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Sample records for exhibiting m-m bonding

  1. m m m contreras turrubiartes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. M M M CONTRERAS TURRUBIARTES. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 6 October 2017 pp 1225-1230. Thickness and photocatalytic activity relation in TiO 2 :N films grown by atomic layer deposition with methylene-blue and E. coli bacteria.

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  5. Contribution of Adsorbed Protein Films to Nanoscopic Vibrations Exhibited by Bacteria Adhering through Ligand-Receptor Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Lei; Sjollema, Jelmer; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria adhering to surfaces exhibit nanoscopic vibrations that depend on the viscoelasticity of the bond. The quantification of the nanoscopic vibrations of bacteria adhering to surfaces provides new opportunities to better understand the properties of the bond through which bacteria adhere and

  6. A manganese sulfite with extended metal-oxygen-metal bonds exhibiting hydrogen uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prabhakara; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    A manganese sulfite of the formula Mn 5 (OH) 4 (SO 3 ) 3 .2H 2 O, I{a=7.5759(7) A, b=8.4749(8) A, c=10.852(1) A, β=100.732(2) o , Z=2, space group=P2 1 /m (no. 11), R 1 =0.0399 and wR 2 =0.1121 [for R indexes I>2σ(I)]}, comprising Mn 3 O 14 units and extended Mn-O-Mn bonds along the three dimensions has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. It has narrow channels along the b-axis and exhibits hydrogen storage of 2.1 wt% at 300 K and 134 bar. - Graphical abstract: A three-dimensional manganese sulfite with one-dimensional channels showing selective hydrogen absorption has been synthesized and characterized

  7. Contribution of Adsorbed Protein Films to Nanoscopic Vibrations Exhibited by Bacteria Adhering through Ligand-Receptor Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Sjollema, Jelmer; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C

    2015-09-29

    Bacteria adhering to surfaces exhibit nanoscopic vibrations that depend on the viscoelasticity of the bond. The quantification of the nanoscopic vibrations of bacteria adhering to surfaces provides new opportunities to better understand the properties of the bond through which bacteria adhere and the mechanisms by which they resist detachment. Often, however, bacteria do not adhere to bare surfaces but to adsorbed protein films, on which adhesion involves highly specific ligand-receptor binding next to nonspecific DLVO interaction forces. Here we determine the contribution of adsorbed salivary protein and fibronectin films to vibrations exhibited by adhering streptococci and staphylococci, respectively. The streptococcal strain used has the ability to adhere to adsorbed salivary proteins films through antigen I/II ligand-receptor binding, while the staphylococcal strain used adheres to adsorbed fibronectin films through a proteinaceous ligand-receptor bond. In the absence of ligand-receptor binding, electrostatic interactions had a large impact on vibration amplitudes of adhering bacteria on glass. On an adsorbed salivary protein film, vibration amplitudes of adhering streptococci depended on the film softness as determined by QCM-D and were reduced after film fixation using glutaraldehyde. On a relatively stiff fibronectin film, cross-linking the film in glutaraldehyde hardly reduced its softness, and accordingly fibronectin film softness did not contribute to vibration amplitudes of adhering staphylococci. However, fixation of the staphylococcus-fibronectin bond further decreased vibration amplitudes, while fixation of the streptococcus bond hardly impacted vibration amplitudes. Summarizing, this study shows that both the softness of adsorbed protein films and the properties of the bond between an adhering bacterium and an adsorbed protein film play an important role in bacterial vibration amplitudes. These nanoscopic vibrations reflect the viscoelasticity of the

  8. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Forcherio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au nanoparticles (NP physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2 nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch’s t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  9. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Backes, Claudia; Vaynzof, Yana; Benamara, Mourad; Roper, D. Keith

    2017-07-01

    Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au) nanoparticles (NP) physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch's t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i) direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii) AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii) lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  10. New Redox Polymers that Exhibit Reversible Cleavage of Sulfur Bonds as Cathode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Marya; Ben Youcef, Hicham; Li, Chunmei; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Rodriguez, Lide M; Shanmukaraj, Devaraj; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2016-11-23

    Two new cathode materials based on redox organosulfur polymers were synthesized and investigated for rechargeable lithium batteries as a proof-of-concept study. These cathodes offered good cycling performance owing to the absence of polysulfide solubility, which plagues Li/S systems. Herein, an aliphatic polyamine or a conjugated polyazomethine was used as the base to tether the redox-active species. The activity comes from the cleavage and formation of S-S or N-S bonds, which is made possible by the rigid conjugated backbone. The synthesized polymers were characterized through FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Galvanostatic measurements were performed to evaluate the discharge/charge cycles and characterize the performance of the lithium-based cells, which displayed initial discharge capacities of approximately 300 mA h g -1 at C/5 over 100 cycles with approximately 98 % Coulombic efficiency. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Geometry and bonding in the ground and lowest triplet state of D{sub 6h} symmetric crenellated edged C{sub 6[3m(m-1)+1]}H{sub 6(2m-1)} (m = 2,..., 6) graphene hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, Michael R., E-mail: philpott@imr.edu [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan)

    2009-03-30

    Ab initio plane wave all valence electron based DFT calculations were used to explore the dichotomy of perimeter vs. interior in the electronic and geometric structure of the D{sub 6h} singlet ground state and D{sub 2h} lowest triplet state of planar graphene hydrocarbon molecules with crenellated (arm chair) edges and the general formula C{sub 6[3m(m-1)+1]} H{sub 6(2m-1)} where m = 2,...,6. The largest molecule C{sub 546}H{sub 66} was 4.78 nm across and contained 2250 valence electrons. These molecules are nominally 'fully benzenoid hydrocarbons'. However with increasing size, the core of central atoms abandoned any fully benzenoid geometry they had in small systems and organized into single layer graphite (graphene) structure. The perimeter atoms of the crenellation adopted a conjugated geometry with unequal bonds and between core and perimeter there were some C{sub 6} rings retaining remnants of aromatic sextet-type properties. Compared to a zigzag edge the crenellated edge conferred stability in all the systems studied as measured by the singlet homo-lumo level gap BG{sub 0} and the singlet-lowest triplet energy gap {Delta}E{sub ST}. For the largest crenellated system (m = 6) BG{sub 0} and {Delta}E{sub ST} were approximately 0.7 eV, larger in value than for similarly sized hexagonal graphenes with zigzag edges. Triplet states were identified for all the molecules in the series and in the case of the m = 2 molecule hexabenzocoronene C{sub 42}H{sub 18}, two conformations with D{sub 2h} symmetry were identified and compared to features on the triplet state potential energy surface of benzene.

  12. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Wann, Derek A; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, Aleš

    2017-10-17

    We have prepared nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 , the first cluster with simultaneous Sb-B, Sb-C and Sb-Sb atom pairs with interatomic separations with magnitudes that approach the respective sums of covalent radii. However, the length of the Sb-Sb separation in this cluster is slightly less than the sum of the covalent radii. Quantum chemical analysis has revealed that the crystal packing of nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 is predominantly dictated by pnictogen (Pn) bonding, an unconventional σ-hole interaction. Indeed, the interaction energy of a very strong Sb 2 H-B Pn-bond in the nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 dimer exceeds -6.0 kcal mol -1 . This is a very large value and is comparable to the strengths of known Pn-bonds in Cl 3 Pnπ complexes (Pn = As, Sb).

  13. Improving Student Understanding of Magmatic Differentiation Using an M&M Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K. R.

    2003-12-01

    Many students, especially those in introductory geology courses, have difficulty developing a deep understanding of the processes of magmatic differentiation. In particular, students often struggle to understand Bowen's reaction series and fractional crystallization. The process of fractional crystallization by gravity settling can be illustrated using a model magma chamber consisting of M&M's. In this model, each major cation (e.g., Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K) is represented by a different color M&M; other kinds of differently colored or shaped pieces could also be used. Appropriate numbers of each color M&M are combined to approximate the cation proportions of a basaltic magma. Students then fractionate the magma by moving M&M's to the bottom of the magma chamber forming a series of cumulus layers; the M&M's are removed in the stoichiometric proportions of cations in the crystallizing minerals (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, feldspars, quartz, magnetite, ilmenite). Students observe the changing cation composition (proportions of colors of M&M's) in the cumulus layers and in the magma chamber and graph the results using spreadsheet software. More advanced students (e.g., petrology course) can classify the cumulates and resulting liquid after each crystallization step, and they can compare the model system with natural magmatic systems (e.g., absence of important fractionating phases, volatiles). Students who have completed this exercise generally indicate a positive experience and demonstrate increased understanding of Bowen's reaction series and fractionation processes. They also exhibit greater familiarity with mineral stoichiometry, classification, solid-solution in minerals, element behavior (e.g., incompatibility), and chemical variation diagrams. Other models (e.g., paths of equilibrium and fractional crystallization on phase diagrams) can also be used to illustrate differentiation processes in upper level courses (e.g., mineralogy and petrology).

  14. Density functional calculations on 13-atom Pd12M (M = Sc—Ni) bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chun-Mei; Chen Sheng-Wei; Zhu Wei-Hua; Tao Cheng-Jun; Zhang Ai-Mei; Gong Jiang-Feng; Zou Hua; Liu Ming-Yi; Zhu Feng

    2012-01-01

    The geometric structures, electronic and magnetic properties of the 3d transition metal doped clusters Pd 12 M (M = Sc—Ni) are studied using the semi-core pseudopots density functional theory. The groundstate geometric structure of the Pd 12 M cluster is probably of pseudoicosahedron. The I h -Pd 12 M cluster has the most thermodynamic stability in five different symmetric isomers. The energy gap shows that Pd 12 M cluster is partly metallic. Both the absolutely predominant metal bond and very weak covalent bond might exist in the Pd 12 M cluster. The magnetic moment of Pd 12 M varies from 0 to 5 μ B , implying that it has a potential application in new nanomaterials with tunable magnetic properties

  15. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  16. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  17. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  18. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  19. Irreducible kernels and nonperturbative expansions in a theory with pure m -> m interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent results on the structure of the S matrix at the m-particle threshold (m>=2) in a simplified m->m scattering theory with no subchannel interaction are extended to the Green function F on the basis of off-shell unitarity, through an adequate mathematical extension of some results of Fredholm theory: local two-sheeted or infinite-sheeted structure of F around s=(mμ) 2 depending on the parity of (m-1) (ν-1) (where μ>0 is the mass and ν is the dimension of space-time), off-shell definition of the irreducible kernel U [which is the analogue of the K matrix in the two different parity cases (m-1)(ν-1) odd or even] and related local expansion of F, for (m-1)(ν-1) even, in powers of sigmasup(β)lnsigma(sigma=(mμ) 2 -s). It is shown that each term in this expansion is the dominant contribution to a Feynman-type integral in which each vertex is a kernel U. The links between kernel U and Bethe-Salpeter type kernels G of the theory are exhibited in both parity cases, as also the links between the above expansion of F and local expansions, in the Bethe-Salpeter type framework, of Fsub(lambda) in terms of Feynman-type integrals in which each vertex is a kernel G and which include both dominant and subdominant contributions. (orig.)

  20. A candidate subspecies discrimination system involving a vomeronasal receptor gene with different alleles fixed in M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Karn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Assortative mating, a potentially efficient prezygotic reproductive barrier, may prevent loss of genetic potential by avoiding the production of unfit hybrids (i.e., because of hybrid infertility or hybrid breakdown that occur at regions of secondary contact between incipient species. In the case of the mouse hybrid zone, where two subspecies of Mus musculus (M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus meet and exchange genes to a limited extent, assortative mating requires a means of subspecies recognition. We based the work reported here on the hypothesis that, if there is a pheromone sufficiently diverged between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus to mediate subspecies recognition, then that process must also require a specific receptor(s, also sufficiently diverged between the subspecies, to receive the signal and elicit an assortative mating response. We studied the mouse V1R genes, which encode a large family of receptors in the vomeronasal organ (VNO, by screening Perlegen SNP data and identified one, Vmn1r67, with 24 fixed SNP differences most of which (15/24 are nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. We observed substantial linkage disequilibrium (LD between Vmn1r67 and Abpa27, a mouse salivary androgen-binding protein gene that encodes a proteinaceous pheromone (ABP capable of mediating assortative mating, perhaps in conjunction with its bound small lipophilic ligand. The LD we observed is likely a case of association rather than residual physical linkage from a very recent selective sweep, because an intervening gene, Vmn1r71, shows significant intra(subspecific polymorphism but no inter(subspecific divergence in its nucleotide sequence. We discuss alternative explanations of these observations, for example that Abpa27 and Vmn1r67 are coevolving as signal and receptor to reinforce subspecies hybridization barriers or that the unusually divergent Vmn1r67 allele was not a product of fast positive

  1. Stochastic processes and functional analysis a volume of recent advances in honor of M. M. Rao

    CERN Document Server

    Krinik, Alan C

    2004-01-01

    This extraordinary compilation is an expansion of the recent American Mathematical Society Special Session celebrating M. M. Rao's distinguished career and includes most of the presented papers as well as ancillary contributions from session invitees. This book shows the effectiveness of abstract analysis for solving fundamental problems of stochastic theory, specifically the use of functional analytic methods for elucidating stochastic processes, as made manifest in M. M. Rao's prolific research achievements. Featuring a biography of M. M. Rao, a complete bibliography of his published works,

  2. Ab initio study of 3C-SiC/M (M = Ti or Al) nano-hetero interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Kohyama, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Ab initio pseudopotential calculation of 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al nano-hetero interfaces have been performed and interface atom species dependence (IASD) and interface orientation dependence (IOD) of nano-hetero interfaces between 3C-SiC ((1 1 1) or (0 0 1) orientation) and metal (Ti or Al) have been studied systematically. Stable atomic configurations of the 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al interfaces are quite different from those of the 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Ti interfaces. Two terminated, Si-terminated (Si-TERM) and C-terminated (C-TERM), 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al interfaces have covalent bonding nature. In 3C-SiC/M (M = Ti or Al) nano-hetero interfaces, the C-terminated interface has relative strong, covalent and ionic C-Ti or C-Al bonds as TiC or SiC while the Si-terminated interface has various type of bonding nature, relative weak Si-Ti or Si-Al bonds from metallic character at the (0 0 1) interface to covalent character at the (1 1 1) interface. Adhesive energy (AE) shows strong IASD and IOD. The AE of the C-terminated interface is larger than that of the Si-terminated one. In the C-terminated interface, the AE of the (1 1 1) interface is smaller than that of the (0 0 1) one while in the Si-terminated interface there exists opposite interrelation. Schottky barrier height (SBH) also shows strong IASD and IOD. The SBH of the C-terminated interface is smaller than that of the Si-terminated one. The C-terminated SiC/Al interfaces have extremely small SBHs. In comparison with some experimental SBH, the present result is reliable as the difference of SBH between the two terminated interfaces and qualitative properties

  3. Sujecion de piezas durante las mediciones con M.M.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sellés Cantó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This Coordinate Measuring Machines (C.M.M. has had an increasingly important role throughout history. We are talking to an enterprise-level quality control. A system that is being implemented in all companies, and has developed some tools to control a variety of parameters such as production stabilization.In this paper, we first set out an introduction to the use of C.M.M. as tools for quality control in SME's. Then we explore the importance of piece positioning and clamping before being measured in a C.M.M. We finally analyze four possible moorings, and deviations are obtained. These moorings are designed in order to place the same work piece in the four cases.Finally, the results obtained are compared and show which is the best way to put the part on the C.M.M.

  4. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  5. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Kalidass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1  queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme. The corresponding steady state probabilities have been obtained. We also obtain the time dependent performance measures of the systems

  6. A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two

  7. Dalit humanization: A Quest based on M.M. Thomas' theology of salvation and humanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaiah, J.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter one states the central quest of this thesis: to develop a Dalit theology on the basis of the concepts salvation and humanization of M.M. Thomas. Chapter two elucidates the socio- political and religious milieu which influenced his theology. Thomas’ theology has evolved and developed in

  8. Performance Analysis and Optimal Allocation of Layered Defense M/M/N Queueing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyue Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One important mission of strategic defense is to develop an integrated layered Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS. Motivated by the queueing theory, we presented a work for the representation, modeling, performance simulation, and channels optimal allocation of the layered BMDS M/M/N queueing systems. Firstly, in order to simulate the process of defense and to study the Defense Effectiveness (DE, we modeled and simulated the M/M/N queueing system of layered BMDS. Specifically, we proposed the M/M/N/N and M/M/N/C queueing model for short defense depth and long defense depth, respectively; single target channel and multiple target channels were distinguished in each model. Secondly, we considered the problem of assigning limited target channels to incoming targets, we illustrated how to allocate channels for achieving the best DE, and we also proposed a novel and robust search algorithm for obtaining the minimum channel requirements across a set of neighborhoods. Simultaneously, we presented examples of optimal allocation problems under different constraints. Thirdly, several simulation examples verified the effectiveness of the proposed queueing models. This work may help to understand the rules of queueing process and to provide optimal configuration suggestions for defense decision-making.

  9. Structural, elastic and electronic properties of C14-type Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) Laves phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishi, Ma; Yonghua, Duan, E-mail: duanyh@kmust.edu.cn; Runyue, Li

    2017-02-15

    The structural and mechanical properties, Debye temperatures and anisotropic sound velocities of the Laves phases Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) with C14-type structure were investigated using the first-principles corresponding calculations. The corresponding calculated structural parameters and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the available theoretical values, and Al{sub 2}Ca has the best phase stability. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E, and Poisson ratio ν, were deduced within the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The brittleness and ductility were estimated by the values of Poisson ratio, B/G and Cauchy pressure. Moreover, the elastic anisotropy was investigated by calculating and discussing several anisotropy indexes. Finally, the electronic structures were used to illustrate the bonding characteristics of C14-Al{sub 2}M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) phases.

  10. Professor M. M. Zagorulko’s school of economic and military history of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkina Olga Yurievna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxim Matveyevich Zagorulko is the first rector of Volgograd State University, the veteran of the Great Patriotic War, the Honorable Citizen of Volgograd. He is the founder and the head of the scientific school studying various aspects of the Fatherland’s history. In the 1960s, M.M. Zagorulko united researches in the field of an economic history of Russia and the Great Patriotic War history. He had chosen as a subject of his doctoral dissertation a history of operation of economy of temporarily occupied territories of the USSR by fascists. In 1970, M.M. Zagorulko in a co-authorship with the Moscow scholar, the active participant of guerrilla movement A.F. Yudenkov published the monograph “Crash of Economic Plans of Fascist Germany on Temporarily Occupied Territory of the USSR”. Soon it was translated into the Czech language. In 1974, there was the second, added and modified edition of the book by M.M. Zagorulko and A.F. Yudenkov – “Crash of the «Oldenburg» Plan”. The third edition of this book was issued in 1980 in the Russian and Czech languages in Moscow and Bratislava. In 1975, Maxim M. Zagorulko defended his doctoral dissertation in the Dissertation Council of Leningrad State University on the subject “Economic Policy of Fascist Germany in the Occupied Territory of the USSR and Its Crash”. M.M. Zagorulko, his pupils and adherents conduct scientific researches in the field of an Economic History of Russia, History of military captivity in the USSR, History of the Battle of Stalingrad and so forth. Under his management multivolume collections of documents were published, monographs were written and dissertations were defended. The fundamental Encyclopedia of the Battle of Stalingrad created by him was declared in 2010 as “The best book of Russia”. In all these projects, theses and monographs M.M. Zagorulko is the organizer and inspirer of scientific researches.

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Studies of Iron Sulfur (FeS)m- (m = 2-8) Cluster Anions: Coexisting Multiple Spin States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2017-10-05

    Iron sulfur cluster anions (FeS) m - (m = 2-8) are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) at 3.492 eV (355 nm) and 4.661 eV (266 nm) photon energies, and by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most probable structures and ground state spin multiplicities for (FeS) m - (m = 2-8) clusters are tentatively assigned through a comparison of their theoretical and experiment first vertical detachment energy (VDE) values. Many spin states lie within 0.5 eV of the ground spin state for the larger (FeS) m - (m ≥ 4) clusters. Theoretical VDEs of these low lying spin states are in good agreement with the experimental VDE values. Therefore, multiple spin states of each of these iron sulfur cluster anions probably coexist under the current experimental conditions. Such available multiple spin states must be considered when evaluating the properties and behavior of these iron sulfur clusters in real chemical and biological systems. The experimental first VDEs of (FeS) m - (m = 1-8) clusters are observed to change with the cluster size (number m). The first VDE trends noted can be related to the different properties of the highest singly occupied molecular orbitals (NBO, HSOMOs) of each cluster anion. The changing nature of the NBO/HSOMO of these (FeS) m - (m = 1-8) clusters from a p orbital on S, to a d orbital on Fe, and to an Fe-Fe bonding orbital is probably responsible for the observed increasing trend for their first VDEs with respect to m.

  12. K2 ZnSn3 Se8 : A Non-Centrosymmetric Zinc Selenidostannate(IV) Featuring Interesting Covalently Bonded [ZnSn3 Se8 ]2- Layer and Exhibiting Intriguing Second Harmonic Generation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Jiang, Xingxing; Yang, Yi; Guo, Yangwu; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, JJiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2017-06-19

    Non-centrosymmetric zinc selenidostannate(IV) K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 was synthesized. It features interesting covalently bonded [ZnSn 3 Se 8 ] 2- layers with K + cations filling in the interlayer voids. The phonon spectrum was calculated to clarify its structural stability. Based on the X-ray diffraction data along with the Raman spectrum, the major bonding features of the title compound were identified. According to the UV/vis-NIR spectroscopy, K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 possesses a typical direct band gap of 2.10 eV, which is in good agreement with the band structure calculations. Moreover, our experimental measurements and detailed theoretical calculations reveal that K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 is a new phase-matchable nonlinear optical material with a powder second harmonic generation (SHG) signal about 0.6 times of that of AgGaS 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.

  14. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  15. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  16. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Critically Endangered Hispaniolan palm Coccothrinax jimenezii M.M. Mejía & M.M. García based on novel SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The palm species Coccothrinax jimenezii M.M. Mejía & M.M. García is a Critically Endangered species (sensu IUCN) restricted to two populations from Haiti (one site on coastal areas near the city of Gonaïves with 43 individuals) and the Dominican Republic (one site on the shores of Lago Enriquillo ...

  18. Optimization of an M/M/1/N Feedback Queue with Retention of Reneged Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has become a threat to the business world. Firms employ various customer retention strategies to retain their impatient (or reneged customers. Customer retention mechanisms may help to retain some or all impatient customers. Further, due to unsatisfactory service, customers may rejoin a queue immediately after departure. Such cases are referred to as feedback customers. Kumar and Sharma take this situation into account and study an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with retention of reneged customers. They obtain only a steady-state solution for this model. In this paper, we extend the work of Kumar and Sharma by performing an economic analysis of the model. We develop a model for the costs incurred and perform the appropriate optimization. The optimum system capacity and optimum service rate are obtained. (original abstract

  19. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  20. Approximate anlysis of an unreliable $M/M/c$ retrial queue with phase merging algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faiza BELARBI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an approximate analysis of unreliable $M/M/c$ retrial queue with $c\\geq 3$ in which all servers are subject to breakdowns and repairs. Arriving customers that are unable to access a server due to congestion or failure can choose to enter a retrial orbit for an exponentially distributed amount of time and persistently attempt to gain access to a server, or abandon their request and depart the system. Once a customer is admitted to a service station, they remain there for a random duration until service is complete and then depart the system. However, if the server fails during service, i.e., an active breakdown, the customer may choose to abandon the system or proceed directly to the retrial orbit while the server begins repair immediately. In the unreliable model, there are no exact solutions when the number of servers exceeds one. Therefore, we seek to approximate the steady-state joint distribution of the number of customers in orbit and the status of the $c$ servers for the case of Markovian arrival and service times. Our approach to deriving the approximate steady-state probabilities employs a phase-merging algorithm.

  1. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  2. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  3. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  4. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  5. ON THE SOURCES OF OPHIRIAN “CATECHISMS” BY PRINCE M. M. SHCHERBATOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Rostovtseva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the utopia of Prince M. M. Shcherbatov “Journey to  the  land of  Ophir”  (1784 in  a  new literary-historical way. The author explores the pedagogical ideal, represented by Ophir schools. In the centre of  the study there are the “small books” containing moral and civil “catechisms”, which are taught in  school along with other subjects and illustrate the essence of the Ophirian educational system. There are no special works on “catechisms” despite the fact that they often have been mentioned in academic literature. “Catechisms” are of a particular interest to the history of literature. They reflect not only the fragments of the writer’s biography, his view of modern pedagogical theories, but also describe the image of a man and citizen, the true “Son of the Motherland”. The author analyzes literary sources of  “catechisms”, among which there are the works of  S. Pufendorf, an Augustinian monk I. Felbiger, “Instruction” of Catherine the Great and writer’s own pedagogical texts. As  a  result, the  author concludes that for Shcherbatov the ideal of school education was strongly connected with the truth of the Christian law.

  6. KIRGHIZ STEPPE IN THE TRAVEL NOTES AND ESSAYS OF M. M. PRISHVIN: IMAGOLOGY AND POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Khudenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the cross-cutting images and themes related to topography of the Kirghiz steppe (now North-Eastern Kazakhstan in the works of M. M. Prishvin. Three early Prishvin’s texts — a Siberian diary “A Journey from Pavlodar to Karkaralinsk”, essays “Adam and Eve” and “A Black Arab” became an empirical base for it. The marginality of Prishvin’s texts in which the itinerant writer crosses the border between Europe and Asia as well as the border of consciousness, dwelling simultaneously in the space of its own and in the others’ space, permitted to reconstruct the landscape consciousness of the Kirghiz and Russian emigrees. The methodological feature of the study of these works along with the study of the poetics of the steppe images, the Kazakh, local legends and nomadic subjects, was a description of their imagological component induced by socio-historical, political and ethnic processes of the early twentieth century, the writer talks about in his books. So, the overall strategy of the narrative, moving from a documentary and essay principle to the poetic saturation by images is formed in his diaries. The essay “Adam and Eve” considers the issue of Russian immigrants, demonstrates the incompatibility between sedentary and nomadic life as two types of national behavior. A twofold image of the steppe — a foodless and saline steppe, and a rich and populated one — sets the parameters of social behavior of the rich and the poor in his essay “A Black Arab”. Basing on its materials the distinctive marks of the steppe as the Paradise are explored. Thus, the Asiatic world is seen by Prishvin through the principle of the landscape consciousness, which allowed reconstructing the features of the national image on the whole.

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart A of... - Performance Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt... final settlement between the OWNER or GOVERNMENT and the PRINCIPAL shall abridge the right of the other...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit F to Subpart A of... - Payment Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt.... PROVIDED, FURTHER, that no final settlement between the OWNER or GOVERNMENT and the CONTRACTOR shall...

  9. Morphological features of Delphinium sergii Wissjul. ex situ in M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla M. Gnatiuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delphinium sergii Wissjul. is an endemic of eastern coast of Black Sea. It is listed in Red book of Ukraine with conservation status “vulnerable” (Didukh 2009. It grows mainly in eastern part of Ukraine in nature and is not typical for the Kyiv region. It is a perennial plant with bright blue flowers. The individuals of this specie are cultivated in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden during last 15 years. The results of the study of ontogenetic development and morphological diversity show that D. sergii is characterized by heterophylly and common morphological variability of leaf blade. The correlation of degree between leaf blade dissection and their formation and age was established. Dissected leaves are found to be “older” while with entire laminas – “younger”. Formation of different leaves in individuals of the same age states their dependence from lighting, soil moisture, crop density, genetic heterogeneity and plasticity of individuals in different conditions of growth. We observed a difference in terms of passing through ontogenetic stages among the individuals too. Our investigation established that the individuals of D. sergii ex situ can accelerate the ontogenetic development and reach the generative stage for just 2 years. The juvenile period in some individuals may last for just one growing season. It is noted that under the unfavorable factors (thickened crops, drought, and shading development of D. sergii individuals became slower. This species can be reproduced both by seed and vegetative. Propagation by seeds is the main way for distribution of these plants. Vegetative reproduction could be realized by particulation of individuals at g and ss stages. In Кyiv region D. sergii is blooming in June-July. Delphinium is well known as such representing the “bee-flowers syndrome”. According to our observations the main pollinators of D. sergii in conditions of our botanical garden were Bombus pascuorum (Scopoli

  10. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  11. Immunoglobulin deposits in peripheral nerve endings detected by skin biopsy in patients with IgM M proteins and neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Jensen, T S; Friis, M L

    1987-01-01

    biopsies provide a simple effective method of detecting immunoglobulin binding to peripheral nerves in patients suspected of having an autoimmune neuropathy. In contrast to sural nerve biopsy, skin biopsy does not cause sensory loss or pain in a denervated area and can easily be repeated.......Immunofluorescence studies of sural nerve and skin biopsies from three patients with IgM M proteins and clinical neuropathy showed that IgM M protein was bound to the nerve myelin in two patients and by the peri- and endoneurium in one. It is suggested that immunohistochemical studies of skin...

  12. Bonds Boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar…

  13. Fabrication of Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensors Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Bimetallic Pt-M (M = Ru and Sn Catalysts by Radiolytic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glucose sensors employing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs with highly dispersed Pt-M (M = Ru and Sn nanoparticles (Pt-M@PVP-MWNTs were fabricated by radiolytic deposition. The Pt-M nanoparticles on the MWNTs were characterized by transmittance electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction. They were found to be well dispersed and to exhibit alloy properties on the MWNT support. Electrochemical testing showed that these nonenzymatic sensors had larger currents (mA than that of a bare glassy carbon (GC electrode and one modified with MWNTs. The sensitivity (A mM−1, linear range (mM, and detection limit (mM (S/N = 3 of the glucose sensor with the Pt-Ru catalyst in NaOH electrolyte were determined as 18.0, 1.0–2.5, 0.7, respectively. The corresponding data of the sensor with Pt-Sn catalyst were 889.0, 1.00–3.00, and 0.3, respectively. In addition, these non-enzymatic sensors can effectively avoid interference arising from the oxidation of the common interfering species ascorbic acid and uric acid in NaOH electrolyte. The experimental results show that such sensors can be applied in the detection of glucose in commercial red wine samples.

  14. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  15. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  16. A simple derivation of the waiting time distributions in a non-preemptive M/M/c queue with priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, Lars A.; Gabor, Adriana F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we give a new derivation for the waiting time distributions in an M=M=c queue with multiple priorities and a common service rate by using elementary lattice paths counting. An advantage of the approach is that it does not require inversion of the Laplace-Stieltjes transform.

  17. A simple derivation of the waiting time distributions in a non-preemptive M/M/c queue with priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. van Vianen (Lars); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); J.C.W. van Ommeren (Jan-Kees)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we give a new derivation for the waiting time distributions in an M/M/c queue with multiple priorities and a common service rate by using elementary lattice paths counting. An advantage of the approach is that it does not require inversion of the Laplace-Stieltjes

  18. Formation of Sn-M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Huang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-10-01

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn-M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn-M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn-Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g-1/366.6 mA h g-1) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g-1 maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process.

  19. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  20. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  1. Hledání ideálního státu. Cesta do Ofírské země M. M. Ščerbatova mezi historickým mýtem a utopií / Looking for an ideal state. Journey to the land of Ophyr by M. M. Shcherbatov between historical myth and utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Příhoda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses M. M. Shcherbatov’s unfinished work Journey to the Land of Ophyr. Shcherbatov’s utopia reflects upon his own perception of the Russian history which was based on the myth of historical fracture resulting from Peter the Great’s reforms.

  2. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  3. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  4. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  5. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  6. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  7. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  8. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  9. Automatic extraction and processing of small RNAs on a multi-well/multi-channel (M&M) chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Runtao; Flack, Kenneth; Zhong, Wenwan

    2012-12-07

    The study of the regulatory roles in small RNAs can be accelerated by techniques that permit simple, low-cost, and rapid extraction of small RNAs from a small number of cells. In order to ensure highly specific and sensitive detection, the extracted RNAs should be free of the background nucleic acids and present stably in a small volume. To meet these criteria, we designed a multi-well/multi-channel (M&M) chip to carry out automatic and selective isolation of small RNAs via solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by reverse-transcription (RT) to convert them to the more stable cDNAs in a final volume of 2 μL. Droplets containing buffers for RNA binding, washing, and elution were trapped in microwells, which were connected by one channel, and suspended in mineral oil. The silica magnetic particles (SMPs) for SPE were moved along the channel from well to well, i.e. in between droplets, by a fixed magnet and a translation stage, allowing the nucleic acid fragments to bind to the SMPs, be washed, and then be eluted for RT reaction within 15 minutes. RNAs shorter than 63 nt were selectively enriched from cell lysates, with recovery comparable to that of a commercial kit. Physical separation of the droplets on our M&M chip allowed the usage of multiple channels for parallel processing of multiple samples. It also permitted smooth integration with on-chip RT-PCR, which simultaneously detected the target microRNA, mir-191, expressed in fewer than 10 cancer cells. Our results have demonstrated that the M&M chip device is a valuable and cost-saving platform for studying small RNA expression patterns in a limited number of cells with reasonable sample throughput.

  10. Transient solution of an M/M/1 vacation queue with a waiting server and impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif I. Ammar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Ammar [1] has discussed the transient behavior of a multiple vacations queue with impatient customers. In this paper, a similar technique is used to derive a new elegant explicit solution for an M/M/1 vacation queue with impatient customers and a waiting server, where the server is allowed to take a vacation whenever the system is empty after waiting for a random period of time. If the server does not return from the vacation before the expiry of the customer impatience time, the customer abandons the system forever. Moreover, the formulas of mean and variance expressed in terms of the obtained possibilities for this model.

  11. A GaInAsP/InP Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for 1.5 m m operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sceats, R.; Balkan, N.; Adams, M. J.; Masum, J.; Dann, A. J.; Perrin, S. D.; Reid, I.; Reed, J.; Cannard, P.; Fisher, M. A.; Elton, D. J.; Harlow, M. J.

    1999-04-01

    We present the results of our studies concerning the pulsed operation of a bulk GaInAsP/InP vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The device is tailored to emit at around 1.5 m m at room temperature. The structure has a 45 period n-doped GaInAsP/InP bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), and a 4 period Si/Al2O3 dielectric top reflector defining a 3-l cavity. Electroluminescence from a 16 m m diameter top window was measured in the pulsed injection mode. Spectral measurements were recorded in the temperature range between 125K and 240K. Polarisation, lasing threshold current and linewidth measurements were also carried out at the same temperatures. The threshold current density has a broad minimum at temperatures between 170K and 190K, (Jth=13.2 kA/cm2), indicating a good match between the gain and the cavity resonance in this temperature range. Maximum emitted power from the VCSEL is 0.18 mW at 180K.

  12. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  13. Pricing in M/M/1 queues when cost of waiting in queue differs from cost of waiting in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görkem Sarıyer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Service providers can adjust the entrance price to the state of the demand in real life service systems where the customers' decision to receive the service, is based on this price, state of demand and other system parameters. We analyzed service provider's short and long term pricing problems in unobservable M/M/1 queues having the rational customers, where, for customers, the unit cost of waiting in the queue is higher than unit cost of waiting in the service. We showed that waiting in the queue has a clear negative effect on customers’ utilities, hence the service provider's price values. We also showed that, in the short term, monopolistic pricing is optimal for congested systems with high server utilization levels, whereas in the long term, market capturing pricing is more profitable.

  14. An M/M/c/K State-Dependent Model for Pedestrian Flow Control and Design of Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalidur Rahman

    Full Text Available Pedestrian overflow causes queuing delay and in turn, is controlled by the capacity of a facility. Flow control or blocking control takes action to avoid queues from building up to extreme values. Thus, in this paper, the problem of pedestrian flow control in open outdoor walking facilities in equilibrium condition is investigated using M/M/c/K queuing models. State dependent service rate based on speed and density relationship is utilized. The effective rate of the Poisson arrival process to the facility is determined so as there is no overflow of pedestrians. In addition, the use of the state dependent queuing models to the design of the facilities and the effect of pedestrian personal capacity on the design and the traffic congestion are discussed. The study does not validate the sustainability of adaptation of Western design codes for the pedestrian facilities in the countries like Bangladesh.

  15. Hydrogen induced dis-proportionation studies on Zr-Co-M (M=Ni, Fe, Ti) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Pati, Subhasis; Parida, S.C.; Agarwal, Renu; Mukerjee, S.K.; Sastry, P.U.; Jayakrishnan, V.B.

    2016-01-01

    The intermetallic compound ZrCo is considered as a suitable material for storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, upon repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles, the hydrogen storage capacity of ZrCo decreases, which is attributed to the disproportionate reaction ZrCo + H 2 ↔ ZrH 2 + ZrCo 2 . The reduction of hydrogen storage capacity of ZrCo is not desirable for its use in tritium facilities. In our previous studies, attempts were made to improve the durability of ZrCo against dis-proportionation by including a third element. The present study is aimed to investigate the hydrogen induced dis-proportionation of Zr-Co-M (M=Ni, Fe and Ti) ternary alloys under hydrogen delivery conditions

  16. Performance of an M/M/1 Retrial Queue with Working Vacation Interruption and Classical Retrial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An M/M/1 retrial queue with working vacation interruption is considered. Upon the arrival of a customer, if the server is busy, it would join the orbit of infinite size. The customers in the orbit will try for service one by one when the server is idle under the classical retrial policy with retrial rate nα, where n is the size of the orbit. During a working vacation period, if there are customers in the system at a service completion instant, the vacation will be interrupted. Under the stable condition, the probability generating functions of the number of customers in the orbit are obtained. Various system performance measures are also developed. Finally, some numerical examples and cost optimization analysis are presented.

  17. Chemistry of the M (M=Fe, Ca, Ba-Se-H2O Systems at 25 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Hasegawa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the M (M=Fe, Ca, Ba-Se-H2O systems at 25 °C is reviewed based on our previous papers. In this paper, the phase equilibria in the Fe(III-Se(IV-H2O, Ca-Se(IV,VI-H2O and Ba-Se(IV,VI-H2O systems at 25 °C are discussed. Then, the three-stage process for removal of selenium from industrial waste water [Se(IV,VI < 1,500 mg/L] containing sulfuric acid was introduced. This seems to be a promising process for selenium removal from acidic sulfate waste water containing high concentration levels of selenium to below 0.1 mg/L.

  18. Effects of annealing on the microstructure and magnetic property of the mechanically alloyed FeSiBAlNiM (M=Co, Cu, Ag) amorphous high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Xuan; Yu, Shuaishuai; Wei, Congcong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan, E-mail: mse_wangy@ujn.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    The effects of annealing treatment on the microstructure, thermal stability, and magnetic properties of the mechanical alloyed FeSiBAlNiM (M=Co, Cu, Ag) amorphous high entropy alloys (HEAs) have been investigated in this project. The simple crystallization products in FeSiBAlNi amorphous HEAs with Co and Ag addition reveal the high phase stability during heating process. At high annealing treatment, the crystallized HEAs possess the good semi-hard magnetic property. It can conclude that crystallization products containing proper FeSi-rich and FeB-rich phases are beneficial to improve the magnetic property. Annealing near the exothermic peak temperature presents the best enhancing effect on the semi-hard magnetic property of FeSiBAlNiCo. It performs both large saturated magnetization and remanence ratio of 13.0 emu/g and near 45%, which exhibit 465% and 105% enhancement compared with as-milled state, respectively. - Highlights: • Co, Cu, Ag additions affect crystallization behavior of FeSiBAlNi amorphous HEAs. • Crystallization products in FeSiBAlNi Co/Ag reveal high phase stability. • Proper FeSi-rich and FeB-rich phases are beneficial to improve magnetic property. • Annealing treatment improves semi-hard magnetic property compared to as-milled state. • Annealing near exothermic peak temperature shows best enhancing effect on magnetism.

  19. Charge Transfer Effects in Naturally Occurring van der Waals Heterostructures (PbSe )1.16(TiSe2 )m (m =1 , 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Shen, D. W.; Wen, C. H. P.; Hua, C. Q.; Zhang, L. Q.; Wang, N. Z.; Niu, X. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Dudin, P.; Lu, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, X. H.; Wan, X. G.; Feng, D. L.

    2018-03-01

    van der Waals heterostructures (VDWHs) exhibit rich properties and thus has potential for applications, and charge transfer between different layers in a heterostructure often dominates its properties and device performance. It is thus critical to reveal and understand the charge transfer effects in VDWHs, for which electronic structure measurements have proven to be effective. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied the electronic structures of (PbSe )1.16(TiSe2 )m (m =1 , 2), which are naturally occurring VDWHs, and discovered several striking charge transfer effects. When the thickness of the TiSe2 layers is halved from m =2 to m =1 , the amount of charge transferred increases unexpectedly by more than 250%. This is accompanied by a dramatic drop in the electron-phonon interaction strength far beyond the prediction by first-principles calculations and, consequently, superconductivity only exists in the m =2 compound with strong electron-phonon interaction, albeit with lower carrier density. Furthermore, we found that the amount of charge transferred in both compounds is nearly halved when warmed from below 10 K to room temperature, due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent layers of these misfit compounds. These unprecedentedly large charge transfer effects might widely exist in VDWHs composed of metal-semiconductor contacts; thus, our results provide important insights for further understanding and applications of VDWHs.

  20. Formation of Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Huang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn–M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn–Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g −1 /366.6 mA h g −1 ) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g −1 maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process. - Graphical abstract: The growth mechanism and electrochemical performance of Sn-based alloy nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analyses of oxides on Sn-M nanoparticles surface. • The relationship between chemical components and electrochemical responses. • Sn-Fe nanoparticles show excellent electrode performance.

  1. Formation of Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Song [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, Hao, E-mail: huanghao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn–M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn–Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g{sup −1}/366.6 mA h g{sup −1}) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g{sup −1} maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process. - Graphical abstract: The growth mechanism and electrochemical performance of Sn-based alloy nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analyses of oxides on Sn-M nanoparticles surface. • The relationship between chemical components and electrochemical responses. • Sn-Fe nanoparticles show excellent electrode performance.

  2. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    Undervisningsmateriale. A bond is a debt security, similar to an ”I Owe You document” (IOU). When you purchase a bond, you are lending money to a government, municipality, corporation, federal agency or other entity known as the issuer. In return for the loan, the issuer promises to pay you...... a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...... securities and foreign government bonds....

  3. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  4. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  3. Bidirectional multi-optical line terminals incorporated converged WSN-PON network using M/M/1 queuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Love; Sharma, Vishal; Singh, Amarpal

    2017-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have an assortment of application areas, for instance, civil, military, and video surveillance with restricted power resources and transmission link. To accommodate the massive traffic load in hefty sensor networks is another key issue. Subsequently, there is a necessity to backhaul the sensed information of such networks and prolong the transmission link to access the distinct receivers. Passive Optical Network (PON), a next-generation access technology, comes out as a suitable candidate for the convergence of the sensed data to the core system. The earlier demonstrated work with single-OLT-PON introduces an overloaded buffer akin to video surveillance scenarios. In this paper, to combine the bandwidth potential of PONs with the mobility capability of WSNs, the viability for the convergence of PONs and WSNs incorporating multi-optical line terminals is demonstrated to handle the overloaded OLTs. The existing M/M/1 queue theory with interleaving polling with adaptive cycle time as dynamic bandwidth algorithm is used to shun the probability of packets clash. Further, the proposed multi-sink WSN and multi-OLT PON converged structure is investigated in bidirectional mode analytically and through computer simulations. The observations establish the proposed structure competent to accommodate the colossal data traffic through less time consumption.

  4. Effect of ring rotation upon gas adsorption in SIFSIX-3-M (M = Fe, Ni) pillared square grid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaidi, Sameh K; Mohamed, Mona H; Simon, Cory M; Braun, Efrem; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Xu, Wenqian; Banerjee, Debasis; Space, Brian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic and flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that respond to external stimuli, such as stress, light, heat, and the presence of guest molecules, hold promise for applications in chemical sensing, drug delivery, gas separations, and catalysis. A greater understanding of the relationship between flexible constituents in MOFs and gas adsorption may enable the rational design of MOFs with dynamic moieties and stimuli-responsive behavior. Here, we detail the effect of subtle structural changes upon the gas sorption behavior of two "SIFSIX" pillared square grid frameworks, namely SIFSIX-3-M (M = Ni, Fe). We observe a pronounced inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in the Ni variant. With evidence from X-ray diffraction studies, density functional theory, and molecular simulations, we attribute the inflection to a disordered to ordered transition of the rotational configurations of the pyrazine rings induced by sorbate-sorbent interactions. We also address the effect of cage size, temperature, and sorbate on the guest-induced ring rotation and the adsorption isotherms. The absence of an inflection in the Xe adsorption isotherm in SIFSIX-3-Fe and in the Kr, N 2 , and CO 2 adsorption isotherms in SIFSIX-3-Ni suggest that the inflection is highly sensitive to the match between the size of the cage and the guest molecule.

  5. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  6. Hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination in Sm2Fe16M (M=Al, Ga and Si) and magnetic properties of their carburized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, M.; Rave, W.; Cao, L.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The application of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process in Sm 2 Fe 16 M (M=Al,Ga and Si) was investigated. The hydrogen absorption behaviour was studied by temperature-pressure analysis (TPA). In the temperature range between 500 and 800 C, Sm 2 Fe 16 M samples with M=Ga and Si show a weaker hydrogen absorption than Sm 2 Fe 16 Al. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction which showed a complete disproportionation of Sm 2 Fe 16 Al into SmH z (1.9 2 Fe 16 Ga and Sm 2 Fe 16 Si exhibit a fraction of undecomposed material with the Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure after the disproportionation procedure. These results point to a stabilization of Sm 2 Fe 16 M against disproportionation by hydrogen for M=Ga and Si. The magnetization processes of carburized HDDR powders were studied by VSM measurements and Kerr microscopy. The demagnetization curve of our HDDR processed Sm 2 Fe 16 AlC y is well shaped, whereas those of Sm 2 Fe 16 GaC y and Sm 2 Fe 16 SiC y show a large decrease of the polarization at low fields. The favourable behaviour of Sm 2 Fe 16 AlC y is due to a homogeneous submicron grain structure. In Sm 2 Fe 16 GaC y and Sm 2 Fe 16 SiC y samples, an additional, magnetically soft phase with larger domains was observed which causes the low coercivity. As a consequence, HDDR was only favourable for the preparation of Sm 2 Fe 16 MC y hard magnets with M=Al but not for M=Ga and Si. Optimization of the HDDR process in Sm 2 Fe 16 Al and subsequent nitrogenation or carburization led to coercivities of μ 0j H c =2.9 and 2.5 T, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  8. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  9. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  10. The Pricing and Efficiency of Australian Treasury Bond Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Frino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency of the Treasury Bond futures market in Australia. We provide a comprehensive explanation of the method used to price, and evaluate efficiency of the 3 and 10 Year Australian Treasury Bond Futures contracts, against underlying bond baskets. Results indicate that the futures contracts exhibit minimal variation from their theoretical value. The average mispricing equates to 1.96 basis points for 3 Year and 1.19 basis points for 10 Year government bond futures contracts. However, during some periods (including the financial crisis of 2008, the bond futures contracts exhibit greater mispricing. Consistent with prior literature, we find a decreasing pattern of mispricing towards expiry, with the futures contract yields and average forward yields of the underlying bonds converging towards expiry. Further analysis reveals that volatility and time to expiry exhibit a significant positive relationship with the absolute level of mispricing.

  11. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  12. Bonding with Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future bonding of the child and parent. Adoptive parents may be concerned about bonding with their ... general emotional support. And it's OK to ask family members and friends for help in the days — ...

  13. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  14. PdM (M = Pt, Au) bimetallic alloy nanowires with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for electro-oxidation of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-02

    A facile and general method has been developed to synthesize well-defined PdPt and PdAu alloy nanowires, which exhibit significantly enhanced activity towards small molecules, such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose electro-oxidation in an alkaline medium. Considering the important role of one-dimensional alloy nanowires in electrocatalytic systems, the present Pd-based alloy nanostructures could offer a promising new class of advanced electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phenylacetylene and H bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... all resembling H bonds. Non-linear H bonds due to secondary interactions. C-H stretching frequency shows blue shift. Heavy atom distances are longer than the sum of van der Waals radii. Formed a task group through IUPAC to come up with a modern definition of H bond. 15 international experts including Desiraju.

  16. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  17. Synthesis and reaction of [[HC(CMeNAr)2]Mn]2 (Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3): the complex containing three-coordinate manganese(I) with a Mn-Mn bond exhibiting unusual magnetic properties and electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jianfang; Zhu, Hongping; Stückl, A Claudia; Roesky, Herbert W; Magull, Jörg; Bencini, Alessandro; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2005-06-29

    This paper reports on the synthesis, X-ray structure, magnetic properties, and DFT calculations of [[HC(CMeNAr)2]Mn]2 (Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3) (2), the first complex with three-coordinate manganese(I). Reduction of the iodide [[HC(CMeNAr)2]Mn(mu-I)]2 (1) with Na/K in toluene afforded 2 as dark-red crystals. The molecule of 2 contains a Mn2(2+) core with a Mn-Mn bond. The magnetic investigations show a rare example of a high-spin manganese(I) complex with an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two Mn(I) centers. The DFT calculations indicate a strong s-s interaction of the two Mn(I) ions with the open shell configuration (3d54s1). This suggests that the magnetic behavior of 2 could be correctly described as the coupling between two S1 = S2 = 5/2 spin centers. The Mn-Mn bond energy is estimated at 44 kcal mol(-1) by first principle calculations with the B3LYP functional. The further oxidative reaction of 2 with KMnO4 or O2 resulted in the formation of manganese(III) oxide [[HC(CMeNAr)2]Mn(mu-O)]2 (3). Compound 3 shows an antiferromagnetic coupling between the two oxo-bridged manganese(III) centers by magnetic measurements.

  18. Reliability improvement of wire bonds subjected to fatigue stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K. V.; Philofsky, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    The failure of wire bonds due to repeated flexure when semiconductor devices are operated in an on-off mode has been investigated. An accelerated fatigue testing apparatus was constructed and the major fatigue variables, aluminum alloy composition, and bonding mechanism, were tested. The data showed Al-1% Mg wires to exhibit superior fatigue characteristics compared to Al-1% Cu or Al-1% Si and ultrasonic bonding to be better than thermocompression bonding for fatigue resistance. Based on these results highly reliable devices were fabricated using Al-1% Mg wire with ultrasonic bonding which withstood 120,000 power cycles with no failures.

  19. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  20. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  2. Hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M (M=Al, Ga and Si) and magnetic properties of their carburized powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, M.; Rave, W.; Cao, L.; Gebel, B.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-20

    The application of the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M (M=Al,Ga and Si) was investigated. The hydrogen absorption behaviour was studied by temperature-pressure analysis (TPA). In the temperature range between 500 and 800 C, Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M samples with M=Ga and Si show a weaker hydrogen absorption than Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction which showed a complete disproportionation of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al into SmH{sub z} (1.9exhibit a fraction of undecomposed material with the Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type structure after the disproportionation procedure. These results point to a stabilization of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}M against disproportionation by hydrogen for M=Ga and Si. The magnetization processes of carburized HDDR powders were studied by VSM measurements and Kerr microscopy. The demagnetization curve of our HDDR processed Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}AlC{sub y} is well shaped, whereas those of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}GaC{sub y} and Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}SiC{sub y} show a large decrease of the polarization at low fields. The favourable behaviour of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}AlC{sub y} is due to a homogeneous submicron grain structure. In Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}GaC{sub y} and Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}SiC{sub y} samples, an additional, magnetically soft phase with larger domains was observed which causes the low coercivity. As a consequence, HDDR was only favourable for the preparation of Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}MC{sub y} hard magnets with M=Al but not for M=Ga and Si. Optimization of the HDDR process in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Al and subsequent nitrogenation or carburization led to coercivities of {mu}{sub 0j}H{sub c}=2.9 and 2.5 T, respectively. (orig.) 11 refs.

  3. «M. M. Kovalevsky’s historical and comparative method in the context of structural and functional analysis»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Анатолійович Шигаль

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions of the research: Estimating the M. M. Kovalevsky’s efforts in the methodology of historical and legal comparative study it should be noted that the attitude to his method in the scientific community is controversial. While agreeing, in general, with a positive appreciation of the M. M. Kovalevsky’s scientific heritage it should be pointed that the scientist first qualitatively tried to develop theoretical and methodological basis for the historical and comparative method in the domestic comparative study. Despite the fact that while theoretically reasoning his own method, M. M. Kovalevsky lacked modern structural and functional approach, but in most cases he was able to aptly describe the individual elements of the theory, methods and technique of the new means of special and scientific knowledge.

  4. A new series of borophosphate phosphor Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7}:M (M = Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}) with tunable luminescence and energy transfer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei, E-mail: weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Liu, Shuang; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Jiang, Yu

    2016-04-25

    A new series of Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7}:M (M = Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}) phosphors have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray powder diffraction as well as excitation and emission spectroscopy. Based on the Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7} host, the singly doping Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} yield the blue, green and red-emitting phosphors respectively under the irradiation range from 270 to 300 nm UV. By appropriate tuning of Tb{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} activator content, the emission color of the Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}/M (M = Tb{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+}) phosphors can be changed from blue to green or pink, respectively. Under UV excitation, the mixture of the as-prepared blue, green and red phosphors yields the warm white light, which exhibits their potential application as UV-convertible phosphors for WLEDs. - Highlights: • A new series of Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7}:M (M = Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}) phosphors have been prepared. • The energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} is observed in Cd{sub 3}BPO{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}. • Warm white light can be achieved by mixing physically the obtained tirphosphors.

  5. Self Diagnostic Adhesive for Bonded Joints in Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    validated under the fatigue /dynamic loading condition. 3) Both SEM (Spectral Element Modeling) and FEM (Finite Element Modeling) simulation of the...between input voltage and output charge provide the real and imaginary impedance as illustrated in Figure 3. (a) Adhesive + plate (ΩS) PZT (ΩP...3 m m 0.45mm Adhesive 3.18mm dia. PZT disc (0.25mm thick) 8 Self-Diagnostic Adhesive for Bonded Joints in Aircraft Structures

  6. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  7. A Dynamic Supramolecular System Exhibiting Substrate Selectivity in the Catalytic Epoxidation of Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Stefan; Odille, Fabrice G. J.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction.......A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction....

  8. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  9. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  10. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  11. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  12. Si-to-Si wafer bonding using evaporated glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Lindahl, M.

    1997-01-01

    Anodic bonding of Si to Si four inch wafers using evaporated glass was performed in air at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 450°C. Although annealing of Si/glass structures around 340°C for 15 minutes eliminates stress, the bonded wafer pairs exhibit compressive stress. Pull testing revealed...

  13. Magnetic Induction Machines Embedded in Fusion-Bonded Silicon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, David P; Cros, Florent; Zana, Iulica; Allen, Mark G; Das, Sauparna; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2004-01-01

    ...) within etched and fusion-bonded silicon to form the machine structure. The induction machines were characterized in motoring mode using tethered rotors, and exhibited a maximum measured torque...

  14. Bond strength and microleakage of current dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, D; Swift, E J; Denehy, G E; Reinhardt, J W

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate shear bond strengths and microleakage of seven current-generation dentin adhesive systems. Standard box-type Class V cavity preparations were made at the cemento-enamel junction on the buccal surfaces of eighty extracted human molars. These preparations were restored using a microfill composite following application of either All-Bond 2 (Bisco), Clearfil Liner Bond (Kuraray), Gluma 2000 (Miles), Imperva Bond (Shofu), OptiBond (Kerr), Prisma Universal Bond 3 (Caulk), Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M), or Scotchbond Dual-Cure (3M) (control). Lingual dentin of these same teeth was exposed and polished to 600-grit. Adhesives were applied and composite was bonded to the dentin using a gelatin capsule technique. Specimens were thermocycled 500 times. Shear bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine, and microleakage was evaluated using a standard silver nitrate staining technique. Clearfill Liner Bond and OptiBond, adhesive systems that include low-viscosity, low-modulus intermediate resins, had the highest shear bond strengths (13.3 +/- 2.3 MPa and 12.9 +/- 1.5 MPa, respectively). Along with Prisma Universal Bond 3, they also had the least microleakage at dentin margins of Class V restorations. No statistically significant correlation between shear bond strength and microleakage was observed in this study. Adhesive systems that include a low-viscosity intermediate resin produced the high bond strengths and low microleakage. Similarly, two materials with bond strengths in the intermediate range had significantly increased microleakage, and one material with a bond strength in the low end of the spectrum exhibited microleakage that was statistically greater. Thus, despite the lack of statistical correlation, there were observable trends.

  15. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  16. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  17. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  18. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  19. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  20. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  1. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  2. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  3. Tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded and adhesive-bonded magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Liu, L.; Zhou, Y.; Mori, H.; Chen, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures, tensile and fatigue properties of weld-bonded (WB) AZ31B-H24 Mg/Mg joints with different sizes of bonding area were evaluated and compared with the adhesive-bonded (AB) Mg/Mg joints. Typical equiaxed dendritic structures containing divorced eutectic Mg 17 Al 12 particles formed in the fusion zone of both WB-1 (with a bonding area of 35 mm×35 mm) and WB-0.5 (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm) joints. Less solidification shrinkage cracking was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than WB-1 joints. While the WB-0.5 joints exhibited a slightly lower maximum tensile shear stress than the AB-0.5 joints (with a bonding area of 17.5 mm×35 mm), the energy absorption was equivalent. Although the AB-0.5 joints exhibited a higher fatigue resistance at higher cyclic stress levels, both the AB-0.5 and WB-0.5 joints showed an equivalent fatigue resistance at lower cyclic stress levels. A higher fatigue limit was observed in the WB-0.5 joints than in the WB-1 joints owing to the presence of fewer shrinkage pores. Cohesive failure mode along the adhesive layer in conjunction with partial nugget pull-out from the weld was observed at the higher cyclic loads, and fatigue failure occurred in the base metal at the lower cyclic loads

  4. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  5. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  7. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  8. Diffusion bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of diffusion bonding at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the gold/gold or gold/indium joints made between metallized alumina ceramic parts in the vacuum switch tube and the crystal resonator programs. Fixtures which use the differential expansion of dissimilar metals are described and compared to one that uses hydraulic pressure to apply the necessary bonding force

  9. A general and high-yield galvanic displacement approach to Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells and enhanced electrocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Shaozhen; Sang, Yan

    2012-07-23

    In this work, we utilize the galvanic displacement synthesis and make it a general and efficient method for the preparation of Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells, which consist of multilayer nanoparticles. The method is generally applicable to the preparation of Au-Au, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt core-shell nanostructures with typical porous shells. Moreover, the Au-Au isomeric core-shell nanostructure is reported for the first time. The lower oxidation states of Au(I), Pd(II), and Pt(II) are supposed to contribute to the formation of porous core-shell nanostructures instead of yolk-shell nanostructures. The electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of porous Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures are assessed as a typical example for the investigation of the advantages of the obtained core-shell nanostructures. As expected, the Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure indeed exhibits a significantly reduced overpotential (the peak potential is shifted in the positive direction by 44 mV and 32 mV), a much improved CO tolerance (I(f)/I(b) is 3.6 and 1.63 times higher), and an enhanced catalytic stability in comparison with Pd nanoparticles and Pt/C catalysts. Thus, porous Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures may provide many opportunities in the fields of organic catalysis, direct alcohol fuel cells, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and so forth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  11. Comparison of the tensile bond strength of high-noble, noble, and base metal alloys bonded to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, D; Nayir, E; Pamuk, S

    2000-11-01

    Although the bond strengths of various resin composite luting materials have been reported in the literature, the evaluation of these systems with various cast alloys of different compositions has not been completely clarified. To evaluate the tensile bond strength of sandblasted high-noble, noble, and base metal alloys bonded to etched enamel by 2 different bonding agents of different chemical composition: Panavia-Ex (BIS-GMA) and Super-Bond (4-META acrylic). Flat enamel surfaces were prepared on buccal surfaces of 60 extracted noncarious human incisors. Teeth were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Twenty circular disks of 5 mm diameter were prepared for casting for each group. Group I was cast with a high-noble, group II with a noble, and group III with a base metal alloy. The surfaces of the disks were sandblasted with 250 microm Al(2)O(3). Ten disks of each group were bonded to exposed enamel surfaces with Super-Bond and 10 disks with Panavia-Ex as recommended by the manufacturer. The tensile bond strength was measured with an Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the results. The differences in bond strengths of Super-Bond and Panavia-Ex with different alloys were not significant. The highest bond strengths were obtained in base metal alloys, followed by noble and high-noble alloys. These results were significant. Panavia-Ex and Super-Bond exhibited comparable tensile bond strengths. For both luting agents, the highest bond strengths were achieved with base metal alloys and the lowest with high-noble alloys.

  12. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  13. Interstellar hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the first extensive study of the existence and effects of interstellar hydrogen bonding. The reactions that occur on the surface of the interstellar dust grains are the dominant processes by which interstellar molecules are formed. Water molecules constitute about 70% of the interstellar ice. These water molecules serve as the platform for hydrogen bonding. High level quantum chemical simulations for the hydrogen bond interaction between 20 interstellar molecules (known and possible) and water are carried out using different ab-intio methods. It is evident that if the formation of these species is mainly governed by the ice phase reactions, there is a direct correlation between the binding energies of these complexes and the gas phase abundances of these interstellar molecules. Interstellar hydrogen bonding may cause lower gas abundance of the complex organic molecules (COMs) at the low temperature. From these results, ketenes whose less stable isomers that are more strongly bonded to the surface of the interstellar dust grains have been observed are proposed as suitable candidates for astronomical observations.

  14. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  15. Continuing bonds and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Annika; Walter, Tony

    2017-08-01

    Where do people feel closest to those they have lost? This article explores how continuing bonds with a deceased person can be rooted in a particular place or places. Some conceptual resources are sketched, namely continuing bonds, place attachment, ancestral places, home, reminder theory, and loss of place. The authors use these concepts to analyze interview material with seven Swedes and five Britons who often thought warmly of the deceased as residing in a particular place and often performing characteristic actions. The destruction of such a place, by contrast, could create a troubling, haunting absence, complicating the deceased's absent-presence.

  16. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  17. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using different bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M A; Denehy, G E; Ratananakin, T

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using five different bonding agents: Amalgambond Plus, Optibond, Imperva Dual, All-Bond 2, and Clearfil Liner Bond. Flat dentin surfaces obtained by grinding the occlusal portion of 50 human third molars were used for this study. To contain the amalgam on the tooth surface, cylindrical plastic molds were placed on the dentin and secured with sticky wax. The bonding agents were then applied according to the manufacturers' instructions or light activated and Tytin amalgam was condensed into the plastic molds. The samples were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Analysis by one-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the five groups (P < 0.05). The bond strength of amalgam to dentin was significantly higher with Amalgambond Plus using the High-Performance Additive than with the other four bonding agents.

  18. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  19. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  20. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  1. Towards a unified description of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water: A dynamics based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Zhou, Tiecheng; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-01-01

    The definition of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) is intimately related to the topological and dynamic properties of the hydrogen bond network within liquid water. The development of a universal H-bond definition for water is an active area of research as it would remove many ambiguities in the network properties that derive from the fixed definition employed to assign whether a water dimer is hydrogen bonded. This work investigates the impact that an electronic-structure based definition, an energetic, and a geometric definition of the H-bond has upon both topological and dynamic network behavior of simulated water. In each definition, the use of a cutoff (either geometric or energetic) to assign the presence of a H-bond leads to the formation of transiently bonded or broken dimers, which have been quantified within the simulation data. The relative concentration of transient species, and their duration, results in two of the three definitions sharing similarities in either topological or dynamic features (H-bond distribution, H-bond lifetime, etc.), however no two definitions exhibit similar behavior for both classes of network properties. In fact, two networks with similar local network topology (as indicated by similar average H-bonds) can have dramatically different global network topology (as indicated by the defect state distributions) and altered H-bond lifetimes. A dynamics based correction scheme is then used to remove artificially transient H-bonds and to repair artificially broken bonds within the network such that the corrected network exhibits the same structural and dynamic properties for two H-bond definitions (the properties of the third definition being significantly improved). The algorithm described represents a significant step forward in the development of a unified hydrogen bond network whose properties are independent of the original hydrogen bond definition that is employed

  2. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    century and most chemists appear to think of 'chemi- cal bond' as ..... These complexes, in their global min- ima, have ... taneously act as hydrogen bond donor and acceptor displaying ... also has a local minimum, which is linear and similar to.

  3. Therapeutic bond judgments: Congruence and incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil-Slonim, Dana; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rubel, Julian; Schiefele, Ann-Kathrin; Peri, Tuvia

    2015-08-01

    The present study had 2 aims: (a) to implement West and Kenny's (2011) Truth-and-Bias model to simultaneously assess the temporal congruence and directional discrepancy between clients' and therapists' ratings of the bond facet of the therapeutic alliance, as they cofluctuate from session to session; and (b) to examine whether symptom severity and a personality disorder (PD) diagnosis moderate congruence and/or discrepancy. Participants included 213 clients treated by 49 therapists. At pretreatment, clients were assessed for a PD diagnosis and completed symptom measures. Symptom severity was also assessed at the beginning of each session, using client self-reports. Both clients and therapists rated the therapeutic bond at the end of each session. Therapists and clients exhibited substantial temporal congruence in their session-by-session bond ratings, but therapists' ratings tended to be lower than their clients' across sessions. Additionally, therapeutic dyads whose session-by-session ratings were more congruent also tended to have a larger directional discrepancy (clients' ratings being higher). Pretreatment symptom severity and PD diagnosis did not moderate either temporal congruence or discrepancy at the dyad level; however, during sessions when clients were more symptomatic, therapist and client ratings were both farther apart and tracked each other less closely. Our findings are consistent with a "better safe than sorry" pattern, which suggests that therapists are motivated to take a vigilant approach that may lead both to underestimation and to attunement to fluctuations in the therapeutic bond. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  5. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  6. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  7. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form 25...

  9. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  10. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  11. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  12. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  13. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from C32H20N10M (M Co, Pb, Fe): Film formation, electrical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Sanchez Vergara, M.E.; Garcia Montalvo, V.; Ortiz, A.; Alvarez, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecular materials formed from metallic phthalocyanines and 1,4-phenylenediamine is reported. The powder and thin film (∼80-115 nm thickness) samples of the synthesized materials, deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation, show the same intra-molecular bonds in the IR spectroscopy studies, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds. The morphology of the deposited films was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their optical and electrical properties were studied as well. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance in the wavelength range 200-1200 nm. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The optical activation energy was calculated and found to be 3.41 eV for the material with cobalt, 3.34 eV for the material including lead and 3.5 eV for the material with iron. The effect of temperature on conductivity was measured for the thin films and the corresponding conduction processes are discussed in this work.

  14. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N₂ Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use.

  15. Final report of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6: supplementary comparison of 100 mg, 100 g 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg stainless steel mass standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautjana, R. T.; Molefe, P. T.; Mayindu, N. F.; Armah, M. N.; Ramasawmy, V.; Albasini, G. L.; Matali, S.; Richmond, H.; Rusimbi, V.; Kiwanuka, J.; Mutale, D. M.; Mutsimba, F.

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6 mass standards comparison conducted between eleven participating laboratories/countries. Two sets of five weights with nominal values 100 mg, 100 g, 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg were used as the traveling standards. These nominal values were decided from the needs of participating laboratories submitted to the pilot laboratory through a questionnaire and agreed upon by all participants. The traveling standards were hand carried between laboratories starting from February 2014 and were received from the last participants in October 2014. The programme was coordinated by National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA), who provided the travelling standards and reference values for the comparison. The corrections to the BIPM as-maintained mass unit [5] have insignificant influence on the results of this comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Effects of the substitution of iron for cobalt on the crystal and magnetic properties of PrCo4-xFexM (M=Al and Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotea, C.; Isnard, O.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of PrCo 4-x Fe x M where x=0-4 and M=Al and Ga. The iron solubility limit in these phases is determined by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Our study confirms that single phase samples crystallizing in the CaCu 5 -type structure are stabilized for x 5 structure but with a slight preference for the 3g site. The saturation magnetization and the Curie temperature increase upon the iron substitution. The PrCo 4-x Fe x M compounds present spin reorientation transitions, whatever the substituting M and the Fe content. The substitution of iron for cobalt induces a significant increase of the spin reorientation temperature. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction experiments as well as magnetic measurements are combined in order to clarify the effects of the presence of iron on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the spin reorientation transition. Finally, the magnetic phase diagrams of PrCo 4-x Fe x M (M=Al and Ga) have been determined in the whole ordered temperature range

  17. A formal power series expansion-regularization approach for Lévy stable distributions: the symmetric case with \\alpha =2/M (M positive integer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanto-Neto, J. C.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Raposo, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2016-09-01

    In practice, the Lévy α-stable distribution is usually expressed in terms of the Fourier integral of its characteristic function. Indeed, known closed form expressions are relatively scarce given the huge parameters space: 0\\lt α ≤slant 2 ({{L\\'{e}vy}} {{index}}), -1≤slant β ≤slant 1 ({{skewness}}),σ \\gt 0 ({{scale}}), and -∞ \\lt μ \\lt ∞ ({{shift}}). Hence, systematic efforts have been made towards the development of proper methods for analytically solving the mentioned integral. As a further contribution in this direction, here we propose a new way to tackle the problem. We consider an approach in which one first solves the Fourier integral through a formal (thus not necessarily convergent) series representation. Then, one uses (if necessary) a pertinent sum-regularization procedure to the resulting divergent series, so as to obtain an exact formula for the distribution, which is amenable to direct numerical calculations. As a concrete study, we address the centered, symmetric, unshifted and unscaled distribution (β =0, μ =0, σ =1), with α ={α }M=2/M, M=1,2,3\\ldots . Conceivably, the present protocol could be applied to other sets of parameter values.

  18. Characterization and electrocatalytic activity of Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Cho, Ah-Rong; Lee, Sang-Yul, E-mail: sylee@kau.ac.kr [Korea Aerospace University, Department of Materials Engineering, Center for Surface Technology and Applications (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The synthetic approach for electrocatalysts is one of the most important methods of determining electrocatalytic performance. In this work, we synthesized Pt and Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles using a pulsed plasma discharge in water. A morphological investigation revealed that the as-synthesized Pt and Pt–M bimetallic nanoparticles constituted a nanochain network structure interconnected with primary nanoparticles of 4–6 nm in size, and the nanochains grew from the primary nanoparticles via the oriented attachment. The Z-contrast, EDX line scanning, and XRD analysis confirmed that the Pt was alloyed with M without elemental segregation or phase segregation. Furthermore, it was found that the composition difference was dependent on the electrode temperature determined by the power density and thermal parameters. The electrochemical results revealed that the electrocatalytic activity, stability, and durability of the Pt–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were superior with respect to the methanol oxidation reaction, which could be attributed to the downshift of the d-band center via electronic modification.

  19. Modulated Structures of Homologous Compounds In MO 3(ZnO) m( M=In, Ga; m=Integer) Described by Four-Dimensional Superspace Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfei; Bando, Yoshio; Nakamura, Masaki; Onoda, Mitsuko; Kimizuka, Noboru

    1998-09-01

    The modulated structures appearing in the homologous compounds InMO3(ZnO)m(M=In, Ga;m=integer) were observed by using a high-resoultion transmission electron microscope and are described based on a four-dimensional superspace group. The electron diffraction patterns for compounds withmlarger than 6 reveal extra spots, indicating the formation of a modulated structure. The subcell structures form=odd and even numbers are assigned to be either monoclinic or orthorhombic, respectively. On the other hand, extra spots can be indexed by one-dimensional modulated structure. The possible space groups for the subcell structure areCm,C2, andC2/mform=odd numbers, while those form=even numbers areCcm21andCcmm, respectively. Then, corresponding possible superspace groups are assigned to bePC2s,PCmoverline1, andPC2/msoverline1for oddmnumbers andPCcm211overline1overline1andPCcmm1overline11for evenmnumbers. Based on the superspace group determination, a structure model for a one-dimensional modulated structure is proposed.

  20. Design and Investigation of SST/nc-Si:H/M (M = Ag, Au, Ni and M/nc-Si:H/M Multifunctional Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Qasrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline Silicon thin films prepared by the very high frequency chemical vapor deposition technique (VHF-CVD on stainless steel (SST substrates are used to design Schottky point contact barriers for the purpose of solar energy conversion and passive electronic component applications. In this process, the contact performance between SST and M (M = Ag, Au, and Ni and between Ag, Au, and Ni electrodes was characterized by means of current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and light intensity dependence of short circuit ( current and open circuit voltage ( of the contacts. Particularly, the devices ideality factors, barrier heights were evaluated by the Schottky method and compared to the Cheung's. Best Schottky device performance with lowest ideality factor suitable for electronic applications was observed in the SST/nc-Si:H/Ag structure. This device reflects a of 229 mV with an of 1.6 mA/cm2 under an illumination intensity of ~40 klux. On the other hand, the highest being 9.0 mA/cm2 and the of 53.1 mV were observed for Ni/nc-Si:H/Au structure. As these voltages represent the maximum biasing voltage for some of the designed devices, the SST/nc-Si:H/M and M/nc-Si:H/M can be regarded as multifunctional self-energy that provided electronic devices suitable for active or passive applications.

  1. Diatomite-supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts for selective hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changliang; Zhang, Hongye; Zhao, Yanfei; Chen, Sha; Liu, Zhimin

    2012-11-15

    Diatomite supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts with various metal compositions were prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the metal nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the support, and their size was centered around 8 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The catalysts were used to catalyze hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters, including methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, and methyl laurate. It was indicated that the all diatomite-supported Pd-based bimetal catalysts were active to the selective hydrogenation of long-chain esters to corresponding alcohols at 270°C, originated from the synergistic effect between the metal particles and the diatomite support. For the selective hydrogenation of methyl palmitate, Pd-Cu/diatomite with metal loading of 1% and Pd/Cu=3 displayed the highest performance, giving a 1-hexadecanol yield of 82.9% at the substrate conversion of 98.8%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  3. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  4. Physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern manufacturing processes of complex integrated semiconductor devices are based on wafer-level manufacturing of components which are subsequently interconnected. When compared with classical monolithic bi-dimensional integrated circuits (2D ICs), the new approach of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) exhibits significant benefits in terms of signal propagation delay and power consumption due to the reduced metal interconnection length and allows high integration levels with reduced form factor. Metal thermo-compression bonding is a process suitable for 3D interconnects applications at wafer level, which facilitates the electrical and mechanical connection of two wafers even processed in different technologies, such as complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Due to its high electrical conductivity, copper is a very attractive material for electrical interconnects. For Cu-Cu wafer bonding the process requires typically bonding for around 1 h at 400°C and high contact pressure applied during bonding. Temperature reduction below such values is required in order to solve issues regarding (i) throughput in the wafer bonder, (ii) wafer-to-wafer misalignment after bonding and (iii) to minimise thermo-mechanical stresses or device degradation. The aim of this work was to study the physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu bonding and based on this study to further optimise the bonding process for low temperatures. The critical sample parameters (roughness, oxide, crystallinity) were identified using selected analytical techniques and correlated with the characteristics of the bonded Cu-Cu interfaces. Based on the results of this study the impact of several materials and process specifications on the bonding result were theoretically defined and experimentally proven. These fundamental findings subsequently facilitated low temperature (LT) metal thermo-compression Cu-Cu wafer bonding and even room temperature direct

  5. Design and implementation of a novel conical electrode for fast anodic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chii-Rong; Chang, Long-Yin; Wu, Jim-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Anodic bonding is a frequently used nonintermediate wafer-bonding technique for use in MEMS. However, it has a minimum bonding time for a 4 in silicon/glass wafer that is generally limited to the order of several minutes because of the gas-trapping problem that occurs in the bonded interface when a conventional bonding electrode is used. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel conical bonding electrode, which shortens the bonding time and solves the gas-trapping problem of the bonded interface. The 4 in silicon/glass wafers fitted with the proposed electrode exhibited a bonding ratio of 99.89% and an average bonding strength of around 15 MPa, which was attained within 15 s, at a bonding voltage of 900 V and a bonding temperature of 400 °C. A comprehensive series of experiments was performed to validate the excellent bonding performance of the proposed conical electrode. (paper)

  6. Distinguishing Isomeric Peptides: The Unimolecular Reactivity and Structures of (LeuPro)M+ and (ProLeu)M+ (M = Alkali Metal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami-Alahmadi, Yasaman; Linford, Bryan D; Fridgen, Travis D

    2016-12-29

    The unimolecular chemistries and structures of gas-phase (ProLeu)M + and (LeuPro)M + complexes when M = Li, Na, Rb, and Cs have been explored using a combination of SORI-CID, IRMPD spectroscopy, and computational methods. CID of both (LeuPro)M + and (ProLeu)M + showed identical fragmentation pathways and could not be differentiated. Two of the fragmentation routes of both peptides produced ions at the same nominal mass as (Pro)M + and (Leu)M + , respectively. For the litiated peptides, experiments revealed identical IRMPD spectra for each of the m/z 122 and 138 ions coming from both peptides. Comparison with computed IR spectra identified them as the (Pro)Li + and (Leu)Li + , and it is concluded that both zwitterionic and canonical forms of (Pro)Li + exist in the ion population from CID of both (ProLeu)Li + and (LeuPro)Li + . The two isomeric peptide complexes could be distinguished using IRMPD spectroscopy in both the fingerprint and the CH/NH/OH regions. The computed IR spectra for the lowest energy structures of each charge solvated complexes are consistent with the IRMPD spectra in both regions for all metal cation complexes. Through comparison between the experimental spectra, it was determined that in lithiated and sodiated ProLeu, metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. In contrast, the larger metal cations are bound to the two carbonyls, while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the amide hydrogen. In the lithiated and sodiated LeuPro complexes, the metal cation is bound to the amide carbonyl and the amine nitrogen while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the carboxylic acid carbonyl. However, there is no hydrogen bond in the rubidiated and cesiated complexes; the metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. Details of the position of the carboxylic acid C═O stretch were especially informative in the spectroscopic confirmation of the lowest energy computed structures.

  7. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  8. Quenched random-bond ising ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, E.F.; Honmura, R.; Tsallis, C.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    A effective-field framework which, without mathematical complexities, enables the calculation of the phase diagram (and magnetization) associated with a quenched bond-mixed spin - 1/2 Ising model in an anisotropic simple cubic lattice have been recently introduced. The case corresponding to anisotropic coupling constants but isotropic concentrations was discussed in detail. Herein the case corresponding to isotropic coupling constants but anisotropic concentrations is discussed. A certain amount of interesting phase diagrams are exhibited; whenever comparison with available data is possible, the present results provide a satisfactory qualitative (and to a certain extent quantitative) agreement. (Author) [pt

  9. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  10. Silicon-to-silicon wafer bonding using evaporated glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Lindahl, M.

    1998-01-01

    Anodic bending of silicon to silicon 4-in. wafers using an electron-beam evaporated glass (Schott 8329) was performed successfully in air at temperatures ranging from 200 degrees C to 450 degrees C. The composition of the deposited glass is enriched in sodium as compared to the target material....... The roughness of the as-deposited films was below 5 nm and was found to be unchanged by annealing at 500 degrees C for 1 h in air. No change in the macroscopic edge profiles of the glass film was found as a function of annealing; however, small extrusions appear when annealing above 450 degrees C. Annealing...... of silicon/glass structures in air around 340 degrees C for 15 min leads to stress-free structures. Bonded wafer pairs, however, show no reduction in stress and always exhibit compressive stress. The bond yield is larger than 95% for bonding temperatures around 350 degrees C and is above 80% for bonding...

  11. Fatigue aging of adhesive bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLollis, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    A year long study has been made of the effect of fatigue on the bond between two epoxy encapsulant formulations and a fused alumina disc. The variables studied included isothermal aging at temperatures up to and including the cure temperature and cyclic thermal aging from +74 to -54 0 C. The encapsulants were glass microballoon filled epoxies differing only in curing agents. One was cured with an aromatic amine eutectic (Shell Curing Agent Z). The other was cured with diethanolamine. The Z cured encapsulant bond failed completely at the bond interface with little or no aging; infrared evidence indicated a soluble interlayer as a possible cause of failure. The diethanolamine cured encapsulant survived a year of isothermal aging with little or no evidence of bond degradation. Cyclic thermal aging resulted in gradual bond failure with time. An extrapolation of the cyclic aging data indicates that the stresses induced by thermal cycling would result in complete bond failure in about 1200 days

  12. bond activation and catalysis by Ru -pac complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their reactivity towards oxidation of a few organic compounds. Keywords. Kinetics; catalysis; -O–O- bond activation; Ru-pac complex; oxidation. 1. Introduction. Ru-pac complexes exhibit catalytic properties,1 in homogeneous conditions in the presence of oxygen atom donors, that mimic the biological enzymatic oxi-.

  13. What is a hydrogen bond?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is a hydrogen bond? Precise definition of a hydrogen bond is still elusive!1. Several criteria are listed usually for X-H•••Y, X and Y initially thought to be F, O and N only1. Structural: The X-Y bond length is less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. X-H•••Y is ...

  14. Composite interlayer for diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A ductile interlayer is described, which is useful for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of metallic articles; the interlayer consisting of a melting point depressant and a plurality of ductile lamellae which are free from carbides, aluminides and borides. The composition and fabrication of the lamellae, and the process for bonding the metallic articles, depend on the composition of the metals to be bonded, and are exemplified in the specification. (U.K.)

  15. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  16. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  17. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  18. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  19. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  20. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  1. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  2. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  3. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  4. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33...

  5. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a term...

  6. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  7. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  8. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  9. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization...

  10. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  11. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  12. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  13. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  14. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  15. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  16. SOCIAL BONDING: REGULATION BY NEUROPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  17. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, I; Elwenspoek, M C

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing shows that the bond strength is large enough for most applications of fluidic interconnects. The bond strength for 525 µm thick silicon, with glass tubes having an outer diameter of 6 mm and with a wall thickness of 2 mm, is more than 60 bars after annealing at a temperature of 800 °C

  18. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  19. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, J J

    2008-01-01

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches

  20. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jfreire@invi.uned.es

    2008-07-16

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.

  1. Structure phenomena in the bond zone of explosively bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livne, Z.

    1979-12-01

    In the bond areas of couples of explosively bonded plates, there are often zones, generally designated as ''molten pockets'', which have undergone melting and solidification. The object of the present study was to investigate molten pockets, which have a decisive effect on bond quality. The experimental samples for the study were chosen in consideration of the mutual behaviour of the plates constituting the couples, according to their equilibrium phase diagrams. To facilitate the investigation, large plates were bonded under conditions that enabled to to obtain wavy bond zones that included relatively large molten pockets. To clarify the complex nature of molten pockets and their surroundings, a wide variety of methods were employed. It was found that the shape and composition of molten pockets largely depend upon the mechanism of formation of both the bond wave and the molten pockets. It was also found that the composition of molten pockets is not homogeneous, which is manifest in the modification of the composition of the pockets, the solidification morphology, the phases, which have been identified by X-ray diffraction, and the bond strenght and hardness. Moreover, the different solidification morphologies revealed by metallography were found to depend upon the types of plates bonded, the bonding conditions and the location of pockets in the wavy interface. For molten pockets, cooling rates of 10 4 to 10 5 (degC/sec) have been deduced from interdendritic spacing, and found to be in good agreement with calculations after a mathematical model. It seems that the fast cooling rates and the steep temperature gradients are at the origin of the particular solidification phenomena observed in molten pockets

  2. Dentin-bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  3. Photoinduced Glycerol Oxidation over Plasmonic Au and AuM (M = Pt, Pd and Bi) Nanoparticle-Decorated TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedsukontorn, Trin; Saito, Nagahiro; Hunsom, Mali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, sol-immobilization was used to prepare gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts at different Au weight % (wt. %) loading (Aux/TiO2, where x is the Au wt. %) and Au–M NP-decorated TiO2 photocatalysts (Au3M3/TiO2), where M is bismuth (Bi), platinum (Pt) or palladium (Pd) at 3 wt. %. The Aux/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a stronger visible light absorption than the parent TiO2 due to the localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Increasing the Au content from 1 wt. % to 7 wt. % led to increased visible light absorption due to the increasing presence of defective structures that were capable of enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared catalyst. The addition of Pt and Pd coupled with the Au3/TiO2 to form Au3M3/TiO2 improved the photocatalytic activity of the Au3/TiO2 photocatalyst by maximizing their light-absorption property. The Au3/TiO2, Au3Pt3/TiO2 and Au3Pd3/TiO2 photocatalysts promoted the formation of glyceraldehyde from glycerol as the principle product, while Au3Bi3/TiO2 facilitated glycolaldehyde formation as the major product. Among all the prepared photocatalysts, Au3Pd3/TiO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a 98.75% glycerol conversion at 24 h of reaction time. PMID:29690645

  4. Propensity of bond exchange as a window into the mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, W.; Wang, X. L., E-mail: xlwang@um.cityu.edu.hk; Lan, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Pan, S. P. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lu, Z. P. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-02-09

    We investigated the mechanical properties of Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glasses, by compression experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. From the simulation, we found that the large, solvent atom, Zr, has high propensity of bond exchange compared to those of the smaller solute atoms. The difference in bond exchange is consistent with the observed disparity in mechanical behaviors: Zr-rich metallic glass exhibits low elastic modulus and large plastic strain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that the increased propensity in bond exchange is related to the softening of Zr bonds with increasing Zr content.

  5. Metal-metal bonding and aromaticity in [M2(NHCHNH)3]2 (μ-E)2 (E = O, S; M = Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiuli; Meng, Lingpeng; Sun, Zheng; Li, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    The nature of M-M bonding and aromaticity of [M2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-E)2 (E = O, S; M = Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh) was investigated using atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, electron localization function (ELF), natural bond orbital (NBO) and molecular orbital analysis. These analyses led to the following main conclusions: in [M2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-E)2 (E = O, S; M = Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh), the Nb-Nb, Ru-Ru, and Rh-Rh bonds belong to "metallic" bonds, whereas Mo-Mo and Tc-Tc drifted toward the "dative" side; all these bonds are partially covalent in character. The Nb-Nb, Mo-Mo, and Tc-Tc bonds are stronger than Ru-Ru and Rh-Rh bonds. The M-M bonds in [M2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-S)2 are stronger than those in [M2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-O)2 for M = Nb, Mo, Tc, and Ru. The NICS(1)ZZ values show that all of the studied molecules, except [Ru2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-O)2, are aromaticity molecules. O-bridged compounds have more aromaticity than S-bridged compounds. Graphical Abstract Left Molecular graph, and right electron localization function (ELF) isosurface of [M2(NHCHNH)3]2(μ-E)2(E = O, S; M = Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh).

  6. Molecularly Tuning the Radicaloid N-H···O═C Hydrogen Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Norman; Chung, Wei-Cheng; Ley, Rebecca M; Lin, Kwan-Yu; Francisco, Joseph S; Negishi, Ei-Ichi

    2016-03-03

    Substituent effects on the open shell N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond has never been reported. This study examines how 12 functional groups composed of electron donating groups (EDG), halogen atoms and electron withdrawing groups (EWG) affect the N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond properties in a six-membered cyclic model system of O═C(Y)-CH═C(X)N-H. It is found that group effects on this open shell H-bonding system are significant and have predictive trends when X = H and Y is varied. When Y is an EDG, the N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond is strengthened; and when Y is an EWG, the bond is weakened; whereas the variation in electronic properties of X group do not exhibit a significant impact upon the hydrogen bond strength. The structural impact of the stronger N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond are (1) shorter H and O distance, r(H···O) and (2) a longer N-H bond length, r(NH). The stronger N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond also acts to pull the H and O in toward one another which has an effect on the bond angles. Our findings show that there is a linear relationship between hydrogen-bond angle and N-H···O═C hydrogen-bond energy in this unusual H-bonding system. In addition, there is a linear correlation of the r(H···O) and the hydrogen bond energy. A short r(H···O) distance corresponds to a large hydrogen bond energy when Y is varied. The observed trends and findings have been validated using three different methods (UB3LYP, M06-2X, and UMP2) with two different basis sets.

  7. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  8. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  9. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  10. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  11. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  12. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  13. ANÁLISE SOBRE OS MÉTODOS E ESTRATÉGIAS DE PERDA DE PESO EM ATLETAS DE MIXED MARTIAL ARTS (M.M.A. EM PERÍODO PRÉ-COMPETITIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Maria Leite de Oliveira e Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Martial Arts (M.M.A. is a sport that combines various types of fight modes in a single combat rule. It requires heavy training and attention to all details of the mixed martial arts in order for the athlete to be 100% fit and precise in the day of the fight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods and strategies used in M.M.A. for weigh loss in the athlete’s physiological system, as well as to evaluate their performance. A questionnaire was given to the M.M.A. athletes for them to answer what they practice in order to accomplish rapid body mass loss. The program, Microsoft Excel 2007, was utilized for tab graphics. A total of 8 male athletes, from the ages of 21 to 35, responded to the questionnaire. The method used for weight loss by using sauna and antiperspirant clothes was 90% and the restriction of carbohydrate was 80% and liquid was 40%, being that this restriction and weight loss occurs in the pre-competitive week. These strategies cause harmful effects to the M.M.A. athletes, such as hormonal imbalance, electrolyte imbalance, cardiovascular system alterations, decreased renal function, impaired mental status in the long term, as well as mood changes. An Inadequate diet and short recovery time can lower the athlete's anaerobic performance, which prevails in M.M.A. This research can teach M.M.A athletes that through gradual changes and some nutritional rules, they can obtain a solution to impede rapid weight loss.

  14. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  15. Development of PdM (M = Ni, Cu, Ag) electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium in the absence and presence of alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Roberta Alvarenga

    2015-01-01

    Pd/C, Pd Cu/C, Pd Ni/C and Pd Ag/C electrocatalysts were produced by microwave method to be used as cathode in alkaline fuel cell in the absence and presence of alcohol. This method showed to be effective for the materials production, the particles exhibited good dispersion in carbon support and it produced electrocatalysts with a particle size of about 3.5 nm, according to XRD and TEM analysis. In cyclic voltammetry is observed that Pd Cu/C and Pd Ni/C electrocatalysts has higher active area with higher amount of Cu and Ni, respectively. Rotating ring disk analysis in the electrocatalysts showed that the amount of peroxide produced was at most 4%. This data is similar to Koutecky-Levich analysis, once for both the ORR occurs via 4 electrons. Materials stability analysis showed that they kept or improve performance in ORR, comparing the data before and after 1000 voltammetric cycles. Tolerance tests in methanol and ethanol were performed in a half cell in all electrocatalysts compositions. In presence of methanol and ethanol the compositions 50:50, to all materials studied, showed less influence in the presence of alcohol in ORR linear scan. In alkaline fuel cell Pd Ag/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in presence of methanol and Pd Ni/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in ethanol presence. (author)

  16. Análise das velocidades: referencial de 4mM, de equilíbrio de 30 min e velocidade crítica em nadadoras adolescentes Velocities analysis: 4 mM reference, 30 min steady-state and critical velocity in female adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Colantonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados do cálculo da velocidade de limiar anaeróbio (Lan, correspondente a 4mM de lactato, obtidos em testes de 2 x 400m (V4-2, 4 x 400m (V4-4 e a velocidade crítica (VC relacionando-as com a velocidade média determinada no teste de 30 min (VMT30 em nadadoras adolescentes. METODOLOGIA: Participaram deste estudo 20 nadadoras (14,36 ± 1,22 anos; 52,75 ± 5,32kg; 159,97 ± 11,26cm; 22,5 ± 4,73% gordura corporal de nível regional e estadual com pelo menos dois anos de treinamento sistemático. Testes realizados: Teste de 30 min (VMT30, Teste de duas distâncias (V4-2, Teste de quatro distâncias (V4-4 e Velocidade Crítica (VC. Análise estatística: o procedimento adotado para a comparação de todas as metodologias, duas a duas, foi a técnica de análise de regressão simples. RESULTADOS: As velocidades médias dos testes foram: VMT30: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s; V4-2: 1,14 ± 0,12m/s; V4-4: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s e a VC média: 1,14 ± 0,07m/s. Análise de regressão simples entre as metodologias duas a duas: V4-4 e V4-2 (r = 0,324, VC e V4-2 (r = 0,058, VMT30 e V4-2 (r = 0,595, VC e V4-4 (r = 0,807, VMT30 e V4-4 (r = 0,796 e VMT30 e VC (r = 0,677. As retas de regressão ajustadas apresentaram em relação à bissetriz os valores de p = 0,3060; 0,1716 e 0,0058. CONCLUSÕES: A determinação da VMT30 constitui-se em um bom instrumento para a prescrição de treinamento para as nadadoras estudadas, o que nem sempre ocorre com o modelo V4-2; a [La] de 4mM com quatro pontos e o cálculo do limiar de lactato através da técnica de efeitos aleatórios, mostrou-se viável para a determinação do Lan para as nadadoras, quando comparada com a VMT30; a VC e V4-4 apresentaram boa correlação assim como a VC e VMT30.OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the calculation of the anaerobic threshold velocity (AT, corresponding to 4 mM lactate, obtained in 2 x 400 m (V4-2, 4 x 400 m (V4-4 tests and critical velocity (CV relating to the mean

  17. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  18. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  19. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  20. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  1. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  2. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  3. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  4. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    organization and has potential applications in the field of magnetism ... The concepts of crystal engineering ... 4. However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- ... sembling the coordination networks by designing the ligands ...

  5. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  6. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey John; Sadana, Devendra Kumar

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  7. Effect of Ni interlayer on diffusion bonding of a W alloy and a Ta alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Ruxia; Wei, Qinqin; Luo, Guoqiang; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng [Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China). The State Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing

    2017-11-01

    The combination of W and Ta is expected to be highly beneficial for many applications from aerospace, weapons, military and nuclear industry. In this paper, W and Ta alloys were successfully diffusion bonded with Ni interlayer. The process of the formation of W/Ni/Ta diffusion bonded joints was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction system, electron probe micro-analyzer, energy dispersive spectrometry and shear strength measurement. The results show that the shear strength increases when the bonding temperature increases and exhibits a maximum value of 244 MPa at 930 C. The bonding of W/Ni can be attributed to the bonding of Ni to tungsten grains and the bonding of Ni to a Ni-Fe-binder mainly by elemental diffusion. The fracture takes place in the Ni/Ta interface and Ni{sub 3}Ta and Ni{sub 2}Ta intermetallic compounds are formed on the fracture surfaces.

  8. Porcine proximal tubular cells (LLC-PK1) are able to tolerate high levels of lithium chloride in vitro: assessment of the influence of 1-20 mM LiCl on cell death and alterations in cell biology and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kirsten C; Hart, David A; Becker, Rolf W

    2010-01-25

    Lithium, a prophylactic drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder, is prescribed with caution due to its side effects, including renal damage. In this study porcine LLC-PK1 renal tubular cells were used to establish the direct toxicity of lithium on proximal cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In the presence of LiCl, cell proliferation exhibited insignificant decreases in a concentration-dependent manner, but once confluent, constant cell numbers were observed. Cell cycle studies indicated a small dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G2/M stage after 24 h, as well as an increase in cells in the G0/G1 phase after treatment with 1-10 mM LiCl, but not at 20 mM LiCl. No evidence of apoptosis was observed based on cell morphology or DNA fragmentation studies, or evidence of protein expression changes for Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins using immunocytochemistry. In addition caspases 3, 8 and 9 activity remained unaltered between control and lithium-treated cultures. To conclude, exposure to high concentrations of lithium did not result in overt toxic effects to LLC-PK1 renal cells, although LiCl did alter some aspects of cell behaviour, which could potentially influence function over time.

  9. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with two different bonding agents under dry conditions and with saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Khanehmasjedi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Application of Single Bond and Assure bonding agents resulted in adequate bond strength of brackets to tooth structures. Contamination with saliva significantly decreased the bond strength of Assure bonding agent compared with dry conditions.

  10. Proposal of new bonding technique 'Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) Bonding'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Chang; Nakagawa, Hiroji; Matsuda, Fukuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    A new bonding technique named ''Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) bonding'' suitable mainly for welding dissimilar materials was proposed by which instantaneous melting of one or two of the faying surfaces is utilized. The processes of ILP bonding are mainly consisted of three stages, namely the first stage forming thin liquid layer by rapid heating, the second stage joining both specimens by thin liquid layer, and the third stage cooling the specimens rapidly to avoid the formation of brittle layer. The welding temperatures of the specimens to be welded in ILP bonding are generally differentiated from each other. ILP bonding was applied for a variety of combinations of dissimilar materials of aluminum, aluminum alloys, titanium, titanium alloy, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel, copper and tungsten, and for similar materials of stainless steel and nickel-base alloy. There were no microvoids in these welding joints, and the formation of brittle layer at the bonding interface was suppressed. The welded joints of Al + Ti, Cu + carbon steel and Cu + austenitic stainless steel showed the fracture in base metal having lower tensile strength. Further, the welded joints of Al + carbon steel, Al alloy + Ti, Al alloy + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel, Ti + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel showed better tensile properties in the comparison with diffusion welding. Furthermore, ILP bonding was available for welding same materials susceptible to hot cracking. Because of the existence of liquid layer, the welding pressure required was extremely low, and preparation of faying surface by simple tooling or polishing by no.80 emery paper was enough. The change in specimen length before and after welding was relatively little, only depending on the thickness of liquid layer. The welding time was very short, and thus high welding efficiency was obtained. (author)

  11. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  12. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  13. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  14. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  15. Nitrogen-tuned bonding mechanism of Li and Ti adatom embedded graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangho; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen defects on the bonding mechanism and resultant binding energy between the metal and graphene layer were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the graphitic N-doped graphene, Li adatom exhibited ionic bonding character, while Ti adatom showed features of covalent bonding similar to that of pristine graphene. However, in the cases of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures, partially covalent bonding characteristic occurred around N atoms in the process of binding with metals, and this particular bond formation enhanced the bond strength of metal on the graphene layer as much as it exceeded the cohesive energy of the metal bulk. Thus, Li and Ti metals are expected to be dispersed with atomic accuracy on the pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene layers. These results demonstrate that the bonding mechanism of metal–graphene complex can change according to the type of N defect, and this also affects the binding results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nitrogen defects changed the bonding mechanism between metal and graphene. • Bonding character and binding results were investigated using DFT calculations. • Covalent bonding character occurred around pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene. • Pyridinic and pyrrolic N atoms are effective for metal dispersion on the graphene

  16. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  17. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  18. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gustriana, Trisna

    2017-01-01

    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  19. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  20. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  1. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  3. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  4. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  5. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  6. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  7. "Vibrational bonding": a new type of chemical bond is discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Macrae, Roderick M

    2015-01-01

    A long-sought but elusive new type of chemical bond, occurring on a minimum-free, purely repulsive potential energy surface, has recently been convincingly shown to be possible on the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations. This type of bond, termed a vibrational bond, forms because the total energy, including the dynamical energy of the nuclei, is lower than the total energy of the dissociated products, including their vibrational zero-point energy. For this to be the case, the ZPE of the product molecule must be very high, which is ensured by replacing a conventional hydrogen atom with its light isotope muonium (Mu, mass = 1/9 u) in the system Br-H-Br, a natural transition state in the reaction between Br and HBr. A paramagnetic species observed in the reaction Mu +Br2 has been proposed as a first experimental sighting of this species, but definitive identification remains challenging.

  8. Enamel Bond Strength of New Universal Adhesive Bonding Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D E; Meyers, E J; Guillory, V L; Vandewalle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Universal bonding agents have been introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinician's preference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to enamel using universal adhesives compared to a self-etch adhesive when applied in self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes over time. Extracted human third molars were used to create 120 enamel specimens. The specimens were ground flat and randomly divided into three groups: two universal adhesives and one self-etch adhesive. Each group was then subdivided, with half the specimens bonded in self-etch mode and half in etch-and-rinse mode. The adhesives were applied as per manufacturers' instructions, and composite was bonded using a standardized mold and cured incrementally. The groups were further divided into two subgroups with 10 specimens each. One subgroup was stored for 24 hours and the second for six months in 37°C distilled water and tested in shear. Failure mode was also determined for each specimen. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) found a significant difference between groups based on bonding agent (p0.05). Clearfil SE in etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes had more mixed fractures than either universal adhesive in either mode. Etching enamel significantly increased the SBS of composite to enamel. Clearfil SE had significantly greater bond strength to enamel than either universal adhesive, which were not significantly different from each other.

  9. Common Factors in International Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and interpret the factors that jointly determine bond returns of different maturities in the US, Germany and Japan.We analyze both currency-hedged and unhedged bond returns.For currency-hedged bond returns, we find that five factors explain 96.5% of the variation of bond

  10. 7 CFR 1726.27 - Contractor's bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor's bonds. 1726.27 Section 1726.27... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.27 Contractor's bonds. (a) RUS Form 168b, Contractor's Bond, shall be used when a contractor's bond is required by RUS Forms 200, 257...

  11. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The manual is intended to guide attorneys and officials of school districts in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. Purchasers of school district bonds rely on the recommendations of accredited bond attorneys who render opinions concerning the validity and legality of bond issues offered for sale. This manual is designed to assist in…

  12. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school bonds. The document describes the proper time sequence of the bonding procedure, including elections, school board authorizations, necessary certificates, bond registration…

  13. Bonding strategies for MIH-affected enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Norbert; Bui Khac, Ngoc-Han Nana; Lücker, Susanne; Stachniss, Vitus; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate resin composite adhesion to dental hard tissues affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). 94 freshly extracted human molars and incisors (53 suffering MIH) were used. 68 teeth (35 with MIH) were used for μ-TBS tests in enamel and dentin, 26 (18 with MIH) for qualitative evaluation. Specimens were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond, Scotchbond Universal, and OptiBond FL. For MIH affected enamel, additional OptiBond FL groups with NaOCl and NaOCl+Icon were investigated. Beside fractographic analysis, also qualitative evaluations were performed using SEM at different magnifications as well as histological sectioning. Highest μ-TBS values were recorded with dentin specimens (ANOVA, mod. LSD, p0.05). Pre-test failures did not occur in dentin specimens. Sound enamel specimens exhibited significantly higher μ-TBS values than MIH enamel (p0.05), however, it caused less pre-test failures (pMIH enamel is the limiting factor in adhesion to MIH teeth. MIH-affected dentin may be bonded conventionally. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  15. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  16. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  17. Oxidation Protection of Porous Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of both as-fabricated and coated reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) were studied at 900 and 1000 C with thermogravimetry. Uncoated RBSN exhibited internal oxidation and parabolic kinetics. An amorphous Si-C-O coating provided the greatest degree of protection to oxygen, with a small linear weight loss observed. Linear weight gains were measured on samples with an amorphous Si-N-C coating. Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Si3N4 coated RBSN exhibited parabolic kinetics, and the coating cracked severely. A continuous-SiC-fiber-reinforced RBSN composite was also coated with the Si-C-O material, but no substantial oxidation protection was observed.

  18. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  19. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  20. Pricing catastrophic bonds for earthquakes in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Brenda López

    2006-01-01

    After the occurrence of a natural disaster, the reconstruction can be financed with catastrophic bonds (CAT bonds) or reinsurance. For insurers, reinsurers and other corporations CAT bonds provide multi year protection without the credit risk present in reinsurance. For investors CAT bonds offer attractive returns and reduction of portfolio risk, since CAT bonds defaults are uncorrelated with defaults of other securities. As the study of natural catastrophe models plays an important role in t...

  1. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  2. FATHER, SOCIAL BOND AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.

  3. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  4. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  5. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  6. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  7. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  8. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  9. Zinc-ion-dependent acid phosphatase exhibits magnesium-ion-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Okano, I; Tanaka, Y; Sumida, Y; Tsuda, J; Kawakami, N; Shimohama, S

    1996-06-01

    We have purified bovine brain Zn(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase (Zn(2+)-APase), which requires Zn2+ ions to hydrolyze the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) in an acidic environment. The substrate specificity and metal requirement of Zn(2+)-APase at a physiological pH was also studied. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity on myo-inositol-1- and -2-monophosphates, 2'-adenosine monophosphate, 2'-guanosine monophosphate, and the alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, glucose-1-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of Mg2+ ions, but not on pNPP and phosphotyrosine. Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were less effective for activation. Among the above substrates, myo-inositol-1-phosphate was the most susceptible to hydrolysis by the enzyme in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH at around 8 for myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Li+ ions. The Zn(2+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the purified enzyme fraction exhibited similar behavior on Sephadex G-100 and Mono Q colomns. These findings suggest that Zn(2+)-APase also exhibits Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity under physiological conditions.

  10. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  11. Investigation of different physical aspects such as structural, mechanical, optical properties and Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) semiconductors: A DFT-based first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Lokman; Rahaman, Md. Zahidur

    2018-04-01

    By using first principles calculation dependent on the density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the mechanical, structural properties and the Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds under various pressures up to 60 GPa. The optical properties have been investigated under zero pressure. Our calculated optimized structural parameters of both the materials are in good agreement with other theoretical predictions. The calculated elastic constants show that Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds are mechanically stable under external pressure below 60 GPa. From the elastic constants, the shear modulus G, the bulk modulus B, Young’s modulus E, anisotropy factor A and Poisson’s ratio ν are calculated by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The Debye temperature and average sound velocities are also investigated from the obtained elastic constants. The detailed analysis of all optical functions reveals that both compounds are good dielectric material.

  12. Shear Bond Strengths and Morphological Evaluation of Filled and Unfilled Adhesive Interfaces to Enamel and Dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Fathi, Mohammadhosein; Ataei, Ebrahim; Khodaeian, Niloufar; Askari, Navid

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory study shear bond strengths of three filled and one unfilled adhesive systems to enamel and dentine were compared. Forty-eight extracted intact noncarious human mandibular molars were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 one for bonding to enamel and the other for bonding to dentine. Buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were randomly assigned for application of each one of filled (Prime & Bond NT (PBNT), Optibond Solo Plus (OBSP), and Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB)) and unfilled (Single Bond (SB)) adhesive systems (n = 12). A universal resin composite was placed into the translucent plastic cylinders (3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length) and seated against the enamel and dentine surfaces and polymerized for 40 seconds. Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine, and the results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Tukey HSD post hoc test with a 5% level of significance.There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the adhesive systems in enamel, but CSEB and SB exhibited significantly higher and lower bond strength to dentine, respectively, than the other tested adhesive systems while there were no statistically significant differences between PBNT and OBSP. PMID:23209471

  13. Shear Bond Strengths and Morphological Evaluation of Filled and Unfilled Adhesive Interfaces to Enamel and Dentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory study shear bond strengths of three filled and one unfilled adhesive systems to enamel and dentine were compared. Forty-eight extracted intact noncarious human mandibular molars were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 one for bonding to enamel and the other for bonding to dentine. Buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were randomly assigned for application of each one of filled (Prime & Bond NT (PBNT, Optibond Solo Plus (OBSP, and Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB and unfilled (Single Bond (SB adhesive systems (n=12. A universal resin composite was placed into the translucent plastic cylinders (3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length and seated against the enamel and dentine surfaces and polymerized for 40 seconds. Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine, and the results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Tukey HSD post hoc test with a 5% level of significance.There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the adhesive systems in enamel, but CSEB and SB exhibited significantly higher and lower bond strength to dentine, respectively, than the other tested adhesive systems while there were no statistically significant differences between PBNT and OBSP.

  14. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  16. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  17. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  18. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  19. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  20. Study of thermal and electrical properties exhibited by two ferroelectric self assembly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, V. N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.

    2011-04-01

    Two series of inter hydrogen bonded ferroelectric liquid crystals have been isolated. In one of the series hydrogen bond is formed between p- n-alkyloxy benzoic acids and (S)-1,2-cholo-3-(4-hydroxy) phenyl propionic acid (CTy + nOBA) while in the other it is formed between p- n-alkyl benzoic acids and (S)-1,2-cholo-3-(4-hydroxy) phenyl propionic acid (CTy + nBA). Detailed synthetic route for the isolation of these compounds is discussed. Formation of the ferroelectric self assembly systems has been evinced through FTIR studies. The positional influence of oxygen atom is investigated from the thermal and electrical characterization of both the series. Polarizing optical microscope (POM) studies on CTy + nBA hydrogen bonded complexes reveals that they exhibit single phase variance while the other complex CTy + nOBA exhibit rich phase polymorphism. It is observed that the presence of oxygen atom enhances phase abundance. Phase diagrams for both the complexes are constructed from the DSC and POM studies. Dielectric relaxations and activation energies have been carried out for various phases in CTy + 8OBA and CTy + 8BA complexes. It has been observed that the oxygen atom originates type I relaxation process. Two molecular modeling have been assigned to account for the dielectric relaxation process observed in both the HBFLC series.

  1. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porz, F.

    1982-10-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has been characterized. The oxidation behaviour in air up to 1500 0 C and 3000 h and the effects of static and cyclic oxidation on room-temperature strength have been studied. (orig./IHOE) [de

  2. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    unusual because it has a pair of non-bonding electrons. So we would classify it ... you would expect the boron to be electron rich with a formal oxidation state of ... Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008. [3].

  3. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  4. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  5. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  6. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  7. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen‐Bonding Four‐Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Timothy A.; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis‐iodo triazolium‐bis‐naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo‐triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion–rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the 1H NMR anion binding results. PMID:27436297

  8. Preparation and properties of isotropic Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with sodium silicate binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q.; Hu, R.J.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn; Yin, Y.X.; Zhang, D.T.

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: To improve the working temperature of bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets, the heat-resistant binder, sodium silicate, was used to prepare new type bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. The three-dimensional Si-O-Si structure formed in the curing process has excellent strength; it can ensure that the bonded magnets have a certain shape and usable magnetic properties when working at 200 °C. - Highlights: • Sodium silicate enables bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets to be used for higher operation temperatures. • The sodium silicate bonded magnets exhibit usable maximum energy product of 4.057 MGOe at 200 °C. • The compressive strength of sodium silicate bonded magnets is twice bigger than that of epoxy resin bonded magnets. - Abstract: In present study, sodium silicate, a kind of heat-resistant binder, was used to prepare bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets with improved thermal stability and mechanical strength. Effect of curing temperature and curing time of the new binder to the magnetic properties, microstructure, and mechanical strength of the magnets was systematically investigated. Fracture surface morphology observation show that sodium silicate in bonded magnets could completely be cured at 175 °C for 40 min, and the magnets prepared under this condition exhibit optimal properties. They exhibit usable magnetic properties of B{sub r} of 4.66 kGs, H{sub cj} of 4.84 kOe, and (BH){sub max} of 4.06 MGOe at 200 °C. Moreover, the magnets possess high compressive strength of 63 MPa.

  9. Effectiveness of immediate bonding of etch-and-rinse adhesives to simplified ethanol-saturated dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Afonso Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the immediate bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesives to demineralized dentin saturated with either water or absolute ethanol. The research hypothesis was that there would be no difference in bond strength to dentin between water or ethanol wet-bonding techniques. The medium dentin of 20 third molars was exposed (n = 5. The dentin surface was then acid-etched, left moist and randomly assigned to be saturated via either water wet-bonding (WBT or absolute ethanol wet-bonding (EBT. The specimens were then treated with one of the following etch-and-rinse adhesive systems: a 3-step, water-based system (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose, or SBMP or a 2-step, ethanol/water-based system (Adper Single Bond 2, or SB. Resin composite build-ups were then incrementally constructed. After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the tensile strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%. The failure modes were verified using a stereomicroscope (40'. For both adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was observed between WBT and EBT (p > 0.05. The highest bond strength was observed for SB, regardless of the bonding technique (p < 0.05. No significant interaction between adhesives and bonding techniques was noticed (p = 0.597. There was a predominance of adhesive failures for all tested groups. The EBT and WBT displayed similar immediate bond strength means for both adhesives. The SB adhesive exhibited higher means for all conditions tested. Further investigations are needed to evaluate long-term bonding to dentin mediated by commercial etch-and-rinse adhesives using the EBT approach.

  10. How Much Do M&M's Weigh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Amy G.; Stephenson, W. Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article presents activities appropriate for the first half of a general introductory statistics course. All activities revolve around the same data set collected early in the course. The activities require students to make decisions about how they should proceed. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  11. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  12. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  13. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  14. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  15. Identification of the formation of metal-vinylidene interfacial bonds of alkyne-capped platinum nanoparticles by isotopic labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Bonny, Lewis W; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-10-07

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of 1-dodecyne and dodec-1-deuteroyne onto bare platinum colloid surfaces. The nanoparticles exhibited consistent core size and optical properties. FTIR and NMR measurements confirmed the formation of Pt-vinylidene (Pt[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-) interfacial linkages rather than Pt-acetylide (Pt-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-) and platinum-hydride (Pt-H) bonds.

  16. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  17. Manufacturing study of beryllium bonded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing study has been conducted on Be-bonded structures employed in the first-wall panel of the blanket system for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating process has been used to bond the three materials. First, Cu-alloy and SS materials are bonded diffusively. Then, Be tiles are bonded to the pre-bonded structure under 20 MPa and at 560 degree C. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-Alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Using the above bonding techniques, a partial mockup of a blanket first-wall panel with 16 Be tiles (with 50 mm in size) has been successfully manufactured. (author)

  18. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  19. Experimental and computational evidence of halogen bonds involving astatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Maurice, Rémi; Teze, David; Graton, Jérôme; Champion, Julie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The importance of halogen bonds—highly directional interactions between an electron-deficient σ-hole moiety in a halogenated compound and an acceptor such as a Lewis base—is being increasingly recognized in a wide variety of fields from biomedicinal chemistry to materials science. The heaviest halogens are known to form stronger halogen bonds, implying that if this trend continues down the periodic table, astatine should exhibit the highest halogen-bond donating ability. This may be mitigated, however, by the relativistic effects undergone by heavy elements, as illustrated by the metallic character of astatine. Here, the occurrence of halogen-bonding interactions involving astatine is experimentally evidenced. The complexation constants of astatine monoiodide with a series of organic ligands in cyclohexane solution were derived from distribution coefficient measurements and supported by relativistic quantum mechanical calculations. Taken together, the results show that astatine indeed behaves as a halogen-bond donor—a stronger one than iodine—owing to its much more electrophilic σ-hole.

  20. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    . The overall assessment of the weld bonding process is made using several commercial adhesives with varying working times under different surface conditions. The quality of the resulting joints is evaluated by means of macroetching observations, tension-shear tests and peel tests. The theoretical investigation......This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding...... of the process consists of numerical predictions based on the commercial finite element program SORPAS with the purpose of establishing the most favourable parameters that allow spot-welding through the adhesives....

  1. Structure and bonding in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1991-10-01

    We review here the recent progress made in the understanding of the electronic and atomic structure of small clusters of s-p bonded materials using the density functional molecular dynamics technique within the local density approximation. Starting with a brief description of the method, results are presented for alkali metal clusters, clusters of divalent metals such as Mg and Be which show a transition from van der Waals or weak chemical bonding to metallic behaviour as the cluster size grows and clusters of Al, Sn and Sb. In the case of semiconductors, we discuss results for Si, Ge and GaAs clusters. Clusters of other materials such as P, C, S, and Se are also briefly discussed. From these and other available results we suggest the possibility of unique structures for the magic clusters. (author). 69 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  2. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

  3. About counterintuitive orbital mixing and bond populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that negative bond and orbital populations may be avoided by the introduction of a weight factor in a bond index definition, together with a suitable parameterization. The negative bond populations found for first-row metal complexes need not be ascribed to counterintuitive orbital mixing but rather, essentially, to the equipartition of the charge distribution. Different definitions of the bond population are compared for ferrocene and the effects of some parameterizations are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Role of direct covalent bonding in enhanced heat dissipation property of flexible graphene oxide–carbon nanotube hybrid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yongseon; Kim, Myeongjin; Kim, Jooheon

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GO/MWCNT) hybrid films with and without covalent bonding is examined in this study. To fabricate chemically bonded GO/MWCNT hybrid films, chlorinated GO and amino-functionalized MWCNTs are bonded covalently. The mixtures of surface modified GO and MWCNT were filtered and then subjected to hot pressing to fabricate stacked films. Examination of these chemically bonded hybrid films reveal that chlorine-doped GO exhibits enhanced electrical properties because it creates hole charge carriers by attracting the electrons in GO towards chlorine. Enhanced electrical conductivity and low sheet resistance are observed also with increasing MWCNT loadings. On comparing the through-plane thermal properties, the chemically bonded hybrid films were found to exhibit higher thermal conductivity than do the physically bonded hybrid films because of the synergetic interaction of functional groups in GO and MWCNTs in the former films. However, excess addition of MWCNTs to the films leads to an increasing phonon scattering density and a decreased thermal conductivity. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (GO/CNT) films are bonded covalently. • GO/CNT hybrid films are prepared through filtering and hot-pressing method. • Chemically bonded hybrid films exhibit enhanced electrical and thermal properties. • Enhanced thermal conductivity is explained according to increasing CNT contents

  5. A Cat Bond Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek J. Bantwal; Howard C. Kunreuther

    1999-01-01

    Catastrophe Bonds whose payoffs are tied to the occurrence of natural disasters offer insurers the ability to hedge event risk through the capital markets that could otherwise leave them insolvent if concentrated solely on their own balance sheets. At the same time, they offer investors a unique opportunity to enhance their portfolios with an asset that provides an attractive return that is uncorrelated with typical financial securities Despite its attractiveness, spreads in this market remai...

  6. Determination of bond energies by mass spectrometry. Some transition metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of transition metal carbonyls have been studied, M(CO) 6 and M(CO) 5 CS complexes of the Group VIB metals and M 2 (CO) 10 complexes of the Group VIIB metals. Results for the hexacarbonyl complexes indicate that the measured fragmentation energies are in error by 0.25 +- 0.02 eV per CO produced. This is attributed to excitation of CO to the first vibrational state. Least-squares dissociation energies calculated from corrected data for M(CO) 5 CS complexes indicate that the M--CS bond is 3 to 4 times stronger than the M--CO bonds. Substitution of CS for CO in going from M(CO) 6 to M(CO) 5 CS weakens the remaining M--CO bonds by an average of 0.2 eV. Previously unreported MnTc(CO) 10 and TcRe(CO) 10 are prepared by halide substitution of Tc(CO) 5 Br and Re(CO) 5 Br with Mn(CO) 5 - and Tc(CO) 5 - , respectively. In the positive ion, metal and mixed-metal decacarbonyls are considered as (CO) 5 M + --M(CO) 5 complexes possessing five strong and five weak M--CO bonds. For Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Re 2 (CO) 10 , M + --M dissociation energies are 3.0 +- 0.1 and 4.0 +- 0.3 eV, respectively. These energies are 2.5 times greater than those reported for homolytic cleavage to M(CO) 5 + and M(CO) 5

  7. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  8. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Z.; Vrána, J.; Wann, D. A.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 40 (2017), s. 13714-13719 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : adjusted pseudopotentials * derivates * halogen * carboranes * chalcogen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  9. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  10. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department of the Treasury... (``Treasury'') seeks comments from Indian Tribal Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond... governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under Section 7871(f) of the Internal Revenue...

  11. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral bonds. 800.21 Section 800.21 Mineral... FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral bonds. (a) Collateral bonds, except for letters of credit, cash accounts, and real property, shall be...

  12. Are Stock and Corporate Bond Markets Integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, J.; Driessen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the cross-sectional integration of stock and corporate bond markets by comparing a firm’s expected stock return, as implied by corporate bond spreads, to its realized stock return. We compute expected corporate bond returns by correcting credit spreads for expected losses due to

  13. 36 CFR 9.48 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.48... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.48 Performance bond. (a) Prior to approval of a plan of operations, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  14. Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New developments and applications ... for modelling amorphous structure we found that the and bond integrals are not only transferable between graphite and diamond structures but they are also strongly anisotropic due to inter-plan bonding between graphite sheets.

  15. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bu...

  16. Liquidity risk premia in corporate bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of liquidity risk in the pricing of corporate bonds. We show that corporate bond returns have significant exposures to fluctuations in treasury bond liquidity and equity market liquidity. Further, this liquidity risk is a priced factor for the expected returns on

  17. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000...

  18. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory surety...

  19. 36 CFR 223.35 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 223.35 Section 223.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Performance bond. Timber sale contracts may require the purchaser to furnish a performance bond for...

  20. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory surety...

  1. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds. 24.146 Section 24.146 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded...

  2. Characterisation of cellular adhesion reinforcement by multiple bond force spectroscopy in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Angely, Christelle; Andre Dias, Sofia; Planus, Emmanuelle; Filoche, Marcel; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Isabey, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion is a key process by which cells physically connect with their environment, and express sensitivity and adaptation through mechanotransduction. A critical step of cell adhesion is the formation of the first bonds which individually generate weak contacts (∼tens pN) but can sustain thousand times higher forces (∼tens nN) when associated. We propose an experimental validation by multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) of a stochastic model predicting adhesion reinforcement permitted by non-cooperative, multiple bonds on which force is homogeneously distributed (called parallel bond configuration). To do so, spherical probes (diameter: 6.6 μm), specifically coated by RGD-peptide to bind integrins, are used to statically indent and homogenously stretch the multiple bonds created for short contact times (2 s) between the bead and the surface of epithelial cells (A549). Using different separation speeds (v = 2, 5, 10 μm/s) and measuring cellular Young's modulus as well as the local stiffness preceding local rupture events, we obtain cell-by-cell the effective loading rates both at the global cell level and at the local level of individual constitutive bonds. Local rupture forces are in the range: f*=60-115 pN , whereas global rupture (detachment) forces reach F*=0.8-1.7 nN . Global and local rupture forces both exhibit linear dependencies with the effective loading rate, the slopes of these two linear relationships providing an estimate of the number of independent integrin bonds constituting the tested multiple bond structure (∼12). The MFS method enables to validate the reinforcement of integrin-mediated adhesion induced by the multiple bond configuration in which force is homogeneously distributed amongst parallel bonds. Local rupture events observed in the course of a spectroscopy manoeuver (MFS) lead to rupture force values considered in the literature as single-integrin bonds. Adhesion reinforcement permitted by the parallel

  3. Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding - The Role of Biomolecules, Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. Also, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.

  4. Nuclear quantum effects and hydrogen bond fluctuations in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Cuny, Jérôme; Parrinello, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogen bond (HB) is central to our understanding of the properties of water. However, despite intense theoretical and experimental study, it continues to hold some surprises. Here, we show from an analysis of ab initio simulations that take proper account of nuclear quantum effects that the hydrogen-bonded protons in liquid water experience significant excursions in the direction of the acceptor oxygen atoms. This generates a small but nonnegligible fraction of transient autoprotolysis events that are not seen in simulations with classical nuclei. These events are associated with major rearrangements of the electronic density, as revealed by an analysis of the computed Wannier centers and 1H chemical shifts. We also show that the quantum fluctuations exhibit significant correlations across neighboring HBs, consistent with an ephemeral shuttling of protons along water wires. We end by suggesting possible implications for our understanding of how perturbations (solvated ions, interfaces, and confinement) might affect the HB network in water. PMID:24014589

  5. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Wien, W.L.; Stoner, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  6. Effect of ethanol-wet-bonding technique on resin–enamel bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The ethanol-wet-bonding technique may increase the bond strength of commercial adhesives to enamel. The chemical composition of the adhesives can affect the bond strength of adhesives when bonding to acid-etched enamel, using the ethanol-wet-bonding technique. Some adhesive systems used in the present study may simultaneously be applied to enamel and dentin using ethanol-wet-bonding. Furthermore, deploying ethanol-wet-bonding for the tested commercial adhesives to enamel can increase the adhesion abilities of these adhesives to enamel.

  7. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  8. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one.

  9. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  10. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  11. Optimization of the etch-and-rinse technique: New perspectives to improve resin-dentin bonding and hybrid layer integrity by reducing residual water using dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abuna, Gabriel; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2018-04-13

    To determine whether bonding effectiveness and hybrid layer integrity on acid-etched dehydrated dentin would be comparable to the conventional wet-bonding technique through new dentin biomodification approaches using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions (30s air drying) with DMSO/ethanol or DMSO/H 2 O as pretreatments using a simplified (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE: SU) and a multi-step (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE: SBMP) etch-and-rinse adhesives. Untreated dentin surfaces served as control. Bonded teeth (n=8) were stored in distilled water for 24h and sectioned into resin-dentin beams (0.8mm 2 ) for microtensile bond strength test and quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis (n=8) under SEM. Additional teeth (n=2) were prepared for micropermeability assessment by CFLSM under simulated pulpar pressure (20cm H 2 O) using 5mM fluorescein as a tracer. Microtensile data was analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test and nanoleakage by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni multiple comparison test (α=0.05). While dry-bonding of SBMP produced significantly lower bond strengths than wet-bonding (padhesives to demineralized air-dried dentin beyond conventional wet-bonding. Less porous resin-dentin interfaces with higher bond strengths on air-dried etched dentin were achieved; nonetheless, overall efficiency varied according to DMSO's co-solvent and adhesive type. DMSO pretreatments permit etched dentin to be air-dried before hybridization facilitating residual water removal and thus improving bonding effectiveness. This challenges the current paradigm of wet-bonding requirement for the etch-and-rinse approach creating new possibilities to enhance the clinical longevity of resin-dentin interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  13. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... exhibition ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the Tragedy at Orly,'' imported from abroad by the High Museum of Art for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is... exhibition or display of the exhibit object at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia from on or about...

  14. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  15. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  16. Fragmentation modeling of a resin bonded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilth, William; Ryckelynck, David

    2017-06-01

    Cemented sands exhibit a complex mechanical behavior that can lead to sophisticated models, with numerous parameters without real physical meaning. However, using a rather simple generalized critical state bonded soil model has proven to be a relevant compromise between an easy calibration and good results. The constitutive model formulation considers a non-associated elasto-plastic formulation within the critical state framework. The calibration procedure, using standard laboratory tests, is complemented by the study of an uniaxial compression test observed by tomography. Using finite elements simulations, this test is simulated considering a non-homogeneous 3D media. The tomography of compression sample gives access to 3D displacement fields by using image correlation techniques. Unfortunately these fields have missing experimental data because of the low resolution of correlations for low displacement magnitudes. We propose a recovery method that reconstructs 3D full displacement fields and 2D boundary displacement fields. These fields are mandatory for the calibration of the constitutive parameters by using 3D finite element simulations. The proposed recovery technique is based on a singular value decomposition of available experimental data. This calibration protocol enables an accurate prediction of the fragmentation of the specimen.

  17. Hydrogen-Bonding Surfaces for Ice Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Hadley, Kevin R.; McDougall, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Ice formation on aircraft, either on the ground or in-flight, is a major safety issue. While ground icing events occur predominantly during the winter months, in-flight icing can happen anytime during the year. The latter is more problematic since it could result in increased drag and loss of lift. Under a Phase I ARMD NARI Seedling Activity, coated aluminum surfaces possessing hydrogen-bonding groups were under investigation for mitigating ice formation. Hydroxyl and methyl terminated dimethylethoxysilanes were prepared via known chemistries and characterized by spectroscopic methods. These materials were subsequently used to coat aluminum surfaces. Surface compositions were based on pure hydroxyl and methyl terminated species as well as mixtures of the two. Coated surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry. Receding water contact angle data suggested several potential surfaces that may exhibit reduced ice adhesion. Qualitative icing experiments performed under representative environmental temperatures using supercooled distilled water delivered via spray coating were inconclusive. Molecular modeling studies suggested that chain mobility affected the interface between ice and the surface more than terminal group chemical composition. Chain mobility resulted from the creation of "pockets" of increased free volume for longer chains to occupy.

  18. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  19. Factors affecting the equilibrium constant of homolysis of complexes with metal-carbon σ bonds in aqueous solutions. Pulse radiolysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1989-01-01

    Pulse-Radiolysis is a powerful technique for the determination of the equilibrium constants of the homolytic cleavage of metal-carbon σ bonds in aqueous solutions. In most systems studied the observed reaction is: L m-1 M (n+1) -R + L ↔ ML m. n + ·R. Therefore the results do not enable a direct determination of the metal-carbon bond dissociation energies. The results obtained indicate that these equilibrium constants are not directly related to the redox potential of either L .m M (n) or of ·R, or to the activation energies for the homolytic cleavage of a family of similarly substituted ethanes. (author)

  20. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  1. The extended variant of the bond valence-bond length correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    The extended variant of the bond valence (s)-bond length (r) correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds has been closely approximated using the three-parameter function s = [k/(r - l)] - m, where s is measured in valence units (vu), r is measured in Aa, k = 0.53 Aa.vu, l = 0.975(1) Aa and m = 0.32 vu. The function s = exp[(r 0 - r)/b] traditionally used in the modern bond valence model requires the separate set of the bond valence parameters (r 0 = 1.362 Aa; b = 0.23 Aa) in order to approximate the above s-r curve for the bonds shorter than ∝1.3 Aa.

  2. Mechatronic modeling and simulation using bond graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shuvra

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to Mechatronics and System ModelingWhat Is Mechatronics?What Is a System and Why Model Systems?Mathematical Modeling Techniques Used in PracticeSoftwareBond Graphs: What Are They?Engineering SystemsPortsGeneralized VariablesBond GraphsBasic Components in SystemsA Brief Note about Bond Graph Power DirectionsSummary of Bond Direction RulesDrawing Bond Graphs for Simple Systems: Electrical and MechanicalSimplification Rules for Junction StructureDrawing Bond Graphs for Electrical SystemsDrawing Bond Graphs for Mechanical SystemsCausalityDrawing Bond Graphs for Hydraulic and Electronic Components and SystemsSome Basic Properties and Concepts for FluidsBond Graph Model of Hydraulic SystemsElectronic SystemsDeriving System Equations from Bond GraphsSystem VariablesDeriving System EquationsTackling Differential CausalityAlgebraic LoopsSolution of Model Equations and Their InterpretationZeroth Order SystemsFirst Order SystemsSecond Order SystemTransfer Functions and Frequency ResponsesNumerical Solution ...

  3. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  5. Hydrogen bond dynamical properties of adsorbed liquid water monolayers with various TiO2 interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J.; Kavathekar, Ritwik S.; MacElroy, J. M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Equilibrium classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen-bonding kinetics of water in contact with rutile-(110), rutile-(101), rutile-(100), and anatase-(101) surfaces at room temperature (300 K). It was observed that anatase-(101) exhibits the longest-lived hydrogen bonds in terms of overall persistence, followed closely by rutile-(110). The relaxation times, defined as the integral of the autocorrelation of the hydrogen bond persistence function, were also longer for these two cases, while decay of the autocorrelation function was slower. The increased number and overall persistence of hydrogen bonds in the adsorbed water monolayers at these surfaces, particularly for anatase-(101), may serve to promote possible water photolysis activity thereon.

  6. Hydrogen bond indices and tertiary structure of yeast tRNA sup(Phe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The rigidity and stability of the tertiary structure of yeast tRNA sup(Phe) is related to a bond index employed in an IEHT calculation. The index permits a quantitative estimate of the electronic cloud along the hydrogen bond, having thus an appealing physical meaning. The results indicate that Hoogsteen-type bonds have, as expected, greater electronic population than Watson-Crick type ones. Other non-Watson-Crick pairings, the wobble pair and G 15 -C 48 , exhibit high values of the index for the NH...O bond. In the triples, the electronic density of the hydrogen bridges does not weaken, comparing it with the one of the pairs involved. Contour density maps are shown and dipolar moments of pairs and triples are qualitatively discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. The Nature of the Hydrogen Bond Outline of a Comprehensive Hydrogen Bond Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gilli, Gastone

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen bond (H-bond) effects are known: it makes sea water liquid, joins cellulose microfibrils in trees, shapes DNA into genes and polypeptide chains into wool, hair, muscles or enzymes. Its true nature is less known and we may still wonder why O-H...O bond energies range from less than 1 to more than 30 kcal/mol without apparent reason. This H-bond puzzle is re-examined here from its very beginning and presented as an inclusive compilation of experimental H-bond energies andgeometries.New concepts emerge from this analysis: new classes of systematically strong H-bonds (CAHBs and RAHBs: cha

  8. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  9. DETERMINANTS OF ORI001 TYPE GOVERNMENT BOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosandi Yulius

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to build a strong bond market is amenable, especially after the 1997 crises. This paper analyzes the influence of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rates, and Composite Stock Price Index on yield-to-maturity of Bond Series Retail ORI001, employing monthly data from Bloomberg information service, 2006(8 to 2008(12, using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity type models. It finds the evidence that deposit interest rate and exchange rate have positive significant influence on the bond, and that stock index has a negative significant influence on the bond. It also finds that Deposit Interest Rate, exchange rate, and the stock index significantly influence the bond altogether.Keywords: Interest rate, exchange rate, composite stock price index, yield-to-maturity, bondJEL classification numbers: G12, G15

  10. Theoretical investigation of compounds with triple bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarajan, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, compounds with potential triple-bonding character involving the heavier main-group elements, Group 4 transition metals, and the actinides uranium and thorium were studied by using molecular quantum mechanics. The triple bonds are described in terms of the individual orbital contributions (σ, π parallel , and π perpendicular to ), involving electron-sharing covalent or donor-acceptor interactions between the orbitals of two atoms or fragments. Energy decomposition, natural bond orbital, and atoms in molecules analyses were used for the bonding analysis of the triple bonds. The results of this thesis suggest that the triple-bonding character between the heavier elements of the periodic table is important and worth further study and exploration.

  11. Generalized bond percolation and statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1978-05-01

    A generalization of traditional bond percolation is performed, in the sens that bonds have now the possibility of partially transmitting the information (a fact which leads to the concept of 'fidelity' of the bond), and also in the sens that, besides the normal tendency to equiprobability, the bonds are allowed to substantially change the information. Furthermore the fidelity is allowed, to become an aleatory variable, and the operational rules concerning the associated distribution laws are determined. Thermally quenched random bonds and the whole body of Statistical Mechanics become particular cases of this formalism, which is in general adapted to the treatment of all problems whose main characteristic is to preserve a part of the information through a long path or array (critical phenomena, regime changements, thermal random models, etc). Operationally it provides a quick method for the calculation of the equivalent probability of complex clusters within the traditional bond percolation problem [pt

  12. The singlet-triplet energy gap in divalent three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn AND Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vessally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Total energy gaps, ∆Et–s, enthalpy gaps, ∆Ht–s, and Gibbs free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, between singlet (s and triplet (t states were calculated for three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb at B3LYP/6-311++G**. The singlet-triplet free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, for C2H2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb are found to be increased in the order: C2H2Si > C2H2C > C2H2Ge > C2H2Sn > C2H2Pb. The ∆Gt–s of C4H4M are found to be increased in the order: C4H4Pb > C4H4Sn > C4H4Ge > C4H4Si > C4H4C. Also, the ∆Gt–s of C6H6M are determined in the order: C6H6Pb > C6H6Ge ≥ C6H6Sn > C6H6Si > C6H6C. The most stable conformers of C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M are proposed for both the singlet and triplet states. Nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS calculations were carried out for determination of aromatic character. The geometrical parameters are calculated and discussed.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Yves; Habermehl, Pirmin; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Fiquet, Anne

    2009-04-14

    When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) compared with the subcutaneous route. An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to 18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374) or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378). Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of >or= 1.25 gpELISA units/ml). Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (vaccines was comparable regardless of administration route. Integration of both administration routes in the current European indications for the two vaccines will now allow physicians in Europe to choose their preferred administration route

  14. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  15. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  16. Halogen bonding in solution: thermodynamics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Thomas M; Chudzinski, Michael G; Sarwar, Mohammed G; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-02-21

    Halogen bonds are noncovalent interactions in which covalently bound halogens act as electrophilic species. The utility of halogen bonding for controlling self-assembly in the solid state is evident from a broad spectrum of applications in crystal engineering and materials science. Until recently, it has been less clear whether, and to what extent, halogen bonding could be employed to influence conformation, binding or reactivity in the solution phase. This tutorial review summarizes and interprets solution-phase thermodynamic data for halogen bonding interactions obtained over the past six decades and highlights emerging applications in molecular recognition, medicinal chemistry and catalysis.

  17. Cold pressure welding - the mechanisms governing bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the bonding surface in scanning electron microscope after fracture confirm the mechanisms of bond formation in cold pressure welding to be: fracture of work-hardened surface layer, surface expansion increasing the area of virgin surface, extrusion of virgin material through cracks...... of the original surface layer, and establishment of real contact and bonding between virgin material. This implies that normal pressure as well as surface expansion are basic parameters governing the bond strength. Experimental investigations of pressure welding Al-Al under plane strain compression in a specially...

  18. THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL VALUATION OF CALLABLE BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dejun Xie

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the value of a callable bond and the bond issuer’s optimal financial decision regarding whether to continue the investment on the market or call the bond. Assume the market investment return follows a stochastic model, the value of contract is formulated as a partial differential equation system embedded with a free boundary, defining the level of market return rate at which it is optimal for the issuer to call the bond. A fundamental solution of the partial differential ...

  19. Bonding in ZnSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details of the lo......Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details...... of the lowest conduction band have therefore been investigated. Electrons placed in the lowest conduction band are predicted to increase the bonding between second nearest neighbour atoms. This causes a lowering of the energy at special points in the first Brillouin zone. Thereby, the dispersion of the lowest...

  20. Financial Assets [share, bonds] & Ancylia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-11-01

    Instead Elaine Scarry: "Thermonuclear monarchy" reinvent Carry Nation since Aug 17, 1965 the Republic of Indonesia's President speech: "Reach to the Star", for "cancellation" usually found in External Debt herewith retrieved from "the Window of theWorld": Ancylia, feast in March, a month named after Mars, the god of war. "On March 19 they used to put on their biggest performance of gymnastics in order to "bribe" their god for another good year", further we have vacancy & "vacuum tube"- Bulat Air karena Pembuluh, Bulat Kata karena Mufakat" proverb from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. Follows March 19, 1984 are first prototype flight of IAI Astra Jet as well as March 19, 2012 invoice accompanies Electric car Kujang-193, Fainancial Assets [share, bonds] are the answer for "infrastructure" & state owned enterprises assets to be hedged first initial debt per capita accordances. Heartfelt gratitudes to HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja/PT. Smartfren INDONESIA.

  1. Carbodiimide Inactivation of MMPs and Effect on Dentin Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Apolonio, F.M.; Saboia, V.P.A.; Santi, S.; Angeloni, V.; Checchi, V.; Curci, R.; Di Lenarda, R.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures has been recently proposed to improve bond durability. This study aimed to use zymography and in situ zymography techniques to evaluate the ability of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linker to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) bonding procedures increase dentin gelatinolytic activity and (2) EDC pre-treatment prevents this enzymatic activity. The zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from dentin powder treated with Optibond FL or Scotchbond 1XT with or without 0.3M EDC pre-treatment. For in situ zymography, adhesive/dentin interfaces were created with the same adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin slabs pre-treated or not with EDC conditioner. Zymograms revealed increased expression of dentin endogenous MMP-2 and -9 after adhesive application, while the use of EDC as a primer inactivated dentin gelatinases. Results of in situ zymograpy showed that hybrid layers of tested adhesives exhibited intense collagenolytic activity, while almost no fluorescence signal was detected when specimens were pre-treated with EDC. The correlative analysis used in this study demonstrated that EDC could contribute to inactivate endogenous dentin MMPs within the hybrid layer created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. PMID:24334409

  2. Scalable bonding of nanofibrous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes on microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Abdolreza; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) nanofibrous membranes exhibit high porosity (80%-90%), high gas permeability, chemical inertness, and superhydrophobicity, which makes them a suitable choice in many demanding fields including industrial filtration, medical implants, bio-/nano- sensors/actuators and microanalysis (i.e. lab-on-a-chip). However, one of the major challenges that inhibit implementation of such membranes is their inability to bond to other materials due to their intrinsic low surface energy and chemical inertness. Prior attempts to improve adhesion of ePTFE membranes to other surfaces involved surface chemical treatments which have not been successful due to degradation of the mechanical integrity and the breakthrough pressure of the membrane. Here, we report a simple and scalable method of bonding ePTFE membranes to different surfaces via the introduction of an intermediate adhesive layer. While a variety of adhesives can be used with this technique, the highest bonding performance is obtained for adhesives that have moderate contact angles with the substrate and low contact angles with the membrane. A thin layer of an adhesive can be uniformly applied onto micro-patterned substrates with feature sizes down to 5 µm using a roll-coating process. Membrane-based microchannel and micropillar devices with burst pressures of up to 200 kPa have been successfully fabricated and tested. A thin layer of the membrane remains attached to the substrate after debonding, suggesting that mechanical interlocking through nanofiber engagement is the main mechanism of adhesion.

  3. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Onassis Cultural Center... Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-28805 Filed 11-4-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-05-P ...

  4. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Yale Center for British Art..., Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2013-02401 Filed 2-1-13; 8:45...

  5. A Salamander Tale: Effective Exhibits and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Jeffrey; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists regarding intention behind the design and development of Extension outreach and educational exhibits. An evaluation of response to the exhibit "A Salamander Tale" indicates that the methods used to develop the exhibit resulted in an effective way to present information to an adult audience. Survey questions were…

  6. Comparative TEM study of bonded silicon/silicon interfaces fabricated by hydrophilic, hydrophobic and UHV wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznicek, A.; Scholz, R.; Senz, S.; Goesele, U.

    2003-01-01

    Wafers of Czochralski-grown silicon were bonded hydrophilically, hydrophobically and in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at room temperature. Wafers bonded hydrophilically adhere together by hydrogen bonds, those bonded hydrophobically by van der Waals forces and UHV-bonded ones by covalent bonds. Annealing the pre-bonded hydrophilic and hydrophobic wafer pairs in argon for 2 h at different temperatures increases the initially low bonding energy. UHV-bonded wafer pairs were also annealed to compare the results. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show nano-voids at the interface. The void density depends on the initial bonding strength. During annealing the shape, coverage and density of the voids change significantly

  7. Hot Roll Bonding of Aluminum to Twin-Roll Cast (TRC) Magnesium and Its Subsequent Deformation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H.; Schmidtchen, M.; Kawalla, R.

    2018-02-01

    In an experiment in which twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloy and commercial purity aluminum (AA 1050) sheets were bonded by hot rolling as Al/Mg/Al laminate composites, it was found that increasing the preheating temperatures up to 400 °C enhances the bonding strength of composites. Further increases in the preheating temperatures accelerate the magnesium oxide growth and thus reduce the bonding strength. The influence of the reduction ratio on the bonding properties was also studied, whereby it was observed that increasing the rolling reduction led to an increase in the bonding strength. The experimental results show that the optimum bonding strength can be obtained at rolling temperatures of 375-400 °C with a 50-60% reduction in thickness. On the other hand, the subsequent deformation behavior of composite was assessed using plane strain compression and deep drawing tests. We demonstrate that the composites produced using the optimum roll bonding conditions exhibited sufficient bonding during subsequent deformation and did not reveal any debonding at the bonding interface.

  8. Improving Erosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings by Elevating the Deposition Temperature Based on the Critical Bonding Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shu-Wei; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Interlamellar bonding within plasma-sprayed coatings is one of the most important factors dominating the properties and performance of coatings. The interface bonding between lamellae significantly influences the erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, TiO2 and Al2O3 coatings with different microstructures were deposited at different deposition temperatures based on the critical bonding temperature concept. The erosion behavior of ceramic coatings was investigated. It was revealed that the coatings prepared at room temperature exhibit a typical lamellar structure with numerous unbonded interfaces, whereas the coatings deposited at the temperature above the critical bonding temperature present a dense structure with well-bonded interfaces. The erosion rate decreases sharply with the improvement of interlamellar bonding when the deposition temperature increases to the critical bonding temperature. In addition, the erosion mechanisms of ceramic coatings were examined. The unbonded interfaces in the conventional coatings act as pre-cracks accelerating the erosion of coatings. Thus, controlling interlamellar bonding formation based on the critical bonding temperature is an effective approach to improve the erosion resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings.

  9. Are Bonding Agents being Effective on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to the Composite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farzanegan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the clinical problems in orthodontics is the bonding of brackets tocomposite restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bondstrength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using Excite. Methods:Forty brackets were bonded to composite surfaces, which were embedded inacrylic resin. One of the following four protocols was employed for surfacepreparation of the composite: group 1 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group2 roughening with a diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group3 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds and the applying Excite®, group4 roughening with diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds andapplying Excite®. Maxillary central brackets were bonded onto thecomposite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength (SBS wasmeasured by a universal testing machine. The ANOVA and Tukey test was utilizedfor data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference betweenthe four groups (P

  10. Bonding Durability of Four Adhesive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Atash Biz Yeganeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare the durability of four adhesive systems by assessing their microtensile bond strength (MTBS and microleakage during six months of water storage.Materials and Methods: A total of 128 human third molars were used. The adhesives tested were Scotch Bond Multipurpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil-SE bond (CSEB, and All-Bond SE (ABSE. After sample preparation for MTBS testing, the microspecimens were subjected to microtensile tester after one day and six months of water storage. For microleakage evaluation, facial and lingual class V cavities were prepared and restored with composite. After thermocycling, microleakage was evaluated. Bond strength values were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tamhane’s test, and the microleakage data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (P<0.05.Results: Single Bond yielded the highest and ABSE yielded the lowest bond strength at one day and six months. Short-term bond strength of SBMP and CSEB was similar. After six months, a significant decrease in bond strength was observed in ABSE and SBMP groups. At one day, ABSE showed the highest microleakage at the occlusal margin; however, at the gingival margin, there was no significant difference among groups. Long-term microleakage of all groups at the occlusal margins was similar, whilst gingival margins of SBMP and SB showed significantly higher microleakage.Conclusion: The highest MTBS and favorable sealability were obtained by Clearfil SE bond. Water storage had no effect on microleakage of self-etch adhesives at the gingival margin or MTBS of CSEB and SB. 

  11. Composite Laser Ceramics by Advanced Bonding Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin; Kamimura, Tomosumi; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji

    2018-02-09

    Composites obtained by bonding materials with the same crystal structure and different chemical compositions can create new functions that do not exist in conventional concepts. We have succeeded in bonding polycrystalline YAG and Nd:YAG ceramics without any interstices at the bonding interface, and the bonding state of this composite was at the atomic level, similar to the grain boundary structure in ceramics. The mechanical strength of the bonded composite reached 278 MPa, which was not less than the strength of each host material (269 and 255 MPa). Thermal conductivity of the composite was 12.3 W/mK (theoretical value) which is intermediate between the thermal conductivities of YAG and Nd:YAG (14.1 and 10.2 W/mK, respectively). Light scattering cannot be detected at the bonding interface of the ceramic composite by laser tomography. Since the scattering coefficients of the monolithic material and the composite material formed by bonding up to 15 layers of the same materials were both 0.10%/cm, there was no occurrence of light scattering due to the bonding. In addition, it was not detected that the optical distortion and non-uniformity of the refractive index variation were caused by the bonding. An excitation light source (LD = 808 nm) was collimated to 200 μm and irradiated into a commercial 1% Nd:YAG single crystal, but fracture damage occurred at a low damage threshold of 80 kW/cm². On the other hand, the same test was conducted on the bonded interface of 1% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics fabricated in this study, but it was not damaged until the excitation density reached 127 kW/cm². 0.6% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics showed high damage resistance (up to 223 kW/cm²). It was concluded that composites formed by bonding polycrystalline ceramics are ideal in terms of thermo-mechanical and optical properties.

  12. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  13. Blue-shifted and red-shifted hydrogen bonds: Theoretical study of the CH3CHO· · ·HNO complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Weijun; Gao, Xiaoming

    The blue-shifted and red-shifted H-bonds have been studied in complexes CH3CHO?HNO. At the MP2/6-31G(d), MP2/6-31+G(d,p) MP2/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(d), B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels, the geometric structures and vibrational frequencies of complexes CH3CHO?HNO are calculated by both standard and CP-corrected methods, respectively. Complex A exhibits simultaneously red-shifted C bond H?O and blue-shifted N bond H?O H-bonds. Complex B possesses simultaneously two blue-shifted H-bonds: C bond H?O and N bond H?O. From NBO analysis, it becomes evident that the red-shifted C bond H?O H-bond can be explained on the basis of the two opposite effects: hyperconjugation and rehybridization. The blue-shifted C bond H?O H-bond is a result of conjunct C bond H bond strengthening effects of the hyperconjugation and the rehybridization due to existence of the significant electron density redistribution effect. For the blue-shifted N bond H?O H-bonds, the hyperconjugation is inhibited due to existence of the electron density redistribution effect. The large blue shift of the N bond H stretching frequency is observed because the rehybridization dominates the hyperconjugation.

  14. ON THE DURABILITY OF RESIN-DENTIN BONDS: IDENTIFYING THE WEAKEST LINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zihou; Beitzel, Dylan; Mutluay, Mustafa; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue of resin-dentin adhesive bonds is critical to the longevity of resin composite restorations. Objectives The objectives were to characterize the fatigue and fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds achieved using two different commercial adhesives and to identify apparent “weak-links”. Methods Bonded interface specimens were prepared using Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) or Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesives and 3M Z100 resin composite according to the manufacturers instructions. The stress-life fatigue behavior was evaluated using the twin bonded interface approach and the fatigue crack growth resistance was examined using bonded interface Compact Tension (CT) specimens. Fatigue properties of the interfaces were compared to those of the resin-adhesive, resin composite and coronal dentin. Results The fatigue strength of the SBMP interface was significantly greater than that achieved by SB (p≤0.01). Both bonded interfaces exhibited significantly lower fatigue strength than that of the Z100 and dentin. Regarding the fatigue crack growth resistance, the stress intensity threshold (ΔKth) of the SB interface was significantly greater (p≤0.01) than that of the SBMP, whereas the ΔKth of the interfaces was more than twice that of the parent adhesives. Significance Collagen fibril reinforcement of the resin adhesive is essential to the fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds. Resin tags that are not well hybridized into the surrounding intertubular dentin and/or poor collagen integrity are detrimental to the bonded interface durability. PMID:26169318

  15. Solid-state diffusion bonding of high-Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: sh-noh@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel joined by solid-state diffusion bonding. > Free of precipitates and micro-voids at the bonding interface was existed. > Joints had the same tensile properties with anisotropy of the base material. > USE of joints was fully reserved in L-R bonding orientation. > Cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface at the Charpy impact test. - Abstract: Solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) was employed to join high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.2Ti-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) blocks under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure using a high-vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. High-Cr ODS ferritic steels were successfully diffusion bonded at 1200 deg. C for 1 h, without precipitates and microvoids at the bonding interface or degradation in the base materials. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed that the nano-oxide particles near the bonding interface were uniformly distributed in the matrix and that the chemical composition across the bonding interface was virtually constant. At room temperature, the joint had nearly the same tensile properties and exhibited anisotropic behavior similar to that of the base material. The tensile strength of the joint region at elevated temperatures is nearly the same as that of the base material, with necking behavior at several micrometers from the bonding interface. The total elongation of the joint region decreased slightly at 700 {sup o}C, with an exfoliation fracture surface at the bonding interface. Although a small ductile-brittle transition temperature shift was observed in the joints, the upper shelf energy was fully reserved in the case of joints with L-R bonding orientation, for which cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface. Therefore, it is concluded that SSDB can be potentially employed as a joining method for high-Cr ODS ferritic steel owing to

  16. 77 FR 29472 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  17. Dynamic Performance Optimization for Cloud Computing Using M/M/m Queueing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizheng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of cloud computing has attracted more and more people and enterprises to use it. On one hand, using cloud computing reduces the cost; on the other hand, using cloud computing improves the efficiency. As the users are largely concerned about the Quality of Services (QoS, performance optimization of the cloud computing has become critical to its successful application. In order to optimize the performance of multiple requesters and services in cloud computing, by means of queueing theory, we analyze and conduct the equation of each parameter of the services in the data center. Then, through analyzing the performance parameters of the queueing system, we propose the synthesis optimization mode, function, and strategy. Lastly, we set up the simulation based on the synthesis optimization mode; we also compare and analyze the simulation results to the classical optimization methods (short service time first and first in, first out method, which show that the proposed model can optimize the average wait time, average queue length, and the number of customer.

  18. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    . In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed......Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  19. Saturated bonds and anomalous electronic transport in transition-metal aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T.

    2006-05-22

    This thesis deals with the special electronic properties of the transition-metal aluminides. Following quasicrystals and their approximants it is shown that even materials with small elementary cells exhibit the same surprising effects. So among the transition-metal aluminides also semi-metallic and semiconducting compounds exist, although if they consist of classic-metallic components like Fe, Al, or Cr. These properties are furthermore coupled with a deep pseusogap respectively gap in the density of states and strongly covalent bonds. Bonds are described in this thesis by two eseential properties. First by the bond charge and second by the energetic effect of the bond. It results that in the caes of semiconducting transition-metal aluminides both a saturation of certain bonds and a bond-antibond alteration in the Fermi level is present. By the analysis of the near-order in form of the so-calles coordination polyeders it has been succeeded to establish a simple rule for semiconductors, the five-fold coordination for Al. This rule states that aluminium atoms with their three valence electrons are not able to build more than five saturated bonds to their nearest transition-metal neighbours. In excellent agreement with the bond angles predicted theoretically under assumption of equal-type bonds it results that all binary transition-element aluminide semiconductors exhibit for the Al atoms the same near order. Typical values for specific resistances of the studied materials at room temperature lie in the range of some 100 {mu}{omega}cm, which is farly larger than some 10 {mu}{omega}cm as in the case of the unalloyed metals. SUrprising is furthermore a high transport anisotropy with a ratio of the specific resistances up to 3.0. An essential result of this thesis can be seen in the coupling of the properties of the electronic transport and the bond properties. The small conducitivities could be explained by small values in the density of states and a bond

  20. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vladilo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a “covalent-bond stage” to a “hydrogen-bond stage” in prebiotic chemistry.

  1. 40 CFR 280.98 - Surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Performance Bond Date bond executed: Period of coverage: Principal: [legal name and business address of owner... “corporation”] State of incorporation (if applicable): Surety(ies): [name(s) and business address(es)] Scope of...) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such...

  2. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups

  3. 78 FR 36029 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... the extent a Secondary Loan is financed on a corporate finance basis (i.e., through a Credit... Issue. Bonds will be used to finance Bond Loans to Eligible CDFIs for Eligible Purposes for a period not... financial strength, stability, durability and liquidity as reflected in its corporate credit ratings and...

  4. Index Driven Price Pressure in Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    Inclusion and exclusion of bonds from major indices are information-free, monthly events. At these events, liquidity providers get a significant abnormal return by trading against index trackers. The return is highest for bonds that are excluded because of a recent downgrade with a one-day return...

  5. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature bonding of silicon wafers was achieved using sol-gel technology. The initial sol-gel chemistry of the coating solution was found to influence the mechanical properties of the resulting bonds. More precisely, the influence of parameters such as the alkoxide concentration, water-to-alkoxide molar ratio, pH, and solution aging on the final bond morphologies and interfacial fracture energy was studied. The thickness and density of the sol-gel coating were characterised using ellipsometry. The corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to monitor their chemical composition, infrared imaging to control bond integrity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study their microstructure. Their interfacial fracture energy was measured using microindentation. An optimum water-to-alkoxide molar ratio of 10 and hydrolysis water at pH = 2 were found. Such conditions led to relatively dense films (> 90%), resulting in bonds with a fracture energy of 3.5 J/m 2 , significantly higher than those obtained using classical hydrophilic bonding (typically 1.5-2.5 J/m 2 ). Ageing of the coating solution was found to decrease the bond strength

  6. Theoretical Characterization of Hydrogen Bonding Interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest stabilization results in case of (H2N)CHO as hydrogen bond acceptor. The variation of the substituents at –OH functional group also influences the strength of hydrogen bond; nearly all the substituents increase the stabilization energy relative to HOH. The analysis of geometrical parameters; proton affinities, ...

  7. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of exp...

  8. Nondestructive testing of thermocompression bonds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    A Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope (SLAM) was used to characterize hybrid microcircuit beam lead bonds formed on thin film networks by a thermocompression process. Results from subsequent pull testing show that the SLAM offered no significant advantage over visual inspection for detecting bad bonds. Infrared microscopy and resistance measurements were also reviewed and rejected as being ineffective inspection methods

  9. 46 CFR 540.6 - Surety bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. The requirements of Form FMC-132A, however, may be amended by the Commission in a particular case for good cause. (b) In the case of a surety bond which is to cover all passenger operations of the... shall be issued by a bonding company authorized to do business in the United States and acceptable to...

  10. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a “covalent-bond stage” to a “hydrogen-bond stage” in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:29301382

  11. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V; Jansen, Thomas L C; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid--alcohols--has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  12. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  13. 76 FR 38577 - Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... notes or bonds, including the principal, interest, and call premiums not to exceed 30 years, issued by CDFIs to finance loans for eligible community or economic development purposes. The bonds or notes will... accordance with Federal credit policy, moreover, the Federal Financing Bank (FFB), a body corporate and...

  14. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Hassanali, Ali

    2018-01-03

    The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a "covalent-bond stage" to a "hydrogen-bond stage" in prebiotic chemistry.

  15. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2011-01-01

    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...

  16. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  17. Effect of aromatization of the ring on intramolecular H-bond in 3-hydroxy-4-formylo derivatives of fulvene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziminski, Wojciech P.; Krygowski, Tadeusz M.

    2011-06-01

    DFT optimization of H-bonded 3-hydroxy-4-formylo derivatives of fulvene aromatized by amino substitution at C6 or by complexation with Li atom was performed using the B3LYP functional together with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. Several aromaticity indicators (HOMA, NICS, pEDA and Shannon aromaticity) confirm an increase of aromaticity in the sequence: fulvene, 6-aminofulvene, Li-complex with fulvene and in the case of H-bonded 3-hydroxy-4-formylo derivatives, exhibited in the same sequence an increase of H-bond strength estimated by direct comparison of energy for H-bonded and open conformations, as well as by using AIM based electron densities at bond critical point.

  18. Green and social bonds - A promising tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Dominique; Barochez, Aurelie de; Cozic, Aela

    2013-11-01

    Issues of green bonds, socially responsible bonds and climate bonds are on the rise. Novethic estimates that some Euro 5 billion in such bonds has been issued since the start of 2013 by development banks, the main issuers of this type of debt. The figure is equal to over half of their total issues since 2007. Including local authorities, corporations and banks, a total Euro 8 billion of these bonds has been issued thus far in 2013. Given the size of the bond market, which the OECD estimated at Euro 95,000 billion in 2011, green and social bonds are still something of a niche but have strong growth potential. A number of large issues, from Euro 500 million to Euro 1 billion, were announced at the end of the year. Unlike conventional bonds, green and social bonds are not intended to finance all the activities of the issuer or refinance its debt. They serve instead to finance specific projects, such as producing renewable energy or adapting to climate change, the risk of which is shouldered by the issuer. This makes them an innovative instrument, used to earmark investments in projects with a direct environmental or social benefit rather than simply on the basis of the issuer's sustainable development policy. With financing being sought for the ecological transition, green and social bonds are promising instruments, sketching out at global level the shape of tools adapted to the financing of a green economy. On the strength of these advantages, the interest of responsible investors - the main target of green and social bond issuers - is growing fast. Judging by issuer press releases and the most commonly used currencies, the main subscribers today are US investors, among them CalSTRS and fund managers like Calvert Investment Management and Trillium Asset Management. European asset owners are also starting to focus on green and social bonds. A Novethic survey shows that 13% of them have already subscribed to such an issue or plan to do so. The present study

  19. The PNPLA3 rs738409 148M/M genotype is a risk factor for liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis but shows no or weak association in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dieter Nischalke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An isoleucine>methionine mutation at position 148 in the PNPLA3 gene (p.I148M, rs738409 has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for liver damage in steatohepatitis. Here, we studied whether the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism also affects predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: We compared distributions of PNPLA3 genotypes in 80 and 81 Caucasian patients with alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated HCC to 80 and 81 age- and sex-matched patients with alcohol-related and HCV-related cirrhosis without HCC, respectively. PNPLA3 genotypes in 190 healthy individuals from the same population served as reference. Potential confounders obesity, diabetes, HCV genotype and HBV co-infection were controlled by univariate and multivariate logistic regression with forward variable selection. RESULTS: PNPLA3 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all study groups. The frequency of the 148M allele was significantly (p<0.001 increased in alcoholic cirrhosis with (53.7% and without HCC (36.2% but was not different between healthy controls (22.9% and patients with cirrhosis (25.3%; p = 0.545 and HCC (30.2%; p = 0.071 due to hepatitis C. HCC risk was highest in 148M/M homozygous patients with alcoholic liver disease (odds ratio (OR 16.8 versus healthy controls; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.68-42.43, p<0.001. Finally, multivariate regression confirmed 148M/M homozygosity (OR 2.8; 95%-CI: 1.24-6.42; p = 0.013 as HCC risk factor in alcoholic cirrhosis. In HCV-related cirrhosis only HCV genotype 1 was confirmed as a HCC risk factor (OR 4.2; 95%-CI: 1.50-11.52; p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 148M variant is a prominent risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while its effects are negligible in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV. This polymorphism provides an useful tool to identify individuals with particularly high HCC risk in patients with alcoholic liver disease that

  20. Mechanics of wafer bonding: Effect of clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. T.; Thouless, M. D.; Spearing, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    A mechanics-based model is developed to examine the effects of clamping during wafer bonding processes. The model provides closed-form expressions that relate the initial geometry and elastic properties of the wafers to the final shape of the bonded pair and the strain energy release rate at the interface for two different clamping configurations. The results demonstrate that the curvature of bonded pairs may be controlled through the use of specific clamping arrangements during the bonding process. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the strain energy release rate depends on the clamping configuration and that using applied loads usually leads to an undesirable increase in the strain energy release rate. The results are discussed in detail and implications for process development and bonding tool design are highlighted.

  1. Diffusion bonding in compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southall, David

    2009-01-01

    Heatric's diffusion bonding process is a solid-state joining technology that produces strong, compact, all-metal heat exchanger cores. Diffusion bonding allows for a large quantity of joints to be made in geometries that would normally be inaccessible for conventional welding techniques. Since Heatric's diffusion bonding process uses no interlayer or braze alloy, the resulting heat exchanger core has consistent chemistry throughout and, under carefully controlled conditions, a return to parent metal strength can be reached. This paper will provide an overview of the diffusion bonding process and its origins, and also its application to compact heat exchanger construction. The paper will then discuss recent work that has been done to compare mechanical properties of Heatric's diffusion bonded material with material that has been conventionally welded, as well as with material tested in the as-received condition. (author)

  2. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  3. Bonded exciplex formation: electronic and stereoelectronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsheng; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P; Farid, Samir; Farid, Ramy S; Gould, Ian R

    2008-12-18

    As recently proposed, the singlet-excited states of several cyanoaromatics react with pyridine via bonded-exciplex formation, a novel concept in photochemical charge transfer reactions. Presented here are electronic and steric effects on the quenching rate constants, which provide valuable support for the model. Additionally, excited-state quenching in poly(vinylpyridine) is strongly inhibited both relative to that in neat pyridine and also to conventional exciplex formation in polymers, consistent with a restrictive orientational requirement for the formation of bonded exciplexes. Examples of competing reactions to form both conventional and bonded exciplexes are presented, which illustrate the delicate balance between these two processes when their reaction energetics are similar. Experimental and computational evidence is provided for the formation of a bonded exciplex in the reaction of the singlet excited state of 2,6,9,10-tetracyanoanthracene (TCA) with an oxygen-substituted donor, dioxane, thus expanding the scope of bonded exciplexes.

  4. Shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to enamel, dentine and enamel-dentine complex bonded with different adhesive luting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Elif; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to 3 different surfaces by means of enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex. One hundred thirty-five extracted human maxillary central teeth were used, and the teeth were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=15). The teeth were prepared with 3 different levels for bonding surfaces of enamel (E), dentine (D), and enamel-dentine complex (E-D). Porcelain discs (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) of 2mm in thickness and 4mm in diameter were luted to the tooth surfaces by using 2 light-curing (RelyX Veneer [RV], 3M ESPE; Variolink Veneer [VV], Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-curing (Variolink II [V2], Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at 0.5mm/min until bonding failure. Failure modes were determined under a stereomicroscope, and fracture surfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analysed (SPSS 17.0) (p=0.05). Group RV-D exhibited the lowest bond strength value (5.42±6.6MPa). There was statistically no difference among RV-D, V2-D (13.78±8.8MPa) and VV-D (13.84±6.2MPa) groups (p>0.05). Group VV-E exhibited the highest bond strength value (24.76±8.8MPa). The type of tooth structure affected the shear bond strength of the porcelain laminate veneers to the 3 different types of tooth structures (enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex). When dentine exposure is necessary during preparation, enough sound enamel must be protected as much as possible to maintain a good bonding; to obtain maximum bond strength, preparation margins should be on sound enamel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bond rearrangement caused by sudden single and multiple ionization of water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Sayler, A. Max; Leonard, M.; Maseberg, J.W.; Hathiramani, D.; Wells, E.; Smith, M.A.; Xia, Jiangfan; Wang, Pengqian; Carnes, K.D.; Esry, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Bond rearrangement, namely the dissociation of water into H 2 + +O q+ following ionization by fast proton and highly charged ion impact, was investigated. Single ionization by fast proton impact exhibits a strong isotopic effect, the dissociation of H 2 O + ->H 2 + +O being about twice as likely as D 2 O + ->D 2 + +O, with HDO + ->HD + +O in between. This suggests that the bond rearrangement does not happen during the slow dissociation, but rather during the very fast ionization, and thus H 2 + should also be produced when the water molecule is multiply ionized. We observed that the H 2 + +O + and H 2 + +O 2+ production in 1MeV/amu F 7+ +H 2 O collisions are 0.209+/-0.006% and 0.0665+/-0.003%, respectively, of the main double-ionization dissociation product, H 2 O 2+ ->H + +OH + . This ratio is similar to the triple to double ionization ratio in similar collisions with atomic targets thus suggesting that the bond-rearrangement fraction out of each ionization level is approximately constant. Similar dissociation channels in the heavier water isotopes, which are expected to be smaller, are under study. Finally, the fragmentation of HDO exhibits very strong isotopic preference for breaking the OH bond over the OD bond

  6. PMMA to Polystyrene bonding for polymer based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-03-29

    A thermal bonding technique for Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) to Polystyrene (PS) is presented in this paper. The PMMA to PS bonding was achieved using a thermocompression method, and the bonding strength was carefully characterized. The bonding temperature ranged from 110 to 125 C with a varying compression force, from 700 to 1,000 N (0.36-0.51 MPa). After the bonding process, two kinds of adhesion quantification methods were used to measure the bonding strength: the double cantilever beam method and the tensile stress method. The results show that the bonding strength increases with a rising bonding temperature and bonding force. The results also indicate that the bonding strength is independent of bonding time. A deep-UV surface treatment method was also provided in this paper to lower the bonding temperature and compression force. Finally, a PMMA to PS bonded microfluidic device was fabricated successfully. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. On the ultrafast charge migration and subsequent charge directed reactivity in Cl⋯N halogen-bonded clusters following vertical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sankhabrata; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Periyasamy, Ganga

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we have presented ultrafast charge transfer dynamics through halogen bonds following vertical ionization of representative halogen bonded clusters. Subsequent hole directed reactivity of the radical cations of halogen bonded clusters is also discussed. Furthermore, we have examined effect of the halogen bond strength on the electron-electron correlation- and relaxation-driven charge migration in halogen bonded complexes. For this study, we have selected A-Cl (A represents F, OH, CN, NH 2 , CF 3 , and COOH substituents) molecules paired with NH 3 (referred as ACl:NH 3 complex): these complexes exhibit halogen bonds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on purely electron correlation- and relaxation-driven ultrafast (attosecond) charge migration dynamics through halogen bonds. Both density functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field theory with 6-31 + G(d, p) basis set are employed for this work. Upon vertical ionization of NCCl⋯NH 3 complex, the hole is predicted to migrate from the NH 3 -end to the ClCN-end of the NCCl⋯NH 3 complex in approximately 0.5 fs on the D 0 cationic surface. This hole migration leads to structural rearrangement of the halogen bonded complex, yielding hydrogen bonding interaction stronger than the halogen bonding interaction on the same cationic surface. Other halogen bonded complexes, such as H 2 NCl:NH 3 , F 3 CCl:NH 3 , and HOOCCl:NH 3 , exhibit similar charge migration following vertical ionization. On the contrary, FCl:NH 3 and HOCl:NH 3 complexes do not exhibit any charge migration following vertical ionization to the D 0 cation state, pointing to interesting halogen bond strength-dependent charge migration

  8. On the ultrafast charge migration and subsequent charge directed reactivity in Cl⋯N halogen-bonded clusters following vertical ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sankhabrata; Bhattacharya, Atanu, E-mail: atanub@ipc.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Periyasamy, Ganga [Department of Chemistry, Central College Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore (India)

    2015-06-28

    In this article, we have presented ultrafast charge transfer dynamics through halogen bonds following vertical ionization of representative halogen bonded clusters. Subsequent hole directed reactivity of the radical cations of halogen bonded clusters is also discussed. Furthermore, we have examined effect of the halogen bond strength on the electron-electron correlation- and relaxation-driven charge migration in halogen bonded complexes. For this study, we have selected A-Cl (A represents F, OH, CN, NH{sub 2}, CF{sub 3}, and COOH substituents) molecules paired with NH{sub 3} (referred as ACl:NH{sub 3} complex): these complexes exhibit halogen bonds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on purely electron correlation- and relaxation-driven ultrafast (attosecond) charge migration dynamics through halogen bonds. Both density functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field theory with 6-31 + G(d, p) basis set are employed for this work. Upon vertical ionization of NCCl⋯NH{sub 3} complex, the hole is predicted to migrate from the NH{sub 3}-end to the ClCN-end of the NCCl⋯NH{sub 3} complex in approximately 0.5 fs on the D{sub 0} cationic surface. This hole migration leads to structural rearrangement of the halogen bonded complex, yielding hydrogen bonding interaction stronger than the halogen bonding interaction on the same cationic surface. Other halogen bonded complexes, such as H{sub 2}NCl:NH{sub 3}, F{sub 3}CCl:NH{sub 3}, and HOOCCl:NH{sub 3}, exhibit similar charge migration following vertical ionization. On the contrary, FCl:NH{sub 3} and HOCl:NH{sub 3} complexes do not exhibit any charge migration following vertical ionization to the D{sub 0} cation state, pointing to interesting halogen bond strength-dependent charge migration.

  9. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government ...... bonds, investment grade corporate bonds, and high-yield corporate bonds. The CSR method performs well in predicting bond betas, especially in-sample, and, mainly high-yield bond betas when the focus is out-of-sample. Bond returns are less predictable than bond betas....

  10. Evidence for Interfacial Halogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Wesley B; Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Dean, Rebecca K; Kellett, Cameron W; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-05-10

    A homologous series of donor-π-acceptor dyes was synthesized, differing only in the identity of the halogen substituents about the triphenylamine (TPA; donor) portion of each molecule. Each Dye-X (X=F, Cl, Br, and I) was immobilized on a TiO2 surface to investigate how the halogen substituents affect the reaction between the light-induced charge-separated state, TiO2 (e(-) )/Dye-X(+) , with iodide in solution. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed progressively faster reactivity towards nucleophilic iodide with more polarizable halogen substituents: Dye-F < Dye-Cl < Dye-Br < Dye-I. Given that all other structural and electronic properties for the series are held at parity, with the exception of an increasingly larger electropositive σ-hole on the heavier halogens, the differences in dye regeneration kinetics for Dye-Cl, Dye-Br, and Dye-I are ascribed to the extent of halogen bonding with the nucleophilic solution species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Linear-to-λ-Shape P-O-P Bond Transmutation in Polyphosphates with Infinite (PO3)∞ Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Lin; Han, Shujuan; Lei, Bing-Hua; Abudoureheman, Maierhaba; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-09-05

    A new metal polyphosphate, α-CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 , exhibiting the first example of a linear P-O-P bond angle in a one-dimensional (PO 3 ) ∞ chain has been reported. Interestingly, α → β phase transition occurs in CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 along with the P-O-P bonds varying from linear to λ-shape, suggesting that α-CsBa 2 (PO 3 ) 5 with unfavorable linear P-O-P bonds is more stable at ambient temperature.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro push-out bond strengths of different post-luting systems after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Luca; D' Arcangelo, Camillo; DE Angelis, Francesco; Cordaro, Massimo; Vadini, Mirco; Lajolo, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths of four commercially available adhesive luting systems (two self-adhesive and two etch-and-rinse systems) after mechanical aging. Forty single-rooted anterior teeth were divided into four groups according to the luting cement system used: Cement-One (Group 1); One-Q-adhesive Bond + Axia Core Dual (Group 2); SmartCem® 2 (Group 3); and XP Bond® + Core-X™ Flow (Group 4). Anatomical Post was cemented in groups 1 and 2, and D.T. Light-Post Illusion was cemented in groups 3 and 4. All samples were subjected to masticatory stress simulation consisting of 300,000 cycles applied with a computer-controlled chewing simulator. Push-out bond strength values (MPa) were calculated at cervical, middle, and apical each level, and the total bond strengths were calculated as the averages of the three levels. Statistical analysis was performed with data analysis software and significance was set at Partificial aging, etch-and-rinse luting systems exhibited more homogeneous bond strengths; nevertheless, Cement-One exhibited a total bond strength second only to Core-X Flow.

  13. Preparation of Pr-Fe-Co-B-Nb-M (M= Al, P, Cu, Ga and/or Gd) HDDR magnets and alloys and characterization of their magnetic properties and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes de

    2009-01-01

    HDDR process has attracted great interest for producing polymer- bonded rare earth based magnets. It presents commercial advantages when compared with conventional sintered magnets owing to easy and low cost manufacturing. With the development of anisotropic powders using praseodymium, the expectations about this process grow e also the need for studying new compositions and alloy additions. In this work the magnetic properties of polymer-bonded magnets prepared with PrFeB magnetic alloys using HDDR process have been studied. Pr 14 Fe bal Co 16 B 6 Nb 0,1 was used as the reference alloy Phosphorus, copper, aluminium, gallium and gadolinium additions have been performed to increase the magnetic properties of the reference alloy. The microstructural characterization of the magnets has been carried out through optical microscopy and SEM. The complex microstructure influences the electrochemical behavior of the magnetic alloys. The literature about this subject is scarce. Thus, the corrosion resistance of the different alloys prepared during this work was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves. A correlation between the microstructural features and the electrochemical behavior of the alloys has been established. The results showed that phosphorus and aluminium additions up to 1.0wt% had a beneficial effect on the magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of the alloys. Copper additions, on the other hand, strongly diminished the magnetic properties of the reference alloy. (author)

  14. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from C{sub 32}H{sub 20}N{sub 10}M (M Co, Pb, Fe): Film formation, electrical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez Vergara, M.E., E-mail: elena.sanchez@anahuac.mx [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte, Avenida Lomas Anahuac 46, Colonia Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia Montalvo, V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico, Calle del Puente 222, Colonia Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of molecular materials formed from metallic phthalocyanines and 1,4-phenylenediamine is reported. The powder and thin film ({approx}80-115 nm thickness) samples of the synthesized materials, deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation, show the same intra-molecular bonds in the IR spectroscopy studies, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds. The morphology of the deposited films was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their optical and electrical properties were studied as well. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance in the wavelength range 200-1200 nm. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The optical activation energy was calculated and found to be 3.41 eV for the material with cobalt, 3.34 eV for the material including lead and 3.5 eV for the material with iron. The effect of temperature on conductivity was measured for the thin films and the corresponding conduction processes are discussed in this work.

  15. 48 CFR 728.105-1 - Advance payment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 728.105-1 Advance payment bonds. (a) Generally, advance payment bonds will not be required in connection with USAID contracts containing an advance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment bonds. 728...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.95 - Public bidding on bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public bidding. The Agency will not submit a bid at the advertised sale unless required by State law, nor... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bidding on bonds. 1780.95 Section 1780.95... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.95 Public bidding on bonds. Bonds...

  17. Chromosomal aberrations induced by caffeine, 3H-thymidine and by X-rays in two L5178Y sublines of different radiosensitivity. Part 1. Chromosomal aberrations in cells treated with 2mM caffeine and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocian, E.; Bouzyk, E.; Rosiek, O.; Ziemba-Zoltowska, B.

    1982-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations were studied in two sublines of L5178Y cells with different sensitivity to X-rays. Cells were treated with 2 mM caffeine for 12 h. Then they were examined at various time intervals from 5 to 24 h. Caffeine caused over three times more aberrations, mainly chromatid breaks and gaps, in radiation-sensitive L5178Y-S than in radiation-resistant L5178Y-R cells. The maximum frequency of chromatid breaks in both sublines was found at 8 h and that of chromatid exchanges and isochromatid breaks at 12 h after treatment. A dramatic decrease of the frequency of all types of aberrations at 24 h was observed. In the pulse labelled experiments caffeine enhanced the frequency of aberrations that were induced by 3 H-thymidine at a concentration of 1 μCi/ml. This effect of caffeine was greater in L5178Y-R than in L5178Y-S cells. (author)

  18. The Synergy Effect of Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr Bicomponent Catalysts on Partial Methanation Coupling with Water Gas Shift under Low H2/CO Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr bicomponent catalysts were prepared through the co-impregnation method for upgrading low H2/CO ratio biomass gas into urban gas through partial methanation coupling with water gas shift (WGS. The catalysts were characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, H2 temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetry (TG. The catalytic performances demonstrated that Mn and Cr were superior to the other three elements due to the increased fraction of reducible NiO particles, promoted dispersion of Ni nanoparticles and enhanced H2 chemisorption ability. The comparative study on Mn and Cr showed that Mn was more suitable due to its smaller carbon deposition rate and wider adaptability to various H2/CO and H2O/CO conditions, indicating its better synergy effect with Ni. A nearly 100 h, the lifetime test and start/stop cycle test further implied that 15Ni-3Mn was stable for industrial application.

  19. First-Principles Study on the Structural Stability and Segregation Behavior of γ-Fe/Cr2N Interface with Alloying Additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of alloying additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, or Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by the first-principles method. Results indicated that V and Ti were easily segregated at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface and enhanced interfacial adhesive strength. By contrast, Ni and Mo were difficult to segregate at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface. Moreover, the results of the work function demonstrated that alloying additives Mn reduced local electrochemical corrosion behavior of the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by cutting down Volta potential difference (VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, while alloying additives V, Ti, Mo, and Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface magnified VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, which were low-potential sites that usually serve as local attack initiation points.

  20. Electric field gradient at the Nb3M(M = Al, In, Si, Ge, Sn) and T3Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) alloys by perturbed angular correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Astrogildo de Carvalho

    1999-01-01

    The electric field gradient (efg) at the Nb site in the intermetallic compounds Nb 3 M (M = Al, Si, Ge, Sn) and at the T site in the intermetallic compounds T 3 Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) was measured by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) method using the well known gamma-gamma cascade of 133-482 keV in 181 Ta from the β - decay of 181 Hf. The compounds were prepared by arc melting the constituent elements under argon atmosphere along with radioactive 181 Hf substituting approximately 0.1 atomic percent of Nb and T elements. The PAC measurements were carried out at 295 K for all compounds and the efg was obtained for each alloy. The results for the efg in the T 3 Al compounds showed a strong correlation with the number of conduction electrons, while for the Nbs M compounds the efg behavior is influenced mainly by the p electrons of the M elements. The so-called universal correlation between the electronic and lattice contribution for the efg in metals was not verified in this work for all studied compounds. Measurements of the quadrupole frequency in the range of 100 to 1210 K for the Nb 3 Al compound showed a linear behaviour with the temperature. Superconducting properties of this alloys may probably be related with this observed behaviour. The efg results are compared to those reported for other binary alloys and discussed with the help of ab-initio methods. (author)

  1. Bond-Slip Relationship for CFRP Sheets Externally Bonded to Concrete under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Cao, Shuangyin; Yang, Yue; Zhu, Juntao

    2018-02-26

    The objective of this paper was to explore the bond-slip relationship between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and concrete under cyclic loading through experimental and analytical approaches. Modified beam tests were performed in order to gain insight into the bond-slip relationship under static and cyclic loading. The test variables are the CFRP-to-concrete width ratio, and the bond length of the CFRP sheets. An analysis of the test results in this paper and existing test results indicated that the slope of the ascending segment of the bond-slip curve decreased with an increase in the number of load cycles, but the slip corresponding to the maximum shear stress was almost invariable as the number of load cycles increased. In addition, the rate of reduction in the slope of the ascending range of the bond-slip curve during cyclic loading decreased as the concrete strength increased, and increased as the load level or CFRP-to-concrete width ratio enhanced. However, these were not affected by variations in bond length if the residual bond length was longer than the effective bond length. A bilinear bond-slip model for CFRP sheets that are externally bonded to concrete under cyclic loading, which considered the effects of the cyclic load level, concrete strength, and CFRP-to-concrete ratio, was developed based on the existing static bond-slip model. The accuracy of this proposed model was verified by a comparison between this proposed model and test results.

  2. Effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the bonding energy of direct-bonded silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, N.; Spearing, S. M.

    2003-11-01

    Direct wafer bonding of silicon wafers is a promising technology for manufacturing three-dimensional complex microelectromechanical systems as well as silicon-on-insulator substrates. Previous work has reported that the bond quality declines with increasing surface roughness, however, this relationship has not been quantified. This article explicitly correlates the bond quality, which is quantified by the apparent bonding energy, and the surface morphology via the bearing ratio, which describes the area of surface lying above a given depth. The apparent bonding energy is considered to be proportional to the real area of contact. The effective area of contact is defined as the area sufficiently close to contribute to the attractive force between the two bonding wafers. Experiments were conducted with silicon wafers whose surfaces were roughened by a buffered oxide etch solution (BOE, HF:NH4F=1:7) and/or a potassium hydroxide solution. The surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy. The wafers were direct bonded to polished "monitor" wafers following a standard RCA cleaning and the resulting bonding energy was measured by the crack-opening method. The experimental results revealed a clear correlation between the bonding energy and the bearing ratio. A bearing depth of ˜1.4 nm was found to be appropriate for the characterization of direct-bonded silicon at room temperature, which is consistent with the thickness of the water layer at the interface responsible for the hydrogen bonds that link the mating wafers.

  3. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  4. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  5. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  6. Students-exhibits interaction at a science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Agostinho; Morais, Ana M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study we investigate students' learning during their interaction with two exhibits at a science center. Specifically, we analyze both students' procedures when interacting with exhibits and their understanding of the scientific concepts presented therein. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse (1990, 2000) provided the sociological foundation to assess the exhibit-student interaction and allowed analysis of the influence of the characteristics of students, exhibits, and interactions on students' learning. Eight students (ages 12ndash;13 years of age) with distinct sociological characteristics participated in the study. Several findings emerged from the results. First, the characteristics of the students, exhibits, and interactions appeared to influence student learning. Second, to most students, what they did interactively (procedures) seems not to have had any direct consequence on what they learned (concept understanding). Third, the data analysis suggest an important role for designers and teachers in overcoming the limitations of exhibit-student interaction.

  7. Effect of Luting Cements On the Bond Strength to Turkom-Cera All-Ceramic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al–Makramani, Bandar M. A.; Razak, Abdul A. A.; Abu–Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al–Sanabani, Fuad A.; Albakri, Fahad M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of the appropriate luting cement is a key factor for achieving a strong bond between prepared teeth and dental restorations. AIM: To evaluate the shear bond strength of Zinc phosphate cement Elite, glass ionomer cement Fuji I, resin-modified glass ionomer cement Fuji Plus and resin luting cement Panavia-F to Turkom-Cera all-ceramic material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Turkom-Cera was used to form discs 10mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness (n = 40). The ceramic discs were wet ground, air - particle abraded with 50 - μm aluminium oxide particles and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10). The luting cement was bonded to Turkom-Cera discs as per manufacturer instructions. The shear bond strengths were determined using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analysed using the tests One Way ANOVA, the nonparametric Kruskal - Wallis test and Mann - Whitney Post hoc test. RESULTS: The shear bond strength of the Elite, Fuji I, Fuji Plus and Panavia F groups were: 0.92 ± 0.42, 2.04 ± 0.78, 4.37 ± 1.18, and 16.42 ± 3.38 MPa, respectively. There was the statistically significant difference between the four luting cement tested (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: the phosphate-containing resin cement Panavia-F exhibited shear bond strength value significantly higher than all materials tested. PMID:29610618

  8. Shape Optimization of Bone-Bonding Subperiosteal Devices with Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ogasawara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subperiosteal bone-bonding devices have been proposed for less invasive treatments in orthodontics. The device is osseointegrated onto a bone surface without fixation screws and is expected to rapidly attain a bone-bonding strength that successfully meets clinical performance. Hence, the device’s optimum shape for rapid and strong bone bonding was examined in this study by finite element analyses. First, a stress analysis was performed for a circular rod device with an orthodontic force parallel to the bone surface, and the estimate of the bone-bonding strength based on the bone fracture criterion was verified with the results of an animal experiment. In total, four cross-sectional rod geometries were investigated: circular (Cr, elliptical (El, semicircular (Sc, and rectangular (Rc. By changing the height of the newly formed bone to mimic the progression of new bone formation, the estimation of the bone-bonding strength was repeated for each geometry. The rod with the Rc cross section exhibited the best performance, followed by those with the Sc, El, and Cr cross sections, from the aspects of the rapid acquisition of strength and the strength itself. Thus, the rectangular cross section is the best for rod-like subperiosteal devices for rapid bone bonding.

  9. Asymmetric and symmetric bolaform supra-amphiphiles: formation of imine bond influenced by aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangtong; Wu, Guanglu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2014-02-18

    A series of bolaform supra-amphilphiles with different symmetries were fabricated through dynamic benzoic imine bond formation. The pH dependence of imine formations of these supra-amphiphiles were characterazied. We found that the extent of the imine formation of these supra-amphiphies were different. The supra-amphiphiles with a poorer symmetry always exhibited a lower imine formation at a given pH. Therefore, the varied extent of imine bond formation indicate the different aggregations of these supra-amphilphiles, which are controlled by the molecular symmetry of the supra-amphiphiles.

  10. Criticality of the D=2 bond-dilute anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Tsallis, C.; Caride, A.O.

    1984-01-01

    The critical frontier and critical exponents associated with the quenched bond-dilute quantum anisotropic spin 1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet in square lattice are described. To perform the calculations, an approximate real-space renormalization-group framework recently developed by some of us for the pure model (and analysed with some detail) is extended. Whenever comparison with available exact results is possible, the agreement is either perfect or quite satisfactory. Some effort has been dedicated to extract the main asymptotic behaviours of the critical frontier. Also several interesting quantum effects appearing in the composition laws of (Heisenberg) bond arrays are exhibited. (Author) [pt

  11. In vitro marginal adaptation of high-viscosity resin composite restorations bonded to dentin cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiotis, Christos; Tzoutzas, John; Kakaboura, Afrodite

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of high-viscosity resin composite restoratives bonded to dentin in a cylindrical cavity model. The buccal enamel of 64 human premolars was removed and cylindrical cavities 3 mm in diameter and 1.3 mm in depth were prepared on each dentin surface. The cavities were divided into 8 groups of 8 cavities each and restored according to the manufacturers' instructions with the following adhesive/composite systems: Bond 1/Alert, Stae/Glacier, OptiBond Solo/Prodigy Condensable, One-Step/Pyramid, Solidbond/Solitaire, Prime&Bond NT/Surefil, One Coat Bond/Synergy, and Scotchbond 1/Z250. The composite surfaces were pressed against mylar strips, covered with cover slips, and photopolymerized in a single increment for 40 s. The restorations were polished with wet SiC papers of 320 to 1000 grit size to expose dentin margins. The marginal adaptation was evaluated immediately after photopolymerization and again after 1 week of storage in water at 37 +/- 1 degrees C. Evaluation was performed under a metallographic microscope at 200X magnification by recording the frequency of gap-free restorations (GF), the percentage length of the debonded margins relative to the cavity periphery (DM), the width of the maximum marginal gap (MG), and the marginal index (MI = MG x DM / 100). The results were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U-test at alpha = 0.05. No incidence of gaps was found in 62.5% of One Coat Bond/Synergy and 37.5% of OptiBond Solo/Prodigy Condensable restorations. All the other restorative systems exhibited restorations with gaps. One Coat Bond/Synergy, Scotchbond 1/Z250, and OptiBond Solo/Prodigy Condensable were the groups with the lowest DM values, while Stae/Glacier showed the highest DM values. One Coat Bond/Synergy and OptiBond Solo/Prodigy Condensable revealed the lowest MI values and Stae/Glacier the highest. No statistically significant differences were recorded between

  12. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  13. Bond financing for renewable energy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Thiam Hee; Tao, Jacqueline Yujia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the financing gap for renewable energy (RE) projects in Asia is critical to ensure that the rapidly increasing energy needs could be met sustainably. This paper explores the cause of the financing gap in Asia and proposes the use of bond financing to address the financing gap. Specifically, three fixed income instruments, namely local currency denominated (LCY) corporate bonds, asset backed project bonds and financial green bonds, will be assessed. Whilst the potential for these three instruments to mobilize large flows of private sector financing is great, key supportive policies aimed at reducing the capital market bias for conventional power generation technologies and supportive RE policies are required. Another key aspect would be the necessary deepening of local and regional fixed income markets before such capital market instruments are able to play a big role. - Highlights: •This study looks at the current financing gap and RE financing landscape in developing Asia. •LCY corporate bonds, asset backed projects bonds and financial green bonds could help to address the financing gap for RE in the region. •Policy recommendations for building the fixed income market for RE projects are provided.

  14. Bone bonding at natural and biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John E

    2007-12-01

    Bone bonding is occurring in each of us and all other terrestrial vertebrates throughout life at bony remodeling sites. The surface created by the bone-resorbing osteoclast provides a three-dimensionally complex surface with which the cement line, the first matrix elaborated during de novo bone formation, interdigitates and is interlocked. The structure and composition of this interfacial bony matrix has been conserved during evolution across species; and we have known for over a decade that this interfacial matrix can be recapitulated at a biomaterial surface implanted in bone, given appropriate healing conditions. No evidence has emerged to suggest that bone bonding to artificial materials is any different from this natural biological process. Given this understanding it is now possible to explain why bone-bonding biomaterials are not restricted to the calcium-phosphate-based bioactive materials as was once thought. Indeed, in the absence of surface porosity, calcium phosphate biomaterials are not bone bonding. On the contrary, non-bonding materials can be rendered bone bonding by modifying their surface topography. This paper argues that the driving force for bone bonding is bone formation by contact osteogenesis, but that this has to occur on a sufficiently stable recipient surface which has micron-scale surface topography with undercuts in the sub-micron scale-range.

  15. Creating National Narrative: The Red Guard Art Exhibitions and the National Exhibitions in the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Tsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artistic development in China experienced drastic changes during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Traditional Chinese art was denounced, whereas propaganda art became predominant in shaping the public’s loyalty towards the Communist Party and the country. Two major groups of art exhibitions emerged during the Revolution—the unofficial Red Guard art exhibitions organized by student activists in collaboration with local communes and art schools between 1966 and 1968, and the state-run national exhibitions from 1972 to 1975. These exhibitions were significant to this period because they were held frequently in the capital city Beijing and occasionally elsewhere, and through art they presented unique revolutionary beliefs to the Chinese people in a public setting. While the Red Guard art exhibitions and the national exhibitions certainly created different national narratives, I argue that the national exhibitions were in fact an attempt to revise the national narrative created by the Red Guard art exhibitions in order to re-establish a more utopian, consistent, and official national narrative. This paper unravels the intricate relationship between the two groups of exhibitions by comparing their exhibition venues, ideological focuses, work selection and quality editing. 

  16. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  17. Solitons on H bonds in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ovidio, F.; Bohr, H.G.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2003-01-01

    system shows that the solitons are spontaneously created and are stable and moving along the helix axis. A perturbation on one of the three H-bond lines forms solitons on the other H bonds as well. The robust solitary wave may explain very long-lived modes in the frequency range of 100 cm(-1) which...... are found in recent x-ray laser experiments. The dynamics parameters of the Toda lattice are in accordance with the usual Lennard-Jones parameters used for realistic H-bond potentials in proteins....

  18. The Cost of Immediacy for Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Marco, Rossi

    Liquidity provision in the corporate bond market has become significantly more expensive after the 2008 credit crisis. Using index exclusions as a natural experiment during which uninformed index trackers request immediacy, we find that the price of immediacy has doubled for short-term investment...... grade bonds, and more than tripled for speculative-grade bonds. The increased cost of immediacy is a side-effect of a ban on proprietary trading (Volker Rule) and tighter post-crisis capital regulations, which have resulted in lower aggregate dealer inventories....

  19. Love Thy Neighbor: Bonding versus Bridging Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Odile; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

    We study how trust is generated in society. In a two-sector model, we analyze two communities. In the bonding community people do not trust people outside their regular networks. In the bridging community people choose to trust strangers when they meet them. The hypothesis is that when trust is only bonding, it cannot accumulate. Our theoretical contribution is to show that when trust is only bonding then the economy’s level of trust moves to an unstable equilibrium that may under certain con...

  20. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Quantum mechanical facets of chemical bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudel, R.

    1976-01-01

    To define the concept of bond is both a central problem of quantum chemistry and a difficult one. The concept of bond appeared little by little in the mind of chemists from empirical observations. From the wave-mechanical viewpoint it is not an observable. Therefore there is no precise operator associated with that concept. As a consequence there is not a unique approach to the idea of chemical bond. This is why it is preferred to present various quantum mechanical facets, e.g. the energetic facet, the density facet, the partitioning facet and the functional facet, of that important concept. (Auth.)

  2. RAFT Polymerization of Styrene and Maleimide in the Presence of Fluoroalcohol: Hydrogen Bonding Effects with Classical Alternating Copolymerization as Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of hydrogen bonding on polymerization behavior has been of interest for a long time; however, universality and in-depth understanding are still lacking. For the first time, the effect of hydrogen bonding on the classical alternating-type copolymerization of styrene and maleimide was explored. N-phenylmaleimide (N-PMI/styrene was chosen as a model monomer pair in the presence of hydrogen bonding donor solvent 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP, which interacted with N-PMI via hydrogen bonding. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT technique was used to guarantee the “living” polymerization and thus the homogeneity of chain compositions. In comparison with the polymerization in nonhydrogen bonding donor solvent (toluene, the copolymerization in HFIP exhibited a high rate and a slight deviation from alternating copolymerization tendency. The reactivity ratios of N-PMI and St were revealed to be 0.078 and 0.068, respectively, while the reactivity ratios in toluene were 0.026 and 0.050. These interesting results were reasonably explained by using computer simulations, wherein the steric repulsion and electron induction by the hydrogen bonding between HFIP and NPMI were revealed. This work first elucidated the hydrogen bonding interaction in the classical alternating-type copolymerization, which will enrich the research on hydrogen bonding-induced polymerizations.

  3. A novel disulfide bond in the SH2 Domain of the C-terminal Src kinase controls catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jamie E; Whitford, Paul C; Shaffer, Jennifer; Onuchic, Jose N; Adams, Joseph A; Jennings, Patricia A

    2007-02-02

    The SH2 domain of the C-terminal Src kinase [Csk] contains a unique disulfide bond that is not present in other known SH2 domains. To investigate whether this unusual disulfide bond serves a novel function, the effects of disulfide bond formation on catalytic activity of the full-length protein and on the structure of the SH2 domain were investigated. The kinase activity of full-length Csk decreases by an order of magnitude upon formation of the disulfide bond in the distal SH2 domain. NMR spectra of the fully oxidized and fully reduced SH2 domains exhibit similar chemical shift patterns and are indicative of similar, well-defined tertiary structures. The solvent-accessible disulfide bond in the isolated SH2 domain is highly stable and far from the small lobe of the kinase domain. However, reduction of this bond results in chemical shift changes of resonances that map to a cluster of residues that extend from the disulfide bond across the molecule to a surface that is in direct contact with the small lobe of the kinase domain in the intact molecule. Normal mode analyses and molecular dynamics calculations suggest that disulfide bond formation has large effects on residues within the kinase domain, most notably within the active-site cleft. Overall, the data indicate that reversible cross-linking of two cysteine residues in the SH2 domain greatly impacts catalytic function and interdomain communication in Csk.

  4. Composite Bonding to Stainless Steel Crowns Using a New Universal Bonding and Single-Bottle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hattan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80 stainless steel crowns (SSCs were divided into four groups (20 each. Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group, Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength ( to composite than the groups that utilized bonding agents. Conclusion. Composites bonding to stainless steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  5. Room temperature Cu-Cu direct bonding using surface activated bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Howlader, M.M.R.; Itoh, T.; Suga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Thin copper (Cu) films of 80 nm thickness deposited on a diffusion barrier layered 8 in. silicon wafers were directly bonded at room temperature using the surface activated bonding method. A low energy Ar ion beam of 40-100 eV was used to activate the Cu surface prior to bonding. Contacting two surface-activated wafers enables successful Cu-Cu direct bonding. The bonding process was carried out under an ultrahigh vacuum condition. No thermal annealing was required to increase the bonding strength since the bonded interface was strong enough at room temperature. The chemical constitution of the Cu surface was examined by Auger electron spectroscope. It was observed that carbon-based contaminations and native oxides on copper surface were effectively removed by Ar ion beam irradiation for 60 s without any wet cleaning processes. An atomic force microscope study shows that the Ar ion beam process causes no surface roughness degradation. Tensile test results show that high bonding strength equivalent to bulk material is achieved at room temperature. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscope observations reveal the presence of void-free bonding interface without intermediate layer at the bonded Cu surfaces

  6. A simple semi-empirical approximation for bond energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    A simple semi-empirical expression for bond energy, related with a generalized bond index, is proposed and applied within the IEH framework. The correlation with experimental data is good for the intermolecular bond energy of base pairs of nucleic acids and other hydrogen bonded systems. The intramolecular bond energies for a sample of molecules containing typical bonds and for hydrides are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by other methods. (Author) [pt

  7. Exhibition at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Here we see pictures of displays at one of the exhibitions held at the Globe of Science and Innovation taken in September 2006. Located opposite the main CERN site, the Globe houses many public exhibitions throughout the year covering many topics from astronomy to particle physics.

  8. Designing Art Exhibitions in an Educational Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, June; Crooks, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the multiple features of the Cerulean Gallery in Second Life, this research report showcases several exemplar exhibits created by students, artists, and museums. Located in The Educational Media Center, a Second Life teaching and social space, the Cerulean Gallery exhibits functioned as case studies that tested its effectiveness as…

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart Jj of... - Agreement Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreement Form A Exhibit A to Subpart JJ of Part 2045...) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS GENERAL Rural Development-Utilization of Gratuitous Services Pt. 2045, Subpt. JJ, Exh. A Exhibit A to Subpart JJ of Part 2045—Agreement Form for utilization of employees of (official...

  10. Perspectives on ... Multiculturalism and Library Exhibits: Sites of Contested Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Gwendolyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes a multicultural library exhibit presenting the Palestinian/Israeli conflict as a site of contested representation. Qualitative methodology is used to interrogate the exhibit and its audience reception. Drawing on insights from critical pedagogy, implications for libraries arising from this case study are given and suggestions…

  11. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  12. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Yale Center for... Professional and Cultural Exchanges, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. [FR Doc...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 [Reserved] ...

  14. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit...

  15. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  16. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  17. CERN Industrials Exhibitions - Over 30 Years of Tradition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Industrial exhibitions have been part of the CERN landscape for 33 years. At least once each year several companies from the same country come to CERN to present their products and services. Now, a new scheme of one-day visits is giving potential exhibitors at CERN a lighter option. The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present. Four years after joining CERN, Poland inaugurated its first exhibition at CERN in 1995 in the presence of the former Director-General Chris Llewellyn-Smith. Almost all the Member States have held industrial exhibitions at the Organization. May '68 wasn't only revolutionary in Paris. For the very first time, an industrial exhibition took place at CERN. Great Britain was first to come with eight companies and remains until this day the most devoted country to the programme with 17 exhibitions and ...

  18. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  19. The AAAI 2006 Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Rybski, Paul E.; Forbes, Jeffrey; Burhans, Debra; Dodds, Zach; Oh, Paul; Scheutz, Matthias; Avanzato, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Fifteenth Annual AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition was held at the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2006. This article describes the events that were held at the conference, including the Scavenger Hunt, Human Robot Interaction, and Robot Exhibition.

  20. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  1. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  2. Displaying lives: the narrative of objects in biographical exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Albano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biographical exhibitions are a museum practice that asks for critical consideration. Grounding the argument in critical theory, social studies and museum theory, the article explores the narrative function of objects in biographical exhibitions by addressing the social significance of objects in relation to biography and their relevance when presented into an exhibition display. Central is the concept of objects as ‘biographical relics’ that are culturally fetishized in biographical narratives. This raises questions about biographical reliability and the cultural role that such objects plays in exhibition narratives as bearers of reality and as metonymical icons of the biographical subject. The article considers examples of biographical exhibitions of diverse figures such as Gregor Mendel, Madame de Pompadour and Roland Barthes, and the role that personal items, but also portraits and photographs, play in them.

  3. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  4. Evaluation of a New Nano-filled Bonding Agent for Bonding Orthodontic Brackets as Compared to a Conventional Bonding Agent: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh S Pai

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although both bonding agents provide clinically acceptable levels of bond strength, the technique to bond the nano-filled Prime and Bond NT is more cumbersome as compared to the Transbond XT material, which makes the latter a more popular choice in the clinical set up. If the application procedures for the Prime and Bond NT can be simplified then it could be a convenient option in the orthodontic practice.

  5. Disorder-induced quantum bond percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shinya; Katsuno, Shuji; Goda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of off-diagonal disorder on localization properties in quantum bond percolation networks on cubic lattices, motivated by the finding that the off-diagonal disorder does not always enhance the quantum localization of wavefunctions. We numerically construct a diagram of the 'percolation threshold', distinguishing extended states from localized states as a function of two degrees of disorder, by using the level statistics and finite-size scaling. The percolation threshold increases in a characteristic way on increasing the disorder in the connected bonds, while it gradually decreases on increasing the disorder in the disconnected bonds. Furthermore, the exchange of connected and disconnected bonds induced by the disorder causes a dramatic change of the percolation threshold.

  6. Functional chiral hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis different aspects of functional hydrogen-bonded (double and tetrarosette) assemblies are described. The functions were inspired by naturally occurring mechanisms such as molecular recognition, supramolecular chirality and its origin, and biostrategies for the correct folding of

  7. On the photostability of the disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Larsen, Martin Alex Bjørn; Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    2014-01-01

    Photostability is an essential property of molecular building blocks of nature. Disulfides are central in the structure determination of proteins, which is in striking contradiction to the result that the S-S bond is a photochemically labile structural entity that cleaves to form free radicals upon...... on a sub 50 fs timescale without further ado. In a cyclic motif resembling the cysteine-disulfide bond in proteins, light can perturb the S-S bond to generate short-lived diradicaloid species, but the sulfur atoms are conformationally restricted by the ring that prevents the sulfur atoms from flying apart...... the photostability of disulfide-bonds must be ascribed a cyclic structural arrangement....

  8. 21 CFR 1.97 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the relabeling or other action necessary to bring the article into compliance with the act or rendering it other than a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, in such manner as is prescribed for such bond in...

  9. Space Shuttle OV-105 Subnominal Bond Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunn-Golkin, Anna E

    2005-01-01

    ... with Krylon 1201 Spray Starch or MS-143 Mold Release Agent. The research was accomplished by analyzing historical NASA documents, results of bond verification tests, peel tests, contamination tests and fabrication process anomaly tests.

  10. Engineering Performance of Polyurethane Bonded Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the engineering performance of polyurethane (PUR bonded aggregate were studied. The engineering performance, including compressive and flexural mechanical properties, void ratio, and coefficient of permeability were determined through laboratory tests. Moreover, the effects of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength properties of a PUR bonded aggregate were also evaluated. The compressive strengths of PUR bonded aggregates were found to be lower than that of conventional porous concrete, which is a commonly used cushion material. However, experimental results indicated a higher void ratio and coefficient of permeability, lower elasticity modulus, better toughness, and stronger adaptability to flexural deformation compared to porous concrete. Consequently, PUR bonded aggregate is a better solution than porous concrete when used as the cushion material of a geomembrane surface barrier for a high rock-fill dam.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15798

  11. Valuing Catastrophe Bonds Involving Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe bonds are the most important products in catastrophe risk securitization market. For the operating mechanism, CAT bonds may have a credit risk, so in this paper we consider the influence of the credit risk on CAT bonds pricing that is different from the other literature. We employ the Jarrow and Turnbull method to model the credit risks and get access to the general pricing formula using the Extreme Value Theory. Furthermore, we present an empirical pricing study of the Property Claim Services data, where the parameters in the loss function distribution are estimated by the MLE method and the default probabilities are deduced by the US financial market data. Then we get the catastrophe bonds value by the Monte Carlo method.

  12. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  13. 29 CFR 501.9 - Surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION... demonstrating its ability to discharge financial obligations under the H-2A program. The original bond...

  14. Composite Laser Ceramics by Advanced Bonding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tomosumi; Honda, Sawao

    2018-01-01

    Composites obtained by bonding materials with the same crystal structure and different chemical compositions can create new functions that do not exist in conventional concepts. We have succeeded in bonding polycrystalline YAG and Nd:YAG ceramics without any interstices at the bonding interface, and the bonding state of this composite was at the atomic level, similar to the grain boundary structure in ceramics. The mechanical strength of the bonded composite reached 278 MPa, which was not less than the strength of each host material (269 and 255 MPa). Thermal conductivity of the composite was 12.3 W/mK (theoretical value) which is intermediate between the thermal conductivities of YAG and Nd:YAG (14.1 and 10.2 W/mK, respectively). Light scattering cannot be detected at the bonding interface of the ceramic composite by laser tomography. Since the scattering coefficients of the monolithic material and the composite material formed by bonding up to 15 layers of the same materials were both 0.10%/cm, there was no occurrence of light scattering due to the bonding. In addition, it was not detected that the optical distortion and non-uniformity of the refractive index variation were caused by the bonding. An excitation light source (LD = 808 nm) was collimated to 200 μm and irradiated into a commercial 1% Nd:YAG single crystal, but fracture damage occurred at a low damage threshold of 80 kW/cm2. On the other hand, the same test was conducted on the bonded interface of 1% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics fabricated in this study, but it was not damaged until the excitation density reached 127 kW/cm2. 0.6% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics showed high damage resistance (up to 223 kW/cm2). It was concluded that composites formed by bonding polycrystalline ceramics are ideal in terms of thermo-mechanical and optical properties. PMID:29425152

  15. Managing sovereign credit risk in bond portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, Benjamin; Hereil, Pierre; Roncalli, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    With the recent development of the European debt crisis, traditional index bond management has been severely called into question. We focus here on the risk issues raised by the classical market-capitalization weighting scheme. We propose an approach to properly measure sovereign credit risk in a fixed-income portfolio. For that, we assume that CDS spreads follow a SABR process and we derive a sovereign credit risk measure based on CDS spreads and duration of portfolio bonds. We then consider...

  16. A Global Stock and Bond Model

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Factor models are now widely used to support asset selection decisions. Global asset allocation, the allocation between stocks versus bonds and among nations, usually relies instead on correlation analysis of international equity and bond indexes. It would be preferable to have a single integrated framework for both asset selection and asset allocation. This framework would require a factor model applicable at an asset or country level, as well as at a global level,...

  17. Testing Bonds Between Brittle And Ductile Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Simple uniaxial strain test devised to measure intrinsic shear strength. Brittle film deposited on ductile stubstrate film, and combination stretched until brittle film cracks, then separates from substrate. Dimensions of cracked segments related in known way to tensile strength of brittle film and shear strength of bond between two films. Despite approximations and limitations of technique, tests show it yields semiquantitative measures of bond strengths, independent of mechanical properties of substrates, with results reproducible with plus or minus 6 percent.

  18. Automatic centring and bonding of lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Stefan; Heinisch, J.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2007-05-01

    We present an automatic bonding station which is able to center and bond individual lenses or doublets to a barrel with sub micron centring accuracy. The complete manufacturing cycle includes the glue dispensing and UV curing. During the process the state of centring is continuously controlled by the vision software, and the final result is recorded to a file for process statistics. Simple pass or fail results are displayed to the operator at the end of the process.

  19. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  20. Determinants Of Ori001 Type Government Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Yulius, Yosandi

    2011-01-01

    The need to build a strong bond market is amenable, especially after the 1997 crises. This paper analyzes the influence of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rates, and Composite Stock Price Index on yield-to-maturity of Bond Series Retail ORI001, employing monthly data from Bloomberg information service, 2006(8) to 2008(12), using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity type models. It finds the evidence that deposit interest rate and exchange rate have positive signif...