especially its ability to unwind both DNA and RNA duplexes; bipolar translocation and its transcript upregulation under abiotic stresses indicate that it is a multifunctional protein. Overall, this study represents significant contribution in advancing our knowledge regarding functions of OsBAT1 in RNA and DNA metabolism and its putative role in abiotic stress signaling in plants.

  2. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  3. UV-induced de novo protein synthesis enhances nucleotide excision repair efficiency in a transcription-dependent manner in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moghrabi, Nisreen M; Al-Sharif, Ibtehaj S; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2003-11-21

    DNA damage results in the up-regulation of several genes involved in different cellular physiological processes, such as the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism that copes with a broad range of DNA alterations, including the carcinogenic ultraviolet (UV) light-induced pyrimidine dimers (PDs). There are two NER sub-pathways: transcription coupled repair (TCR) that is specific for the transcribed strands (TS) of active genes and global genomic repair (GGR) that repairs non-transcribed DNA sequences (NTD) and the non-transcribed strands (NTS) of expressed genes. To elucidate the role of UV-dependent de novo protein synthesis in nucleotide excision repair in the budding yeast, we investigated the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, on the removal of PDs. Log phase as well as G(1)-synchronized cells were treated with the drug shortly before UV irradiation and immediately thereafter, and the repair of damaged DNA was assessed with the high resolution primer extension technique. The results show that in both cellular conditions, the inhibition of UV-dependent de novo protein synthesis by cycloheximide impairs the excision repair of the transcriptionally active GAL10 and URA3 genes, with a greater effect on the non-transcribed strands. This indicates that UV-mediated de novo protein synthesis is required for efficient nucleotide excision repair, but not for the preferential repair of the TSs. On the other hand, cycloheximide did not affect the repair of either strand of the repressed GAL10 gene or the non-transcribed promoter region of the URA3 gene, showing that UV-induced de novo protein synthesis is not required for PD removal from transcriptionally inactive DNA sequences. Together, these data show that despite the fact that NTD and NTSs are normally repaired by the GGR sub-pathway, their requirement for UV-dependent de novo protein synthesis is different, which may suggest a difference in the processing of UV lesions in these non

  4. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  5. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  6. Transcriptional Auto-Regulation of RUNX1 P1 Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Martinez

    Full Text Available RUNX1 a member of the family of runt related transcription factors (RUNX, is essential for hematopoiesis. The expression of RUNX1 gene is controlled by two promoters; the distal P1 promoter and the proximal P2 promoter. Several isoforms of RUNX1 mRNA are generated through the use of both promoters and alternative splicing. These isoforms not only differs in their temporal expression pattern but also exhibit differences in tissue specificity. The RUNX1 isoforms derived from P2 are expressed in a variety of tissues, but expression of P1-derived isoform is restricted to cells of hematopoietic lineage. However, the control of hematopoietic-cell specific expression is poorly understood. Here we report regulation of P1-derived RUNX1 mRNA by RUNX1 protein. In silico analysis of P1 promoter revealed presence of two evolutionary conserved RUNX motifs, 0.6kb upstream of the transcription start site, and three RUNX motifs within 170bp of the 5'UTR. Transcriptional contribution of these RUNX motifs was studied in myeloid and T-cells. RUNX1 genomic fragment containing all sites show very low basal activity in both cell types. Mutation or deletion of RUNX motifs in the UTR enhances basal activity of the RUNX1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RUNX1 protein is recruited to these sites. Overexpression of RUNX1 in non-hematopoietic cells results in a dose dependent activation of the RUNX1 P1 promoter. We also demonstrate that RUNX1 protein regulates transcription of endogenous RUNX1 mRNA in T-cell. Finally we show that SCL transcription factor is recruited to regions containing RUNX motifs in the promoter and the UTR and regulates activity of the RUNX1 P1 promoter in vitro. Thus, multiple lines of evidence show that RUNX1 protein regulates its own gene transcription.

  7. A machine learning approach for identifying novel cell type-specific transcriptional regulators of myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Busser

    Full Text Available Transcriptional enhancers integrate the contributions of multiple classes of transcription factors (TFs to orchestrate the myriad spatio-temporal gene expression programs that occur during development. A molecular understanding of enhancers with similar activities requires the identification of both their unique and their shared sequence features. To address this problem, we combined phylogenetic profiling with a DNA-based enhancer sequence classifier that analyzes the TF binding sites (TFBSs governing the transcription of a co-expressed gene set. We first assembled a small number of enhancers that are active in Drosophila melanogaster muscle founder cells (FCs and other mesodermal cell types. Using phylogenetic profiling, we increased the number of enhancers by incorporating orthologous but divergent sequences from other Drosophila species. Functional assays revealed that the diverged enhancer orthologs were active in largely similar patterns as their D. melanogaster counterparts, although there was extensive evolutionary shuffling of known TFBSs. We then built and trained a classifier using this enhancer set and identified additional related enhancers based on the presence or absence of known and putative TFBSs. Predicted FC enhancers were over-represented in proximity to known FC genes; and many of the TFBSs learned by the classifier were found to be critical for enhancer activity, including POU homeodomain, Myb, Ets, Forkhead, and T-box motifs. Empirical testing also revealed that the T-box TF encoded by org-1 is a previously uncharacterized regulator of muscle cell identity. Finally, we found extensive diversity in the composition of TFBSs within known FC enhancers, suggesting that motif combinatorics plays an essential role in the cellular specificity exhibited by such enhancers. In summary, machine learning combined with evolutionary sequence analysis is useful for recognizing novel TFBSs and for facilitating the identification of cognate

  8. A Machine Learning Approach for Identifying Novel Cell Type–Specific Transcriptional Regulators of Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsok; Tansey, Terese; Bloom, Molly J.; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers integrate the contributions of multiple classes of transcription factors (TFs) to orchestrate the myriad spatio-temporal gene expression programs that occur during development. A molecular understanding of enhancers with similar activities requires the identification of both their unique and their shared sequence features. To address this problem, we combined phylogenetic profiling with a DNA–based enhancer sequence classifier that analyzes the TF binding sites (TFBSs) governing the transcription of a co-expressed gene set. We first assembled a small number of enhancers that are active in Drosophila melanogaster muscle founder cells (FCs) and other mesodermal cell types. Using phylogenetic profiling, we increased the number of enhancers by incorporating orthologous but divergent sequences from other Drosophila species. Functional assays revealed that the diverged enhancer orthologs were active in largely similar patterns as their D. melanogaster counterparts, although there was extensive evolutionary shuffling of known TFBSs. We then built and trained a classifier using this enhancer set and identified additional related enhancers based on the presence or absence of known and putative TFBSs. Predicted FC enhancers were over-represented in proximity to known FC genes; and many of the TFBSs learned by the classifier were found to be critical for enhancer activity, including POU homeodomain, Myb, Ets, Forkhead, and T-box motifs. Empirical testing also revealed that the T-box TF encoded by org-1 is a previously uncharacterized regulator of muscle cell identity. Finally, we found extensive diversity in the composition of TFBSs within known FC enhancers, suggesting that motif combinatorics plays an essential role in the cellular specificity exhibited by such enhancers. In summary, machine learning combined with evolutionary sequence analysis is useful for recognizing novel TFBSs and for facilitating the identification of cognate TFs that

  9. A machine learning approach for identifying novel cell type-specific transcriptional regulators of myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busser, Brian W; Taher, Leila; Kim, Yongsok; Tansey, Terese; Bloom, Molly J; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers integrate the contributions of multiple classes of transcription factors (TFs) to orchestrate the myriad spatio-temporal gene expression programs that occur during development. A molecular understanding of enhancers with similar activities requires the identification of both their unique and their shared sequence features. To address this problem, we combined phylogenetic profiling with a DNA-based enhancer sequence classifier that analyzes the TF binding sites (TFBSs) governing the transcription of a co-expressed gene set. We first assembled a small number of enhancers that are active in Drosophila melanogaster muscle founder cells (FCs) and other mesodermal cell types. Using phylogenetic profiling, we increased the number of enhancers by incorporating orthologous but divergent sequences from other Drosophila species. Functional assays revealed that the diverged enhancer orthologs were active in largely similar patterns as their D. melanogaster counterparts, although there was extensive evolutionary shuffling of known TFBSs. We then built and trained a classifier using this enhancer set and identified additional related enhancers based on the presence or absence of known and putative TFBSs. Predicted FC enhancers were over-represented in proximity to known FC genes; and many of the TFBSs learned by the classifier were found to be critical for enhancer activity, including POU homeodomain, Myb, Ets, Forkhead, and T-box motifs. Empirical testing also revealed that the T-box TF encoded by org-1 is a previously uncharacterized regulator of muscle cell identity. Finally, we found extensive diversity in the composition of TFBSs within known FC enhancers, suggesting that motif combinatorics plays an essential role in the cellular specificity exhibited by such enhancers. In summary, machine learning combined with evolutionary sequence analysis is useful for recognizing novel TFBSs and for facilitating the identification of cognate TFs that

  10. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diaz Quijano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4 is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  11. The κB transcriptional enhancer motif and signal sequences of V(DJ recombination are targets for the zinc finger protein HIVEP3/KRC: a site selection amplification binding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Lai-Chu

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ZAS family is composed of proteins that regulate transcription via specific gene regulatory elements. The amino-DNA binding domain (ZAS-N and the carboxyl-DNA binding domain (ZAS-C of a representative family member, named κB DNA binding and recognition component (KRC, were expressed as fusion proteins and their target DNA sequences were elucidated by site selection amplification binding assays, followed by cloning and DNA sequencing. The fusion proteins-selected DNA sequences were analyzed by the MEME and MAST computer programs to obtain consensus motifs and DNA elements bound by the ZAS domains. Results Both fusion proteins selected sequences that were similar to the κB motif or the canonical elements of the V(DJ recombination signal sequences (RSS from a pool of degenerate oligonucleotides. Specifically, the ZAS-N domain selected sequences similar to the canonical RSS nonamer, while ZAS-C domain selected sequences similar to the canonical RSS heptamer. In addition, both KRC fusion proteins selected oligonucleoties with sequences identical to heptamer and nonamer sequences within endogenous RSS. Conclusions The RSS are cis-acting DNA motifs which are essential for V(DJ recombination of antigen receptor genes. Due to its specific binding affinity for RSS and κB-like transcription enhancer motifs, we hypothesize that KRC may be involved in the regulation of V(DJ recombination.

  12. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  13. Constitutive expression of the poplar WRKY transcription factor PtoWRKY60 enhances resistance to Dothiorella gregaria Sacc. in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shenglong; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Duan, Yanjiao; Karim, Abdul; Fan, Di; Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Yin, Jia; Luo, Keming

    2014-10-01

    WRKY proteins are involved in various physiological processes in plants, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, limited information is available on the roles of specific WRKY transcription factors in poplar defense. In this study, we reported the characterization of PtoWRKY60, a Group IIa WRKY member, from Populus tomentosa Carr. The gene expression profile of PtoWRKY60 in various tissues showed that it significantly accumulated in old leaves. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PtoWRKY60 had a close relationship with AtWRKY18, AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY60. PtoWRKY60 was induced mainly by salicylic acid (SA) and slightly by Dothiorella gregaria Sacc., jasmonic acid, wounding treatment, low temperature and salinity stresses. Overexpression of PtoWRKY60 in poplar resulted in increased resistance to D. gregaria. The defense-associated genes, such as PR5.1, PR5.2, PR5.4, PR5.5 and CPR5, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtoWRKY60. These results indicate that PtoWRKY60 might be partly involved in the signal transduction pathway initiated by SA in Populus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Curcumin analog 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one exhibits enhanced ability on Nrf2 activation and protection against acrolein-induced ARPE-19 cell toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zou, Xuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Yue, Tingting [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Dai, Fang; Zhou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Wuyuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Feng, Zhihui, E-mail: zhfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Jiankang, E-mail: j.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, has received increasing attention for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, application of curcumin has been limited due to its insolubility in water and poor bioavailability both clinically and experimentally. In addition, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin in eye diseases have been poorly studied. In the present study, we synthesized a curcumin analog, 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one (C3), which displayed improved protective effect against acrolein-induced toxicity in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19). At 5 μM, curcumin completely protected against acrolein-induced cell oxidative damage and preserved GSH levels and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, C3 displayed a complete protective effect at 0.5 μM, which was much more efficient than curcumin. Both 0.5 μM C3 and 5 μM curcumin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target genes transcription similarly. Experiments using Nrf2 siRNA showed that the protective effects of curcumin and C3 were eliminated by Nrf2 knockdown. Additionally, both curcumin and C3 activated the PI3/Akt pathway, however, Nrf2 activation was independent of this pathway, and therefore, we hypothesized that both curcumin and C3 activated phase II enzymes via directly disrupting the Nrf2/Keap1 complex and promoting Nrf2's nuclear translocation. Since acrolein challenge of ARPE-19 cells has been used as a model of smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we concluded that the curcumin analog, C3, may be a more promising drug candidate for its potential application for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, such as AMD. - Highlights: • We examine toxicity effects of cigarette smoking component acrolein in retina cells. • We report a more efficient curcumin analog (C3) protecting cellular function. • Mitochondrial function and phase II enzyme activation are the

  15. Vitamin A deficient mice exhibit increased viral antigens and enhanced cytokine/chemokine production in nasal tissues following respiratory virus infection despite the presence of FoxP3+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Surman, Sherri L; Jones, Bart G; Sealy, Robert E; Vogel, Peter; Neale, Geoffrey; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 250 million children under the age of five suffer from vitamin A deficiencies (VAD). Individuals with VAD experience higher rates of mortality and increased morbidity during enteric and respiratory infections compared with those who are vitamin A sufficient. Previously, our laboratory has demonstrated that VAD mice have significantly impaired virus-specific IgA and CD8(+) T-cell responses in the airways. Here, we demonstrate that VAD mice experience enhanced cytokine/chemokine gene expression and release in the respiratory tract 10 days following virus infection compared with control vitamin A sufficient animals. Cytokines/chemokines that are reproducibly up-regulated at the gene expression and protein levels include IFNγ and IL-6. Despite previous indications that cytokine dysregulation in VAD animals might reflect low forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T-cell frequencies, we found no reduction in FoxP3(+) T cells in VAD respiratory tissues. As an alternative explanation for the high cytokine levels, we found that the extent of virus infection and the persistence of viral antigens were increased on day 10 post-infection in VAD animals compared with controls, and consequently that respiratory tract tissues had an increased potential to activate virus-specific T cells. Results encourage cautious management of viral infections in patients with VAD, as efforts to enhance FoxP3(+) T cell frequencies and quell immune effectors could potentially exacerbate disease if the virus has not been cleared. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Upstream Stimulating Factors 1 and 2 Enhance Transcription from the Placenta-Specific Promoter 1.1 of the Bovine Cyp19 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanselow Jens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrogens, aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom, is encoded by the Cyp19 gene. In the placenta of the cow, expression of Cyp19 relies on promoter 1.1 (P1.1. Our recent studies of P1.1 in vitro and in a human trophoblast cell line (Jeg3 revealed that interactions of placental nuclear protein(s with the E-box element at position -340 are required for full promoter activity. The aim of this work was to identify and characterise the placental E-box (-340-binding protein(s (E-BP as a step towards understanding how the expression of Cyp19 is regulated in the bovine placenta. Results The significance of the E-box was confirmed in cultured primary bovine trophoblasts. We enriched the E-BP from placental nuclear extracts using DNA-affinity Dynabeads and showed by Western blot analysis and supershift EMSA experiments that the E-BP is composed of the transcription factors upstream stimulating factor (USF 1 and USF2. Depletion of the USFs by RNAi and expression of a dominant-negative USF mutant, were both associated with a significant decrease in P1.1-dependent reporter gene expression. Furthermore, scatter plot analysis of P1.1 activity vs. USF binding to the E-box revealed a strong positive correlation between the two parameters. Conclusion From these results we conclude that USF1 and USF2 are activators of the bovine placenta-specific promoter P1.1 and thus act in the opposite mode as in the case of the non-orthologous human placenta-specific promoter.

  17. Firemaster® 550 and its components isopropylated triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate enhance adipogenesis and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (Pparγ) on the adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshdary, Vian

    2017-01-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM550) is a chemical mixture currently used as an additive flame retardant in commercial products, and is comprised of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tertrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and isopropylated triphenyl phosphate (IPTP). Animal and in vitro studies suggest that FM550, TPP and IPTP may have adipogenic effects and may exert these effects through PPARγ activation. Using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we investigated the detailed expression of transcription factors and adipogenic markers in response to FM550 and its components. Further we investigated the mechanism of action of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) on downstream targets of the receptor by focussing on the mature adipocyte marker, adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). In addition, we set to elucidate the components responsible for the adipogenic effects seen in the FM550 mixture. We show that FM550 and its components TPP, IPTP, and TBPH, but not TBB induced lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, despite displaying enhanced lipid accumulation, TBPH did not alter the mRNA or protein expression of terminal differentiation markers. In contrast, FM550, TPP, and IPTP treatment enhanced lipid accumulation, and mRNA and protein expression of terminal differentiation markers. To further delineate the mechanisms of action of FM550 and its components we focussed on aP2 promoter activity. For this purpose we used the enhancer region of the mouse aP2 promoter using a 584-bp reporter construct containing an active PPRE located 5.4 kb away from the transcription start site of aP2. Exposure to FM550, IPTP, and TPP significantly increased PPARγ mediated aP2 enhancer activity. Furthermore, we show that TPP- and IPTP-dependent upregulation of aP2 was significantly inhibited by the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that IPTP and TPP treatment

  18. Firemaster® 550 and its components isopropylated triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate enhance adipogenesis and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (Pparγ) on the adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Emily W Y; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Peshdary, Vian; Atlas, Ella

    2017-01-01

    Firemaster® 550 (FM550) is a chemical mixture currently used as an additive flame retardant in commercial products, and is comprised of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tertrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and isopropylated triphenyl phosphate (IPTP). Animal and in vitro studies suggest that FM550, TPP and IPTP may have adipogenic effects and may exert these effects through PPARγ activation. Using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we investigated the detailed expression of transcription factors and adipogenic markers in response to FM550 and its components. Further we investigated the mechanism of action of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) on downstream targets of the receptor by focussing on the mature adipocyte marker, adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). In addition, we set to elucidate the components responsible for the adipogenic effects seen in the FM550 mixture. We show that FM550 and its components TPP, IPTP, and TBPH, but not TBB induced lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, despite displaying enhanced lipid accumulation, TBPH did not alter the mRNA or protein expression of terminal differentiation markers. In contrast, FM550, TPP, and IPTP treatment enhanced lipid accumulation, and mRNA and protein expression of terminal differentiation markers. To further delineate the mechanisms of action of FM550 and its components we focussed on aP2 promoter activity. For this purpose we used the enhancer region of the mouse aP2 promoter using a 584-bp reporter construct containing an active PPRE located 5.4 kb away from the transcription start site of aP2. Exposure to FM550, IPTP, and TPP significantly increased PPARγ mediated aP2 enhancer activity. Furthermore, we show that TPP- and IPTP-dependent upregulation of aP2 was significantly inhibited by the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that IPTP and TPP treatment

  19. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  20. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, facilitates tyrosine hydroxylase transcription and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression to enhance catecholamine synthesis and its nicotine-evoked elevation in PC12D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells. Yet, the impacts of imidacloprid on the catecholaminergic function of the chromaffin cells remain to be evaluated. In this study using PC12D cells, a catecholaminergic cell line derived from the medulla chromaffin-cell tumors of rat adrenal gland, we examined whether imidacloprid itself could impact the catecholamine-synthesizing ability. Imidacloprid alone did facilitate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcription via activation of α3β4 nAChR and the α7 subunit-comprising receptor. The insecticide showed the TH transcription-facilitating ability at the concentrations of 3 and 30 μM, at which acetylcholine is known to produce physiological responses, including catecholamine secretion through the nAChRs in adrenal chromaffin cells. The insecticide-facilitated TH transcription was also dependent on PKA- and RhoA-mediated signaling pathways. The insecticide coincidentally raised levels of TH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA, and as a consequence, increased catecholamine production, although the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was lesser than that of nicotine, indicating its partial agonist-like action. Intriguingly, in cultured rat adrenal chromaffin cells, imidacloprid did increase levels of TH and PNMT protein. When the chromaffin cells were treated with nicotine in the presence of the insecticide, nicotine-elevated adrenaline production was enhanced due to facilitation of nicotine-increased TH and PNMT

  1. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, Daria [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Rizvanov, Albert A.; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I.; Kudryashova, Nezhdana V. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András, E-mail: palotas@asklepios-med.eu [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Asklepios-Med (Private Medical Practice and Research Center), Szeged (Hungary); Islamov, Rustem R., E-mail: islamru@yahoo.com [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignant transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis.

  2. Early host responses to avian influenza A virus are prolonged and enhanced at transcriptional level depending on maturation of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemers, Sylvia S; van Leenen, Dik; Koerkamp, Marian J Groot; van Haarlem, Daphne; van de Haar, Peter; van Eden, Willem; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2010-05-01

    Newly hatched chickens are more susceptible to infectious diseases than older birds because of an immature immune system. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent host responses to avian influenza virus (AIV) inoculation are affected by age. Therefore, 1- and 4-week (wk) old birds were inoculated with H9N2 AIV or saline. The trachea and lung were sampled at 0, 8, 16 and 24h post-inoculation (h.p.i.) and gene expression profiles determined using microarray analysis. Firstly, saline controls of both groups were compared to analyse the changes in gene profiles related to development. In 1-wk-old birds, higher expression of genes related to development of the respiratory immune system and innate responses were found, whereas in 4-wk-old birds genes were up regulated that relate to the presence of higher numbers of leukocytes in the respiratory tract. After inoculation with H9N2, gene expression was most affected at 16 h.p.i. in 1-wk-old birds and at 16 and 24h.p.i. in 4-wk-old birds in the trachea and especially in the lung. In 1-wk-old birds less immune related genes including innate related genes were induced which might be due to age-dependent reduced functionality of antigen presenting cells (APC), T cells and NK cells. In contrast cytokine and chemokines gene expression was related to viral load in 1-wk-old birds and less in 4-wk-old birds. Expression of cellular host factors that block virus replication by interacting with viral factors was independent of age or tissue for most host factors. These data show that differences in development are reflected in gene expression and suggest that the strength of host responses at transcriptional level may be a key factor in age-dependent susceptibility to infection, and the cellular host factors involved in virus replication are not. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of Kdm5c Causes Spurious Transcription and Prevents the Fine-Tuning of Activity-Regulated Enhancers in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Scandaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During development, chromatin-modifying enzymes regulate both the timely establishment of cell-type-specific gene programs and the coordinated repression of alternative cell fates. To dissect the role of one such enzyme, the intellectual-disability-linked lysine demethylase 5C (Kdm5c, in the developing and adult brain, we conducted parallel behavioral, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies in Kdm5c-null and forebrain-restricted inducible knockout mice. Together, genomic analyses and functional assays demonstrate that Kdm5c plays a critical role as a repressor responsible for the developmental silencing of germline genes during cellular differentiation and in fine-tuning activity-regulated enhancers during neuronal maturation. Although the importance of these functions declines after birth, Kdm5c retains an important genome surveillance role preventing the incorrect activation of non-neuronal and cryptic promoters in adult neurons.

  4. ROS-mediated enhanced transcription of CYP38 promotes the plant tolerance to high light stress by suppressing GTPase Activation of PsbO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Immunophilin family, cyclophilin38 (CYP38 is discovered to be localized in the thylakoid lumen, and is reported to be a participant in the function regulation of thylakoid membrane protein. However, the molecule mechanisms remain unclear. We found that, CYP38 plays an important role in the process of regulating and protecting the plant to resist high light (HL stress. Under HL condition, the gene expression of CYP38 is enhanced, and if CYP38 gene is deficient, photochemistry efficiency and chlorophyll content falls distinctly, and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis occurs in the chloroplast. Western blot results showed that the D1 degradation rate of cyp38 mutant plants is faster than that of wide type (WT plants. Interestingly, both gene expression and activity of PsbO2 were drastically enhanced in cyp38 mutant plants and less changed when the deleted gene of CYP38 was restored under HL treatment. This indicates that CYP38 may impose a negative regulation effect on PsbO2, which exerts a positive regulation effect in facilitating the dephosphorylation and subsequent degradation of D1. It is also found that, under HL condition, the cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt concentration and the gene expression level of calmodulin 3 (CaM3 arose markedly, which occurs upstream of CYP38 gene expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that CYP38 plays an important role in plant strengthening HL resistibility, which provides a new insight in the research of mechanisms of CYP38 protein in plants.

  5. Transcriptional Analysis of Hair Follicle-Derived Keratinocytes from Donors with Atopic Dermatitis Reveals Enhanced Induction of IL32 Gene by IFN-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Yoshikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We cultured human hair follicle-derived keratinocytes (FDKs from plucked hairs. To gain insight into gene expression signatures that can distinguish atopic dermatitis from non-atopic controls without skin biopsies, we undertook a comparative study of gene expression in FDKs from adult donors with atopic dermatitis and non-atopic donors. FDK primary cultures (atopic dermatitis, n = 11; non-atopic controls, n = 7 before and after interferon gamma (IFN-γ treatment were used for microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. Comparison of FDKs from atopic and non-atopic donors indicated that the former showed activated pathways with innate immunity and decreased pathways of cell growth, as indicated by increased NLRP2 expression and decreased DKK1 expression, respectively. Treatment with IFN-γ induced the enhanced expression of IL32, IL1B, IL8, and CXCL1 in the cells from atopic donors compared to that in cells from non-atopic donors at 24 h after treatment. IL1B expression in FDKs after IFN-γ treatment correlated with IL32 expression. We hypothesized that overexpression of IL32 in hair follicle keratinocytes of patients with atopic dermatitis would lead to the excessive production of pro-IL1β and that the activation of IL1β from pro-IL1β by inflammasome complex, in which NLRP2 protein might be involved, would be augmented. This is the first report to show enhanced induction of cytokine/chemokine genes by IFN-γ in atopic dermatitis using cultured FDKs.

  6. Ectopic Expression of the Wild Grape WRKY Transcription Factor VqWRKY52 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Powdery Mildew But Not to the Necrotrophic Pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhang; Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Dejun; Guo, Chunlei; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type (WT) plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic P. syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. In addition, the relative expression levels of various defense-related genes were compared between the transgenic A. thaliana lines and WT plants following the infection by different pathogens. Collectively, the results indicated that VqWRKY52 plays essential roles in the SA dependent signal transduction pathway and that it can enhance the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by microbial pathogens.

  7. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  8. Cooperative activation of cardiac transcription through myocardin bridging of paired MEF2 sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Courtney M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Hu, Jianxin [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Thomas, Reuben [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Gainous, T. Blair [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Celona, Barbara [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Sinha, Tanvi [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Dickel, Diane E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Genomics Division; Heidt, Analeah B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Xu, Shan-Mei [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Bruneau, Benoit G. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Pollard, Katherine S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Gladstone Inst.; Pennacchio, Len A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Genomics Division; Black, Brian L. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of

    2017-03-28

    Enhancers frequently contain multiple binding sites for the same transcription factor. These homotypic binding sites often exhibit synergy, whereby the transcriptional output from two or more binding sites is greater than the sum of the contributions of the individual binding sites alone. Although this phenomenon is frequently observed, the mechanistic basis for homotypic binding site synergy is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we identify a bona fide cardiac-specific Prkaa2 enhancer that is synergistically activated by homotypic MEF2 binding sites. We show that two MEF2 sites in the enhancer function cooperatively due to bridging of the MEF2C-bound sites by the SAP domain-containing co-activator protein myocardin, and we show that paired sites buffer the enhancer from integration site-dependent effects on transcription in vivo. Paired MEF2 sites are prevalent in cardiac enhancers, suggesting that this might be a common mechanism underlying synergy in the control of cardiac gene expression in vivo.

  9. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  10. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  11. Transforming growth factor-β1 regulates expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 20 (Mmp20) gene through a mechanism involving the transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor-2C, in ameloblast lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuguang; Zhang, Li; Xiang, Lili; Li, Bohan; Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yumin; Sun, Yan

    2014-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (Mmp20) plays an essential role in amelogenesis during tooth development and is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in mouse ameloblast lineage cells (ALCs). The objective of this study was to explore the role of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C), a key transcription factor in craniofacial development, in TGF-β1-induced Mmp20 gene expression. We investigated Mmp20 expression in ALCs over-expressing MEF2C and in ALCs with MEF2C knocked down. We also analyzed activity of the Mmp20 promoter using a transient reporter gene-expression assay in cultured ALCs. Putative transcription factor-binding sites for MEF2C and TGF-β1 on the Mmp20 promoter were analyzed with bioinformatics tools and examined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of Mmp20 was induced, in a dose-dependent manner, by MEF2C over-expression, and TGF-β1-induced Mmp20 expression was blocked by MEF2C knockdown in ALCs. There was a TGF-β1/MEF2C-responsive region, including a putative MEF2-binding site, between base pairs -356 and -73 of the Mmp20 promoter. Mutation of the putative MEF2-binding site significantly reduced Mmp20 promoter activity upon activation with MEF2C or TGF-β1. In conclusion, TGF-β1-induced Mmp20 expression in ALCs was regulated through the MEF2-binding site on the Mmp20 promoter and thus mediated by the MEF2C signaling pathway. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Enhanced Rice Blast Resistance by CRISPR/Cas9-Targeted Mutagenesis of the ERF Transcription Factor Gene OsERF922.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Wang

    Full Text Available Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide. The adoption of host resistance has proven to be the most economical and effective approach to control rice blast. In recent years, sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for the improvement of crops via gene-specific genome editing, and CRISPR/Cas9 is thought to be the most effective SSN. Here, we report the improvement of rice blast resistance by engineering a CRISPR/Cas9 SSN (C-ERF922 targeting the OsERF922 gene in rice. Twenty-one C-ERF922-induced mutant plants (42.0% were identified from 50 T0 transgenic plants. Sanger sequencing revealed that these plants harbored various insertion or deletion (InDel mutations at the target site. We showed that all of the C-ERF922-induced allele mutations were transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutant plants harboring the desired gene modification but not containing the transferred DNA were obtained by segregation in the T1 and T2 generations. Six T2 homozygous mutant lines were further examined for a blast resistance phenotype and agronomic traits, such as plant height, flag leaf length and width, number of productive panicles, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, seed setting percentage and thousand seed weight. The results revealed that the number of blast lesions formed following pathogen infection was significantly decreased in all 6 mutant lines compared with wild-type plants at both the seedling and tillering stages. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between any of the 6 T2 mutant lines and the wild-type plants with regard to the agronomic traits tested. We also simultaneously targeted multiple sites within OsERF922 by using Cas9/Multi-target-sgRNAs (C-ERF922S1S2 and C-ERF922S1S2S3 to obtain plants harboring mutations at two or three sites. Our results indicate that gene modification via CRISPR/Cas9 is a useful approach for enhancing blast resistance in

  13. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  14. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  15. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  16. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  17. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Cardiac Progenitor Spheroids Exhibit Enhanced Engraftment Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Oltolina

    Full Text Available A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-to-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol.

  19. Helicobacter pylori VacA enhances prostaglandin E2 production through induction of cyclooxygenase 2 expression via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activating transcription factor 2 cascade in AZ-521 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of AZ-521 cells with Helicobacter pylori VacA increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, blocked elevation of COX-2 mRNA levels, whereas PD98059, which blocks the Erk1/2 cascade......A-induced COX-2 expression. In parallel with COX-2 expression, VacA increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, which was inhibited by SB203580 and NS-398, a COX-2 inhibitor. VacA-induced PGE(2) production was markedly attenuated in AZ-521 cells stably expressing DN-p38. VacA increased transcription...... promoter activation. The reduction of ATF-2 expression in AZ-521 cells transformed with ATF-2-small interfering RNA duplexes resulted in suppression of COX-2 expression. Thus, VacA enhances PGE(2) production by AZ-521 cells through induction of COX-2 expression via the p38 MAPK/ATF-2 cascade, leading...

  20. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities where a science centre exhibition is a key setting. The primary...... experience technology-enhanced exhibitions....

  1. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices.

  2. MED18 interaction with distinct transcription factors regulates multiple plant functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhibing; Schluttenhofer, Craig M; Bhide, Ketaki; Shreve, Jacob; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Lee, Sang Yeol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory complex. Mechanisms of Mediator function are poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis MED18 is a multifunctional protein regulating plant immunity, flowering time and responses to hormones through interactions with distinct transcription factors. MED18 interacts with YIN YANG1 to suppress disease susceptibility genes glutaredoxins GRX480, GRXS13 and thioredoxin TRX-h5. Consequently, yy1 and med18 mutants exhibit deregulated expression of these genes and enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection. In addition, MED18 interacts with ABA INSENSITIVE 4 and SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA4 to regulate abscisic acid responses and flowering time, respectively. MED18 associates with the promoter, coding and terminator regions of target genes suggesting its function in transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Notably, RNA polymerase II occupancy and histone H3 lysine tri-methylation of target genes are affected in the med18 mutant, reinforcing MED18 function in different mechanisms of transcriptional control. Overall, MED18 conveys distinct cues to engender transcription underpinning plant responses.

  3. [re]connect: Postmodern Documentary Photography Symposium and Traveling Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Park, Min; Soon-Hwa, Oh

    2014-01-01

    The Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition features selected works from leading artists in the field of contemporary documentary photography. Their research focuses on finding new ways to portray 'truth' through photography, exploring new subject matter in unique locations, confronting societal expectations and social norms, and discovering new ways of enhancing documentary photography in the digital age. Min Kim Park, director of Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition, discusse...

  4. Filovirus replication and transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlberger, Elke

    2007-01-01

    The highly pathogenic filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola virus, belong to the nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales. The mode of replication and transcription is similar for these viruses. On one hand, the negative-sense RNA genome serves as a template for replication, to generate progeny genomes, and, on the other hand, for transcription, to produce mRNAs. Despite the similarities in the replication/transcription strategy, filoviruses have evolved structural and fu...

  5. WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  6. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic footprint......Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...

  7. Elevated cJUN expression and an ATF/CRE site within the ATF3 promoter contribute to activation of ATF3 transcription by the amino acid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lingchen; Kilberg, Michael S

    2013-02-15

    Mammalian cells respond to amino acid deprivation through multiple signaling pathways referred to as the amino acid response (AAR). Transcription factors mediate the AAR after their activation by several mechanisms; examples include translational control (activating transcription factor 4, ATF4), phosphorylation (p-cJUN), and transcriptional control (ATF3). ATF4 induces ATF3 transcription through a promoter-localized C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE). The present report characterizes an ATF/CRE site upstream of the CARE that also contributes to AAR-induced ATF3 transcription. ATF4 binds to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences and both are required for a maximal response to ATF4 induction. ATF3, which antagonizes ATF4 and represses its own gene, also exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences. The AAR resulted in elevated total cJUN and p-cJUN protein levels and both forms exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE ATF3 sequences. Knockdown of AAR-enhanced cJUN expression blocked induction of the ATF3 gene and mutation of either the ATF/CRE or the CARE site prevented the cJUN-dependent increase in ATF3-driven luciferase activity. The results indicate that both increased cJUN and the cis-acting ATF/CRE sequence within the ATF3 promoter contribute to the transcriptional activation of the gene during the AAR.

  8. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  9. The transcriptional landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The application of new and less biased methods to study the transcriptional output from genomes, such as tiling arrays and deep sequencing, has revealed that most of the genome is transcribed and that there is substantial overlap of transcripts derived from the two strands of DNA. In protein codi...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Stuart A; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-30

    The mechanical properties of transcription have recently been shown to play a central role in gene expression. However, a full physical characterization of this central biological process is lacking. In this Letter, we introduce a simple description of the basic physical elements of transcription where RNA elongation, RNA polymerase rotation, and DNA supercoiling are coupled. The resulting framework describes the relative amount of RNA polymerase rotation and DNA supercoiling that occurs during RNA elongation. Asymptotic behavior is derived and can be used to experimentally extract unknown mechanical parameters of transcription. Mechanical limits to transcription are incorporated through the addition of a DNA supercoiling-dependent RNA polymerase velocity. This addition can lead to transcriptional stalling and resulting implications for gene expression, chromatin structure and genome organization are discussed.

  11. Coactivation of janus tyrosine kinase (Jak)1 positively modulates prolactin-Jak2 signaling in breast cancer: recruitment of ERK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and enhancement of Akt and Stat5a/b pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Lynn M; Zhu, Jianquong; Xie, Jianwu; Malabarba, M Grazia; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Kirken, Robert A; Rui, Hallgeir

    2007-09-01

    Prolactin (PRL) receptors (PRLRs) have been considered selective activators of Janus tyrosine kinase (Jak)2 but not Jak1, Jak3, or Tyk2. We now report marked PRL-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1, in addition to Jak2, in a series of human breast cancer cell lines, including T47D, MCF7, and SKBR3. In contrast, PRL did not activate Jak1 in immortalized, noncancerous breast epithelial lines HC11, MCF10A, ME16C, and HBL-100, or in CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, introduction of exogenous PRLR into MCF10A, ME16C, or MDA-MB-231 cells reconstituted both PRL-Jak1 and PRL-Jak2 signals. In vitro kinase assays verified that PRL stimulated enzymatic activity of Jak1 in T47D cells, and PRL activated Jak1 and Jak2 with indistinguishable time and dose kinetics. Relative Jak2 deficiency did not cause PRLR activation of Jak1, because overexpression of Jak2 did not interfere with PRL activation of Jak1. Instead, PRL activated Jak1 through a Jak2-dependent mechanism, based on disruption of PRL activation of Jak1 after Jak2 suppression by 1) lentiviral delivery of Jak2 short hairpin RNA, 2) adenoviral delivery of dominant-negative Jak2, and 3) AG490 pharmacological inhibition. Finally, suppression of Jak1 by lentiviral delivery of Jak1 short hairpin RNA blocked PRL activation of ERK and signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and suppressed PRL activation of Jak2, Stat5a, Stat5b, and Akt, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PRLR. The data suggest that PRL activation of Jak1 represents a novel, Jak2-dependent mechanism that may serve as a regulatory switch leading to PRL activation of ERK and Stat3 pathways, while also serving to enhance PRL-induced Stat5a/b and Akt signaling.

  12. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition? With...

  13. Acetylation-mediated suppression of transcription-independent memory: bidirectional modulation of memory by acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merschbaecher

    Full Text Available Learning induced changes in protein acetylation, mediated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs, and the antagonistic histone deacetylases (HDACs play a critical role in memory formation. The status of histone acetylation affects the interaction between the transcription-complex and DNA and thus regulates transcription-dependent processes required for long-term memory (LTM. While the majority of studies report on the role of elevated acetylation in memory facilitation, we address the impact of both, increased and decreased acetylation on formation of appetitive olfactory memory in honeybees. We show that learning-induced changes in the acetylation of histone H3 at aminoacid-positions H3K9 and H3K18 exhibit distinct and different dynamics depending on the training strength. A strong training that induces LTM leads to an immediate increase in acetylation at H3K18 that stays elevated for hours. A weak training, not sufficient to trigger LTM, causes an initial increase in acetylation at H3K18, followed by a strong reduction in acetylation at H3K18 below the control group level. Acetylation at position H3K9 is not affected by associative conditioning, indicating specific learning-induced actions on the acetylation machinery. Elevating acetylation levels by blocking HDACs after conditioning leads to an improved memory. While memory after strong training is enhanced for at least 2 days, the enhancement after weak training is restricted to 1 day. Reducing acetylation levels by blocking HAT activity after strong training leads to a suppression of transcription-dependent LTM. The memory suppression is also observed in case of weak training, which does not require transcription processes. Thus, our findings demonstrate that acetylation-mediated processes act as bidirectional regulators of memory formation that facilitate or suppress memory independent of its transcription-requirement.

  14. The Drosophila Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ouija Board Controls Ecdysteroid Biosynthesis through Specific Regulation of spookier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Komura-Kawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are crucial for many biological events in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdysteroids, which play essential roles in regulating molting and metamorphosis. During larval and pupal development, ecdysteroids are synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG from dietary cholesterol via a series of hydroxylation and oxidation steps. The expression of all but one of the known ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzymes is restricted to the PG, but the transcriptional regulatory networks responsible for generating such exquisite tissue-specific regulation is only beginning to be elucidated. Here, we report identification and characterization of the C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor Ouija board (Ouib necessary for ecdysteroid production in the PG in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of ouib is predominantly limited to the PG, and genetic null mutants of ouib result in larval developmental arrest that can be rescued by administrating an active ecdysteroid. Interestingly, ouib mutant animals exhibit a strong reduction in the expression of one ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzyme, spookier. Using a cell culture-based luciferase reporter assay, Ouib protein stimulates transcription of spok by binding to a specific ~15 bp response element in the spok PG enhancer element. Most remarkable, the developmental arrest phenotype of ouib mutants is rescued by over-expression of a functionally-equivalent paralog of spookier. These observations imply that the main biological function of Ouib is to specifically regulate spookier transcription during Drosophila development.

  15. The Drosophila Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ouija Board Controls Ecdysteroid Biosynthesis through Specific Regulation of spookier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura-Kawa, Tatsuya; Hirota, Keiko; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yamauchi, Rieko; Shimell, MaryJane; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; O’Connor, Michael B.; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are crucial for many biological events in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdysteroids, which play essential roles in regulating molting and metamorphosis. During larval and pupal development, ecdysteroids are synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG) from dietary cholesterol via a series of hydroxylation and oxidation steps. The expression of all but one of the known ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzymes is restricted to the PG, but the transcriptional regulatory networks responsible for generating such exquisite tissue-specific regulation is only beginning to be elucidated. Here, we report identification and characterization of the C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor Ouija board (Ouib) necessary for ecdysteroid production in the PG in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of ouib is predominantly limited to the PG, and genetic null mutants of ouib result in larval developmental arrest that can be rescued by administrating an active ecdysteroid. Interestingly, ouib mutant animals exhibit a strong reduction in the expression of one ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzyme, spookier. Using a cell culture-based luciferase reporter assay, Ouib protein stimulates transcription of spok by binding to a specific ~15 bp response element in the spok PG enhancer element. Most remarkable, the developmental arrest phenotype of ouib mutants is rescued by over-expression of a functionally-equivalent paralog of spookier. These observations imply that the main biological function of Ouib is to specifically regulate spookier transcription during Drosophila development. PMID:26658797

  16. Enhancer-core-promoter specificity separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidi, Muhammad A; Arnold, Cosmas D; Schernhuber, Katharina; Pagani, Michaela; Rath, Martina; Frank, Olga; Stark, Alexander

    2015-02-26

    Gene transcription in animals involves the assembly of RNA polymerase II at core promoters and its cell-type-specific activation by enhancers that can be located more distally. However, how ubiquitous expression of housekeeping genes is achieved has been less clear. In particular, it is unknown whether ubiquitously active enhancers exist and how developmental and housekeeping gene regulation is separated. An attractive hypothesis is that different core promoters might exhibit an intrinsic specificity to certain enhancers. This is conceivable, as various core promoter sequence elements are differentially distributed between genes of different functions, including elements that are predominantly found at either developmentally regulated or at housekeeping genes. Here we show that thousands of enhancers in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and ovarian somatic cells (OSCs) exhibit a marked specificity to one of two core promoters--one derived from a ubiquitously expressed ribosomal protein gene and another from a developmentally regulated transcription factor--and confirm the existence of these two classes for five additional core promoters from genes with diverse functions. Housekeeping enhancers are active across the two cell types, while developmental enhancers exhibit strong cell-type specificity. Both enhancer classes differ in their genomic distribution, the functions of neighbouring genes, and the core promoter elements of these neighbouring genes. In addition, we identify two transcription factors--Dref and Trl--that bind and activate housekeeping versus developmental enhancers, respectively. Our results provide evidence for a sequence-encoded enhancer-core-promoter specificity that separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulatory programs for thousands of enhancers and their target genes across the entire genome.

  17. The DOF transcription factor Dof5.1 influences leaf axial patterning by promoting Revoluta transcription in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyungsae

    2010-10-05

    Dof proteins are transcription factors that have a conserved single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. In this study, we isolated an activation tagging mutant Dof5.1-D exhibiting an upward-curling leaf phenotype due to enhanced expression of the REV gene that is required for establishing adaxialabaxial polarity. Dof5.1-D plants also had reduced transcript levels for IAA6 and IAA19 genes, indicating an altered auxin biosynthesis in Dof5.1-D. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif and the REV promoter region indicated that the DNA-binding domain of Dof5.1 binds to a TAAAGT motif located in the 5′-distal promoter region of the REV promoter. Further, transient and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified binding activity of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif with the REV promoter. Consistent with binding assays, constitutive over-expression of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding domain in wild-type plants caused a downward-curling phenotype, whereas crossing Dof5.1-D to a rev mutant reverted the upward-curling phenotype of the Dof5.1-D mutant leaf to the wild-type. These results suggest that the Dof5.1 protein directly binds to the REV promoter and thereby regulates adaxialabaxial polarity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...

  19. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  20. From DNA binding to transcriptional activation: Is the TALE complete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobola, Nicoletta

    2017-09-04

    How transcription factors (TFs) control enhancer and promoter functions to effect changes in gene expression is an important question. In this issue, Hau et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201701154) show that the TALE TF MEIS recruits the histone modifier PARP1/ARTD1 at promoters to decompact chromatin and activate transcription. © 2017 Bobola.

  1. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design...... and reflect on a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition. This is framed with literature about exhibitions and transmedia, and analyzed with quantitative data from a case-study of visitors in the exhibition; this is organizationally contextualized. The contribution covers a significant gap...... in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  2. Inferential considerations for low-count RNA-seq transcripts: a case study on the dominant prairie grass Andropogon gerardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Seth; Johnson, Loretta; Galliart, Matthew; Brown, Sue; Shelton, Jennifer; Herndon, Nicolae; Bello, Nora M

    2016-02-27

    Differential expression (DE) analysis of RNA-seq data still poses inferential challenges, such as handling of transcripts characterized by low expression levels. In this study, we use a plasmode-based approach to assess the relative performance of alternative inferential strategies on RNA-seq transcripts, with special emphasis on transcripts characterized by a small number of read counts, so-called low-count transcripts, as motivated by an ecological application in prairie grasses. Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a wide-ranging dominant prairie grass of ecological and agricultural importance to the US Midwest while edaphic subspecies sand bluestem (A. gerardii ssp. Hallii) grows exclusively on sand dunes. Relative to big bluestem, sand bluestem exhibits qualitative phenotypic divergence consistent with enhanced drought tolerance, plausibly associated with transcripts of low expression levels. Our dataset consists of RNA-seq read counts for 25,582 transcripts (60% of which are classified as low-count) collected from leaf tissue of individual plants of big bluestem (n = 4) and sand bluestem (n = 4). Focused on low-count transcripts, we compare alternative ad-hoc data filtering techniques commonly used in RNA-seq pipelines and assess the inferential performance of recently developed statistical methods for DE analysis, namely DESeq2 and edgeR robust. These methods attempt to overcome the inherently noisy behavior of low-count transcripts by either shrinkage or differential weighting of observations, respectively. Both DE methods seemed to properly control family-wise type 1 error on low-count transcripts, whereas edgeR robust showed greater power and DESeq2 showed greater precision and accuracy. However, specification of the degree of freedom parameter under edgeR robust had a non-trivial impact on inference and should be handled carefully. When properly specified, both DE methods showed overall promising inferential performance on low-count transcripts

  3. Transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvergne, Béatrice; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

    2006-04-01

    Our understanding of metabolism is undergoing a dramatic shift. Indeed, the efforts made towards elucidating the mechanisms controlling the major regulatory pathways are now being rewarded. At the molecular level, the crucial role of transcription factors is particularly well-illustrated by the link between alterations of their functions and the occurrence of major metabolic diseases. In addition, the possibility of manipulating the ligand-dependent activity of some of these transcription factors makes them attractive as therapeutic targets. The aim of this review is to summarize recent knowledge on the transcriptional control of metabolic homeostasis. We first review data on the transcriptional regulation of the intermediary metabolism, i.e., glucose, amino acid, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism. Then, we analyze how transcription factors integrate signals from various pathways to ensure homeostasis. One example of this coordination is the daily adaptation to the circadian fasting and feeding rhythm. This section also discusses the dysregulations causing the metabolic syndrome, which reveals the intricate nature of glucose and lipid metabolism and the role of the transcription factor PPARgamma in orchestrating this association. Finally, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic regulations, which provide new opportunities for treating complex metabolic disorders.

  4. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  5. Space exhibitions: the science encounters the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coliolo, F.; Menendez, M.

    The widespread dissemination of science has always been one pillar of the development of human knowledge. There are several methods to structure interaction with the public: media, conferences, various written genres, and exhibitions. But: how to attract the public? How to arouse interest among future generation, insatiable for knowledge? In this paper we focus on space exhibitions, whose content combines mystery, discovery and science. The preparation of an exhibition is based on guidelines discussed between an interdisciplinary team and the exhibition project manager, the purpose of which is to find a coherent "strategy" to select information and to choose a concise, efficient, smart and original way to "visualize" the messages. Exhibition visitors are "privileged" because the interactivity is first emotive, then mental and cultural; the audience is universal. The goal of an exhibition is not to explain the content, but to stimulate the audience's curiosity in an attractive environment. We show some photos of ESA exhibitions, and try to understand if the visual impact is the first step towards a "multi-sensory" approach to communication. "A good exhibition can never be replaced by a book, a film or a lecture. A good exhibition creates a thirst for books, film, lectures. A good exhibition changes the visitors"(J. Wagensberg, Modern scientific museology")

  6. 21 CFR 12.98 - Official transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a verbatim stenographic transcript of oral testimony and for necessary copies of the transcript. (b... the transcript of oral testimony. Corrections are permitted only for transcription errors. The...

  7. Copia is transcriptionally responsive to environmental stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, D J; McDonald, J F

    1985-01-01

    Adult Drosophila subjected to a variety of environmental stresses that induce classic Drosophila heat shock response simultaneously exhibit a rapid and significant rise in copia homologous transcripts. Levels of Drosophila Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and 18s ribosomal RNA were unaffected by environmental stress. Copia's ability to be induced by stress is correlated with the presence of sequences homologous to the heat shock promoter consensus sequence which appear to be appropriately pos...

  8. Promoter of CaZF, a chickpea gene that positively regulates growth and stress tolerance, is activated by an AP2-family transcription factor CAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    Full Text Available Plants respond to different forms of stresses by inducing transcription of a common and distinct set of genes by concerted actions of a cascade of transcription regulators. We previously reported that a gene, CaZF encoding a C2H2-zinc finger family protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum imparted high salinity tolerance when expressed in tobacco plants. We report here that in addition to promoting tolerance against dehydration, salinity and high temperature, the CaZF overexpressing plants exhibited similar phenotype of growth and development like the plants overexpressing CAP2, encoding an AP2-family transcription factor from chickpea. To investigate any relationship between these two genes, we performed gene expression analysis in the overexpressing plants, promoter-reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A number of transcripts that exhibited enhanced accumulation upon expression of CAP2 or CaZF in tobacco plants were found common. Transient expression of CAP2 in chickpea leaves resulted in increased accumulation of CaZF transcript. Gel mobility shift and transient promoter-reporter assays suggested that CAP2 activates CaZF promoter by interacting with C-repeat elements (CRTs in CaZF promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay demonstrated an in vivo interaction of CAP2 protein with CaZF promoter.

  9. Which exhibition attributes create repeat visitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, J.; Webber, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies exhibition attributes deemed important by attendees’ in determining their attendance at the UK biennial MICROSCIENCE 2008 exhibition using a self-administered internet-based questionnaire. Perceived performance of attributes by attendees is also established. Attendees consider meeting specialists as well as gaining product and technical information to be very important attributes for exhibition selection. Application of an Importance Performance Analysis suggests that re...

  10. Regulation of Transcript Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogurov, Georgiy A.; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria lack subcellular compartments and harbor a single RNA polymerase that synthesizes both structural and protein-coding RNAs, which are cotranscriptionally processed by distinct pathways. Nascent rRNAs fold into elaborate secondary structures and associate with ribosomal proteins, whereas nascent mRNAs are translated by ribosomes. During elongation, nucleic acid signals and regulatory proteins modulate concurrent RNA-processing events, instruct RNA polymerase where to pause and terminate transcription, or act as roadblocks to the moving enzyme. Communications among complexes that carry out transcription, translation, repair, and other cellular processes ensure timely execution of the gene expression program and survival under conditions of stress. This network is maintained by auxiliary proteins that act as bridges between RNA polymerase, ribosome, and repair enzymes, blurring boundaries between separate information-processing steps and making assignments of unique regulatory functions meaningless. Understanding the regulation of transcript elongation thus requires genome-wide approaches, which confirm known and reveal new regulatory connections. PMID:26132790

  11. Deciphering Transcriptional Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind

    control spanning the range from completely muted to cranked up to maximum. The volume, in this case, is the production rate of proteins. This production is the result of a two step procedure: i) transcription, in which a small part of DNA from the genome (a gene) is transcribed into an RNA molecule (an mRNA...... prediction and provide tools that help investigators use these. In addition, a de novo motif discovery tool was developed that locates these patterns in DNA sequences. This compared favorably to many contemporary methods. A novel experimental method, cap-analysis of gene expression (CAGE), was recently......); and ii) translation, in which the mRNA is translated into a protein. This thesis focus on the ¿rst of these steps, transcription, and speci¿cally the initiation of this. Simpli¿ed, initiation is preceded by the binding of several proteins, known as transcription factors (TFs), to DNA. This takes place...

  12. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local authorizations. (i) A copy of any certificate of public convenience and necessity or similar..., showing towns and communities to be served, and (b) gas producing and storage filed, or other sources of.... (8) Exhibit G-II—Flow diagram data. Exhibits G and G-I shall be accompanied by a statement of...

  13. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.7 Applications: exhibits. Each exhibit must contain a title page..., and substations description including: (i) Conductor size and type; (ii) Type of structures; (iii... existing if applicable) substations or switching stations that will be associated with the proposed new...

  14. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  15. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  16. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  17. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design ...

  18. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition. The media...

  19. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  20. Paolo Gioli: An Exercise in Exhibition Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Camporesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The text is thought as a brief museological and museographical journey of Paolo Gioli’s exhibition “Volti” [“Faces”], that allows the reader to go through the exhibition-making process, discussing, among others, the difficulties that I have encountered.

  1. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  2. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  3. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of the Conjugal Transfer Genes of Rickettsia bellii RML 369-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan C Heu

    Full Text Available Rickettsia bellii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is one of the few rickettsiae that encode a complete set of conjugative transfer (tra genes involved in bacterial conjugation and has been shown to exhibit pili-like structures. The reductive genomes of rickettsiae beg the question whether the tra genes are nonfunctional or functioning to enhance the genetic plasticity and biology of rickettsiae. We characterized the transcriptional dynamics of R. bellii tra genes in comparison to genes transcribed stably and above the background level to understand when and at what levels the tra genes are active or whether the tra genes are degenerative. We determined that the best reference genes, out of 10 tested, were methionyl tRNA ligase (metG or a combination of metG and ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 2 subunit beta (nrdF, using statistical algorithms from two different programs: Normfinder and BestKeeper. To validate the use of metG with other rickettsial genes exhibiting variable transcriptional patterns we examined its use with sca2 and rickA, genes involved in actin based motility. Both were shown to be up-regulated at different times of replication in Vero cells, showing variable and stable transcription levels of rickA and sca2, respectively. traATi was up-regulated at 72 hours post inoculation in the tick cell line ISE6, but showed no apparent changes in the monkey cell line Vero and mouse cell line L929. The transcription of tra genes was positively correlated with one another and up-regulated from 12 to 72 hours post inoculation (HPI when compared to RBE_0422 (an inactivated transposase-derivative found within the tra cluster. Thus, the up-regulation of the tra genes indicated that the integrity and activity of each gene were intact and may facilitate the search for the optimal conditions necessary to demonstrate conjugation in rickettsiae.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa from canine otitis externa exhibit a quorum sensing deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, E A M; Wilke, H L; Petermann, S R; Rust, L

    2004-04-05

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB elastase gene (lasB) transcription depends on cell density-dependent quorum-sensing mechanisms of gene activation. Previously, we collected several non-mucoid P. aeruginosa veterinary isolates and showed that the total matrix protease phenotype was similar for isolates regardless of host and site of isolation. In contrast, isolates from chronic canine ear infections (otitis externa) were significantly more likely to exhibit less elastase activity as measured by elastin Congo red than from any other site [Clin. Diag. Lab. Immun. 8 (2001) 632]. In this study, we found that the elastase deficiency phenotype is stable upon passage in broth culture. Transcript amplification analyses indicated that the elastase deficiency appears to be strain-specific, with each isolate exhibiting a unique expression profile relative to strain PAO1. Although a number of strain-specific transcriptional differences were observed, the overall pattern that emerges is a quorum sensing deficiency among canine ear P. aeruginosa isolates.

  6. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  7. Rhythm quantization for transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cemgil, A.T.; Desain, P.W.M.; Kappen, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic Music Transcription is the extraction of an acceptable notation from performed music. One important task in this problem is rhythm quantization which refers to categorization of note durations. Although quantization of a pure mechanical performance is rather straightforward, the task

  8. Actinomycin and DNA transcription.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobell, H M

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

  9. Actinomycin and DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, H M

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis. Images PMID:2410919

  10. transcriptional regulatory element

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... Further test of the effect of WPRE on plasmid-mediated gene expression with two therapeutic proteins showed substantial ... promoter-independent, and provide valuable information to improve vectors for efficient and stable gene expression in ... transcriptional events concerning the recombinant. mRNA.

  11. Bayesian Music Transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cemgil, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Music transcription refers to extraction of a human readable and interpretable description from a recording of a music performance. The final goal is to implement a program that can automatically infer a musical notation that lists the pitch levels of notes and corresponding score positions in any

  12. Actinomycin and DNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobell, H.M.

    1985-08-01

    Recent advances in understanding how actinomycin binds to DNA have suggested its mechanism of action. Actinomycin binds to a premelted DNA conformation present within the transcriptional complex. This immobilizes the complex, interfering with the elongation of growing RNA chains. The model has a number of implications for understanding RNA synthesis.

  13. Absolute measurement of gene transcripts with Selfie-digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesniy, Petar; Trullas, Ramon

    2017-08-21

    Absolute measurement of the number of RNA transcripts per gene is necessary to compare gene transcription among different tissues or experimental conditions and to assess transcription of genes that have a variable copy number per cell such as mitochondrial DNA. Here, we present a method called Selfie-digital PCR that measures the absolute amount of an RNA transcript produced by its own coding DNA at a particular moment. Overcoming the limitations of previous approaches, Selfie-digital PCR allows for the quantification of nuclear and mitochondrial gene transcription in a strand-specific manner that is comparable among tissues and cell types that differ in gene copy number or metabolic state. Using Selfie-digital PCR, we found that, with the exception of the liver, different organs exhibit marked variations in mitochondrial DNA copy number but similar transcription of mitochondrial DNA heavy and light chains, thus suggesting a preferential role of mitochondrial DNA abundance over its transcription in organ function. Moreover, the strand-specific analysis of mitochondrial transcription afforded by Selfie-digital PCR showed that transcription of the heavy strand was significantly higher than that of the light strand in all the tissues studied.

  14. Vps factors are required for efficient transcription elongation in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Naseem A; Hasek, Jiri; Brickner, Donna Garvey; Qiu, Hongfang; Zhang, Fan; Wong, Chi-Ming; Malcova, Ivana; Vasicova, Pavla; Brickner, Jason H; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain Vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins, factors that mediate vesicular protein trafficking, have additional roles in regulating transcription factors at the endosome. We found that yeast mutants lacking the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] kinase Vps34 or its associated protein kinase Vps15 display multiple phenotypes indicating impaired transcription elongation. These phenotypes include reduced mRNA production from long or G+C-rich coding sequences (CDS) without affecting the associated GAL1 promoter activity, and a reduced rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) progression through lacZ CDS in vivo. Consistent with reported genetic interactions with mutations affecting the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutations reduce NuA4 occupancy in certain transcribed CDS. vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutants also exhibit impaired localization of the induced GAL1 gene to the nuclear periphery. We found unexpectedly that, similar to known transcription elongation factors, these and several other Vps factors can be cross-linked to the CDS of genes induced by Gcn4 or Gal4 in a manner dependent on transcriptional induction and stimulated by Cdk7/Kin28-dependent phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We also observed colocalization of a fraction of Vps15-GFP and Vps34-GFP with nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions in live cells. These findings suggest that Vps factors enhance the efficiency of transcription elongation in a manner involving their physical proximity to nuclear pores and transcribed chromatin.

  15. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors.

  16. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  17. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points...

  18. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  19. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  20. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  1. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  2. DNA Topoisomerases in Transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Morten Terpager

    2015-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most of the ex......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most...... topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex. The second study is an investigation of how topoisomerases influence gene regulation by keeping the genome in an optimal topological state....

  3. CaWRKY58, encoding a group I WRKY transcription factor of Capsicum annuum, negatively regulates resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuna; Dang, Fengfeng; Liu, Zhiqin; Wang, Xu; Eulgem, Thomas; Lai, Yan; Yu, Lu; She, Jianju; Shi, Youliang; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Guan, Deyi; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-02-01

    WRKY transcription factors are encoded by large gene families across the plant kingdom. So far, their biological and molecular functions in nonmodel plants, including pepper (Capsicum annuum) and other Solanaceae, remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the functional characterization of a new group I WRKY protein from pepper, termed CaWRKY58. Our data indicate that CaWRKY58 can be localized to the nucleus and can activate the transcription of the reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the 35S core promoter with two copies of the W-box in its proximal upstream region. In pepper plants infected with the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, CaWRKY58 transcript levels showed a biphasic response, manifested in an early/transient down-regulation and late up-regulation. CaWRKY58 transcripts were suppressed by treatment with methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid. Tobacco plants overexpressing CaWRKY58 did not show any obvious morphological phenotypes, but exhibited disease symptoms of greater severity than did wild-type plants. The enhanced susceptibility of CaWRKY58-overexpressing tobacco plants correlated with the decreased expression of hypersensitive response marker genes, as well as various defence-associated genes. Consistently, CaWRKY58 pepper plants silenced by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) displayed enhanced resistance to the highly virulent R. solanacearum strain FJC100301, and this was correlated with enhanced transcripts of defence-related pepper genes. Our results suggest that CaWRKY58 acts as a transcriptional activator of negative regulators in the resistance of pepper to R. solanacearum infection. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  4. Spanish dialects: phonetic transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Bilbao, M. Asunción; Mariño Acebal, José Bernardo

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that canonical Spanish, the dialectal variant `central' of Spain, so called Castilian, can be transcribed by rules. This paper deals with the automatic grapheme to phoneme transcription rules in several Spanish dialects from Latin America. Spanish is a language spoken by more than 300 million people, has an important geographical dispersion compared among other languages and has been historically influenced by many native languages. In this paper authors expand the Castilian ...

  5. A kinetic model of TBP auto-regulation exhibits bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sucheta A; Roshan, Reema; Khetan, Vivek; Pillai, Beena; Gadgil, Chetan J

    2010-08-05

    TATA Binding Protein (TBP) is required for transcription initiation by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases. It participates in transcriptional initiation at the majority of eukaryotic gene promoters, either by direct association to the TATA box upstream of the transcription start site or by indirectly localizing to the promoter through other proteins. TBP exists in solution in a dimeric form but binds to DNA as a monomer. Here, we present the first mathematical model for auto-catalytic TBP expression and use it to study the role of dimerization in maintaining the steady state TBP level. We show that the autogenous regulation of TBP results in a system that is capable of exhibiting three steady states: an unstable low TBP state, one stable state corresponding to a physiological TBP concentration, and another stable steady state corresponding to unviable cells where no TBP is expressed. Our model predicts that a basal level of TBP is required to establish the transcription of the TBP gene, and hence for cell viability. It also predicts that, for the condition corresponding to a typical mammalian cell, the high-TBP state and cell viability is sensitive to variation in DNA binding strength. We use the model to explore the effect of the dimer in buffering the response to changes in TBP levels, and show that for some physiological conditions the dimer is not important in buffering against perturbations. Results on the necessity of a minimum basal TBP level support the in vivo observations that TBP is maternally inherited, providing the small amount of TBP required to establish its ubiquitous expression. The model shows that the system is sensitive to variations in parameters indicating that it is vulnerable to mutations in TBP. A reduction in TBP-DNA binding constant can lead the system to a regime where the unviable state is the only steady state. Contrary to the current hypotheses, we show that under some physiological conditions the dimer is not very important in

  6. A NAC Transcription Factor Represses Putrescine Biosynthesis and Affects Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Bing; Sun, Peipei; Xiao, Chang; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC)-mediated putrescine biosynthesis plays an important role in plant stress responses, but the transcriptional regulation of ADC in response to abiotic stress is not well understood. We isolated a NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing transcription factor, PtrNAC72, from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) by yeast one-hybrid screening. PtrNAC72, localized to the nucleus, binds specifically to the promoter of PtADC and acts as a transcriptional repressor. PtrNAC72 expression was induced by cold, drought, and abscisic acid. ADC messenger RNA abundance and putrescine levels were decreased in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) plants overexpressing PtrNAC72 but increased, compared with the wild type, in an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion mutant, nac72 While transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PtrNAC72 were more sensitive to drought, plants of the Arabidopsis nac72 mutant exhibited enhanced drought tolerance, consistent with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the tested genotypes. In addition, exogenous application of putrescine to the overexpression lines restored drought tolerance, while treatment with d-arginine, an ADC inhibitor, compromised the drought tolerance of nac72 Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrNAC72 is a repressor of putrescine biosynthesis and may negatively regulate the drought stress response, at least in part, via the modulation of putrescine-associated reactive oxygen species homeostasis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A NAC Transcription Factor Represses Putrescine Biosynthesis and Affects Drought Tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Bing; Sun, Peipei; Xiao, Chang; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC)-mediated putrescine biosynthesis plays an important role in plant stress responses, but the transcriptional regulation of ADC in response to abiotic stress is not well understood. We isolated a NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing transcription factor, PtrNAC72, from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) by yeast one-hybrid screening. PtrNAC72, localized to the nucleus, binds specifically to the promoter of PtADC and acts as a transcriptional repressor. PtrNAC72 expression was induced by cold, drought, and abscisic acid. ADC messenger RNA abundance and putrescine levels were decreased in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) plants overexpressing PtrNAC72 but increased, compared with the wild type, in an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion mutant, nac72. While transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PtrNAC72 were more sensitive to drought, plants of the Arabidopsis nac72 mutant exhibited enhanced drought tolerance, consistent with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the tested genotypes. In addition, exogenous application of putrescine to the overexpression lines restored drought tolerance, while treatment with d-arginine, an ADC inhibitor, compromised the drought tolerance of nac72. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrNAC72 is a repressor of putrescine biosynthesis and may negatively regulate the drought stress response, at least in part, via the modulation of putrescine-associated reactive oxygen species homeostasis. PMID:27663409

  8. Mechanochemical ATPases and transcriptional activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, X; Chaney, M; Wigneshweraraj, Siva R; Schumacher, J; Bordes, P; Cannon, W; Buck, M

    2002-01-01

    ... transcription from other ATP‐independent activation mechanisms that rely on the recruitment of RNAP by transcription factors. As described below, productive interactions between σ 54 and its a...

  9. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation of the t......To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... a select group of transcription factors that demonstrate the diversity displayed in their mode of activation and inactivation....

  10. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  11. Transforming Growth Factor β2 Promotes Transcription of COX2 and EP4, Leading to a Prostaglandin E2-Driven Autostimulatory Loop That Enhances Virulence of Theileria annulata-Transformed Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echebli, Nadia; Ding, Ying; Kamau, Everlyn

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility and is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-β consequently plays a central role in carcinogenesis, and a dampened TGF-β2 response by Theileria annulata-infected monocytes/macrophages underpins disease resistance to tropical theileriosis. Here, we show that concomitant with the loss of TGF-β2 production, there is ablated expression of COX2 and EP4, which leads to a drop in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and, consequently, reduced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and EPAC. This ablated phenotype can be rescued in attenuated macrophages by the addition of exogenous TGF-β2, which reactivates the expression of COX2 and EP4 while repressing that of protein kinase inhibitor gamma (PKIG) to the levels in virulent macrophages. TGF-β2 therefore promotes the adhesion and invasiveness of virulent macrophages by modulating COX2, EP4, and PKIG transcription to initiate a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-driven autostimulatory loop that augments PKA and EPAC activities. A virulence phenotype stemming from the double activation of PKA and EPAC is the induction of a CREB-mediated transcriptional program and the upregulation of JAM-L- and integrin 4αβ1-mediated adhesion of Theileria-infected macrophages. PMID:25690101

  12. Transcriptional networks controlling adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, R; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a complex cascade of signals that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of the fibroblastic precursors. Genome-wide analyses of chromatin accessibility and binding of adipogenic transcription factors make it possible to generate "snapshots" of the trans......Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by a complex cascade of signals that drive the transcriptional reprogramming of the fibroblastic precursors. Genome-wide analyses of chromatin accessibility and binding of adipogenic transcription factors make it possible to generate "snapshots...

  13. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  14. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  15. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.

  16. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Deng, Pengyi; Chen, Liulin; Wang, Xiatian; Ma, Hui; Hu, Wei; Yao, Ningcong; Feng, Ying; Chai, Ruihong; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.

  17. The Groucho co-repressor is primarily recruited to local target sites in active chromatin to attenuate transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamna Kaul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is regulated by the complex interaction between transcriptional activators and repressors, which function in part by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to control accessibility of DNA to RNA polymerase. The evolutionarily conserved family of Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE proteins act as co-repressors for numerous transcription factors. Gro/TLE proteins act in several key pathways during development (including Notch and Wnt signaling, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Gro/TLE proteins form oligomers and it has been proposed that their ability to exert long-range repression on target genes involves oligomerization over broad regions of chromatin. However, analysis of an endogenous gro mutation in Drosophila revealed that oligomerization of Gro is not always obligatory for repression in vivo. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq to profile Gro recruitment in two Drosophila cell lines. We find that Gro predominantly binds at discrete peaks (<1 kilobase. We also demonstrate that blocking Gro oligomerization does not reduce peak width as would be expected if Gro oligomerization induced spreading along the chromatin from the site of recruitment. Gro recruitment is enriched in "active" chromatin containing developmentally regulated genes. However, Gro binding is associated with local regions containing hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4, which is indicative of chromatin that is not fully open for efficient transcription. We also find that peaks of Gro binding frequently overlap the transcription start sites of expressed genes that exhibit strong RNA polymerase pausing and that depletion of Gro leads to release of polymerase pausing and increased transcription at a bona fide target gene. Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone

  18. Emerging roles for MEF2 transcription factors in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A J; Cole, C J; Josselyn, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, transcription factors are critical for linking external stimuli to protein production, enabling neurons and neuronal networks to adapt to the ever-changing landscape. Gene transcription and protein synthesis are also vital for the formation of long-term memory. Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors have a well-characterized role in the development of a variety of tissues, but their role in the adult brain is only beginning to be understood. Recent evidence indicates that MEF2 regulates the structural and synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. However, in stark contrast to most other transcription factors implicated in memory, MEF2-mediated transcription constrains (rather than promotes) memory formation. Here, we review recent data examining the role of MEF2 in adult memory formation in rodents. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  20. Do cylinders exhibit a cubatic phase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, R.; Frenkel, D.; Mulder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that freely rotating cylinders with an aspect ratio L/D = 0.9 exhibit a cubatic phase similar to the one found for a system of cut spheres. We present theoretical arguments why a cubatic phase might occur in this particular system. Monte Carlo simulations do not

  1. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but ...

  2. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  3. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export..., OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153.8... for the export or the import of natural gas is within the authorized powers of applicant, that...

  4. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-03-20

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase α respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human α-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy.

  5. Human genes with a greater number of transcript variants tend to show biological features of housekeeping and essential genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    found to have a single transcript, and the remaining genes had 2 to 77 transcript variants. The genes with more transcript variants exhibited greater frequencies of acting as housekeeping and essential genes rather than tissue-selective and non-essential genes. They were found to be more conserved among...

  6. Variation of G-rich mitochondrial transcripts among stocks of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Feagin, J E; Payne, M; Stuart, K

    1987-01-15

    We have compared maxicircle transcripts from eight stocks of subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei. Transcripts from the rRNA and protein genes have a constant size among stocks and exhibit only minor variation in abundance. In contrast, four of the G+C rich sequences encode multiple transcripts that very markedly in size or abundance. Maxicircle nucleotide sequence comparison of three stocks shows very limited sequence divergence suggesting that sequence divergence may not explain the transcript variability. These results suggest that the G-rich transcripts do not encode proteins and that their variability among stocks may result from posttranscriptional processing events.

  7. Transcription factor decoy technology: A therapeutic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H

    2017-11-15

    Targeting transcription factors represents one possibility to interfere with a known activated regulatory pathway that promotes disease. Double-stranded transcription factor decoy (TFD) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are therapeutic drug candidates, which are able to specifically target and neutralize key transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of a given disease. These short double-stranded TFD molecules mimic the consensus DNA binding site of a specific transcription factor in the promoter region of its target genes. Therefore, it is possible to exploit this nucleic acid-based drug class for the treatment of diseases caused by aberrant expression of such target genes the products of which are involved in disease initiation and progression. This research update focuses firstly on the mechanism of action of TFD molecules. Long-term effects of such ODNs depend on their stability and the efficiency by which they are delivered to the target tissue and taken up by their target cells. Hence structural modifications like e.g., single-stranded TFD molecules hybridising to itself to form an intramolecular hairpin molecule or circular ODNs assuming a dumbbell configuration, intended to enhance both stability and efficacy, are addressed. Also specific drug delivery methods like ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction with TFD ODN-coated microbubbles or adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for tissue-specific transduction and long-term TFD molecule expression in non-dividing cells will be discussed. Finally, current therapeutic applications of TFD ODN will be summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1, c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf.

  9. Pea3 transcription factor promotes neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASAK eKANDEMIR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pea3 subfamily of ETS transcription factors consist of three major proteins, Pea3, ERM and ER81. Although important for many different tissues that exhibit branching morphogenesis, the function of Pea3 family in nervous system development and regeneration is only beginning to unfold. In this study, we provide evidence that Pea3 can directs neurite extension and axonal outgrowth in different model systems, and that Serine 90 is important for this function. We have also identified neurofilament-L and neurofilament-M as two putative novel targets for Pea3.

  10. CTCF driven TERRA transcription facilitates completion of telomere DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beishline, Kate; Vladimirova, Olga; Tutton, Stephen; Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-12-13

    Telomere repeat DNA forms a nucleo-protein structure that can obstruct chromosomal DNA replication, especially under conditions of replication stress. Transcription of telomere repeats can initiate at subtelomeric CTCF-binding sites to generate telomere repeat-encoding RNA (TERRA), but the role of transcription, CTCF, and TERRA in telomere replication is not known. Here, we have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to mutate CTCF-binding sites at the putative start site of TERRA transcripts for a class of subtelomeres. Under replication stress, telomeres lacking CTCF-driven TERRA exhibit sister-telomere loss and upon entry into mitosis, exhibit the formation of ultra-fine anaphase bridges and micronuclei. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued by the forced transcription of TERRA independent of CTCF binding. Our findings indicate that subtelomeric CTCF facilitates telomeric DNA replication by promoting TERRA transcription. Our findings also demonstrate that CTCF-driven TERRA transcription acts in cis to facilitate telomere repeat replication and chromosome stability.

  11. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  12. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  13. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Blebbishields and mitotic cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Goodwin G; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells. In addition, inhibiting macropinocytosis did not inhibit construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. Thus, although apoptotic cancer stem cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis, macropinocytosis is not essential to generate blebbishields, although it may play other roles in blebbishield biology. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):181-186, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. CERN's new microcosm exhibition is now open

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    After a major revamp in 2015, CERN’s microcosm exhibition is once again open to visitors. The exhibition is free and open to all without reservation and visitors are encouraged to share their #microcosm @CERN experiences on social media. Read more: http://cern.ch/go/7HWC -Producer- CERN Video Productions -Director- Kate Kahle -Camera- indissoluble.com and Julien Ordan -Editor- Julien Ordan -Infography- Daniel Dominguez Noemi Caraban -Music- “Light Years” by Stellardrone http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Ste... You can follow us on: cern.ch youtube.com/cerntv google.com/+CERN facebook.com/cern twitter.com/cern/ linkedin.com/company/cern instagram.com/cern Copyright © 2016 CERN. Terms of use: http://copyright.web.cern.ch/

  16. Craft Generation - Exhibition / Symposium / Workshops / Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    2014 saw a national programme celebrating 25 years of contemporary visual art under the banner of GENERATION.  \\ud \\ud FCA&C (Fife Contemporary Art & Craft) wanted to recognise and celebrate the achievements of Contemporary Scottish Craft practitioners, highlighting creativity, skills, and the career of key individuals as well as and the continuation and renewal of skill and Craftsmanship. \\ud \\ud Established craft artists will exhibited along with artists from the following generation whose ...

  17. PLATE: Product Lifetimes And The Environment Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The PLATE (Product Lifetimes And The Environment) Exhibition explored critical themes related to how long products last in contemporary society. The topic of product longevity is examined in innovative ways through prototypes, objects, artefacts, posters, photographs and films produced by designers, social businesses, artists, researchers, lecturers and students.\\ud \\ud Featuring household products, furniture, lighting, fashion, jewellery and artworks, this collection of visual work embraced ...

  18. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  19. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  20. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  1. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  2. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  3. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  4. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  5. Promoter polymorphisms regulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Wahle, M; Moritz, F; Wagner, U; Häntzschel, H; Baerwald, C G O

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms in the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter are associated with altered CRH gene regulation, we studied the reactivity of three recently described promoter variants in vitro. The 3625 bp variants A1B1, A2B1 and A2B2 of the human CRH promoter were cloned in the 5' region to a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into both mouse anterior pituitary cells AtT-20D16vF2 and pheochromocytoma cells PC12. Incubation with 8-Br-cAMP alone or in combination with cytokines significantly enhanced the promoter activity in both cell lines studied by up to 22-fold. However, dexamethasone antagonised cAMP effects on CRH expression in AtT-20 cells while showing no effect on PC12 cells, indicating that tissue-specific factors play a crucial role. Among the haplotypes studied, A1B1 exhibited the greatest reactivity on various stimuli. Electric mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to study whether the described polymorphic nucleotide sequences in the 5' region of the hCRH gene interfere with binding of nuclear proteins. A specific DNA protein complex was detected at position -2353 bp for the wild type sequence only, possibly interfering with a binding site for the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate that CRH promoter reactivity varies between the compound promoter alleles.

  6. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks.

  7. Roles of Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4 Transcription Factors in Plant Responses to Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Baofang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic responses. It has been previously shown that Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4, which encode two structurally similar WRKY transcription factors, are induced by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA. However, the role of the two WRKY transcription factors in plant disease resistance has not been directly analyzed. Results Both WRKY3 and WRKY4 are nuclear-localized and specifically recognize the TTGACC W-box sequences in vitro. Expression of WRKY3 and WRKY4 was induced rapidly by stress conditions generated by liquid infiltration or spraying. Stress-induced expression of WRKY4 was further elevated by pathogen infection and SA treatment. To determine directly their role in plant disease resistance, we have isolated T-DNA insertion mutants and generated transgenic overexpression lines for WRKY3 and WRKY4. Both the loss-of-function mutants and transgenic overexpression lines were examined for responses to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The wrky3 and wrky4 single and double mutants exhibited more severe disease symptoms and support higher fungal growth than wild-type plants after Botrytis infection. Although disruption of WRKY3 and WRKY4 did not have a major effect on plant response to P. syringae, overexpression of WRKY4 greatly enhanced plant susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen and suppressed pathogen-induced PR1 gene expression. Conclusion The nuclear localization and sequence-specific DNA-binding activity support that WRKY3 and WRKY4 function as transcription factors. Functional analysis based on T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic overexpression lines indicates that WRKY3 and WRKY4 have a positive role in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and WRKY4 has a negative effect on plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  8. Rad51 activates polyomavirus JC early transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn K White

    Full Text Available The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV causes the fatal CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. JCV infection is very common and after primary infection, the virus is able to persist in an asymptomatic state. Rarely, and usually only under conditions of immune impairment, JCV re-emerges to actively replicate in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the brain causing PML. The regulatory events involved in the reactivation of active viral replication in PML are not well understood but previous studies have implicated the transcription factor NF-κB acting at a well-characterized site in the JCV noncoding control region (NCCR. NF-κB in turn is regulated in a number of ways including activation by cytokines such as TNF-α, interactions with other transcription factors and epigenetic events involving protein acetylation--all of which can regulate the transcriptional activity of JCV. Active JCV infection is marked by the occurrence of rapid and extensive DNA damage in the host cell and the induction of the expression of cellular proteins involved in DNA repair including Rad51, a major component of the homologous recombination-directed double-strand break DNA repair machinery. Here we show that increased Rad51 expression activates the JCV early promoter. This activation is co-operative with the stimulation caused by NF-κB p65, abrogated by mutation of the NF-κB binding site or siRNA to NFκB p65 and enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. These data indicate that the induction of Rad51 resulting from infection with JCV acts through NF-κB via its binding site to stimulate JCV early transcription. We suggest that this provides a novel positive feedback mechanism to enhance viral gene expression during the early stage of JCV infection.

  9. Transcriptional Regulation in Haematopoiesis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Felicia K B

    in transplantation studies. Consistent with this, transcriptome profiling revealed very low expression of cell cycle genes in these reporter-dim HSCs. Sequencing of >1200 single HSCs confirmed that the main source of transcriptional heterogeneity was the cell cycle. It also revealed a low-level expression...... of distinct lineage affiliated genes in the otherwise highly purified HSCs. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the use of our model as a tool for isolating superior HSCs, and show that low-level expression of mature lineage markers is inherent in the highly purified stem cell compartment. In the second...... study we profiled the global DNA binding sites of two major players in myeloid differentiation – PU.1 and C/EBPα - together with histone modifications in four successive stages of myeloid differentiation (LSK, preGM, GMP and mature granulocytes). Consistent with their haematopoietic expression patterns...

  10. Euglena Transcript Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, David C; Russell, Anthony G

    2017-01-01

    RNA transcript processing is an important stage in the gene expression pathway of all organisms and is subject to various mechanisms of control that influence the final levels of gene products. RNA processing involves events such as nuclease-mediated cleavage, removal of intervening sequences referred to as introns and modifications to RNA structure (nucleoside modification and editing). In Euglena, RNA transcript processing was initially examined in chloroplasts because of historical interest in the secondary endosymbiotic origin of this organelle in this organism. More recent efforts to examine mitochondrial genome structure and RNA maturation have been stimulated by the discovery of unusual processing pathways in other Euglenozoans such as kinetoplastids and diplonemids. Eukaryotes containing large genomes are now known to typically contain large collections of introns and regulatory RNAs involved in RNA processing events, and Euglena gracilis in particular has a relatively large genome for a protist. Studies examining the structure of nuclear genes and the mechanisms involved in nuclear RNA processing have revealed that indeed Euglena contains large numbers of introns in the limited set of genes so far examined and also possesses large numbers of specific classes of regulatory and processing RNAs, such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Most interestingly, these studies have also revealed that Euglena possesses novel processing pathways generating highly fragmented cytosolic ribosomal RNAs and subunits and non-conventional intron classes removed by unknown splicing mechanisms. This unexpected diversity in RNA processing pathways emphasizes the importance of identifying the components involved in these processing mechanisms and their evolutionary emergence in Euglena species.

  11. First Exon Length Controls Active Chromatin Signatures and Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole I. Bieberstein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we explore the role of splicing in transcription, employing both genome-wide analysis of human ChIP-seq data and experimental manipulation of exon-intron organization in transgenic cell lines. We show that the activating histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K9ac map specifically to first exon-intron boundaries. This is surprising, because these marks help recruit general transcription factors (GTFs to promoters. In genes with long first exons, promoter-proximal levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac are greatly reduced; consequently, GTFs and RNA polymerase II are low at transcription start sites (TSSs and exhibit a second, promoter-distal peak from which transcription also initiates. In contrast, short first exons lead to increased H3K4me3 and H3K9ac at promoters, higher expression levels, accuracy in TSS usage, and a lower frequency of antisense transcription. Therefore, first exon length is predictive for gene activity. Finally, splicing inhibition and intron deletion reduce H3K4me3 levels and transcriptional output. Thus, gene architecture and splicing determines transcription quantity and quality as well as chromatin signatures.

  12. Alternative Splicing of Rice WRKY62 and WRKY76 Transcription Factor Genes in Pathogen Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqin; Chen, Xujun; Liang, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Xiangui; Yang, Fang; Liu, Jia; He, Sheng Yang; Guo, Zejian

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors (TFs) functions as transcriptional activators or repressors in various signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered that OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76, two genes of the WRKY IIa subfamily, undergo constitutive and inducible alternative splicing. The full-length OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 proteins formed homocomplexes and heterocomplexes, and the heterocomplex dominates in the nuclei when analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic overexpression of OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 in rice (Oryza sativa) enhanced plant susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, whereas RNA interference and loss-of-function knockout plants exhibited elevated resistance. The dsOW62/76 and knockout lines of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 also showed greatly increased expression of defense-related genes and the accumulation of phytoalexins. The ratio of full-length versus truncated transcripts changed in dsOW62/76 plants as well as in response to pathogen infection. The short alternative OsWRKY62.2 and OsWRKY76.2 isoforms could interact with each other and with full-length proteins. OsWRKY62.2 showed a reduced repressor activity in planta, and two sequence determinants required for the repressor activity were identified in the amino terminus of OsWRKY62.1. The amino termini of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 splice variants also showed reduced binding to the canonical W box motif. These results not only enhance our understanding of the DNA-binding property, the repressor sequence motifs, and the negative feedback regulation of the IIa subfamily of WRKYs but also provide evidence for alternative splicing of WRKY TFs during the plant defense response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Dynamic Mechanism for the Transcription Apparatus Orchestrating Reliable Responses to Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaolai; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    The transcription apparatus (TA) is a huge molecular machine. It detects the time-varying concentrations of transcriptional activators and initiates mRNA transcripts at appropriate rates. Based on the general structural organizations of the TA, we propose how the TA dynamically orchestrates transcriptional responses. The activators rapidly cycle in and out of a clamp-like space temporarily formed between the enhancer and the Mediator, with the concentration of activators encoded as their temporal occupancy rate (RTOR) within the space. The entry of activators into this space induces allostery in the Mediator, resulting in a facilitated circumstance for transcriptional reinitiation. The reinitiation rate is much larger than the cycling rate of activators, thereby RTOR guiding the amount of transcripts. Based on this mechanism, stochastic simulations can qualitatively reproduce and interpret multiple features of gene expression, e.g., transcriptional bursting is not mere noise as traditionally believed, but rather the basis of reliable transcriptional responses.

  14. Quantitative analysis of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The elongation step in transcription has gained attention for its roles in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and for its influence on RNA processing. Sophisticated genetic analyses have identified factors and/or conditions that may affect transcription elongation rate or processivity; however, differentiation of direct and indirect effects on transcription is difficult using in vivo strategies. Therefore, effective, reproducible in vitro assays have been developed to test whether a given factor or condition can have a direct effect on the kinetics of transcription elongation. We have adapted a fully reconstituted transcription system for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) for kinetic analysis of transcription elongation rate in vitro. The assay described here has proven to be effective in the characterization of defects or enhancement of wild-type transcription elongation by RNA Pol I. Since transcription elongation by RNA Pol I has only recently gained significant attention, this assay will be a valuable resource for years to come.

  15. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increases resistin messenger ribonucleic acid through the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase-activating transcription factor 4-CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein pathway in THP-1 human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Junpei; Onuma, Hiroshi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Hirai, Hiroki; Takemoto, Koji; Miyoshi, Akiko; Matsushita, Manami; Kadota, Yuko; Ohashi, Jun; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Nishida, Wataru; Hashida, Seiichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. In humans, the resistin gene is mainly expressed in monocytes and macrophages. Tunicamycin is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduce resistin gene expression in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ER stress affects resistin gene expression in human monocytes. The relationship between resistin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and ER stress markers mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in isolated monocytes of 30 healthy volunteers. The effect of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides or tunicamycin on resistin gene expression was analyzed in THP-1 human monocytes. Signaling pathways leading to resistin mRNA were assessed by the knockdown using small interfering RNA or overexpression of key molecules involved in unfolded protein response. Resistin mRNA was positively associated with immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP) or CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA in human isolated monocytes. In THP-1 cells, lipopolysaccharides increased mRNA of BiP, pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (PERK) and CHOP, as well as resistin. Tunicamycin also increased resistin mRNA. This induction appeared to be dose- and time-dependent. Tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA was inhibited by chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid. The knockdown of either PERK, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or CHOP reduced tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA. Conversely, overexpression of ATF4 or CHOP increased resistin mRNA. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increased resistin mRNA through the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway in THP-1 human monocytes. ER stress could lead to insulin resistance through enhanced resistin gene expression in human monocytes.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Francesc; Peyrou, Marion; Giralt, Marta

    2017-03-01

    Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription. Two main regions-a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter region-mediate transcriptional regulation through interactions with a plethora of transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and cAMP-responsive transcription factors. Co-regulators, such as PGC-1α, play a pivotal role in the concerted regulation of UCP1 gene transcription. Multiple interactions of transcription factors and co-regulators at the promoter region of the UCP1 gene result in local chromatin remodeling, leading to activation and increased accessibility of RNA polymerase II and subsequent gene transcription. Moreover, a commonly occurring A-to-G polymorphism in close proximity to the UCP1 gene enhancer influences the extent of UCP1 gene transcription. Notably, it has been reported that specific aspects of obesity and associated metabolic diseases are associated with human population variability at this site. On another front, the unique properties of the UCP1 promoter region have been exploited to develop brown adipose tissue-specific gene delivery tools for experimental purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  19. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...

  20. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  1. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marquet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target.

  2. The post-transcriptional operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A post-transcriptional operon is a set of monocistronic mRNAs encoding functionally related proteins that are co-regulated by a group of RNA-binding proteins and/or small non-coding RNAs so that protein expression is coordinated at the post-transcriptional level. The post-transcriptional operon...... model (PTO) is used to describe data from an assortment of methods (e.g. RIP-Chip, CLIP-Chip, miRNA profiling, ribosome profiling) that globally address the functionality of mRNA. Several examples of post-transcriptional operons have been documented in the literature and demonstrate the usefulness...