WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhibiting immunological response

  1. Clinical and Immunological Responses in Ocular Demodecosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:21935281

  2. Growth performance and immunological responses of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunological response of experimental birds to ND vaccinations was not significantly different (p>0.05) among dietary treatments. The antibody titre values of birds fed diet III and IV were the highest (log27 and log28) after the first and second ND vaccinations compared to those given other test diets.

  3. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  4. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For all statistical significance tests, the cut-off value was p<0.05. Poison Regression was used for further analysis. RESULTS: ... Low CD4 count at initiation, undisclosed HIV status and lack of good adherence were found to cause low immunological response to HAART. KEYWORDS: HAART, CD4, Immunologic response ...

  5. Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toskala, Elina

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of our immune system functions is critical for understanding allergic airway disease development as well as for selection of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with respiratory allergies. This review explains the current understanding of the basic immunology of the upper airways and the pathophysiology of allergic responses, including the mechanisms behind allergic rhinitis. The immune system can be divided to 2 main defense systems that function differently-innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity includes several defensive mechanisms such as anatomic or physical barriers, physiological barriers, phagocytosis, and inflammation. The adaptive immune response is activated in an antigen-specific way to provide for the elimination of antigen and induce lasting protection. Hypersensitivity reactions occur when an exaggerated adaptive immune response is activated. Allergic rhinitis is an example of a type I, immunoglobulin E, mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Today we have several immunomodulatory treatment options for patients with allergic airway diseases, such as subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. An understanding of the basics of our immune system and its method of functions is key for using these therapies appropriately. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Affective immunology: where emotions and the immune response converge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    Affect and emotion are defined as "an essential part of the process of an organism's interaction with stimuli." Similar to affect, the immune response is the "tool" the body uses to interact with the external environment. Thanks to the emotional and immunological response, we learn to distinguish between what we like and what we do not like, to counteract a broad range of challenges, and to adjust to the environment we are living in. Recent compelling evidence has shown that the emotional and immunological systems share more than a similarity of functions. This review article will discuss the crosstalk between these two systems and the need for a new scientific area of research called affective immunology. Research in this field will allow a better understanding and appreciation of the immunological basis of mental disorders and the emotional side of immune diseases.

  7. Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the immunological response to ART in HIV-1 infected ART naïve patients in relation to age, sex, baseline CD4+ T cell counts and generic ART regimens at Muhimbili Nation Hospital, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from patients enrolled in the pilot ART program ...

  8. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  10. Immunological responses elicited by different infection regimes with Strongyloides ratti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Paterson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.

  11. Immunological responses induced by the combination of phototherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of metastatic tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Naylor, Mark F.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Teague, T. Kent; Liu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Combination therapy using laser photothermal interaction and immunological stimulation has demonstrated its ability to induce immunological responses. Glycated chitosan (GC), an immunological stimulant, and imiquimod, a new type of immune response modifier (IRM), when used in conjunction with laser phototherapy, have shown to have a great immunological stimulation function. Specifically, imiquimod can help release cytokines from immunocompetent cells, stimulate TH1 lymphocyte responses (CD8+ T-cells), and recruit additional dendritic cells. To study the effects of immunoadjuvnats in combination of laser photo-irradiation, we treated animal tumors with laser-ICG-GC combination and late-stage melanoma patients with laser-ICG-imiquimod combination. At designated times, tumors, blood, and spleens in both treated and untreated animals were colleted for analysis. The major immunological indicators, such as IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, CD4, and CD8 were analyzed. The same immunological analysis was also performed for melanoma patients treated by the laser-imiquimod combination.

  12. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  13. Enhanced immunological response by dendritic cells in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juan J; Almeida, María; Cordero, Mar; Martín-Martín, Lourdes; Méndez, Cristina; Miralles, José M; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    The effect of male hypogonadism on the immune response is poorly understood, even though testosterone has both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects in men. In this study, we compared the distribution and functional status of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) [CD16(+) (monocytoid), CD33(+) (myeloid) and CD33(-) (plasmacytoid)] and CD4(+) CD25(+)CD127(-/lo) regulatory T cells from hypogonadic men and control subjects. Immunophenotypic studies were performed both on resting and in vitro-stimulated cells. Overall, no significant differences were detected on the number of monocytes, DCs and CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-/lo) regulatory T cells between both groups of subjects. However, hypogonadic men showed slightly higher numbers of circulating CD16(+) cells expressing the CD107b activation/degranulation-associated marker than controls, such differences reaching statistical significance after in vitro stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Interestingly, antigen-stimulated expression of CD107b on CD16(+) cells inversely correlated with the serum concentrations of total testosterone (r(2)=-0.45; P=0.01), free testosterone (r(2)=-0.48; P=0.005), calculated free testosterone (r(2)=-0.44; P=0.01) and bioavailable testosterone (r(2)=-0.46; P=0.008) among all cases studied, as well as with both the LH (r(2)=-0.53, P=0.04) and FSH (r(2)=-0.54, P=0.04) serum levels among hypogonadic men. These findings show an enhanced immunological response of circulating (activated) CD16(+) DCs to antigen stimulation, which was inversely related to testosterone and gonadotropin serum levels. Such findings suggest a modulation by the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis of the immune response and may have clinical implications for hypogonadic men, as regards susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and increased responses to antigenic stimuli. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  15. Wild immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Babayan, Simon A

    2011-03-01

    In wild populations, individuals are regularly exposed to a wide range of pathogens. In this context, organisms must elicit and regulate effective immune responses to protect their health while avoiding immunopathology. However, most of our knowledge about the function and dynamics of immune responses comes from laboratory studies performed on inbred mice in highly controlled environments with limited exposure to infection. Natural populations, on the other hand, exhibit wide genetic and environmental diversity. We argue that now is the time for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of 'wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host fitness in natural environments. To achieve this requires relevant measures of immune responsiveness that are both applicable to the host-parasite interaction under study and robustly associated with measures of host and parasite fitness. Bringing immunology to nonmodel organisms and linking that knowledge host fitness, and ultimately population dynamics, will face difficult challenges, both technical (lack of reagents and annotated genomes) and statistical (variation among individuals and populations). However, the affordability of new genomic technologies will help immunologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists work together to translate and test our current knowledge of immune mechanisms in natural systems. From this approach, ecologists will gain new insight into mechanisms relevant to host health and fitness, while immunologists will be given a measure of the real-world health impacts of the immune factors they study. Thus, wild immunology can be the missing link between laboratory-based immunology and human, wildlife and domesticated animal health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental microbiology does not deal with all aspects of immunology or the immune responses per se, but instead adapts immunology-based research technologies or immunoassays for the study of microorganisms and chemical contaminants in association with the environment. The primary immunologic-bas...

  18. Behavioural and immunological responses to an immune challenge in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-10-02

    Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. © 2013.

  19. The immunological response of South African Bulinus natalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot muscle antigens of the diploid Bulinus natalensis from Lake Sibayi showed complete immunological correspondence with antiserum prepared from foot muscle tissues of the diploid B. tropicus. On the other hand, strong “non-identity” reactions occurred when B. natalensis antigens were tested with the antiserum ...

  20. Immunological and Virological Response to HAART in HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the countries highly endemic for viral hepatitis, Nigeria is found. Information on how triple infected persons (HIV, HBV, and HCV) fare on HAART in the country is lacking. Laboratory based investigation was carried out to assess the virological and immunological parameters of HIV-1 infected patients ...

  1. The correlation study of temperature distribution with the immunology response under laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichao; Nordquist, Robert E.; Naylor, Mark F.; Wu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    The 3-D, in vivo temperature distributions within tumor-bearing rats were measured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique. The in vivo thermal distributions of rats were measured using MRI chemical shift of water proton density. DMBA-4 tumor bearing rats are treated using laser photothermal therapy combined with immunoadjuvant under the observation of MRI. The thermal images and the immunological responses were studied and their relationships were investigated. The study of thermal distribution and correlation with the immunological response under laser treatment provided rich information with potential guidance for thermal-immunological therapy.

  2. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  3. Anti-tumor response with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Zhou, Feifan; Boarman, Ellen; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    While successes of different cancer therapies have been achieved in various degrees a systemic immune response is needed to effectively treat late-stage, metastatic cancers, and to establish long-term tumor resistance in the patients. A novel method for combating metastatic cancers has been developed using immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy. Glycated chitosan (GC) is a potent immunological adjuvant capable of increasing host immune responses, including antigen presentation by activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and causing T cell proliferation. GC is also an effective surfactant for nanomaterials. By combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and GC, immunologically modified carbon nanotubes (SWNT-GC) were constructed. The SWNT-GC suspension retains the enhanced light absorption properties in the near infrared (NIR) region and the ability to enter cells, which are characteristic of SWNTs. The SWNT-GC also retains the immunological properties of GC. Cellular SWNT-GC treatments increased macrophage activity, DC activation and T cell proliferation. When cellular SWNT-GC was irradiated with a laser of an appropriate wavelength, these immune activities could be enhanced. The combination of laser irradiation and SWNT-GC induced cellular toxicity in targeted tumor cells, leading to a systemic antitumor response. Immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy is a novel and promising method to produce a systemic immune response for the treatment of metastatic cancers.

  4. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  5. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  6. Green tea-induced asthma: relationship between immunological reactivity, specific and non-specific bronchial responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T; Reshad, K; Yoshitomi, A; Chida, K; Nakamura, H; Taniguchi, M

    2003-09-01

    The relationships between immunological reactivity and bronchial responsiveness to allergen and non-specific bronchial responsiveness are unclear in occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight substances. We assessed the above relationships in green tea-induced asthma, an occupational asthma of green tea factory workers, in which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), a low molecular weight component of green tea leaves, is the causative agent. Subjects consisted of 21 patients suspected of having green tea-induced asthma, on whom skin test and inhalation challenge with EGCg were performed. The skin sensitivity or end-point titration to EGCg as a measure of immunological reactivity, together with the provocative concentrations causing a 20% or greater fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (PC20) of EGCg and methacholine, were determined. We found that 11 patients had green tea-induced asthma, with immediate asthmatic reactions in eight and dual asthmatic reactions in three. We also found that 11 of 13 patients (85%) with immunological reactivity and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine experienced an asthmatic reaction and that no subject without immunological reactivity reacted. There were significant correlations among skin sensitivity, EGCg PC20 and methacholine PC20. Multiple linear regression analysis showed the relationship: log (EGCg PC20)=0.42 log (skin sensitivity)+1.17 log (methacholine PC20)+0.93 (r=0.796, P<0.05). It is concluded that bronchial responsiveness to EGCg can be highly satisfactorily predicted by skin sensitivity to EGCg and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine.

  7. Characterization of the in situ immunological responses to vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horohov, D W; Dunham, J; Liu, C; Betancourt, A; Stewart, J C; Page, A E; Chambers, T M

    2015-03-15

    Adjuvants are included with many inactivated and some modified live vaccines to enhance immune responses to specific antigens. While early vaccines relied exclusively upon aluminum salts, still the major adjuvant used in human vaccines, other adjuvant products are used in veterinary medicine. In addition to enhancing antigen presentation, adjuvants can also enhance the development of specific immune responses. Thus, alum adjuvants often preferentially stimulate humoral immune responses. By contrast, lipid-based adjuvants are often more effective at stimulating cell-mediated immune responses. Metastim(®) is a lipid-based adjuvant reported to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses, though the mechanism responsible for this activity remains unclear. In this study, we compared the ability of equine influenza virus vaccines containing either saline or Metastim(®) or an aluminum phosphate adjuvant to stimulate antigen presenting cell function in vivo. Six ponies were intradermally inoculated with inactivated equine influenza (KY97) mixed with either adjuvant or saline. Multiple sites were injected so that biopsies could be collected at different times post injection. The 4mm punch biopsies were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Total RNA was isolated from 2mm punch biopsies for the determination of gene expression by real-time PCR. H&E staining revealed a variety of cells recruited to the injection sites, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages. Real-time PCR analysis of the injection site confirmed this cellular infiltration and identified increased expression of activation markers. Both vaccines also stimulated gene expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The vaccine containing Metastim(®) elicited significantly higher gene expression of interferon-γ, IL-12, CD4 and CD83 compared to alum (paluminum salt, there was also evidence of Th2 cytokine induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. Inhibited early immunologic response is associated with hypertrophic scarring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzelaar, Liselotte; Schooneman, Dennis P. M.; Soykan, Ezgi A.; Talhout, Wendy; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; van den Broek, Lenie J.; Gibbs, Susan; Beelen, Robert H. J.; van der Molen, Aebele B. Mink; Niessen, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine changes in the inflammatory response in early hypertrophic compared to normal wound healing. The immune system is thought to be involved in hypertrophic scar formation. However, the exact mechanism and time of onset of the derailment remain unknown. In a prospective

  9. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  10. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Immunological response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture are 2 common diagnostic tests for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Johne’s disease, but they are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, inhibitors can coextract with the target DNA and cause interference in PCR. Development of an immune capture assay followed by PCR amplification can alleviate this problem. In this study, we were able to induce an immune response in chickens using heat or formalin inactivated Map. The purified immunoglobulin (Ig)Y has a molecular weight of 160 kDa. The titers were at 1:6400 and 1:12 800 at weeks 5 to 6 and 8 to 9, respectively, as determined by the IDEXX modified ELISA kit for Johne’s disease. The IgY produced from inactivated bacterial cells had no effect on its ability to recognize live Map cells as illustrated by immunofluorescence assay and immune capture PCR results. PMID:15581226

  12. DMPD: DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17114416 DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of the...inflammatory response. Lang R, Hammer M, Mages J. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):7497-504. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show DUSP mee...onse. PubmedID 17114416 Title DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phospha

  13. Immunological sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Pereira de Carvalho, W

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the fundamental principles of the immunological process, and describes the constitution, origin, classification and action of antibodies and antigens. He identifies the 5 types of antibodies. He then comments on the classical mechanism of the immunological response. The immunological process is then related to a couple's infertility. After a short history the author calls attention to immunological problems of semen and describes a test he created to detect agglutination and/or immobilization of spermatozoa in non-diluted female blood serum. It is a test to be used as a first step in the research of infertility without an apparent cause (ESCA) in office practice. The author also presents the results of 182 cases studied and in his commentary he shows the advantages and deficiencies of the test.

  14. Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Nilo Esvalter

    2009-03-01

    European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used in complementary cancer treatment, but little is known concerning its effects on immunological parameters, although there is evidence that Viscum may stimulate the immune system. In this study, a trial was conducted with cancer patients to determine whether Viscum album extracts could improve the results of immune tests. These were: white blood cell count (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes), CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, intradermal tests of delayed hypersensitivity (candidin, trichophytin, purified protein derivative-PPD), complement C3 and C4, and immunoglobulin A, G and M. Four patients received seven doses of subcutaneous Viscum album 20 mg, twice weekly. Immunological tests were carried out before and after treatment, and an increase in several parameters of humoral and cellular immunity were shown. Apart from reactions around the injection sites, treatment was well tolerated and all patients benefited from it. These results suggest that Viscum album can enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients, but further studies attesting to the possible clinical impact of these immunological effects are necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Recreational music-making modulates immunological responses and mood states in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masahiro; Wachi, Masatada; Utsuyama, Masanori; Bittman, Barry; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2009-06-01

    Given that previous studies have shown that recreational music-making has benefits for younger individuals, we explored two questions. (1) Could a recreational music-making protocol improve mood and modulate immunological responses in a direction opposite to that associated with chronic stress in older adults? (2) Would the protocol affect older and younger participants differently? Two groups of volunteers demarcated at age 65 years underwent identical one-hour recreational music-making interventions. Pre-and post-intervention data were collected using blood samples and mood state questionnaires. Data from 27 older and 27 younger volunteers were analyzed for cytokine production levels, natural killer cell activity, plasma catecholamines, and numbers of T cells, T cell subsets, B cells, and natural killer cells. Exercise expenditure was also recorded. In the older group, we found significant increases in the number of lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, memory T cells, and production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-6. In the younger group, modulation was non-significant. Worthy of note was the specific immunological changes in the direction opposite to that expected with chronic stress in the older group. The increase in Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and unchanged Th2 cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the older group suggests a shift to a Th1-dominant status, a shift opposite to that expected with stress. However, the immunological changes were not statistically different between the two groups. Mood states improved in both groups, but were also not statistically different between groups. Although no statistically significant difference was found between the two age groups, the improvement in immunological profile and mood states in the older group and the low level of energy required for participation suggest this music-making protocol has potential as a health improvement strategy for older individuals.

  16. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  17. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i abrupt weaning and ii subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d 0, mean age of calf (s.d. 212 (24.5 d, cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i d 0 (weaning, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii d 0 (housing, 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Results Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05. Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P 0.05. On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P Conclusions A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-γ production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  18. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P  0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Immunological and allergenic responses induced by latex fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M V; Aguiar, V C; Melo, V M M; Mesquita, R O; Silvestre, P P; Oliveira, J S; Oliveira, R S B; Macedo, N M R; Alencar, N M N

    2007-04-20

    Immunological and allergenic responses against the latex of Calotropis procera were investigated in mice by oral and subcutaneous routes. The latex was fractionated according to water solubility and molecular size of its components. The fractions were named as non-dialyzable latex (NDL) corresponding to the major latex proteins, dialyzable latex (DL) corresponding to low molecular size substances and rubber latex (RL) which was highly insoluble in water. Anti-sera against these fractions were assayed for total IgG and IgA titration by ELISA and IgE and IgG(1) were quantified by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and mice, respectively. None of the fractions induced antibodies level increases when mice received latex fractions by oral route and thus, did not develop allergy. Nonetheless, anti-sera of mice sensitized with NDL and RL by subcutaneous route displayed considerable immunological response while DL did not. IgG level augmented consistently against NDL and RL while IgA response was detected only to NDL. NDL and RL induced very strong PCA reactions suggesting that both fractions would contain latex substances involved in allergy. Furthermore, protein analysis of NDL and RL suggests that RL still retain residual proteins abundantly found in NDL that could explain its similar allergenic effect. No IgG(1) reaction was detected in any of the anti-sera tested. According to the results, the proteins of latex of Calotropis procera can provoke allergy by subcutaneous route. The NDL has previously shown to display anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by intraperitoneal injection. It should be relevant to determine whether NDL could induce such activities when assayed by oral route since it was ineffective to induce allergy by this way.

  20. Obligate brood parasites show more functionally effective innate immune responses: an eco-immunological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Immune adaptations of obligate brood parasites attracted interest when three New World cowbird species (Passeriformes, Icteridae, genus Molothrus) proved unusually resistant to West Nile virus. We have used cowbirds as models to investigate the eco-immunological hypothesis that species in parasite-rich environments characteristically have enhanced immunity as a life history adaptation. As part of an ongoing program to understand the cowbird immune system, in this study we measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental responses of the innate immune system. Innate immunity provides non-specific, fast-acting defenses against a variety of invading pathogens, and we hypothesized that innate immunity experiences particularly strong selection in cowbirds, because their life history strategy exposes them to diverse novel and unpredictable parasites. We compared the relative effectiveness of degranulation and oxidative burst responses in two cowbird species and one related, non-parasitic species. Both innate immune defenses were significantly more functionally efficient in the two parasitic cowbird species than in the non-parasitic red-winged blackbird (Icteridae, Agelaius phoeniceus). Additionally, both immune defenses were more functionally efficient in the brown-headed cowbird (M. ater), an extreme host-generalist brood parasite, than in the bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus), a moderate host-specialist with lower exposure to other species and their parasites. Thus the relative effectiveness of these two innate immune responses corresponds to the diversity of parasites in the niche of each species and to their relative resistance to WNV. This study is the first use of these two specialized assays in a comparative immunology study of wild avian species.

  1. The Hsp72 response in peri-parturient dairy cows: relationships with metabolic and immunological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalani, Elisabetta; Amadori, Massimo; Vitali, Andrea; Bernabucci, Umberto; Nardone, Alessandro; Lacetera, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing whether the peri-parturient period is associated with changes of intracellular and plasma inducible heat shock proteins (Hsp) 72 kDa molecular weight in dairy cows, and to establish possible relationships between Hsp72, metabolic, and immunological parameters subjected to changes around calving. The study was carried out on 35 healthy peri-parturient Holstein cows. Three, two, and one week before the expected calving, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after calving, body conditions score (BCS) was measured and blood samples were collected to separate plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Concentrations of Hsp72 in PBMC and plasma increased sharply after calving. In the post-calving period, BCS and plasma glucose declined, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased. The proliferative responses of PBMC to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) declined progressively after calving. The percentage of PBMC expressing CD14 receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4 increased and decreased in the early postpartum period, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive relationships between Hsp72 and NEFA, and between PBMC proliferation in response to LPS and the percentage of PBMC expressing TLR-4. Conversely, significant negative relationships were found between LPS-triggered proliferation of PBMC and both intracellular and plasma Hsp72. Literature data and changes of metabolic and immunological parameters reported herein authorize a few interpretative hypotheses and encourage further studies aimed at assessing possible cause and effect relationships between changes of PBMC and circulating Hsp72, metabolic, and immune parameters in dairy cows.

  2. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eilish M; Earley, Bernadette; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean

    2010-07-20

    Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i) d 0 (weaning), 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii) d 0 (housing), 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05). Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-weaning baseline. Lymphocyte and neutrophil number decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. Interferon-gamma production decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. An increase (P pre-weaning baseline. Concentration of glucose increased on d 2 to 28, whereas non-esterified fatty acid decreased on d 2 to 35 compared with pre-weaning baseline. Post-housing, concentrations of cortisol, rectal body temperature, total leukocyte number, and glucose were unchanged (P > 0.05). On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-housing baseline. Concentration of haptoglobin increased (P post-housing. A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-gamma production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  3. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses.

  4. Roles of dopamine receptors in mediating acute modulation of immunological responses in Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Ke, Zhi-Han; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) was found to influence the immunological responses and resistance to pathogen infection in invertebrates. To clarify the possible modulation of DA through dopamine receptors (DAR) against acute environmental stress, the levels of DA, glucose and lactate in the haemolymph of Macrobrachium rosenbergii under hypo- and hyperthermal stresses were measured. The changes in immune parameters such as total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and phagocytic activity (PA) were evaluated in prawns which received DAR antagonists (SCH23390, SCH, D1 antagonist; domperidone, DOM, D2 antagonist; chlorpromazine, CH, D1+2 antagonist) followed by hypo- (15 °C) and hyperthermal (34 °C) stresses. In addition, pharmacological analysis of the effect DA modulation was studied in haemocytes incubated with DA and DAR antagonists. The results revealed a significant increase in haemolymph DA accompanied with upregulated levels of glucose and lactate in prawns exposed to both hypo- and hyperthermal stresses in 2 h. In addition, a significant decrease in RBs per haemocyte was noted in prawns which received DAR antagonists when they exposed to hyperthermal stress for 30 min. In in vitro test, antagonism on RBs, SOD and GPx activity of haemocytes were further evidenced through D1, D1, D1+D2 DARs, respectively, in the meantime, no significant difference in PO activity and PA was observed among the treatment groups. These results suggest that the upregulation of DA, glucose and lactate in haemolymph might be the response to acute thermal stress for the demand of energy, and the DAR occupied by its antagonistic action impart no effect on immunological responses except RBs in vivo even though the modulation mediated through D1 DAR was further evidenced in RBs, SOD and GPx activities in vitro. It is therefore concluded that thermal

  5. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Mocroft, Amanda; Vella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors that determine the immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate predictors of immunological failure after initial CD4(+) response. METHODS: Data were from EuroSIDA, a prospective, international...

  6. Comparative immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L

    2006-03-01

    As a discipline, comparative immunology enhances zoology and has gained wide acceptance in the biological sciences. It is an offshoot of the parent field, immunology, and is an amalgam of immunology and zoology. All animals from protozoans to humans have solved the threat of extinction by having evolved an immune-defense strategy that ensures the capacity to react against foreign, non-self microorganisms and cancers that disturb the homeostatic self. Invertebrate-type innate immune responses evolved first and they characterize the metazoans. These rapid natural responses act immediately and are often essential for the occurrence of slower, more specific, adaptive vertebrate-type immune responses. As components of the innate immune system, there is an emphasis on several major steps in the evolutionary process: (i) recognition; (ii) the phagocytic cell; and (iii) the natural killer cell. When vertebrates evolved, beginning with fish, thymus-controlled T cells first appeared, as did bone marrow-derived B cells (first found in amphibians with long bones). These were the precursors of the plasma cells that synthesize and secrete antibodies. Confirming the concept of self/non-self, invertebrates possess natural, non-adaptive, innate, non-clonal, non-anticipatory immune responses, whereas vertebrates possess adaptive, acquired, clonal, and anticipatory responses. This symposium concerns: (i) aspects of the immune spectrum in representative groups; (ii) specific findings (in particular models; e.g. earthworms); (iii) clues as to the possible biomedical application of relevant molecules derived from animals, notably invertebrates; and (iv) some views on the more practical applications of understanding immune systems of invertebrates and ectotherms, and their possible role in survival.

  7. Immunological and clinical response of coyotes (Canis latrans) to experimental inoculation with Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Laurie A; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Gidlewski, Thomas; Kohler, Dennis; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Multiple publications have reported the use of coyotes (Canis latrans) in animal-based surveillance efforts for the detection of Yersinia pestis. Coyotes are likely exposed via flea bite or oral routes and are presumed to be resistant to the development of clinical disease. These historic data have only been useful for the evaluation of the geographic distribution of Y. pestis in the landscape. Because the canid immunologic response to Y. pestis has not been thoroughly characterized, we conducted experimental inoculation of captive-reared, juvenile coyotes (n = 8) with Y. pestis CO92 via oral or intradermal routes. We measured the humoral response to Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular protein (anti-F1) and found a significant difference between inoculation groups in magnitude and duration of antibody production. The anti-F1 titers in animals exposed intradermally peaked at day 10 postinoculation (PI; range = 1∶32 to 1∶128) with titers remaining stable at 1∶32 through week 12. In contrast, orally inoculated animals developed higher titers (range = 1∶256 to 1∶1,024) that remained stable at 1∶256 to 1∶512 through week 6. No clinical signs of disease were observed, and minimal changes were noted in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and acute phase proteins during the 7 days PI. Gross pathology was unremarkable, and minimal changes were noted in histopathology at days 3 and 7 PI. Rechallenge at 14 wk PI via similar dosage and routes resulted in marked differences in antibody response between groups. Animals in the orally inoculated group produced a striking increase in anti-F1 titers (up to 1∶4,096) within 3 days, whereas there was minimal to no increase in antibody response in the intradermal group. Information gathered from this experimental trial may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal evaluation of coyote plague serology.

  8. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C.; Elliott, Diane G.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  9. Immunological response and markers of cell damage in seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Moura, Anderson B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic disease affecting several species of mammals, but little is known about this disease in horses. This study aimed to investigate the levels of several immunological variables and markers of cell damage in the serum of seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii. Sera samples of adult horses from the Santa Catarina State, Brazil used on a previous study were divided into groups according to their antibody levels for T. gondii determined by immunofluorescence assay, i.e. 20 samples from seronegative horses (Group A - control), 20 samples from horses with titers of 1:64 (Group B), 20 samples of horses with titers of 1:256 (Group C), and five samples from horses with titers of 1:1024 (Group D). Positive animals (Groups B, C, and D) had higher levels of immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6) and protein C-reactive protein, as well as lower levels of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) when compared to seronegative horses (Group A). The nitric oxide levels were also elevated in seropositive horses. Therefore, we have found humoral and cellular immune responses in seropositive horses, and a correlation between high antibody levels and inflammatory mediators. Markers of cell injury by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (AOPP) were elevated in animals seropositives for T. gondii when compared to seronegatives. Therefore, seropositive horses to T. gondii can keep active immune responses against the parasite. As a consequence with chronicity of disease, they show cellular lesions that may lead to tissue damage with the appearance of clinical disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polypyrrole Composite Nanoparticles with Morphology-Dependent Photothermal Effect and Immunological Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Jianping; Tang, Shiwei; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Wuli

    2016-02-10

    Polypyrrole composite nanoparticles with controlled shape are synthesized, which exhibit a morphology-dependent photothermal effect: the raspberry-like composite nanoparticles have a much better photothermal effect than the spherical ones, and the immune responses to the nanocomposites are also dependent on their morphology. The outstanding performance of the nanocomposites promises their potential application in photothermal therapy and immunotherapy of cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  12. Autophagy Attenuates the Adaptive Immune Response by Destabilizing the Immunologic Synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenberg, Manon E.; Vos, Anne Christine W.; Wolfkamp, Simone C. S.; Duijvestein, Marjolijn; Verhaar, Auke P.; te Velde, Anje A.; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Hommes, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Variants in the genes ATG16L1 and IRGM affect autophagy and are associated with the development of Crohn's disease. It is not clear how autophagy is linked to loss of immune tolerance in the intestine. We investigated the involvement of the immunologic synapse-the site of contact

  13. Hematology/immunology (M110 series). [human hemodynamic response to weightlessness simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The hematology/immunology experiments in the Skylab mission study various aspects of the red blood cell, including its metabolism and life span, and blood volume changes under zero gravity conditions to determine the precise mechanism of the transient changes which have been seen on the relatively brief missions of the past.

  14. The immunological response to syphilis differs by HIV status; a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Osbak, Kara Krista; Crucitti, Tania; Kestens, Luc

    2017-01-31

    It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17A at baseline pre-treatment and 6 months following therapy. A total of 79 HIV-infected [44 primary/secondary syphilis (PSS) and 35 latent syphilis (LS)] and 12 HIV-uninfected (10 PSS and 2 LS) cases of syphilis and 30 HIV-infected controls were included in the study. At the baseline visit, compared to the control group, concentrations of IL-10 were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected and uninfected groups. The level of IL-10 was significantly higher in the HIV-infected compared to the HIV-uninfected PSS group (25.3 pg/mL (IQR, 4.56-41.76) vs 2.73 pg/mL (IQR, 1.55-9.02), P = 0.0192). In the HIV-infected PSS group (but not the HIV-infected LS or HIV-uninfected PSS groups) the IP-10, MIP-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 were raised compared to the controls. IL-10 levels decreased but did not return to control baseline values by 6 months in HIV infected PSS and LS and HIV uninfected PSS. PSS and LS in HIV-infected individuals is characterized by an increase in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. The increase of IL-10 is greater in HIV-infected than uninfected individuals. Further work is required to ascertain if this is part of an immunological profile that correlates with adverse outcomes such as serofast syphilis and neurosyphilis, in HIV-infected individuals.

  15. Immunologic memory response induced by a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine using the P64k recombinant protein as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirola, María; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Alvarez, Anabel; Cannan-Haden, Leonardo; Caballero, Evelin; Guillén, Gerardo

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we used an adoptive lymphocyte transfer experiment to evaluate the ability of the P64k recombinant protein to recruit T-helper activity and induce immunologic memory response to the polysaccharide moiety in a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice immunized with the glycoconjugate conferred antipolysaccharide immunologic memory to naive recipient mice. The observed anamnestic immune response was characterized by more rapid kinetics, isotype switching from IgM to IgG and higher antipolysaccharide antibody titers compared with those reached in groups transferred with splenocytes from plain polysaccharide or phosphate-immunized mice. The memory response generated was also long lasting. Sera from mice transferred with cells from conjugate-immunized mice were the only protective in the infant rat passive protection assay, and also showed higher bactericidal titers. We demonstrated that priming the mice immune system with the glycoconjugate using the P64k protein as carrier induced a memory response to the polysaccharide, promoting a switch of the T-cell-independent response to a T-cell dependent one.

  16. ANTI-TUMOR RESPONSES INDUCED BY LASER IRRADIATION AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STIMULATION USING A MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEIFAN ZHOU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor immunological response induced by local intervention is ideal for treatment of metastatic tumors. Laser immunotherapy was developed to synergize photothermal interaction with immunological stimulation for cancer treatment. Using an infrared laser, indocyanine green (ICG, as a light absorbing agent, and glycated chitosan (GC, as an immunostimulant, laser immunotherapy has resulted in tumor suppression and anti-tumor responses in pre-clinical as well as clinical studies. To further understand the mechanism of laser immunotherapy, the effects of laser and GC treatment without specific enhancement of laser absorption were studied. Passive adoptive immunity transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. Spleen cells harvested from tumor-bearing mice treated by laser + GC provided 60% immunity in naive recipients. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and TNF-α secretion by splenocytes from treated mice also indicated that laser + G induced immunity was tumor-specific. The high level of infiltrating T cells in tumors after laser + GC treatment further confirmed a specific anti-tumor immune response. Therefore, laser + GC could prove to be a promising selective local treatment modality that induces a systemic anti-tumor response, with appropriate laser parameters and GC doses.

  17. [Immunology of HCV infection: the causes of impaired cellular immune response and the effect of antiviral treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pár, Gabriella; Berki, Tímea; Pálinkás, László; Balogh, Péter; Szereday, László; Halász, Melinda; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Miseta, Attila; Hegedus, Géza; Mózsik, Gyula; Hunyady, Béla; Pár, Alajos

    2006-04-02

    The outcome of HCV infection and the response to antiviral treatment depend on both viral and host factors. Host immune response contributes not only to viral control, clinical recovery and protective immunity, but also to chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Establishing immunological status and identifying pretreatment immunological factors associated with better response to therapy might be of importance in the understanding of the successful immune response and in the future of combination therapy to HCV infection. The authors delivered a review on the immunology of HCV infection and characterized the cause of impaired cellular immune response in chronic HCV infection. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, perforin and the inhibitory CD81 HCV co-receptor expression, and Th1/Th2 cytokine production of the monocytes and lymphocytes have been investigated. 42 patients with chronic hepatitis C, out of them 25 being on interferon (PEG-IFN) + ribavirin (RBV) therapy, 12 sustained virological responders, 26 HCV carriers with normal transaminase values and 22 healthy controls were studied. NK cell activity, perforin and CD81 expression, the IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-2 (Th1) and IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 (Th2) production of LPS stimulated monocytes and PMA + ionomycine stimulated lymphocytes were measured by flow-cytometry. In patients with chronic hepatitis C we demonstrated decreased NK cell activity associated with increased CD81 expression. The perforin expression of lymphocytes was also impaired in HCV patients. The pretreatment capacity of the macrophages to produce TNFalpha was predictive for sustained virological response. This increased TNFalpha production of the monocytes counteracted the observed impaired Th1 type cytokine production of the lymphocytes. IL-10 and IL-4 production showed positive correlation with HCV RNA levels, and negative correlation with histological activity index was noted. PEG-IFN + RBV treatment increased NK activity, perforin expression, Th1 type

  18. Hemato-immunological responses of Heros severus fed diets supplemented with different levels of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, M; Karamifar, M; Mesbah, M; Zarei, M

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of oral administration of different levels of Dunaliella salina (a natural β-carotene source) on growth parameters, immunological and hematological indices, as well as skin carotenoids, of Heros severus were investigated. One hundred and eighty H. severus weighing 27 ± 0.5 g were divided randomly into four groups in triplicate (15 fish in each replicate). Groups 1-4 received food supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg⁻¹ D. salina powder, respectively. After 6 weeks, the growth parameters were compared among the groups. Blood samples were taken from each group, and hematological parameters including red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and immunological indices (serum and mucus lysozyme and bactericidal activity, resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection) as well as carotenoid content of skin were evaluated. Results showed that some growth indices increased significantly in fish fed with 100 and 200 mg kg⁻¹ D. salina-supplemented food (P 0.05). Most of the hematological parameters such as WBC, RBC, PCV and Hb significantly increased in D. salina-treated fish compared with controls (P H. severus.

  19. Cellular Architecture of Spinal Granulomas and the Immunological Response in Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Danaviah, Siva; Muema, Daniel M; Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem; Moodley, Prashini; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Das, Gobardhan

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and HIV are individually responsible for the most deaths worldwide among all infectious agents, and coinfection with M.tb and HIV is a significant public health challenge in the developing world. Although the lung is the primary target organ for tuberculosis (TB), M.tb can also cause extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) such as in the bones and joints. Treatment of EPTB is much more challenging than treatment of pulmonary TB. The hallmark of the host immune response against TB is the formation of organized structures called granulomas that are infiltrated with immune cells and are rich in cytokines and chemokines. Inside granulomas, the host confines the M.tb bacteria to a particular region of the organ and avoids dispersion. In this study, we analyzed immune cells in bone granulomas of patients with EPTB that are also coinfected with HIV. We found that HIV-infected TB patients have dispersed bone granulomas, with reduced T cell numbers and a concomitant increase in plasma cells. Additionally, HIV-infected patients exhibited dramatically increased serum levels of IgM and IgG1 antibodies, which is indicative of T-cell-independent B-cell activation and mucosal T-cell activation, respectively. Interestingly, we also observed that CD29+ stem cells are increased in HIV-TB coinfection, suggesting a link with HIV infection. Therefore, our work provides new insights into the architecture of spinal TB granulomas and the role of B-cells and humoral immunity against a highly infectious intracellular pathogen. We propose that our findings will inform biomarker identification for EPTB and possibly the development of related therapeutics and/or vaccines to protect HIV-infected patients against disseminated TB.

  20. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2-deficient rats exhibit renal tubule injury and perturbations in metabolic and immunological homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ness

    Full Text Available Genetic evidence links mutations in the LRRK2 gene with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease, for which no neuroprotective or neurorestorative therapies currently exist. While the role of LRRK2 in normal cellular function has yet to be fully described, evidence suggests involvement with immune and kidney functions. A comparative study of LRRK2-deficient and wild type rats investigated the influence that this gene has on the phenotype of these rats. Significant weight gain in the LRRK2 null rats was observed and was accompanied by significant increases in insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Additionally, LRRK2-deficient rats displayed kidney morphological and histopathological alterations in the renal tubule epithelial cells of all animals assessed. These perturbations in renal morphology were accompanied by significant decreases of lipocalin-2, in both the urine and plasma of knockout animals. Significant alterations in the cellular composition of the spleen between LRRK2 knockout and wild type animals were identified by immunophenotyping and were associated with subtle differences in response to dual infection with rat-adapted influenza virus (RAIV and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ontological pathway analysis of LRRK2 across metabolic and kidney processes and pathological categories suggested that the thioredoxin network may play a role in perturbing these organ systems. The phenotype of the LRRK2 null rat is suggestive of a complex biology influencing metabolism, immune function and kidney homeostasis. These data need to be extended to better understand the role of the kinase domain or other biological functions of the gene to better inform the development of pharmacological inhibitors.

  1. Gastrointestinal and immunological responses of senior dogs to chicory and mannan-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Christine M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Bruce, Kari J; Patil, A R; Czarnecki-Maulden, G L; Fahey, G C

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-four senior dogs (pointers 8-11 years, beagles 9-11 years) were used to evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides on nutritional and immunological characteristics. Dogs were randomly allotted to treatments [1% chicory (CH), 1% mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS), 1% chicory + 1% MOS (CM), or no supplementation (control, CON)] in a parallel design with a 4 week baseline period followed by a 4 week treatment period. Dietary supplementation with MOS or CM tended (P = 0.07) to increase food intake due, in part, to an increase in fermentable fibre and a decrease in energy content of the diet. Although wet faecal output increased (P dogs supplemented with MOS or CM, when corrected for food intake, no differences were noted. The CM treatment increased (P dogs. Peripheral lymphocyte concentrations were decreased in dogs supplemented with MOS (P = 0.06) and CM (P senior dogs.

  2. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells exhibit enhanced responses against myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romee, Rizwan; Rosario, Maximillian; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M.; Wagner, Julia A.; Jewell, Brea A.; Schappe, Timothy; Leong, Jeffrey W.; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Willey, Sarah; Neal, Carly C.; Yu, Liyang; Oh, Stephen T.; Lee, Yi-Shan; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans; Cooper, Megan A.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML. PMID:27655849

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Regulated Exocytosis in Response to Chemerin and IGF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dinesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play important roles in tissue repair and cancer progression. Our recent work suggests that some mesenchymal cells, notably myofibroblasts exhibit regulated exocytosis resembling that seen in neuroendocrine cells. We now report that MSCs also exhibit regulated exocytosis. Both a G-protein coupled receptor agonist, chemerin, and a receptor tyrosine kinase stimulant, IGF-II, evoked rapid increases in secretion of a marker protein, TGFβig-h3. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, also rapidly increased secretion of TGFβig-h3 while inhibitors of translation (cycloheximide or secretory protein transport (brefeldin A had no effect, indicating secretion from preformed secretory vesicles. Inhibitors of the chemerin and IGF receptors specifically reduced the secretory response. Confocal microscopy of MSCs loaded with Fluo-4 revealed chemerin and IGF-II triggered intracellular Ca2+ oscillations requiring extracellular calcium. Immunocytochemistry showed co-localisation of TGFβig-h3 and MMP-2 to secretory vesicles, and transmission electron-microscopy showed dense-core secretory vesicles in proximity to the Golgi apparatus. Proteomic studies on the MSC secretome identified 64 proteins including TGFβig-h3 and MMP-2 that exhibited increased secretion in response to IGF-II treatment for 30min and western blot of selected proteins confirmed these data. Gene ontology analysis of proteins exhibiting regulated secretion indicated functions primarily associated with cell adhesion and in bioassays chemerin increased adhesion of MSCs and adhesion, proliferation and migration of myofibroblasts. Thus, MSCs exhibit regulated exocytosis that is compatible with an early role in tissue remodelling.

  4. Immunological responses during a virologically failing antiretroviral regimen are associated with in vivo synonymous mutation rates of HIV type-1 env

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Kronborg, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying causes of differences in immunological response to antiretroviral therapy during multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. This study aimed to identify virological factors associated with immunological response during therapy failure....... METHODS: Individuals with MDR HIV-1 receiving therapy for > or =3 months were included. CD4+ T-cell count slopes and pol and clonal env sequences were determined. Genetic analyses were performed using distance-based and maximum likelihood methods. Synonymous mutations rates of env were used to estimate...... for analysis. In a longitudinal mixed-effects model, plasma HIV-1 RNA only tended to predict immunological response (P=0.06), whereas minor protease inhibitor (PI) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI) mutations at baseline correlated significantly with CD4+ T-cell count slopes (r= -0.56, P=0.04 and r...

  5. Definition of an immunologic response using the major histocompatibility complex tetramer and enzyme-linked immunospot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Gualberto, Antonio; Glaspy, John A; Seja, Elisabeth; Ontiveros, Maribel; Reardon, Deborah L; Renteria, Roberto; Englahner, Brigitte; Economou, James S; Gomez-Navarro, Jesus; Ribas, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Define an immunologic response using the tetramer and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Ten healthy subjects and 21 patients with melanoma (all HLA-A*0201) donated a total of 121 blood samples to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD), analytic coefficient of variation (aCV), and physiologic CV (pCV) of the tetramer and ELISPOT assays. The mean, SD, and reference change value (RCV) were calculated to define changes beyond the assay imprecision, and its application was tested in the monitoring of T-cell expansion after CTLA4 blockade with ticilimumab (CP-675,206). The LLD for the tetramer assay was 0.038% CD8+ cells and seven spots per 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells for the ELISPOT assay. The aCV of the tetramer assay was <10% and was higher for the ELISPOT (24.69-36.32%). There was marked between-subject variability on baseline homeostatic values, which was correlated to prior antigen exposure. An immunologic response was defined as an increase beyond the mean + 3 SD in antigen-specific cells for subjects with baseline levels below the LLD, or beyond the assay RCV for baseline levels above the LLD. In four patients receiving ticilimumab, expansions of antigen-specific T cells beyond the assay variability were noted for EBV and MART1 antigens. A combined approach of change from negative (below the LLD) to positive (above the LLD) and a percentage change beyond the assay variability using the RCV score can be computed to define which change in circulating antigen-specific T cells represents a response to immunotherapy.

  6. Sickle cell mice exhibit mechanical allodynia and enhanced responsiveness in light touch cutaneous mechanoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrison Sheldon R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with both acute vaso-occlusive painful events as well as chronic pain syndromes, including heightened sensitivity to touch. We have previously shown that mice with severe SCD (HbSS mice; express 100% human sickle hemoglobin in red blood cells; RBCs have sensitized nociceptors, which contribute to increased mechanical sensitivity. Yet, the hypersensitivity in these neural populations alone may not fully explain the mechanical allodynia phenotype in mouse and humans. Findings Using the Light Touch Behavioral Assay, we found HbSS mice exhibited increased responses to repeated application of both innocuous punctate and dynamic force compared to control HbAA mice (100% normal human hemoglobin. HbSS mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in percent response to a 0.7mN von Frey monofilament when compared to control HbAA mice. Moreover, HbSS mice exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in percent response to the dynamic light touch “puffed” cotton swab stimulus. We further investigated the mechanisms that drive this behavioral phenotype by focusing on the cutaneous sensory neurons that primarily transduce innocuous, light touch. Low threshold cutaneous afferents from HbSS mice exhibited sensitization to mechanical stimuli that manifested as an increase in the number of evoked action potentials to suprathreshold force. Rapidly adapting (RA Aβ and Aδ D-hair fibers showed the greatest sensitization, each with a 75% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to controls. Slowly adapting (SA Aβ afferents had a 25% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to HbAA controls. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate mice with severe SCD exhibit mechanical allodynia to both punctate and dynamic light touch and suggest that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated in part by the sensitization of light touch cutaneous afferent fibers to suprathreshold force. These findings indicate that Aβ fibers can be

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICACY IN APPLICATION OF TOPICAL IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE MODIFIER FOR PREVENTION OF INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lytkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.

  8. Ducklings exhibit substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to short-term food shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Borge; Stolevik, Einar; Bech, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether Pekin ducklings (Anas platyrhyncos domesticus) exhibited any energy-saving mechanisms that could lessen the detrimental effects of reduced food intake during early development. Further, we evaluated the role of body compositional changes behind such potential mechanisms and the consequences on thermoregulatory capacity. The ducklings exhibited substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to diet restriction. After 5 d of diet restriction, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 10- and 20-d-old ducklings was 16.4% and 32.1% lower, respectively, than predicted from body mass compared with ad lib. fed ducklings (controls). These reductions in RMR could have been adaptive responses in anticipation of a lasting food shortage, or they could have been consequences of the restricted diet and the lack of essential nutrients. We argue that the responses were adaptive. The low RMRs were not a consequence of depleted fuel stores because the diet-restricted ducklings exhibited substantial amounts of stored lipids at the end of the diet-restriction periods. Hypothermia accounted for approximately 50% of the reduction in RMR in the 10-d-old diet-restricted ducklings, but hypothermia did not occur in the 20-d-old diet-restricted ducklings. Diet restriction resulted in a reduced liver and intestine size and an unchanged size of the leg muscles and heart, while the length of the skull increased (compared with controls of a given body mass). However, changes in body composition were only minor predictors of the observed changes in RMR. Peak metabolic rate (PMR) was approximately 10% lower in the diet-restricted ducklings compared with the controls. We have interpreted the lower PMR as a consequence of the reductions in RMR rather than as a consequence of a decreased function of the thermoregulatory effector mechanisms.

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis-stimulated macrophage subsets exhibit differential induction and responsiveness to interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foey, Andrew D; Habil, Neama; Al-Shaghdali, Khalid; Crean, StJohn

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucosal macrophages (Mϕs) determine immune responses; maintaining tolerance whilst retaining the capacity to activate defences against pathogens. Mϕ responses are determined by two distinct subsets; pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory/regulatory M2-Mϕs. Tolerance induction is driven by M2 Mϕs, whereas M1-like Mϕs predominate in inflammation, such as that exhibited in chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection. Mϕ responses can be suppressed to benefit either the host or the pathogen. Chronic stimulation by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS, is well established to induce tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the P. gingivalis-driven induction of and responsiveness to the suppressive, anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, by Mϕ subsets. M1- and M2-like Mϕs were generated in vitro from the THP-1 monocyte cell line by differentiation with PMA and Vitamin D 3 , respectively. Mϕ subsets were stimulated by PG-LPS in the presence or absence of IL-10. PG-LPS differentially induced IL-10 secretion and endogenous IL-10 activity in M1- and M2-like subsets. In addition, these subsets exhibited differential sensitivity to IL-10-mediated suppression of TNFα, where M2 Mϕs where sensitive to IL-10 and M1 Mϕs were refractory to suppression. In addition, this differential responsiveness to IL-10 was independent of IL-10-binding and expression of the IL-10 receptor signal transducing subunit, IL-10Rβ, but was in fact dependent on activation of STAT-3. P.gingivalis selectively tolerises regulatory M2 Mϕs with little effect on pro-inflammatory M1 Mϕs; differential suppression facilitating immunopathology at the expense of immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunologic findings in confectionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N

    1994-12-01

    Food allergies are frequent in the general population. There are however, few studies of immunologic responses among workers in the confectionary industry. To assess immunologic and clinical findings of workers in a confectionary plant. Immunologic (skin tests and serum IgE) and respiratory findings (symptoms and lung function) were studied in a group of 71 confectionary workers (mean age: 35 years and mean exposure: 11 years). Skin prick testing with food extracts used in the manufacturing of candies and pastries demonstrated that the most frequent positive skin reaction occurred with extracts of cacao (31%), followed by reactions to chocolate (9%), cocoa (6%), hazelnut (6%), and sugar (2%). Increased serum IgE levels were found in 13.0% and increased IgM serum levels in 52.1% of these confectionary workers. The prevalence of asthma (26.1%) and dyspnea (26.1%) in workers with positive skin tests was significantly higher than in workers with negative skin tests (asthma: 2.0%, P = .004; dyspnea: 4.1%, P = .001). There was a high prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms during the work shift, but no significant association with immunologic tests was found. Similarly, both skin test positive and skin test negative workers exhibited significant across shift changes in lung function; however, no significant differences in baseline lung function or across-shift changes were noted between skin test positive and negative workers. Pre-shift administration of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions in FEF50 and FEF25 for both skin test positive and skin test negative workers. These data suggest that exposure to environmental factors in confectionary plants is associated with frequent respiratory symptoms of an irritative nature. Specific skin testing may be useful in characterizing confectionary workers at risk for the development of occupational asthma.

  11. Mouse neutrophils lacking lamin B-receptor expression exhibit aberrant development and lack critical functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Peter; Tien, Chiung W; Olins, Ada L; Olins, Donald E; Shultz, Leonard D; Carney, Lisa; Berliner, Nancy

    2008-08-01

    The capacity of neutrophils to eradicate bacterial infections is dependent on normal development and activation of functional responses, which include chemotaxis and generation of oxygen radicals during the respiratory burst. A unique feature of the neutrophil is its highly lobulated nucleus, which is thought to facilitate chemotaxis, but may also play a role in other critical neutrophil functions. Nuclear lobulation is dependent on expression of the inner nuclear envelope protein, the lamin B receptor (LBR), mutations of which cause hypolobulated neutrophil nuclei in human Pelger-Huët anomaly and the "ichthyosis" (ic) phenotype in mice. In this study, we have investigated roles for LBR in mediating neutrophil development and activation of multiple neutrophil functions, including chemotaxis and the respiratory burst. A progenitor EML cell line was generated from an ic/ic mouse, and derived cells that lacked LBR expression were induced to mature neutrophils and then examined for abnormal morphology and functional responses. Neutrophils derived from EML-ic/ic cells exhibited nuclear hypolobulation identical to that observed in ichthyosis mice. The ic/ic neutrophils also displayed abnormal chemotaxis, supporting the notion that nuclear segmentation augments neutrophil extravasation. Furthermore, promyelocytic forms of ic/ic cells displayed decreased proliferative responses and produced a deficient respiratory burst upon terminal maturation. Our studies of promyelocytes that lack LBR expression have identified roles for LBR in regulating not only the morphologic maturation of the neutrophil nucleus, but also proliferative and functional responses that are critical to innate immunity.

  12. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  13. Impact of body weight on virological and immunological responses to efavirenz-containing regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzolini, C.; Sabin, C.; Raffi, F.; Siccardi, M.; Mussini, C.; Launay, O.; Burger, D.M.; Roca, B.; Fehr, J.; Bonora, S.; Mocroft, A.; Obel, N.; Dauchy, F.A.; Zangerle, R.; Gogos, C.; Gianotti, N.; Ammassari, A.; Torti, C.; Ghosn, J.; Chene, G.; Grarup, J.; Battegay, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in

  14. Impact of body weight on virological and immunological responses to efavirenz-containing regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzolini, Catia; Sabin, Caroline; Raffi, François; Siccardi, Marco; Mussini, Cristina; Launay, Odile; Burger, David; Roca, Bernardino; Fehr, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Mocroft, Amanda; Obel, Niels; Dauchy, Frederic-Antoine; Zangerle, Robert; Gogos, Charalambos; Gianotti, Nicola; Ammassari, Adriana; Torti, Carlo; Ghosn, Jade; Chêne, Genevieve; Grarup, Jesper; Battegay, Manuel; Touloumi, Giota; Warszawski, Josiane; Meyer, Laurence; Dabis, François; Krause, Murielle Mary; Leport, Catherine; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand; Prins, Maria; Bucher, Heiner; Gibb, Diana; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; del Amo, Julia; Thorne, Claire; Kirk, Ole; Stephan, Christoph; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Antinori, Andrea; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Prieto, Luis; Conejo, Pablo Rojo; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Rauch, Andri; Tookey, Pat; Casabona, Jordi; Miro, Jose M.; Castagna, Antonella; Konopnick, Deborah; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Teira, Ramon; Garrido, Myriam; Haerry, David; de Wit, Stéphane; Costagliola, Dominique; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Raben, Dorthe; Judd, Ali; Barger, Diana; Colin, Céline; Schwimmer, Christine; Termote, Monique; Wittkop, Linda; Campbell, Maria; Friis-Moller, Nina; Kjaer, Jesper; Brandt, Rikke Salbol; Bohlius, Julia; Bouteloup, Vincent; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Dorrucci, Maria; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Lambotte, Olivier; Lodi, Sara; Matheron, Sophie; Miro, Jose; Monge, Susana; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Paredes, Roger; Phillips, Andrew; Puoti, Massimo; Smit, Colette; Sterne, Jonathan; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; van der Valk, Marc; Wyss, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in

  15. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Mocroft, Amanda; Vella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    ], 2.05; 95% CI, 1.83-2.31; Pupdated virus load (per 1 log(10) higher; RH, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.64-1.92; PHIV-1 risk behavior (P=.047 for a global comparison of risk groups). CONCLUSION: The risk of immunological failure in patients with an immunological response to HAART......, observational human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 cohort. RESULTS: Of 2347 patients with an increase in CD4(+) cell count >or=100 cells/microL within 6-12 months of the initiation of HAART, 550 (23%) subsequently experienced immunological failure (CD4(+) count less than or equal to the pre-HAART value...... diminishes with a longer time receiving treatment and is associated with pretreatment CD4(+) cell count, ongoing viral replication, and intravenous drug use....

  16. Obese mice exhibit an altered behavioural and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B. Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and severity of infections. Genetic animal models of obesity (ob/ob and db/db mice display altered centrally-mediated sickness behaviour in response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO on the anorectic and febrile response to LPS in mice is unknown. This study therefore determined how DIO and ob/ob mice respond to a systemic inflammatory challenge. C57BL/6 DIO and ob/ob mice, and their respective controls, were given an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of LPS. Compared with controls, DIO and ob/ob mice exhibited an altered febrile response to LPS (100 μg/kg over 8 hours. LPS caused a greater and more prolonged anorexic effect in DIO compared with control mice and, in ob/ob mice, LPS induced a reduction in food intake and body weight earlier than it did in controls. These effects of LPS in obese mice were also seen after a fixed dose of LPS (5 μg. LPS (100 μg/kg induced Fos protein expression in several brain nuclei of control mice, with fewer Fos-positive cells observed in the brains of obese mice. An altered inflammatory response to LPS was also observed in obese mice compared with controls: changes in cytokine expression and release were detected in the plasma, spleen, liver and peritoneal macrophages in obese mice. In summary, DIO and ob/ob mice displayed an altered behavioural response and cytokine release to systemic inflammatory challenge. These findings could help explain why obese humans show increased sensitivity to infections.

  17. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  18. The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Karl D; Ries, Justin B; Bruno, John F; Westfield, Isaac T

    2014-12-22

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 over this century are predicted to cause global average surface ocean pH to decline by 0.1-0.3 pH units and sea surface temperature to increase by 1-4°C. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification (pCO2 = 324, 477, 604, 2553 µatm) and warming (25, 28, 32°C) on the calcification rate of the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea, a widespread, abundant and keystone reef-builder in the Caribbean Sea. We show that both acidification and warming cause a parabolic response in the calcification rate within this coral species. Moderate increases in pCO2 and warming, relative to near-present-day values, enhanced coral calcification, with calcification rates declining under the highest pCO2 and thermal conditions. Equivalent responses to acidification and warming were exhibited by colonies across reef zones and the parabolic nature of the corals' response to these stressors was evident across all three of the experiment's 30-day observational intervals. Furthermore, the warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the end of the twenty-first century caused a fivefold decrease in the rate of coral calcification, while the acidification projected for the same interval had no statistically significant impact on the calcification rate-suggesting that ocean warming poses a more immediate threat than acidification for this important coral species.

  19. Hemato-Immunological Responses and Disease Resistance in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Fed on a Supplemented Diet of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2017-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on hemato-immunological parameters and resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Innate immune responses (immunoglobulin (Ig), alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity) were significantly higher in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, fish fed on various levels of L. plantarum significantly showed higher red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) and monocyte compared to those of the control group (P < 0.05). At the end of the feeding experiment, some fish were challenged with S. iniae to quantify the level of disease resistance. The mortality after S. iniae challenge was decreased in fish fed a probiotic. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of L. plantarum improved immune response and disease resistance of Siberian sturgeon juvenile.

  20. The influence of HCV coinfection on clinical, immunological and virological responses to HAART in HIV-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Carmo

    Full Text Available The potential impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV on clinical, immunological and virological responses to initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is important to evaluate due to the high prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection. A historical cohort study was conducted among 824 HIV-infected patients starting HAART at a public referral service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to assess the impact of HCV seropositivity on appearance of a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness, AIDS-related death, suppression of viral load, and an increase in CD4-cell count. A total of 76 patients (9.2% had a positive HCV test, 26 of whom (34.2% had a history of intravenous drug use. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositivity was associated with a smaller CD4-cell recovery (RH=0.68; 95% CI [0.49-0.92], but not with progression to a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness or to AIDS-related death (RH=1.08; 95% CI [0.66-1.77], nor to suppression of HIV-1 viral load (RH=0.81; 95% CI [0.56-1.17] after starting HAART. These results indicate that although associated with a blunted CD4-cell recovery, HCV coinfection did not affect the morbidity or mortality related to AIDS or the virological response to initial HAART.

  1. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  2. IgG Responses to Tissue-Associated Antigens as Biomarkers of Immunological Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that IgG responses to a panel of 126 prostate tissue-associated antigens are common in patients with prostate cancer. In the current report we questioned whether changes in IgG responses to this panel might be used as a measure of immune response, and potentially antigen spread, following prostate cancer-directed immune-active therapies. Sera were obtained from prostate cancer patients prior to and three months following treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (=34, a poxviral vaccine (=31, and a DNA vaccine (=21. Changes in IgG responses to individual antigens were identified by phage immunoblot. Patterns of IgG recognition following three months of treatment were evaluated using a machine-learned Bayesian Belief Network (ML-BBN. We found that different antigens were recognized following androgen deprivation compared with vaccine therapies. While the number of clinical responders was low in the vaccine-treated populations, we demonstrate that ML-BBN can be used to develop potentially predictive models.

  3. On the Immunological Response of Young Calves to Light Nematodirus helvetianus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Infecting parasite-free eight week old calves with 8,000 infective Nematodirus helvetianus larvae did not modify appreciably their response to a later heavy field challenge with N. helvetianus, Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, although two of six animals did have smaller Nematodirus burdens. PMID:4270440

  4. Infectious diseases and immunological responses in adult subjects with lifetime untreated, congenital GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviane C; Barrios, Mônica R; Salvatori, Roberto; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo V; Nascimento, Ana C S; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2016-10-01

    Growth hormone is important for the development and function of the immune system, but there is controversy on whether growth hormone deficiency is associated to immune disorders. A model of isolated growth hormone deficiency may clarify if the lack of growth hormone is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, or with an altered responsiveness of the immune system. We have studied the frequency of infectious diseases and the immune function in adults with congenital, untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. In a cross-sectional study, 35 adults with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor gene and 31 controls were submitted to a clinical questionnaire, physical examination serology for tripanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, HIV, tetanus, hepatitis B and C, and serum total immunoglobulin G, M, E and A measurement. The immune response was evaluated in a subset of these subjects by skin tests and response to vaccination for hepatitis B, tetanus, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. There was no difference between the groups in history of infectious diseases and baseline serology. Isolated growth hormone deficiency subjects had lower total IgG, but within normal range. There was no difference in the response to any of the vaccinations or in the positivity to protein Purified Derived, streptokinase or candidin. Adult untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency does not cause an increased frequency of infectious diseases, and does not alter serologic tests, but is associated with lower total IgG levels, without detectable clinical impact.

  5. Immunologic mechanism at infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, İlknur; Erci, Behice

    2006-01-01

    Infertility has been serious problem for couples that want to have a child. It is estimated that %10-15 of marriages are involuntary childless; that is, there is the serious problem of infertility. In more than 40% of infertility couples that is the reason of their infertility was unknown. In those couples, probably immunological factors were found to be responsible for the infertility. In the article, it was aimed to review the immunologic causes of male and female infertility in the light o...

  6. Older Is Not Wiser, Immunologically Speaking: Effect of Aging on Host Response to Clostridium difficile Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hyun; High, Kevin P; Warren, Cirle A

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a significant burden on the health care system. Aging has been identified in the literature as a risk factor for CDI as well as adverse outcome from CDI. Although this effect of advanced age on CDI could be partially explained by clinical factors associated with aging, biologic factors are important. Innate immune system, responsible for immediate response to acute infections, plays a major role in CDI pathogenesis. Impairment in function of innate immunity with aging, demonstrated in other infection models, may lead to worse outcome with CDI. C. difficile toxin-specific antibody response protects the host against initial and recurrent infections as shown in observational studies and clinical trial. Effect of aging on antibody response to CDI has not been demonstrated, but the results from vaccine studies in other infections suggest a negative effect on humoral immunity from aging. Although intestinal microbiota from healthy people confers resistance to CDI by preventing C. difficile colonization, changes in composition of microbiota with aging may affect that resistance and increase risk for CDI. There are also age-associated changes in physiology, especially of the gastrointestinal tract, that may play a role in CDI risk and outcomes. In this review, we will first discuss the epidemiology of CDI in the elderly people, then the alteration in innate immunity, humoral response, and microbiota that increases susceptibility to CDI and severe disease and lastly, the physiological and functional changes that may modify outcomes of infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Thujone exhibits low affinity for cannabinoid receptors but fails to evoke cannabimimetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschler, J P; Howlett, A C

    1999-03-01

    Absinthe, an abused drug in the early 1900s, has been speculated to activate the receptors responsible for marijuana intoxication (the CB1 cannabinoid receptor) (Nature 253:365-356; 1975). To test this hypothesis, we investigated oil of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) the active plant product found in absinthe, and thujone, the active compound found in oil of wormwood. Radioligand receptor binding assays employing membrane preparations from rat brains containing CB1 cannabinoid receptors, and human tonsils containing CB2 receptors, demonstrated that thujone displaced [3H]CP55940, a cannabinoid agonist, only at concentrations above 10 microM. HPLC analysis of oil of wormwood revealed that only the fractions having mobility close to thujone displaced [3H]CP55940 from the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. [35S]GTPgammaS binding assays revealed that thujone failed to stimulate G-proteins even at 0.1 mM. Thujone failed to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in N18TG2 membranes at 1 mM. Rats administered thujone exhibited different behavioral characteristics compared with rats administered a potent cannabinoid agonist, levonantradol. Therefore, the hypothesis that activation of cannabinoid receptors is responsible for the intoxicating effects of thujone is not supported by the present data.

  8. Impact of a new vaccine clinic on hepatitis B vaccine completion and immunological response rates in an HIV-positive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; de Barra, Eoghan; Sadlier, Corinna; Kelly, Sinead; Dowling, Catherine; McNally, Cora; Bergin, Colm

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus vaccination (HBVV) in the HIV-infected population has poor reported completion rates and immunological response rates. At our HIV clinic, we established a vaccine clinic to improve HBVV outcomes using interventions such as SMS text reminders and double-dose (DD) HBVV for standard-dose non-responders (SD NRs). A five-year (2003-2008) retrospective review of the completion rates and immunological response rates for HBVV after the establishment of the dedicated vaccine clinic was conducted. Statistical significance was assumed at pimmunological response to SD HBVV and DD HBVV, if required. High HBVV completion and response rates in this HIV cohort were enabled through the use of multiple interventions, including the use of SMS text message reminders and routine referral for DD vaccination. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunological correlates of treatment and response in stage IV malignant melanoma patients treated with Ipilimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, Jon; Juul Nitschke, Nikolaj; Zeeberg Iversen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Ipilimumab is effective in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, but few biomarkers reliably predict treatment response. Methods: Patients were treated with Ipilimumab for metastatic malignant melanoma. Blood and serum samples were collected before and during...... to increased ALC, T cell count and T cell activation in malignant melanoma patients responding to treatment. A high baseline frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and high levels of IL6 is associated with a reduced chance of responding to therapy....

  10. Immunologic responses against hydrolyzed soy protein in dogs with experimentally induced soy hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdemont, Anna; Brazís, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Fondati, Alessandra

    2006-03-01

    To assess whether dogs with experimentally induced type I hypersensitivity against soy protein would respond to soy hydrolysate and develop cutaneous or gastrointestinal tract reactions after intradermal and oral challenge exposure. 12 naïve Beagle pups (9 sensitized and 3 control dogs). 9 dogs were sensitized against soy protein by administration of allergens during a 90-day period. After the sensitization period, serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE were determined and an intradermal test was performed to confirm the dogs were sensitized against soy protein. An intradermal challenge test and an oral challenge test with native and hydrolyzed soy protein were conducted on 6 sensitized and 2 control dogs. High serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE and positive results for the intradermal test were observed for the 9 sensitized dogs after completion of the sesitization process. Sensitized dogs challenge exposed with hydrolyzed soy protein had a reduced inflammatory response after intradermal injection and no clinical response after an oral challenge exposure, compared with responses after intradermal and oral challenge exposure with native soy protein. Soy-sensitized dogs did not respond to oral administration of hydrolyzed soy protein. Thus, hydrolyzed soy protein may be useful in diets formulated for the management of dogs with adverse reactions to food.

  11. Immunologic responses of bison to vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51: comparison of parenteral to ballistic delivery via compressed pellets or photopolymerized hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Steven C; Christie, R J; Grainger, D W; Stoffregen, W S

    2006-02-27

    This study compared responses of bison calves to 10(10)CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) delivered by parenteral or ballistic methods. Two types of biobullet payloads were evaluated; compacted SRB51 pellets or SRB51 encapsulated in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels. Bison were vaccinated with saline, parenteral SRB51 alone, or in combination with Spirovac, or ballistically with compressed SRB51 or hydrogel biobullets. Bison parenterally vaccinated with SRB51 had greater (P<0.05) immunologic responses when compared to control bison. Co-administration of Spirovac as an adjuvant did not influence immunologic responses. As compared to compressed SRB51 biobullets, ballistic vaccination with hydrogel biobullets increased cellular immune responses at some sampling times. Our data suggest that hydrogel formulations of SRB51 may be a superior alternative to compressed SRB51 tablets for ballistic vaccination of bison. Although preliminary, data suggests that immunologic responses of bison to SRB51 hydrogel bullets are similar to responses after parenteral vaccination with SRB51.

  12. Sex-driven differences in immunological responses: challenges and opportunities for the immunotherapies of the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Wade, Raymond; Verma, Rashmi; Pena, Camilo; Hosiriluck, Nattamol; Figueroa, Jose A; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Male-based studies, both at the biochemical and at the pre-clinical/clinical trial levels, still predominate in the scientific community. Many studies are based on the wrong assumption that both sexes are fundamentally identical in their response to treatments. As a result, findings obtained mainly in males are applied to females, resulting in negative consequences female patients. In cancer immunotherapy, there is still a scarce focus on this topic. Here we review the main differences in immune modulation and immune system biology between males and females with a particular focus on how these differences affect cancer immunotherapy and cancer vaccines. We reviewed articles published on PubMed from 1999 to 2014, using the keywords: sex hormones, immune response, estrogen, immunotherapy, testosterone, cancer vaccines, sex-based medicine. We also present new data wherein the expression of the cancer testis antigen, Ropporin-1, was determined in patients with multiple myeloma, showing that the expression of Ropporin-1 was influenced by sex. Male and female immune systems display radical differences mainly due to the immune regulatory effects of sex hormones. These differences might have a dramatic impact on the immunological treatment of cancer. Moreover, the expression of tumor antigens that can be targeted by anti-cancer vaccines is associated with sex. Future clinical trials focusing on cancer immunotherapy will need to take into account the differences in the immune response and in the frequency of target antigen expression between male and females, in order to optimize these anti-cancer immunotherapies of the third millennium.

  13. Helicobacter pylori cag-Pathogenicity island-dependent early immunological response triggers later precancerous gastric changes in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Loell, Eva; Mueller, Susanna; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Stolte, Manfred; Haas, Rainer; Rieder, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori, carrying a functional cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS) to inject the Cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA) into gastric cells, is associated with an increased risk for severe gastric diseases in humans. Here we studied the pathomechanism of H. pylori and the role of the cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) for the induction of gastric ulcer and precancerous conditions over time (2-64 weeks) using the Mongolian gerbil model. Animals were challenged with H. pylori B128 (WT), or an isogenic B128DeltacagY mutant-strain that produces CagA, but is unable to translocate it into gastric cells. H. pylori colonization density was quantified in antrum and corpus mucosa separately. Paraffin sections were graded for inflammation and histological changes verified by immunohistochemistry. Physiological and inflammatory markers were quantitated by RIA and RT-PCR, respectively. An early cag-T4SS-dependent inflammation of the corpus mucosa (4-8 weeks) occurred only in WT-infected animals, resulting in a severe active and chronic gastritis with a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines, mucous gland metaplasia, and atrophy of the parietal cells. At late time points only WT-infected animals developed hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia in parallel to gastric ulcers, gastritis cystica profunda, and focal dysplasia. The early cag-PAI-dependent immunological response triggers later physiological and histopathological alterations towards gastric malignancies.

  14. Helicobacter pylori cag-Pathogenicity island-dependent early immunological response triggers later precancerous gastric changes in Mongolian gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wiedemann

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori, carrying a functional cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS to inject the Cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA into gastric cells, is associated with an increased risk for severe gastric diseases in humans. Here we studied the pathomechanism of H. pylori and the role of the cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI for the induction of gastric ulcer and precancerous conditions over time (2-64 weeks using the Mongolian gerbil model. Animals were challenged with H. pylori B128 (WT, or an isogenic B128DeltacagY mutant-strain that produces CagA, but is unable to translocate it into gastric cells. H. pylori colonization density was quantified in antrum and corpus mucosa separately. Paraffin sections were graded for inflammation and histological changes verified by immunohistochemistry. Physiological and inflammatory markers were quantitated by RIA and RT-PCR, respectively. An early cag-T4SS-dependent inflammation of the corpus mucosa (4-8 weeks occurred only in WT-infected animals, resulting in a severe active and chronic gastritis with a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines, mucous gland metaplasia, and atrophy of the parietal cells. At late time points only WT-infected animals developed hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia in parallel to gastric ulcers, gastritis cystica profunda, and focal dysplasia. The early cag-PAI-dependent immunological response triggers later physiological and histopathological alterations towards gastric malignancies.

  15. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Acquaviva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal treatment modality for metastatic cancer would be a local treatment that can destroy primary tumors while inducing an effective systemic anti-tumor response. To this end, we developed laser immunotherapy, combining photothermal laser application with an immunoadjuvant for the treatment of metastatic cancer. Additionally, to enhance the selective photothermal effect, we integrated light-absorbing nanomaterials into this innovative treatment. Specifically, we developed an immunologically modified carbon nanotube combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs with the immunoadjuvant glycated chitosan (GC. To determine the effectiveness of laser irradiation, a series of experiments were performed using two different irradiation durations — 5 and 10 min. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a metastatic cancer cell line. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 min had a 50% long-term survival rate without residual primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 min had no long-term survivors; all rats died with multiple metastases at several distant sites. Therefore, Laser+SWNT–GC treatment with 10 min of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  16. Tuning T Cell Activation: The Function of CD6 At the Immunological Synapse and in T Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita F; Oliveira, Liliana; Carmo, Alexandre M

    2016-01-01

    CD6 immunotherapy to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis has reached the clinical trial stage with apparent success, and targeting CD6 with mAbs is being used in several animal models of autoimmunity and neuroinflammation with promising indications. However, the mode of action of the therapeutic CD6 mAbs is far from being understood, reflecting the uncertainties and controversy surrounding the mechanistic and biological functions of CD6. Initially regarded as a co-stimulatory receptor of T lymphocytes, recent studies suggest that CD6 can instead modulate early as well as late T cell responses. Also, opposing the contribution of CD6 adhesiveness in the establishment and stabilization of immunological synapses, the actual triggering of CD6 might induce anti-proliferative signals to the T lymphocyte. CD6 has an unusually long cytoplasmic tail and its gene undergoes peculiar patterns of activation-dependent alternative splicing that can on one hand determine whether or not the CD6 protein binds to its ligand, and on the other include or exclude intracellular sequences that may transduce positive or negative signaling. In this review we discuss the multiple aspects that determine the nature of the signals transmitted via CD6 and the context that may define a dual role for this important T cell surface molecule.

  17. EFFECTS OF ARGININE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIETS ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILERS CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jesús Chan Diaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets on the immune response during post-vaccine stress, a trial was conducted with 700 chicks (1 day-old which were distributed into 28 floor-pens and fed one of four dietary treatments (with 7 replicates randomly assigned: T1 = control diet (1.31 % of arginine and 10 IU of vitamin E/kg of feed; T2 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine; T3 = T1 + 70 IU of vitamin E; T4 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine + 70 IU of vitamin E. At 12 days of age, all birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (ND, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza (AI and fowl pox. The traits evaluated were: post-vaccine reaction at days 14, 16, 18, 21 and 23; antibody titers against ND and AI, and relative lymphoid organs weight at days 11, 19 and 26; and the performance were recorded weekly. Chickens fed T2, T4 (at day 16, and T3 (at day 21 had lesser (p≤0.05 post-vaccine reaction than birds fed T1. The antibody titers against ND (at day 11 was higher (p≤0.05 in chickens fed T4 (3.1, T3 (2.7 and T2 (2.7 compared to T1 (1.6; meanwhile, for AI titers no differences were found. There were no differences, neither for immune organs weight, nor for performance. In conclusion, arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets reduced the post-vaccine stress and improved the immune response without affecting the performance.

  18. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier-Clerc Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada, to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences. Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Conclusion Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism.

  19. Oxidative stress and immunologic responses following a dietary exposure to PAHs in Mya arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Fournier, Michel; Gauthier-Clerc, Sophie; Rioux, Pascal; Pelletier, Emilien

    2008-12-02

    The aim of this research was to investigate oxidative stress and immune responses following a dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in a marine bioindicator organism, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria. Immune parameters in hemolymph (haemocyte number, efficiency of phagocytosis and haemocyte activity) and assessment of oxidative stress using catalase (CAT) activity and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) performed on the digestive gland were estimated as biomarkers in clams fed in mesocosm with PAH contaminated phytoplankton. MDA levels and CAT activities were also measured in situ in organisms sampled in a control site (Metis Beach, Québec, Canada) as well as organisms sampled in a site receiving domestic effluents (Pointe-au-Père, Québec, Canada), to assess effects of abiotic variables related to seasonal variations and mixed contamination on the selected parameters. Results on immune parameters suggest that the PAHs may interfere with the maturation and/or differentiation processes of haemocytes. MDA results showed that lipid peroxidation did not occur following the exposure. The levels of CAT activity corresponded to weak antioxidant activity (no significant differences). Recovery was noted for all the immune endpoints at the end of the experiment. Results suggest that immune parameters are early biomarkers that can efficiently detect a physiological change during a short term exposure to low concentrations of PAHs. The in situ survey (in the natural environment) suggested that clams from the Pointe-au-Père site did not show any oxidative stress as well as the clams contaminated in mesocosm, probably due to the low concentrations of PAHs used for this study. MDA levels increased however in organisms from Metis Beach, a response probably related to domestic effluents or parasitism.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy and immunological response of CCL5 antagonists in models of contact skin reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Canavese

    Full Text Available Skin-infiltrating T-cells play a predominant role in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis. These T-cells are attracted by several chemotactic factors including the chemokine CCL5/RANTES, a CC chemokine inducing both the migration and activation of specific leukocyte subsets. CCL5 has been found to be associated with various cell-mediated hypersensitive disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We have used two antagonists, the first, Met-CCL5, a dual CCR1/CCR5 antagonist and the second, a variant in which GAG binding is abrogated, (44AANA(47-CCL5, which acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of CCL5. The antagonists were tested in two models of contact skin reaction. The first, irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is a pathological non-specific inflammatory skin condition arising from the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by keratinocytes in response to haptens, usually chemicals. The second, contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a T-cell dependent model, mimicking in part the T-cell-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis. In both models, the CCL5 antagonists showed therapeutic efficacy by reducing swelling by 50% as well as the reduction of soluble mediators in homogenates derived from challenged ears. These results demonstrate that blocking the receptor or the ligand are both effective strategies to inhibit skin inflammation.

  1. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  2. Dietary camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, enhances immunological response in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Fernandes, Dayanne C; Eto, Silas F; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Marinho-Neto, Fausto A; Fernandes, João B K; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia

    2016-11-01

    Camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, is an Amazon plant that presents high levels of vitamin C in its composition. Several studies in animals and humans have demonstrated their efficiency in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. However, there are no reports of its properties in fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the oral administration of the extract of this plant in the immune parameters in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. 400 Nile tilapia (80 ± 5 g) were randomly distributed into 20 tanks with 1500 L capacity each (20 fish/tank). After a week of adaptation to environmental conditions, it was provided a diet for 5 weeks, using different levels of inclusion of camu camu extract: 0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of four replicates. It was obtained 40.5 mg of vitamin C/g of camu camu pulp powder by high-performance liquid chromatography. At the end of the trial period, fish were inoculated with Aeromonas hydrophila in the swim bladder. Samples were taken after 6; 24 and 48 h of the challenge. Results revealed that fish supplemented with this herb showed significant increase (P  0.05). No histopathological lesions were observed in intestine, kidney, spleen, and gills. It can be concluded that the addition of Myrciaria dubia in tilapia feed improves the immune response and the growth after 5 weeks, especially, at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Immunological responses and cytokine gene expression analysis to Cooperia punctata infections in resistant and susceptible Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Silva, M B; Kooyman, F N J; De Vries, E; Yatsuda, A P; Amarante, A F T

    2008-08-01

    Cellular and humoral immune response, as well as cytokine gene expression, was assessed in Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to Cooperia punctata natural infection. One hundred cattle (male, weaned, 11-12 months old), kept together on pasture, were evaluated. Faecal and blood samples were collected for parasitological and immunological assays. Based on nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) and worm burden, the seven most resistant and the eight most susceptible animals were selected. Tissue samples of the small intestine were collected for histological quantification of inflammatory cells and analysis of cytokine gene expression (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-13, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1, MCP-2, and MUC-1) using real-time RT-PCR. Mucus samples were also collected for IgA levels determination. Serum IgG1 mean levels against C. punctata antigens were higher in the resistant group, but significant differences between groups were only observed 14 days after the beginning of the experiment against infective larvae (L3) and 14 and 84 days against adult antigens. The resistant group also presented higher IgA levels against C. punctata (L3 and adult) antigens with significant difference 14 days after the beginning of the trial (P<0.05). In the small-intestine mucosa, levels of IgA anti-L3 and anti-adult C. punctata were higher in the resistant group, compared with the susceptible group (P<0.05). Gene expression of both T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) in the resistant group and T(H)1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12p35, IFN-gamma and MCP-1) in the susceptible group was up-regulated. Such results suggested that immune response to C. punctata was probably mediated by T(H)2 cytokines in the resistant group and by T(H)1 cytokines in the susceptible group.

  4. The immunologic revolution: photoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Stephen E; Byrne, Scott N

    2012-03-01

    UV radiation targets the skin and is a primary cause of skin cancer (both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer). Exposure to UV radiation also suppresses the immune response, and UV-induced immune suppression is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. The efforts of dermatologists and cancer biologists to understand how UV radiation exposure suppresses the immune response and contributes to skin cancer induction led to the development of the subdiscipline we call photoimmunology. Advances in photoimmunology have generally paralleled advances in immunology. However, there are a number of examples in which investigations into the mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression reshaped our understanding of basic immunological concepts. Unconventional immune regulatory roles for Langerhans cells, mast cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells, as well as the immune-suppressive function of lipid mediators of inflammation and alarmins, are just some examples of how advances in immunodermatology have altered our understanding of basic immunology. In this anniversary issue celebrating 75 years of cutaneous science, we provide examples of how concepts that grew out of efforts by immunologists and dermatologists to understand immune regulation by UV radiation affected immunology in general.

  5. Immunological responses during a virologically failing antiretroviral regimen are associated with in vivo synonymous mutation rates of HIV type-1 env

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Kronborg, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying causes of differences in immunological response to antiretroviral therapy during multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. This study aimed to identify virological factors associated with immunological response during therapy failure....... METHODS: Individuals with MDR HIV-1 receiving therapy for > or =3 months were included. CD4+ T-cell count slopes and pol and clonal env sequences were determined. Genetic analyses were performed using distance-based and maximum likelihood methods. Synonymous mutations rates of env were used to estimate...... viral replication. RESULTS: Of 1,000 patients treated between 1995 and 2003, 72 individuals fulfilled the definition for triple-class failure, but 25 were non-compliant, 21 were successfully resuppressed and 3 had died or quit therapy. Of the 23 that fulfilled study criteria, 16 had samples available...

  6. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Felder, Paul; Cusumano, Andrew; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-08-24

    Male exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with seminal defects and with congenital anomalies and childhood cancers in offspring. In mice, paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes molecular defects in germ cells and phenotypic effects in their offspring. Here we used an ex vivo testicular explant model and in vivo exposure to determine the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis and offspring development. We explanted testis tissue at postnatal day (P)5.5 and cultured it until P11.5. Assessment of growth parameters by analyzing expression of cell-specific markers revealed that the explant system maintained structural and functional integrity. We exposed the P5.5 to -11.5 explants to various concentrations (40-160 µg/ml) of CSC and confirmed that nicotine in the CSC was metabolized to cotinine. We assessed various growth and differentiation parameters, as well as testosterone production, and observed that many spermatogenesis features were impaired at 160 µg/ml CSC. The same parameters were impaired by a similar CSC concentration in vivo Finally, females mated to males that were exposed to 160 µg/ml CSC neonatally had increased rates of pup resorption. We conclude that male exposure to CSC impairs offspring development and that the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis is similar in vivo and ex vivo. Given that the concentrations of CSC we used contained similar doses of nicotine as human smokers are exposed to, we argue that our model mimics human male reproductive effects of smoking.-Esakky, P., Hansen, D. A., Drury, A. M., Felder, P., Cusumano, A., Moley, K. H. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo. © FASEB.

  7. Clinical, virological and immunological responses in Danish HIV patients receiving raltegravir as part of a salvage regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik N Engsig

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Frederik N Engsig1, Jan Gerstoft1, Gitte Kronborg2, Carsten S Larsen3, Gitte Pedersen4, Anne M Audelin5, Louise B Jørgensen5, Niels Obel11Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for treatment of HIV-infected patients harboring multiresistant viruses.Methods: From a Danish population-based nationwide cohort of HIV patients we identified the individuals who initiated a salvage regimen including raltegravir and a matched cohort of HIV-infected patients initiating HAART for the first time. We compared these two cohorts for virological suppression, gain in CD4 count, and time to first change of initial regimen.Results: We identified 32 raltegravir patients and 64 HIV patients who initiated HAART for the first time in the period 1 January 2006 to 1 July 2009. The virological and immunological responses in the raltegravir patients were comparable to those seen in the control cohort. No patients in the two cohorts died and no patients terminated raltegravir treatment in the observation period. Time to first change of initial regimen was considerably shorter for HAART-naïve patients.Conclusion: We conclude that salvage regimens including raltegravir have high effectiveness in the everyday clinical setting. The effectiveness of the regimens is comparable to that observed for patients initiating HAART for the first time. The risk of change in the salvage regimens after initiation of raltegravir is low.Keywords: HIV, raltegravir, salvage regime, efficacy, matched cohort

  8. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashista, M., E-mail: mvashista@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Paul, S., E-mail: spaul@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2011-11-15

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: > The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. > A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. > Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. > These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  9. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  10. CD56bright NK cells exhibit potent antitumor responses following IL-15 priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julia A; Rosario, Maximillian; Romee, Rizwan; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Schneider, Stephanie E; Leong, Jeffrey W; Sullivan, Ryan P; Jewell, Brea A; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Schappe, Timothy; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Ireland, Aaron R; Jaishankar, Devika; King, Justin A; Vij, Ravi; Clement, Dennis; Goodridge, Jodie; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Wong, Hing C; Fehniger, Todd A

    2017-11-01

    NK cells, lymphocytes of the innate immune system, are important for defense against infectious pathogens and cancer. Classically, the CD56dim NK cell subset is thought to mediate antitumor responses, whereas the CD56bright subset is involved in immunomodulation. Here, we challenge this paradigm by demonstrating that brief priming with IL-15 markedly enhanced the antitumor response of CD56bright NK cells. Priming improved multiple CD56bright cell functions: degranulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. Primed CD56bright cells from leukemia patients demonstrated enhanced responses to autologous blasts in vitro, and primed CD56bright cells controlled leukemia cells in vivo in a murine xenograft model. Primed CD56bright cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients displayed superior responses to autologous myeloma targets, and furthermore, CD56bright NK cells from MM patients primed with the IL-15 receptor agonist ALT-803 in vivo displayed enhanced ex vivo functional responses to MM targets. Effector mechanisms contributing to IL-15-based priming included improved cytotoxic protein expression, target cell conjugation, and LFA-1-, CD2-, and NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells. Finally, IL-15 robustly stimulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways in CD56bright compared with CD56dim NK cells, and blockade of these pathways attenuated antitumor responses. These findings identify CD56bright NK cells as potent antitumor effectors that warrant further investigation as a cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Hematology and immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.

  12. Exploring the Innate Immunological Response of an Alternative Nonhuman Primate Model of Infectious Disease; the Common Marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease.

  13. Effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed diets with different levels of crude protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsadi, M; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari-Mahyari, S; Jahanian, E

    2017-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, serum biochemical parameters, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed on diets with different levels of crude protein (CP). A total of 180 laying hens were subjected into nine dietary treatments with four cages of five birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of CP (85.0, 92.5 and 100% of Hy-Line W36 manual recommendation) and three levels of sanguinarine (0.00, 3.75 and 7.50 mg/kg) as a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of laying hens which fed during a 70-day feeding trial. The in vitro study showed that sanguinarine exhibited sevenfold and threefold decreased antioxidant activities to inhibit 2-2-diphenyl-1-picric hydrazyl free radical as well as ferric ion reducing rather than butylated hydroxyl toluene. Although using the decremental levels of CP caused the increase in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.01), dietary administration of sanguinarine could suppress the serum cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations as well as heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreasing CP content resulted in the decreased percentage of albumin (p < 0.05); however, it had no negative effects on humoral immunity. Nonetheless, feeding of at least 3.75 mg/kg sanguinarine led to the remarkable increases in serum gamma globulin concentration (p < 0.01) and secondary (p < 0.05) antibody titres against sheep red blood cells. Moreover, a decline in dietary CP content led to higher villi height and crypt depth (p < 0.05; p < 0.001) and consequently decreased villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < 0.001) than the optimum level (100% CP). In spite of the effects of sanguinarine on the suppression of Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts (p < 0.05), it markedly enhanced villi height-to-crypt depth ratio as well as lamina propria lymphatic follicles extent

  14. Allis shad (Alosa alosa) exhibit an intensity-graded behavioral response when exposed to ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Acolas, Marie-Laure; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2008-01-01

    Most fish cannot hear frequencies above 3  kHz, but a few species belonging to the subfamily Alosinae (family Clupeidae) can detect intense ultrasound. The response of adult specimens of the European allis shad (Alosa alosa) to sinusoidal ultrasonic pulses at 70 and 120  kHz is tested. The fish...

  15. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  16. Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax Isolates Exhibit Different Physiological and Expression Responses to n-dodecane

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-12-21

    Autochthonous microorganisms inhabiting hydrocarbon polluted marine environments play a fundamental role in natural attenuation and constitute promising resources for bioremediation approaches. Alcanivorax spp. members are ubiquitous in contaminated surface waters and are the first to flourish on a wide range of alkanes after an oil-spill. Following oil contamination, a transient community of different Alcanivorax spp. develop, but whether they use a similar physiological, cellular and transcriptomic response to hydrocarbon substrates is unknown. In order to identify which cellular mechanisms are implicated in alkane degradation, we investigated the response of two isolates belonging to different Alcanivorax species, A. dieselolei KS 293 and A. borkumensis SK2 growing on n-dodecane (C12) or on pyruvate. Both strains were equally able to grow on C12 but they activated different strategies to exploit it as carbon and energy source. The membrane morphology and hydrophobicity of SK2 changed remarkably, from neat and hydrophilic on pyruvate to indented and hydrophobic on C12, while no changes were observed in KS 293. In addition, SK2 accumulated a massive amount of intracellular grains when growing on pyruvate, which might constitute a carbon reservoir. Furthermore, SK2 significantly decreased medium surface tension with respect to KS 293 when growing on C12, as a putative result of higher production of biosurfactants. The transcriptomic responses of the two isolates were also highly different. KS 293 changes were relatively balanced when growing on C12 with respect to pyruvate, giving almost the same amount of upregulated (28%), downregulated (37%) and equally regulated (36%) genes, while SK2 transcription was upregulated for most of the genes (81%) when growing on pyruvate when compared to C12. While both strains, having similar genomic background in genes related to hydrocarbon metabolism, retained the same capability to grow on C12, they nevertheless presented very

  17. Phytoplankton Communities Exhibit a Stronger Response to Environmental Changes than Bacterioplankton in Three Subtropical Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wilkinson, David M; Yang, Jun

    2015-09-15

    The simultaneous analysis of multiple components of ecosystems is crucial for comprehensive studies of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems, but such studies are rare. In this study, we analyzed simultaneously the bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities in three Chinese subtropical reservoirs and compared the response of these two components to seasonal environmental changes. Time-lag analysis indicated that the temporal community dynamics of both bacterioplankton and phytoplankton showed significant directional changes, and variance partitioning suggested that the major reason was the gradual improvement of reservoir water quality from middle eutrophic to oligo-mesotrophic levels during the course of our study. In addition, we found a higher level of temporal stability or stochasticity in the bacterioplankton community than in the phytoplankton community. Potential explanations are that traits associated with bacteria, such as high abundance, widespread dispersal, potential for rapid growth rates, and rapid evolutionary adaptation, may underlie the different stability or stochasticity of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities to the environmental changes. In addition, the indirect response of bacterioplankton to nitrogen and phosphorus may result in the fact that environmental deterministic selection was stronger for the phytoplankton than for the bacterioplankton communities.

  18. Forereef and backreef corals exhibit different responses to anthropogenic stressors in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S.; Foster, G. L.; Castillo, K.; Ries, J. B.; Tyrrell, T.

    2016-02-01

    The health of coral reefs is threatened by simultaneous anthropogenic impacts, namely ocean acidification, ocean warming, elevated nutrients (nutrification) and sedimentation. These processes have been shown to reduce the ability of corals to grow, but culturing experiments have previously demonstrated this response to vary across different reef environments and between different taxa. The absence of in-situ pH data, records of nutrient evolution and limited sea surface temperature (SST) measurements prior to the 1980s, has prevented the extent of either ocean acidification, nutrification or ocean warming to be quantified in Belize. Here, we have applied a multi-proxy approach (Li/Mg, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, δ11B, δ13C) to reconstruct these variables in corals from across the southern Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System over the last 100 years. We find that although the warming signal is spatially coherent, significant spatial variability exists in the extent of acidification and sediment input. Further investigations into the impact of such variability, and possible changes in net primary production must be conducted before we can conclude which anthropogenic stressor is responsible for the decline in forereef coral extension rates.

  19. Mice lacking integrin β3 expression exhibit altered response to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Varney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3 in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3+/+ and Itgb3−/− mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test. In this test, chronic stress elicited significant decreases in stereotypic behavior and horizontal locomotor activity, including increases in anxiety behaviors. Mild chronic stress led to reductions in dopamine turnover in midbrains of Itgb3+/+, but not Itgb3−/− mice, suggesting a disruption of stress-dependent regulation of DA homeostasis. Chronic stress elicited altered synaptic expression of syntaxin and synaptophysin in midbrains of Itgb3−/− mice, when compared to Itgb3+/+. Semi-quantitative Western blot studies revealed that the synaptic expression, but not total tissue expression, of multiple signaling proteins is correlated with integrin αv levels in the midbrain. Moreover, loss of integrin β3 expression modifies this correlation network. Together, these findings demonstrate that Itgb3−/− mice display a pattern of changes indicating disrupted regulation of midbrain synaptic systems involved in conferring resilience to mild stressors.

  20. Peptide Drug Release Behavior from Biodegradable Temperature-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels Exhibiting Irreversible Gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Takata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the release behavior of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from a biodegradable injectable polymer (IP hydrogel. This hydrogel shows temperature-responsive irreversible gelation due to the covalent bond formation through a thiol-ene reaction. In vitro sustained release of GLP-1 from an irreversible IP formulation (F(P1/D+PA40 was observed compared with a reversible (physical gelation IP formulation (F(P1. Moreover, pharmaceutically active levels of GLP-1 were maintained in blood after subcutaneous injection of the irreversible IP formulation into rats. This system should be useful for the minimally invasive sustained drug release of peptide drugs and other water-soluble bioactive reagents.

  1. Imaging visceral leishmaniasis in real time with golden hamster model: Monitoring the parasite burden and hamster transcripts to further characterize the immunological responses of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Eline; Lecoeur, Hervé; Meriem, Asma Ben; Minoprio, Paola; Goyard, Sophie; Lang, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Characterizing the clinical, immunological and parasitological features associated with visceral leishmaniasis is complex. It involves recording in real time and integrating quantitative multi-parametric data sets from parasite infected host tissues. Although several models have been used, hamsters are considered the bona fide experimental model for Leishmania donovani studies. To study visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters we generated virulent transgenic L. donovani that stably express a reporter luciferase protein. Two complementary methodologies were combined to follow the infectious process: in vivo imaging using luciferase-expressing Leishmania and real time RT-PCR to quantify both Leishmania and host transcripts. This approach allows us: i) to assess the clinical outcome of visceral leishmaniasis by individual monitoring of hamster weight, ii) to follow the parasite load in several organs by real time analysis of the bioluminescence in vivo and through real time quantitative PCR analysis of amastigote parasite transcript abundance ex vivo, iii) to evaluate the immunological responses triggered by the infection by quantifying hamster transcripts on the same samples and iv) to limit the number of hamsters selected for further analysis. The overall data highlight a correlation between the transcriptional cytokine signatures of hamster affected tissues and the amastigote burden fluctuations, thus providing new insights into the immunopathological process driven by L. donovani in the tissues of mammalian hosts. Finally, they suggest organ-specific immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Corynebacterium glutamicum exhibits a membrane-related response to a small ferrocene-conjugated antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzel, Benjamin; Frese, Christian; Penkova, Maya; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Bandow, Julia E; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Multiresistant bacteria are becoming more and more widespread. It is therefore necessary to have new compound groups in hand, such as small cationic peptides, to cope with these challenges. In this work, we present a comprehensive approach by monitoring protein expression profiles in a gram-positive bacterium (Corynebacterium glutamicum) to investigate the cellular response to such a compound, a ferrocene-conjugated arginine- and tryptophan-rich pentapeptide. To achieve this, a proteomic outline was performed where the compound-treated sample was compared with an untreated control. This study comprises more than 900 protein identifications, including numerous integral membrane proteins, and among these 185 differential expressions. Surprisingly, unregulated catalase and no elevated H(2)O(2) levels demonstrate that no oxidative stress occurs after treatment with the iron-containing compound as a consequence of the potential Fenton reaction. A sufficient iron supply is evidenced by the iron-containing protein aconitase and SufB (the latter belongs to an iron-sulfur cluster assembly system) and decreased levels of ATP-binding-cassette-type cobalamin/Fe(3+) siderophore transporters. The organometallic peptide antibiotic targets the cell membrane, which is evident by decreased levels of various integral membrane proteins, such as peptide permeases and transporters, and an altered lipid composition. Conversion to a more rigid cell membrane seems to be a relevant protective strategy of C. glutamicum against the ferrocene-conjugated antimicrobial peptide compound.

  3. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Jansen

    Full Text Available In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i plant biomass, (ii carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought. Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  4. C/EBPα and PU.1 exhibit different responses to RANK signaling for osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Joel; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2017-10-11

    The transcription factors C/EBPα and PU.1 are upregulated by RANKL through activation of its receptor RANK during osteoclastogenesis and are critical for osteoclast differentiation. Herein we investigated the mechanisms underlying how C/EBPα and PU.1 regulate osteoclast differentiation in response to RANK signaling. We showed that C/EBPα or PU.1 overexpression could initiate osteoclastogenesis and upregulate the expressions of the osteoclast genes encoding the nuclear factor of activated T-cells, C1, cathepsin K, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase independently of RANKL. However, while PU.1 upregulated C/EBPα, C/EBPα could not upregulate PU.1. RANK has a unique cytoplasmic domain, 535IVVY538 motif, which is crucial for osteoclast differentiation. We demonstrated that mutational inactivation of RANK IVVY motif blocked osteoclast differentiation and significantly attenuated C/EBPα, but not PU.1, expression, indicating that RANK-IVVY-induced signaling is dispensable to PU.1 upregulation during osteoclastogenesis. However, C/EBPα or PU.1 overexpression failed to promote osteoclastogenesis in cells expressing mutated RANK IVVY motif. We noted that RANK-IVVY-motif inactivation significantly repressed osteoclast genes as compared with a vector control, suggesting that IVVY motif might also negatively regulate osteoclast inhibitors during osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, IVVY-motif inactivation triggered upregulation of RBP-J, a potent osteoclast inhibitor, during osteoclastogenesis. Notably, C/EBPα or PU.1 overexpression in cells expressing mutated RANK IVVY motif failed to control the deregulated RBP-J expression, resulting in repression of osteoclast genes. Accordingly, RBP-J silencing in the mutant cells rescued osteoclastogenesis with C/EBPα or PU.1 overexpression. In conclusion, we revealed that while PU.1 and C/EBPα are critical for osteoclastogenesis, they respond differently to RANKL-induced activation of RANK IVVY motif. Copyright © 2016

  5. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  6. Gastrointestinal Immune Response to the Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin: Histological and Immunological Analysis in an Animal Model of Shrimp Tropomyosin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yin Fan; Tong, Ka Kui; Kwan, Kin Ming; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Shu, Shang-An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2015-01-01

    Shellfish hypersensitivity is among the most common food allergies. A murine model of IgE-mediated shrimp allergy has been established in our laboratory. The aim of this study is to determine the intestinal histological changes and cytokine expression profile of this model sensitized with the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin. Female Balb/c mice orally sensitized and challenged with recombinant tropomyosin were sacrificed. Continuous sections of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were prepared using the Swiss roll technique for histological and immunological analysis. Duodenal epithelial cell apoptosis and migration were examined. mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-18 and IFN-γ in intestinal tissue was measured via RT-PCR. In tropomyosin-sensitized and challenged mice, an increased number of eosinophils, mast cells and goblet cells was found 24 h after challenge. There were also increased mast cell and goblet cell numbers at 72 h after challenge, but the level of eosinophils decreased. Differences compared with control mice are most prominent at the duodenum compared to the distal regions. In addition, TUNEL assay indicates a significantly higher apoptosis rate in sensitized mice sacrificed 72 h after challenge, and mRNA expression showed a biased Th2/Th1 cytokine profile and a higher level of murine mast cell protease 1. This study documented a multitude of histological and immunological changes in the gut in a murine model of shrimp allergy. Even without repetitive intragastric challenge, shrimp tropomyosin induces an increase in the number of inflammatory cells to varying degrees within the small intestine. This model provides an important tool for testing new therapeutic interventions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Diet‐induced obese mice exhibit altered immune responses to acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taomei; Yuan, Guiqiang; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhengyi; Jia, Yiping; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Deng, Junliang; Yu, Shumin; Hu, Yanchun; Shen, Liuhong; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Ya; Ren, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity has been associated with impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. It also exerts protective effects against mortality secondary to acute lung injury. The effects of obesity on immune responses to acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli were investigated to determine if the above‐mentioned differences in its effects were related to infection severity. Methods Diet‐induced obesity (DIO) and lean control mice received intranasal instillations of 109 or 1010 CFUs of E. coli. The immune responses were examined at 0 h (uninfected), 24 h, and 96 h postinfection. Results Following infection, the DIO mice exhibited higher leukocyte, interleukin (IL)−10, IL‐6, and tumor necrosis factor‐α levels and more severe lung injury than the lean mice. Following inoculation with 1010 CFUs of E. coli, the DIO mice exhibited higher mortality and more severe inflammation‐induced injury than the lean mice, but no differences in E. coli counts were noted between the two groups. However, inoculated with 109 CFUs of E. coli, the DIO mice exhibited smaller E. coli burdens at 24 h and 96 h after infection, as well as lower concentrations of IL‐10 and tumor necrosis factor‐α and less severe lung injury at 96 h after infection. Conclusions The results support the emerging view that obesity may be beneficial in the setting of milder infection but detrimental in the setting of more severe infection. PMID:27558300

  8. Correlation between baseline CD4 + T-Lymphocyte count and plasma viral load in AIDS patients and their early clinical and immunological response to HAART: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, immunological and virological status of newly diagnosed AIDS cases and to monitor their clinical and immunological response to HAART after a minimum period of three months. Forty three drug naive AIDS patients were enrolled. The most common presenting complaints were weight loss (74.4%, cough (72.1% and diarrhoea (67.4%. Mean baseline CD4 cell count was 112 ± 60 cells/μL and mean baseline plasma viral load of 31 patients studied was 192,686 copies/mL. Baseline plasma viral load was higher among patients with lower baseline CD4 cell count. During follow-up, 80.8% patients showed clinical improvement, while a CD4 cell count increased by ≥50 cells/μL in 84.6% cases. Mean CD4 cell count increased from 126 ± 16.6 cells/μL at baseline to 278 ± 196.7 cells/μL.

  9. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  10. The introduction of mesenchymal stromal cells induces different immunological responses in the lungs of healthy and M. tuberculosis infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenasheva, Tatiana; Nikolaev, Alexander; Diykanov, Daniar; Sukhanova, Anna; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Panteleev, Alexander; Bocharova, Irina; Serdyuk, Yana; Nezlin, Leonid; Radaeva, Tatiana; Adrianov, Nikolai; Rubtsov, Yuri; Lyadova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have strong immunomodulatory properties and therefore can be used to control inflammation and tissue damage. It was suggested recently that MSC injections can be used to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, MSC trafficking and immunomodulatory effects of MSC injections during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection have not been studied. To address this issue we have analyzed MSC distribution in tissues and local immunological effects of MSC injections in Mtb infected and uninfected mice. After intravenous injection, MSC accumulated preferentially in the lungs where they were located as cell aggregates in the alveolar walls. Immunological analysis of MSC effects included detection of activated, IFN-γ and IL-4 producing CD4+ lymphocytes, the frequency analysis of dendritic cells (CD11c+F4/80) and macrophages (CD11c-F4/80+) located in the lungs, the expression of IA/IE and CD11b molecules by these cells, and evaluation of 23 cytokines/chemokines in lung lysates. In the lungs of uninfected mice, MSC transfer markedly increased the percentage of IFN-γ+ CD4+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, elevated levels of IA/IE expression by dendritic cells and macrophages, augmented local production of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1), and downregulated type 1 and hematopoietic cytokines (IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF). Compared to uninfected mice, Mtb infected mice had statistically higher "background" frequency of activated CD69+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and higher levels of cytokines in the lungs. The injections of MSC to Mtb infected mice did not show statistically significant effects on CD4+ lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, only slightly shifted cytokine profile, and did not change pathogen load or slow down TB progression. Lung section analysis showed that in Mtb infected mice, MSC could not be found in the proximity of the

  11. Applications of nanotechnology for immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas M; Simon, Jakub K; Baker, James R

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology uses the unique properties of objects that function as a unit within the overall size range of 1-1,000 nanometres. The engineering of nanostructure materials, including nanoparticles, nanoemulsions or nanotubules, holds great promise for the development of new immunomodulatory agents, as such nanostructures can be used to more effectively manipulate or deliver immunologically active components to target sites. Successful applications of nanotechnology in the field of immunology will enable new generations of vaccines, adjuvants and immunomodulatory drugs that aim to improve clinical outcomes in response to a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  12. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  13. Inhibition of substance P-mediated responses in NG108-15 cells by netupitant and palonosetron exhibit synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathis, Marigo; Pietra, Claudio; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2012-08-15

    Netupitant is a potent and selective NK(1) receptor antagonist under development in combination with a fixed dose of palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Palonosetron is a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist approved for both the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting after moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that substance P (SP), a ligand acting largely on tachykinin (NK(1)) receptors, is the dominant mediator of delayed emesis. Interestingly, palonosetron does not bind to the NK(1) receptor so that the mechanism behind palonosetron's unique efficacy against delayed emesis is not clear. Palonosetron exhibits a distinct ability among 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists to inhibit crosstalk between NK(1) and 5-HT(3) receptor signaling pathways. The objective of the current work was to determine if palonosetron's ability to inhibit receptor signaling crosstalk would influence netupitant's inhibition of the SP-mediated response when the two drugs are dosed together. We first studied the inhibition of SP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in NG108-15 cells by palonosetron, ondansetron and granisetron. Unexpectedly, in the absence of serotonin, palonosetron inhibited the SP-mediated dose response 15-fold; ondansetron and granisetron had no effect. Netupitant also dose-dependently inhibited the SP response as expected from an NK1 receptor antagonist. Importantly, when both palonosetron and netupitant were present, they exhibited an enhanced inhibition of the SP response compared to either of the two antagonists alone. The results further confirm palonosetron's unique pharmacology among 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and suggest that it can enhance the prevention of delayed emesis provided by NK(1) receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of body weight on virological and immunological responses to efavirenz-containing regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzolini, Catia; Sabin, Caroline; Raffi, François

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens...... in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study. METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated...... the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV...

  15. Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiboonchutikul, Surasak; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sangsajja, Chariya; Thientong, Varaporn; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Srisopha, Somkid; Termvises, Patamavadee; Rujitip, Jitlada; Loiusirirotchanakul, Suda; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Startle response memory and hippocampal changes in adult zebrafish pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Julian T; Lott, Chad S

    2014-01-17

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular animal model for neurobehavioral and psychopharmacological research. While startle testing is a well-established assay to investigate anxiety-like behaviors in different species, screening of the startle response and its habituation in zebrafish is a new direction of translational biomedical research. This study focuses on a novel behavioral protocol to assess a tapping-induced startle response and its habituation in adult zebrafish that have been pharmacologically-induced to exhibit anxiety/depression-like behaviors. We demonstrated that zebrafish exhibit robust learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a modified plus maze, and showed that ethanol and fluoxetine impair memory performance in this maze when administered after training at a dose that does not impair motor function, however, leads to significant upregulation of hippocampal serotoninergic neurons. These results suggest that the maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become a translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory changes associated with psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety/depression. © 2013.

  17. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  18. P2Y6 receptor potentiates pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and exhibits differential roles in atherosclerotic lesion development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: P2Y(6, a purinergic receptor for UDP, is enriched in atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in pro-inflammatory responses of key vascular cell types and macrophages. Evidence for its involvement in atherogenesis, however, has been lacking. Here we use cell-based studies and three murine models of atherogenesis to evaluate the impact of P2Y(6 deficiency on atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cell-based studies in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, which lack functional P2Y(6 receptors, showed that exogenous expression of P2Y(6 induces a robust, receptor- and agonist-dependent secretion of inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1 and GRO1. P2Y(6-mediated inflammatory responses were also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in macrophages endogenously expressing P2Y(6 and in acute peritonitis models of inflammation. To evaluate the role of P2Y(6 in atherosclerotic lesion development, we used P2Y(6-deficient mice in three mouse models of atherosclerosis. A 43% reduction in aortic arch plaque was observed in high fat-fed LDLR knockout mice lacking P2Y(6 receptors in bone marrow-derived cells. In contrast, no effect on lesion development was observed in fat-fed whole body P2Y(6xLDLR double knockout mice. Interestingly, in a model of enhanced vascular inflammation using angiotensin II, P2Y(6 deficiency enhanced formation of aneurysms and exhibited a trend towards increased atherosclerosis in the aorta of LDLR knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS: P2Y(6 receptor augments pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and exhibits a pro-atherogenic role in hematopoietic cells. However, the overall impact of whole body P2Y(6 deficiency on atherosclerosis appears to be modest and could reflect additional roles of P2Y(6 in vascular disease pathophysiologies, such as aneurysm formation.

  19. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  20. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  1. Measurement of the IgG2 response to Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides may identify an antibody deficiency in individuals referred for immunological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony; Irure Ventura, Juan; Sims, Dawn; Echeverría de Carlos, Ainara; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Tricas Aizpún, Lourdes; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Wallis, Gregg; Harding, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs. 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p = 0.0002). PCP IgG:IgG2 ratios were significantly higher for the referral population than for healthy controls suggesting the increased production of PCP specific subclasses other than IgG2. The percentage of individuals with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly higher in referral groups compared to controls (31% vs. 5%; p = 0.0009) and in an individual with PCP IgG2 deficiency, the balance of PCP specific IgG subclass antibodies post vaccination changed from IgG2>IgG1>IgG3>IgG4 to IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. The median PCP IgG2 concentration in those with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly lower in the referral groups compared to controls (7.8 mg/L, 95% CI 1.1-12 vs. 12.7 mg/L, 95% CI 11.8-13.1; p = 0.006). The data suggests a defect in the production PCP IgG2 may be present in individuals with normal PCP IgG referred for immunological investigation.

  2. CC chemokine receptor 5 delta32 and CC chemokine receptor 2 64I polymorphisms do not influence the virologic and immunologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; van Rij, Ronald P.; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Lange, Joep M. A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the CC chemokine receptor 2 64I and CC chemokine receptor 5 delta32 polymorphisms on the virologic and immunologic response of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients to highly active antiretroviral therapy, data from 4 clinical studies were

  3. Immunology of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S; Nutman, T B

    2014-08-01

    The immune responses to filarial parasites encompass a complex network of innate and adaptive cells whose interaction with the parasite underlies a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The predominant immunological feature of lymphatic filariasis is an antigen-specific Th2 response and an expansion of IL-10 producing CD4(+) T cells that is accompanied by a muted Th1 response. This antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness appears to be crucial for the maintenance of the sustained, long-standing infection often with high parasite densities. While the correlates of protective immunity to lymphatic filariasis are still incompletely understood, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models to study susceptibility, it is clear that T cells and to a certain extent B cells are required for protective immunity. Host immune responses, especially CD4(+) T-cell responses clearly play a role in mediating pathological manifestations of LF, including lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. The main underlying defect in the development of clinical pathology appears to be a failure to induce T-cell hyporesponsiveness in the face of antigenic stimulation. Finally, another intriguing feature of filarial infections is their propensity to induce bystander effects on a variety of immune responses, including responses to vaccinations, allergens and to other infectious agents. The complexity of the immune response to filarial infection therefore provides an important gateway to understanding the regulation of immune responses to chronic infections, in general. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  5. Apoptotic cell responses in the splenic marginal zone: A paradigm for immunologic reactions to apoptotic antigens with implications for autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Tracy L.; Karlsson, Mikael C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Apoptotic cells drive innate regulatory responses that result in tolerogenic immunity. This is a critical aspect of cell physiology as apoptotic cells expose potentially dangerous nuclear antigens on the surface in apoptotic blebs, and failure in their recognition, phagocytosis, or destruction can cause dramatic autoimmunity in experimental models and is linked to development and progression of systemic pathology in man. The marginal zone is a specialized splenic environment that serves as a transitional site from circulation to peripheral lymphoid structures. The marginal zone serves a key role in trapping of particulates and initiation of innate responses against systemic microbial pathogens. However in recent years it has become clear the marginal zone is also important for initiation of immune tolerance to apoptotic cells, driving a coordinated response involving multiple phagocyte and lymphocyte subsets. Recent reports linking defects in splenic macrophage function to SLE in a manner analogous to marginal zone macrophages in lupus-prone mice provides an impetus to better understand the mechanistic basis of the apoptotic cell response in the marginal zone and its general applicability to apoptotic cell-driven tolerance at other tissue sites. In this review we discuss immune responses to apoptotic cells in the spleen in general and the marginal zone in particular, the relationship of these responses to autoimmune disease, and comparisons to apoptotic cell immunity in humans. PMID:26683143

  6. Motor neurons and glia exhibit specific individualized responses to TDP-43 expression in a Drosophila model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Estes

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal disease characterized by complex neuronal and glial phenotypes. Recently, RNA-based mechanisms have been linked to ALS via RNA-binding proteins such as TDP-43, which has been studied in vivo using models ranging from yeast to rodents. We have developed a Drosophila model of ALS based on TDP-43 that recapitulates several aspects of pathology, including motor neuron loss, locomotor dysfunction and reduced survival. Here we report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons and glia. We show that TDP-43-driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose- and age-dependent. In motor neurons, TDP-43 appears restricted to nuclei, which are significantly misshapen due to mutant but not wild-type protein expression. In glia and in the developing neuroepithelium, TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic puncta. TDP-43-containing RNA granules are motile in cultured motor neurons, although wild-type and mutant variants exhibit different kinetic properties. At the neuromuscular junction, the expression of TDP-43 in motor neurons versus glia leads to seemingly opposite synaptic phenotypes that, surprisingly, translate into comparable locomotor defects. Finally, we explore sleep as a behavioral readout of TDP-43 expression and find evidence of sleep fragmentation consistent with hyperexcitability, a suggested mechanism in ALS. These findings support the notion that although motor neurons and glia are both involved in ALS pathology, at the cellular level they can exhibit different responses to TDP-43. In addition, our data suggest that individual TDP-43 alleles utilize distinct molecular mechanisms, which will be important for developing therapeutic strategies.

  7. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 10(2.4) TCID/50 MN 30-100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-gamma play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity.

  8. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infection (pi), characterize the kinetics of the antibody mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, and characterize the cell mediated immune responses to PRRSV infection. Eighty, 4-month-old PRRSV-free gilts were obtained from a source known to be negative for PRRSV. On day 0, gilts were infected intranasally with 102.4 TCID/ 50 MN 30–100 PRRSV. Following infection, animals were bled between days 0 to 135 pi. Viremia was detected up to day 30. Serum antibody response (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and virus neutralization antibody) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Cell-mediated immune response represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was detected from day 14 to 120 pi. Persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between days 30 to 135. These results indicate that serum neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ play an important role in the clearance of PRRSV. Nevertheless none of the parameters measured (virus neutralizing antibodies), either alone or in combination, are solely responsible for the clearance of the virus from the host and the development of sterilizing immunity. PMID:15581221

  9. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  10. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Rates and determinants of virologic and immunological response to HAART resumption after treatment interruption in HIV-1 clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Stirnadel, Heide A.; Walker, A. Sarah; Boufassa, Faroudy; Vanhems, Philippe; Porter, Kholoud; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner C.; Chêne, Geneviève; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Lodi, Sara; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Darbyshire, Janet; Bucher, Hainer C.; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Goujard, Cécile; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Gelgor, Linda; Ramacciotti, Tim; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Hamouda, Osamah; Kucherer, Claudia; Hatzakis, Angelos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Rezza, Giovanni; Dorrucci, Maria; Longo, Benedetta; Balotta, Claudia; van Asten, Liselotte; van der Bij, Akke; Geskus, Ronald; Coutinho, Roel; Sannes, Mette; Brubakk, Oddbjorn; Eskild, Anne; Bruun, Johan N.; Rosinska, Magdalena; Camacho, Ricardo; Smolskaya, Tatyana; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; del Romero, Jorge; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernandez; Rickenbach, Martin; Francioli, Patrick; Malyuta, Ruslan; Brettle, Ray; Delpech, Valerie; Lattimore, Sam; Murphy, Gary; Parry, John; Gill, Noel; Lee, Christine; Johnson, Anne; Phillips, Andrew; Jaffe, Harold

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe CD4 and HIV RNA changes during treatment resumption (TR) after treatment interruption (TI) compared with response to first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to investigate predictors. METHODS: Using Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe

  12. Acute immunological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge in feedlot heifers supplemented with yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two treatments were evaluated in commercial feedlot heifers to determine the effects of a yeast supplement on immune responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (325 +/- 19.2 kg BW) were selected and randomly assigned to one of two treatments, and fed for 3...

  13. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force report on 'dose-response relationship in allergen-specific immunotherapy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Larenas, D; Kleine-Tebbe, J

    2011-01-01

    For a century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has proven to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and insect sting allergy. However, as allergen doses are frequently adapted to the individual patient, there are few data on dose-response relationship in SIT. Allergen prod...

  14. Immunological responses of turbot (Psetta maxima) to nodavirus infection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) stimulation, using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis and cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung C; Osborne, Jane A; Montes, Ariana; Dios, Sonia; Nerland, Audun H; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Brown, Laura L; Johnson, Stewart C

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the immunological responses of turbot to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation, we constructed cDNA libraries from liver, kidney and gill tissues of nodavirus-infected fish and examined the differential gene expression within turbot kidney in response to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation using a turbot cDNA microarray. Turbot were experimentally infected with nodavirus and samples of each tissue were collected at selected time points post-infection. Using equal amount of total RNA at each sampling time, we made three tissue-specific cDNA libraries. After sequencing 3230 clones we obtained 3173 (98.2%) high quality sequences from our liver, kidney and gill libraries. Of these 2568 (80.9%) were identified as known genes and 605 (19.1%) as unknown genes. A total of 768 unique genes were identified. The two largest groups resulting from the classification of ESTs according to function were the cell/organism defense genes (71 uni-genes) and apoptosis-related process (23 uni-genes). Using these clones, a 1920 element cDNA microarray was constructed and used to investigate the differential gene expression within turbot in response to experimental nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation. Kidney tissue was collected at selected times post-infection (HPI) or stimulation (HPS), and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. Of the 1920 genes studied on the microarray, we identified a total of 121 differentially expressed genes in the kidney: 94 genes from nodavirus-infected animals and 79 genes from those stimulated with pIC. Within the nodavirus-infected fish we observed the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 24 HPI. Our results indicate that certain genes in turbot have important roles in immune responses to nodavirus infection and dsRNA stimulation.

  15. Immunological characterization of the teleost adipose tissue and its modulation in response to viral infection and fat-content in the diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pignatelli

    Full Text Available The immune response of the adipose tissue (AT has been neglected in most animal models until recently, when the observations made in human and mice linking obesity to chronic inflammation and diabetes highlighted an important immune component of this tissue. In the current study, we have immunologically characterized the AT for the first time in teleosts. We have analyzed the capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss AT to produce different immune mediators and we have identified the presence of local populations of B lymphocytes expressing IgM, IgD or IgT, CD8α+ cells and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II. Because trout AT retained antigens from the peritoneal cavity, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV on AT functionality. A wide range of secreted immune factors were modulated within the AT in response to VHSV. Furthermore, the viral infection provoked a significant decrease in the number of IgM+ cells which, along with an increased secretion of IgM in the tissue, suggested a differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts. The virus also increased the number of CD8α+ cells in the AT. Finally, when a fat-enriched diet was fed to the fish, a significant modulation of immune gene expression in the AT was also observed. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time in teleost that the AT functions as a relevant immune tissue; responsive to peritoneal viral infections and that this immune response can be modulated by the fat-content in the diet.

  16. Virological and immunological responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large population of gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Olin, Michael; Molitor, Thomas; Joo, Han Soo; Xiao, Zhenguo; Murtaugh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged active infection followed by a persistent infection in lymphoid tissues lasting for several months. Pigs develop both an antibody and cell-mediated immune response following PRRSV infection, but the specific role of each type in the development of protective immunity and clearance of the virus is not yet known. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of PRRSV persistence from 0 to 135 d post infect...

  17. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  18. Exhibiting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases, it identif......This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases...

  19. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  1. More than Fever: Thermoregulatory Responses to Immunological Stimulation and Consequences of Thermoregulatory Strategy on Innate Immunity in Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, Jeffrey M; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). An ectothermic vertebrate was used as an experimental model because the effects of thermoregulation on immunity remain understudied and are of increasing importance in light of anthropogenic alterations to thermal environments. We found that G. polyphemus increased body temperature (Tb) at 1 h after injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when compared with saline controls (P = 0.04), consistent with behavioral fever. LPS increased plasma bactericidal ability (BA; P = 0.006), reduced plasma iron concentration (P = 0.041), and increased heterophil∶lymphocyte ratios (P animals, thermoregulatory strategy had a strong effect on innate immunity, which demonstrated that individuals have the ability to facultatively adjust immune function when infection burden is low; this relationship was not present in LPS-injected animals, which suggested that animals stimulated with LPS maximize bactericidal ability independently of temperature. Seasonal acclimation state did not influence responses to LPS, although baseline plasma iron was significantly lower in animals acclimated to winter. These results support that a trade-off exists between immunity and other conflicting physiological interests. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the ability of individuals to modulate immune function as a direct result of thermoregulatory decisions.

  2. Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Das, Mrinmoy; Prakhar, Praveen; Sharma, Varun K; Singh, Vikas; Rabin, Magalie; Trinath, Jamma; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Bolgert, Francis; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-03-20

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (Treg) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0.4 g/kg for three to five consecutive days. Clinical evaluation for muscular weakness was performed by Medical Research Council (MRC) and modified Rankin scoring (MRS) system. Heparinized blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 4-5 weeks post-IVIG therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for surface CD4 and intracellular Foxp3, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-33 and prostaglandin E2 in the plasma were measured by ELISA. The fold changes in plasma IL-33 at week 1 showed no correlation with the MRC and MRS scores at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Clinical recovery following IVIG therapy appears to be associated with Treg cell response. Contrary to murine study, there was no association between the fold changes in IL-33 at week 1 and Treg cell frequency at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Treg cell-mediated clinical response to IVIG therapy in GBS patients was associated with reciprocal regulation of effector T cells-expressing TNF-α. Treg cell expansion by IVIG in patients with autoimmune diseases lack correlation with IL-33. Treg cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to IVIG therapy.

  3. MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces immunologic memory and heterotypic antibody responses in non-elderly and elderly adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Banzhoff

    Full Text Available Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1 has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed.Healthy adults aged 18-60 and > 60 years (n = 313 and n = 173, respectively were randomized (1:1 to receive two primary and one booster injection of 7.5 microg or 15 microg doses of a subunit MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1 vaccine. Safety was monitored until 6 months after booster. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, single radial hemolysis (SRH and microneutralization assays (MN. Mild injection-site pain was the most common adverse reaction. No serious adverse events relating to the vaccine were reported. The humoral immune responses to 7.5 microg and 15 microg doses were comparable. The rates for seroprotection (HI>40; SRH>25 mm(2; MN > or = 40 after the primary vaccination ranged 72-87%. Six months after primary vaccination with the 7.5 microg dose, 18% and 21% of non-elderly and elderly adults were seroprotected; rates increased to 90% and 84%, respectively, after the booster vaccination. In the 15 microg group, seroprotection rates among non-elderly and elderly adults increased from 25% and 62% after primary vaccination to 92% and 88% after booster vaccination, respectively. A heterologous immune response to the H5N1/turkey/Turkey/05 strain was elicited after second and booster vaccinations.Both formulations of MF59-adjuvanted influenza H5N1 vaccine were well tolerated. The European Union requirement for licensure for pre-pandemic vaccines was met by the lower dose tested. The presence of cross-reactive antibodies to a clade 2 heterologous strain demonstrates that this vaccine may be appropriate for pre-pandemic programs.(ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00311480.

  4. Malaria hemozoin is immunologically inert but radically enhances innate responses by presenting malaria DNA to Toll-like receptor 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parroche, Peggy; Lauw, Fanny N; Goutagny, Nadege; Latz, Eicke; Monks, Brian G; Visintin, Alberto; Halmen, Kristen A; Lamphier, Marc; Olivier, Martin; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Golenbock, Douglas T

    2007-02-06

    Hemozoin (HZ) is an insoluble crystal formed in the food vacuole of malaria parasites. HZ has been reported to induce inflammation by directly engaging Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, an endosomal receptor. "Synthetic" HZ (beta-hematin), typically generated from partially purified extracts of bovine hemin, is structurally identical to natural HZ. When HPLC-purified hemin was used to synthesize the crystal, beta-hematin had no inflammatory activity. In contrast, natural HZ from Plasmodium falciparum cultures was a potent TLR9 inducer. Natural HZ bound recombinant TLR9 ectodomain, but not TLR2. Both TLR9 stimulation and TLR9 binding of HZ were abolished by nuclease treatment. PCR analysis demonstrated that natural HZ is coated with malarial but not human DNA. Purified malarial DNA activated TLR9 but only when DNA was targeted directly to the endosome with a transfection reagent. Stimulatory quantities of natural HZ contain <1 microg of malarial DNA; its potency in activating immune responses was even greater than transfecting malarial DNA. Thus, although the malarial genome is extremely AT-rich, its DNA is highly proinflammatory, with the potential to induce cytokinemia and fever during disease. However, its activity depends on being bound to HZ, which we propose amplifies the biological responses to malaria DNA by targeting it to a TLR9(+) intracellular compartment.

  5. Immunological response in cases of complicated and uncomplicated bartonellosis during pregnancy Respuesta inmunologica en casos de bartonelosis con y sin complicaciones durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Huarcaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis (Carrion's Disease during pregnancy is associated with high rates of maternal and perinatal mortality. We report the immunological patterns in two cases of human bartonellosis during pregnancy. One patient had an uncomplicated course while the second patient developed life threatening anasarca and cardiac tamponade. The patient with a complicated course had a Th1 response with a higher elevation of IL-10. This elevation has been associated with poor outcome pregnancies during bacterial infections.Bartonelosis (Enfermedad de Carrión durante el embarazo esta asociado a una alta tasa de mortalidad maternal y perinatal. Reportamos el perfil inmunológico de dos casos de Bartonelosis humana en el embarazo. Una paciente tuvo un curso sin complicaciones, mientras la segunda presento complicaciones severas de anasarca y tamponamiento cardiaco. La paciente con curso complicado tuvo un patrón de repuesta Th1, con una elevación de IL-10, que se ha asociado a mal pronóstico en infecciones durante embarazo.

  6. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW0.75) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ (P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked (P < 0.001) in both RFI groups at 20 min post-ACTH administration, following which concentration declined to baseline levels by 150 min. Similarly, cortisol systemic profile peaked at 60 min and concentrations remained continuously elevated for 150 min. A RFI × time interaction was detected for cortisol concentrations (P = 0.06) with high RFI heifers had a greater cortisol response than Low RFI from 40 min to 150 min relative to ACTH administration. Cortisol response was

  7. The Integration of Emotional, Immunological and Communication Responses to Medical Oncology Surveillance Appointments During Breast Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, Catherine; Donaldson, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors regularly interact with providers during routine surveillance medical oncology visits, discussing uncertainty / anxiety about cancer recurrence many years post-treatment. Because breast cancer onset frequently occurs in older women, survivors may have additional age-related illnesses and symptoms yet be uncertain about whether the cause of their symptoms is normal aging, another illness, or breast cancer recurrence. Physiologic responses such as immune alterations may predispose women to exacerbations of these illnesses. The survivor-provider relationship is also influential give the long standing nature of ongoing breast cancer surveillance post active treatment completion. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between emotional distress (uncertainty, anxiety, fear of recurrence), immunity (cytokine levels, lymphocyte counts), and communication events (women’s plans for their visit, the ability to negotiate decision-making roles) immediately before and 24 hours after a regularly scheduled medical oncology surveillance visit. Methods We evaluated relationships between emotional distress (uncertainty, anxiety, fear of recurrence), immunity (cytokine levels, lymphocyte counts), women’s plans for their visit, and their ability negotiate decision-making roles, before and after a medical oncology visit. Results Emotional responses (uncertainty, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence) to an upcoming medical oncology were associated with change in immune status pre-post visit. Post-visit NK cells increased in 70% of women, and uncertainty/anxiety decreased. Most women had a plan for their oncology visit and 66% successfully negotiated decision-making roles with providers although these factors did not predict emotional or immune outcomes, perhaps due to longstanding relationships previously established with their medical oncology provider. Conclusions breast cancer survivors in this study, as in others, report

  8. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  9. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants develops very rapidly from a mild intolerance to enteral feeding into intestinal mucosal hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis. We hypothesized that immediate feeding-induced gut responses precede later clinical NEC symptoms in preterm pigs. Fifty......-six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs...... remained protected (1/20, 5%). Just 8 h of formula feeding induced histopathological lesions, as evidenced by capillary stasis and necrosis, epithelial degeneration, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. These immediate formula-induced changes were paralleled by decreased digestive enzyme activities (lactase...

  10. Immunological responses of customised probiotics-fed marron, Cherax tenuimanus, (Smith 1912) when challenged with Vibrio mimicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambas, Irfan; Suriawan, Agus; Fotedar, Ravi

    2013-08-01

    A two-phased experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of customised probiotics on marron physiology. During the first phase marron were fed probiotic supplemented feed for 70 days, while in phase two the same marron were challenged with Vibrio mimicus and their physiological responses were investigated for 4 days post-challenged. The experiment was carried out in a purpose-built room, designed for aquaculture research, using 18 of 250 L cylindrical plastic tanks. Five species of isolated probiotic bacteria from commercial probiotic products and marron's intestine were tested in this experiment. The probiotic bacteria were (Bacillus sp.); A10 (Bacillus mycoides); A12 (Shewanella sp.); PM3 (Bacillus subtilis); and PM4 (Bacillus sp.), which were added to the formulated basal marron diet (34% crude protein, 8% crude lipid, 6% ash) at a concentration of 10(8) cfu/g of feed. Immune responses of marron fed probiotics were evaluated by investigating organosomatic indices, growth rate, survival, intermoult period, total haemocytes counts (THC), proportion of granular cells (GC), bacteraemia, bacteria load in the intestine and water quality. The results showed that dietary supplementation of probiotics in marron had no significant impact on growth, intermoult period and survival of the marron. However, their supplementation improved the physiological condition of marron in terms of significantly higher tail muscle indices, THC and proportion of granular cells (GC) and reduced bacterial load in the haemolymph. The addition of probiotics in marron diets also increased the bacteria load in the marron intestine. In addition, dietary supplementation of the customised probiotics was effective in improving the resistance of marron against V. mimicus as they had higher THC, higher proportion of GC and lower presence of bacteria in their haemolymph, after marron were challenged with V. mimicus. The results also showed that probiotic Bacillus

  11. Effect of pollution history on immunological responses and organ histology in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheir, Sherin K; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2013-05-01

    The effect of previous toxicant exposure (i.e., exposure history) on an organism's response to re-exposure to the toxicant is of considerable interest. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis was collected from reference and polluted sites in southwest England, and groups of mussels from each site were exposed to 20 μg/L CdCl2 for 0, 1, 4, and 8 days and compared with unexposed controls. End points evaluated were tissue metal and electrolyte concentrations, haemolymph chemistry, haemocyte characteristics [counts, neutral red uptake (NRU), and phagocytosis], histology, and expression of metallothionein gene (mt10) expression in digestive glands. Field-collected animals differed by collection site for some end points at time zero, at which time tissue Fe and Pb concentrations were greater and NRU and condition index lower in mussels from the polluted site. Subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory caused Cd accumulation mainly in digestive gland, but there were no site-specific effects on tissue trace-metal concentrations. NRU, phagocytosis, and haemolymph Na(+) and K(+) concentrations differed among sites and Cd treatment, but there were no clear trends. Exposure to Cd resulted in lower Ca(2+) concentrations in gill, digestive gland, and haemolymph in animals from the polluted site compared with controls (Kruskal-Wallis, p ≤ 0.05). Lesions, including necrosis, inflammation, and neoplasia, were observed in animals from the polluted site, but the frequency of these lesions appeared to decrease unexpectedly after Cd exposure. Expression of mt10 increased 3-fold in Cd-exposed animals from the polluted site compared with all other groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.01). We conclude that Cd exposure affected some immune responses in M. edulis, but pre-exposure history influenced toxicological outcomes of Cd exposure in the laboratory.

  12. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP 81531-970, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: fabiola.akaishi@ec.gc.ca; St-Jean, Sylvie D. [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ont. L7R 4A6 (Canada); Bishay, Farida [Great Vancouver Regional District, 4330 Kingsway, Burnaby, BC V5H 4G8 (Canada); Clarke, John [Environment Canada, 5th Floor, Queen Square, 45 Alderney Dr. Dartmouth, NS B2Y 2N6 (Canada); Rabitto, Ines da S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP 81531-970, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP 81531-970, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-04-20

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart K of... - Administrative Instructions for State Offices Regarding Their Responsibilities in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program B Exhibit B to Subpart K of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... and Supervisory Assistance Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. K, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart K of Part 1944.... Subpart K of part 1944 of this chapter. B. The State Office should inform all potential applicants, at the...

  14. Immunological responses and actin dynamics in macrophages are controlled by N-cofilin but are independent from ADF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Friederike; Gurniak, Christine B; Fleischer, Bernhard; Kirfel, Gregor; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton are essential for immune cell function and a number of immune deficiencies have been linked to mutations, which disturb the actin cytoskeleton. In macrophages and dendritic cells, actin remodelling is critical for motility, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, however the actin binding proteins, which control antigen presentation have been poorly characterized. Here we dissect the specific roles of the family of ADF/cofilin F-actin depolymerizing factors in macrophages and in local immune responses. Macrophage migration, cell polarization and antigen presentation to T-cells require n-cofilin mediated F-actin remodelling. Using a conditional mouse model, we show that n-cofilin also controls MHC class II-dependent antigen presentation. Other cellular processes such as phagocytosis and antigen processing were found to be independent of n-cofilin. Our data identify n-cofilin as a novel regulator of antigen presentation, while ADF on the other hand is dispensable for macrophage motility and antigen presentation.

  15. Immunological responses in patients with tuberculosis and in vivo effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jirillo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TBC is characterized by a complex immune response which parallels the clinical course of the disease. In this respect, acquired resistance, delayed hypersensitivity reaction and anergy are the main types of immune reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. In view of the presence of nonspecific and specific immune deficits in TBC patients, a clinical trial was carried out in a group of 20 individuals with active pulmonary TBC by oral administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC. This drug, which has been shown to possess immunomodulating activities, was able to upregulate the T-dependent antibacterial activity in TBC patients after 30 days' treatment, while the same activity decreased in patients receiving placebo only. On the other hand, ALC did not modify serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, in the same individuals. This cytokine plays a detrimental rather than beneficial role in TBC pathogenesis. In the light of these data, ALC seems to be a powerful immunomodulator in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other mycobacteriosis.

  16. Current concepts in maternal-fetal immunology: Recognition and response to microbial pathogens by decidual stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Anjali P; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Doster, Ryan S; Aronoff, David M

    2017-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease. We review available published data supporting the role for DSCs in responding to microbial infection, with a special focus on their expression of pattern recognition receptors and evidence of their responsiveness to pathogen sensing. While DSCs likely play an important role in sensing and responding to infection during the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, important knowledge gaps and areas for future research are highlighted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A very low geno2pheno false positive rate is associated with poor viro-immunological response in drug-naïve patients starting a first-line HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Armenia

    Full Text Available We previously found that a very low geno2pheno false positive rate (FPR ≤ 2% defines a viral population associated with low CD4 cell count and the highest amount of X4-quasispecies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating whether FPR ≤ 2% might impact on the viro-immunological response in HIV-1 infected patients starting a first-line HAART.The analysis was performed on 305 HIV-1 B subtype infected drug-naïve patients who started their first-line HAART. Baseline FPR (% values were stratified according to the following ranges: ≤ 2; 2-5; 5-10; 10-20; 20-60; >60. The impact of genotypically-inferred tropism on the time to achieve immunological reconstitution (a CD4 cell count gain from HAART initiation ≥ 150 cells/mm(3 and on the time to achieve virological success (the first HIV-RNA measurement 60; p = 0.008. The overall proportion of patients achieving virological success was 95.5% by 12 months of therapy. Multivariable Cox analyses showed that patients having pre-HAART FPR ≤ 2% had a significant lower relative adjusted hazard [95% C.I.] both to achieve immunological reconstitution (0.37 [0.20-0.71], p = 0.003 and to achieve virological success (0.50 [0.26-0.94], p = 0.031 than those with pre-HAART FPR >60%.Beyond the genotypically-inferred tropism determination, FPR ≤ 2% predicts both a poor immunological reconstitution and a lower virological response in drug-naïve patients who started their first-line therapy. This parameter could be useful to identify patients potentially with less chance of achieving adequate immunological reconstitution and virological undetectability.

  18. Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  19. Vaccination sequence effects on immunological response and tissue bacterial burden in paratuberculosis infection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Molina, Elena; Garrido, Joseba M; Pérez, Valentín; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2016-08-05

    Paratuberculosis (PTB), a chronic granulomatous enteritis produced by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is considered as one of the diseases with the highest economic impact in the ruminant industry. Vaccination against MAP is recommended during the first months after birth on the basis that protection would be conferred before the first contact with mycobacteria. However, little is known about the therapeutic effect of MAP vaccination in controlled experimental conditions. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination before and after challenge with MAP in a rabbit infection model. The rabbits were divided into four groups: non-infected control (NIC, n = 4), infected control challenged with MAP (IC, n = 5), vaccinated and challenged 1 month after with MAP (VSI, n = 5) and challenged with MAP and vaccinated 2 months later (IVS, n = 5). The results from this study show a quick increase in IFN-γ release upon stimulation with bovine, avian and johnin PPD in animals vaccinated before MAP challenge. All vaccinated animals show an increased humoral response as seen by western blot and ELISA. The final bacteriology index (considering tissue culture and qPCR) shows that the IC group was the most affected. Vaccination after infection (IVS) produced the lowest bacteriology index showing significant differences with the IC group (p = 0.034). In conclusion, vaccination against MAP shows positive effects in a rabbit model. However, vaccination after infection shows a slightly stronger protective effect compared to vaccination before infection, suggesting a therapeutic effect. This feature could be applied to previously infected adult animals under field conditions.

  20. Microbiological, histological, immunological, and toxin response to antibiotic treatment in the mouse model of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Stephen Sarfo

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans infection causes a neglected tropical disease known as Buruli ulcer that is now found in poor rural areas of West Africa in numbers that sometimes exceed those reported for another significant mycobacterial disease, leprosy, caused by M. leprae. Unique among mycobacterial diseases, M. ulcerans produces a plasmid-encoded toxin called mycolactone (ML, which is the principal virulence factor and destroys fat cells in subcutaneous tissue. Disease is typically first manifested by the appearance of a nodule that eventually ulcerates and the lesions may continue to spread over limbs or occasionally the trunk. The current standard treatment is 8 weeks of daily rifampin and injections of streptomycin (RS. The treatment kills bacilli and wounds gradually heal. Whether RS treatment actually stops mycolactone production before killing bacilli has been suggested by histopathological analyses of patient lesions. Using a mouse footpad model of M. ulcerans infection where the time of infection and development of lesions can be followed in a controlled manner before and after antibiotic treatment, we have evaluated the progress of infection by assessing bacterial numbers, mycolactone production, the immune response, and lesion histopathology at regular intervals after infection and after antibiotic therapy. We found that RS treatment rapidly reduced gross lesions, bacterial numbers, and ML production as assessed by cytotoxicity assays and mass spectrometric analysis. Histopathological analysis revealed that RS treatment maintained the association of the bacilli with (or within host cells where they were destroyed whereas lack of treatment resulted in extracellular infection, destruction of host cells, and ultimately lesion ulceration. We propose that RS treatment promotes healing in the host by blocking mycolactone production, which favors the survival of host cells, and by killing M. ulcerans bacilli.

  1. T Cell Epitope-Containing Domains of Ragweed Amb a 1 and Mugwort Art v 6 Modulate Immunologic Responses in Humans and Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I Sancho

    Full Text Available Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris are the major cause of pollen allergy in late summer. Allergen-specific lymphocytes are crucial for immune modulation during immunotherapy. We sought to generate and pre-clinically characterise highly immunogenic domains of the homologous pectate lyases in ragweed (Amb a 1 and mugwort pollen (Art v 6 for immunotherapy.Domains of Amb a 1 (Amb a 1α and Art v 6 (Art v 6α and a hybrid molecule, consisting of both domains, were designed, expressed in E. coli and purified. Human IgE reactivity and allergenicity were assessed by ELISA and mediator release experiments using ragweed and mugwort allergic patients. Moreover, T cell proliferation was determined. Blocking IgG antibodies and cytokine production in BALB/c mice were studied by ELISA and ELISPOT.The IgE binding capacity and in vitro allergenic activity of the Amb a 1 and Art v 6 domains and the hybrid were either greatly reduced or abolished. The recombinant proteins induced T cell proliferative responses comparable to those of the natural allergens, indicative of retained allergen-specific T cell response. Mice immunisation with the hypoallergens induced IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ production after antigen-specific in vitro re-stimulation of splenocytes. Moreover, murine IgG antibodies that inhibited specific IgE binding of ragweed and mugwort pollen allergic patients were detected.Accumulation of T cell epitopes and deletion of IgE reactive areas of Amb a 1 and Art v 6, modulated the immunologic properties of the allergen immuno-domains, leading to promising novel candidates for therapeutic approach.

  2. T Cell Epitope-Containing Domains of Ragweed Amb a 1 and Mugwort Art v 6 Modulate Immunologic Responses in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wallner, Michael; Hauser, Michael; Nagl, Birgit; Himly, Martin; Asam, Claudia; Ebner, Christof; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) are the major cause of pollen allergy in late summer. Allergen-specific lymphocytes are crucial for immune modulation during immunotherapy. We sought to generate and pre-clinically characterise highly immunogenic domains of the homologous pectate lyases in ragweed (Amb a 1) and mugwort pollen (Art v 6) for immunotherapy. Domains of Amb a 1 (Amb a 1α) and Art v 6 (Art v 6α) and a hybrid molecule, consisting of both domains, were designed, expressed in E. coli and purified. Human IgE reactivity and allergenicity were assessed by ELISA and mediator release experiments using ragweed and mugwort allergic patients. Moreover, T cell proliferation was determined. Blocking IgG antibodies and cytokine production in BALB/c mice were studied by ELISA and ELISPOT. The IgE binding capacity and in vitro allergenic activity of the Amb a 1 and Art v 6 domains and the hybrid were either greatly reduced or abolished. The recombinant proteins induced T cell proliferative responses comparable to those of the natural allergens, indicative of retained allergen-specific T cell response. Mice immunisation with the hypoallergens induced IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ production after antigen-specific in vitro re-stimulation of splenocytes. Moreover, murine IgG antibodies that inhibited specific IgE binding of ragweed and mugwort pollen allergic patients were detected. Accumulation of T cell epitopes and deletion of IgE reactive areas of Amb a 1 and Art v 6, modulated the immunologic properties of the allergen immuno-domains, leading to promising novel candidates for therapeutic approach.

  3. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  4. Immunology Taught by Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  5. Mucosal immunology and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongarrà, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Valeria; Muccio, Letizia; Fries, Walter; Cascio, Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2013-02-01

    The cross-talk between the mucosa-associated immune system and microbiota is critical in mucosal tissue homeostasis as well as in protection against infectious and inflammatory diseases occurring at mucosal sites. This recent evidence has paved the way to therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating the mucosa-associated immune system using probiotics. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation, polarizing the subsequent T cell activity toward Th1 (e.g. Lactobacillus (Lb) acidophilus), Th2 (Lb.reuteri and Bifidobacterium bifidum) or, as more recently demonstrated, Th17 responses induced by specific strains such as Lb.rhamnosus GG and Lac23a, the latter isolated in our laboratory. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of probiotics effects on mucosal immunology, particularly on cells of the innate immunity such as DCs. We also highlight our own experiences in modulating DC functions by commensal bacteria and discuss the relevance of probiotics administration in the treatment of human immunopathologies.

  6. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  7. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    , this book draws on unique archival material, including photographs, documentary evidence and newspaper articles, newly discovered in Copenhagen. This opens for new insights and perspectives on these European exhibitions. The book employs post-colonial and feminist approaches to the material to shed fresh...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  8. Immunological response induced by abagovomab as a maintenance therapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer: relationship with survival-a substudy of the MIMOSA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzonetti, Alexia; Fossati, Marco; Catzola, Valentina; Scambia, Giovanni; Fattorossi, Andrea; Battaglia, Alessandra

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether abagovomab induces protective immune responses in ovarian cancer patients in first clinical remission. The present analysis is a substudy of monoclonal antibody immunotherapy for malignancies of the ovary by subcutaneous abagovomab trial (NCT00418574). The study included 129 patients, 91 in the abagovomab arm and 38 in the placebo arm. Circulating CA125-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) were measured by a flow cytometry-based interferon-γ producing assay. Human antimouse antibody and anti-anti-idiotypic (Ab3) were assessed by ELISA. Patients were evaluated before starting the treatment and at different time points during induction and maintenance phases. A similar percentage of patients in both the placebo and abagovomab arms had CA125-specific CTL (26.3 and 31.8 %, respectively; p = 0.673 by Fisher's exact test). Patients with CA125-specific CTL in both arms tended to have an increased relapse-free survival (RFS, log-rank test p = 0.095) compared to patients without. Patients (n = 27) in the abagovomab arm without CA125-specific CTL but that developed Ab3 above the cutoff (defined as median Ab3 level at week 22) had a prolonged RFS compared to patients (n = 24) that did not develop Ab3 above the cutoff (log-rank test p = 0.019). Abagovomab does not induce CA125-specific CTL. However, patients with CA125-specific CTL perform better than patients without, irrespective of abagovomab treatment. Abagovomab-induced Ab3 associate with prolonged RFS in patients without CA125-specific CTL. Further studies are needed to confirm these data and to assess the potential utility of these immunological findings as a tool for patient selection in clinical trial.

  9. On the roles of polyvalent binding in immune recognition : perspectives in the nanoscience of immunology and the immune response to nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Immunology often conveys the image of large molecules, either in the soluble state or in the membrane of leukocytes, forming multiple contacts with a target for actions of the immune system. Avidity names the ability of a polyvalent molecule to form multiple connections of the same kind with liga......Immunology often conveys the image of large molecules, either in the soluble state or in the membrane of leukocytes, forming multiple contacts with a target for actions of the immune system. Avidity names the ability of a polyvalent molecule to form multiple connections of the same kind...

  10. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins-Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-07-27

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  11. Persistence of immunologic memory in long-term hemodialysis patients and healthcare workers given hepatitis B vaccine: role of a booster dose on antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Laurés, A S

    2001-10-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is effective in producing protection against HB virus infection, but the persistence of immunity remains largely unknown. Seventy-six hemodialysis (HD) patients (60 after primary HB vaccination and 16 with natural immunity) and 46 healthcare workers (32 after primary HB vaccination and 14 with natural immunity) were followed up for 10 years to evaluate the persistence of immunity. Ten years after vaccination, the analysis showed a lower seroconversion rate (38 vs. 75%, p < 0.001) in HD patients as compared with healthcare workers. In the follow-up period, the protective immunity developed through HB virus infection also showed a lower seroconversion rate (44 vs. 86%, p < 0.025) in HD patients as compared with healthcare workers. To assess the status of immunologic memory, we administered a booster dose of HB vaccine 3-12 years (mean 6.7 +/- 0.6 years) after primary vaccination in a selected group of 37 HD patients who presented a decline of their antibodies or were nonresponders. In another group of 12 healthcare workers who had a decline of their antibodies, we also administered a booster dose of HB vaccine 5-8 years (mean 5.8 +/- 0.3 years) after primary vaccination. Nineteen of the 37 HD patients (51%) presented an anamnestic response to the booster dose, and 15 of these (40%) were high responders. All of the healthcare workers responded to the booster dose with a high antibody response. We conclude that patients undergoing HD not only have lower rates of immunization to HB than healthy adults, but also that these are frequently transient. Booster doses after a primary course of vaccine are effective in about the half of HD patients who presented a decline of their antibodies or were nonresponders but whether they are necessary is unclear. The majority of healthcare workers continue to have high levels of protective HBs antibody for at least 10 years and routine boosters are not required. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins—Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Grenier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FB are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen. At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency, and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4+CD25+, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In

  13. Immunology of Paratuberculosis Infection and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  14. Antiglioma Immunological Memory in Response to Conditional Cytotoxic/Immune-Stimulatory Gene Therapy: Humoral and Cellular Immunity Lead to Tumor Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, A.K.M.G.; Candolfi, M.; King, G.D.; Yagiz, K.; Foulad, D.; Mineharu, Y.; Kroeger, K.M.; Treuer, K.A.; Nichols, W.S.; Sanderson, N.S.; Yang, J.; Khayznikov, M.; Rooijen, van N.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Castro, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly primary brain cancer. Because the tumor kills due to recurrences, we tested the hypothesis that a new treatment would lead to immunological memory in a rat model of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Experimental Design: We developed a combined treatment

  15. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  16. The immunology of smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccination dates back to the late 1800s with Edward Jenner, it is only in the past decade that modern immunologic tools have been applied toward deciphering poxvirus immunity. Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia virus elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses that confer cross-protective immunity against variola virus for decades after immunization. Recent studies have focused on: establishing the longevity of poxvirus-specific immunity, defining key immune epitopes targeted by T and B cells, developing subunit-based vaccines, and developing genotypic and phenotypic immune response profiles that predict either vaccine response or adverse events following immunization.

  17. The immunology of smallpox vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccination dates back to the late 1800s with Edward Jenner, it is only in the past decade that modern immunologic tools have been applied toward deciphering poxvirus immunity. Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia virus elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses that confer cross-protective immunity against variola virus for decades after immunization. Recent studies have focused on: establishing the longevity of poxvirus-specific immunity, defining key immune epitopes targeted by T and B cells, developing subunit-based vaccines, and developing genotypic and phenotypic immune response profiles that predict either vaccine response or adverse events following immunization. PMID:19524427

  18. The Basel Institute for Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    At the Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize, the Nobel Foundation called it one of the ten cradles of creativity. The journal Nature likened its ideals to those of the French revolution--Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité--and called it a paradise devoted to the science of immune systems: the Basel Institute for Immunology (BII). Founded by Roche in 1968, inaugurated in 1971, and closed in 2000, it was home to almost 450 scientific members, over 1,000 scientific visitors, and nearly 100 scientific advisors from more than 30 countries who worked in complete academic freedom and without commercial motives on over 3,500 projects, publishing more than 3,200 scientific papers, almost all of them on the structure and functions of immune systems of different species. This review contains a first collection of historical facts and dates that describe the background of the exceptionally successful performance and the strong scientific impact of the institute on the field of immunology.

  19. Immunological findings in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. Genetically immune dysfunction in autism involves the MHC region, as this is an immunologic gene cluster whose gene products are Class I, II, and III molecules. Class I and II molecules are associated with antigen presentation. The antigen in virus infection initiated by the virus particle itself while the cytokine production and inflammatory mediators are due to the response to the putative antigen in question. The cell-mediated immunity is impaired as evidenced by low numbers of CD4 cells and a concomitant T-cell polarity with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 subsets toward Th2. Impaired humoral immunity on the other hand is evidenced by decreased IgA causing poor gut protection. Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently

  20. Probiotics and immunological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Spase; Smilkov, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of the current status of the use of probiotics in treating immunological disorders, using the reported results about the effects of different probiotic strains to the immune system. In this article, the effects of probiotics in asthma and rhinitis and the effects of probiotics in allergy animal models were specifically reviewed and elaborated.

  1. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  2. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  3. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  4. Refresher Course in Immunology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. Refresher Course in Immunology. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 92-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0092-0092. Resonance – Journal ...

  5. MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells exhibit augmented responses to human insulin on a collagen IV surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Listov-Saabye, Nicolai; Jensen, Marianne Blirup; Kiehr, Benedicte

    2009-01-01

    was significantly more mitogenic than native insulin, validating the ability of the assay to identify hypermitogenic human insulin analogs. With MCF-7 cells on a collagen IV surface, the ranking of mitogens was maintained, but fold mitogenic responses and dynamic range and steepness of dose-response curves were...... increased. Also, PI3K pathway activation by insulin was enhanced on a collagen IV surface. This study provided the first determination and ranking of the mitogenic potencies of standard reference compounds in an optimized MCF-7 assay. The optimized MCF-7 assay described here is of relevance for in vitro...... toxicological testing and carcinogenicity safety assessment of new insulin compounds....

  6. The dendritic cell side of the immunological synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboogen, D.R.J.; Dingjan, I.; Revelo, N.H.; Visser, L.J.; Beest, M.B.A. ter; Bogaart, G. van den

    2016-01-01

    Immune responses are initiated by the interactions between antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs), with responder cells, such as T cells, via a tight cellular contact interface called the immunological synapse. The immunological synapse is a highly organized subcellular

  7. A Prescription for Human Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark M

    2008-01-01

    Inbred mice have been an extremely successful tool for basic immunology, but much less so as models of disease. Thus, to maximize the use of immunologic approaches to improve human health, we need more strategically directed efforts in human immunology. This would also open up new opportunities for basic research.

  8. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  9. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement.In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%.New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis models derived from human embryonic stem cells with different superoxide dismutase 1 mutations exhibit differential drug responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Isobe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative motor neuron (MN disease. The gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 is a causative element of familial ALS. Animal ALS models involving SOD1 gene mutations are widely used to study the underlying mechanisms of disease and facilitate drug discovery. Unfortunately, most drug candidates have failed in clinical trials, potentially due to species differences among rodents and humans. It is unclear, however, whether there are different responses to drugs among the causative genes of ALS or their associated mutations. In this study, to evaluate different SOD1 mutations, we generated SOD1-ALS models derived from human embryonic stem cells with identical genetic backgrounds, except for the overexpression of mutant variants of SOD1. The overexpression of mutant SOD1 did not affect pluripotency or MN differentiation. However, mutation-dependent reductions in neurite length were observed in MNs. Moreover, experiments investigating the effects of specific compounds revealed that each ALS model displayed different responses with respect to MN neurite length. These results suggest that SOD1 mutations could be classified based the response of MNs to drug treatment. This classification could be useful for the development of mutant-specific strategies for drug discovery and clinical trials.

  11. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, C Y; Sones, J L; Lob, H E; Yuen, L C; Abbott, K E; Huang, W; Begun, Z R; Butler, S D; August, A; Leifer, C A; Davisson, R L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared with C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Escherichia coli exhibits a membrane-related response to a small arginine- and tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzel, Benjamin; Penkova, Maya; Frese, Christian; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Andreas Wolters, Dirk

    2012-08-01

    Since multiresistant bacterial strains are more widespread and the victim numbers steadily increase, it is very important to possess a broad bandwidth of antimicrobial substances. Antibiotics often feature membrane-associated effect mechanisms. So, we present a membrane proteomic approach to shed light on the cellular response of Escherichia coli as model organism to the hexapeptide MP196, which is arginine and tryptophan rich. Analyzing integral membrane proteins are still challenging, although various detection strategies have been developed in the past. In particular, membrane proteomics in bacteria have been conducted very little due to the special physical properties of these membrane proteins. To obtain more information on the cellular response of the new compound group of small peptides, the tryptophan- and arginine-rich hexapeptide MP196 was subject to a comprehensive quantitative membrane proteomic study on E. coli by means of metabolic labeling in combination with membrane lipid analyses. This study provides in total 767 protein identifications including 185 integral membrane proteins, from which 624 could be quantified. Among these proteins, 134 were differentially expressed. Thereby, functional groups such as amino acid and membrane biosynthesis were affected, stress response could be observed, and the lipid composition of the membrane was significantly altered. Especially, the strong upregulation of the envelope stress induced protein. Spy indicates membrane damage, as well as the downregulation of the mechano-sensitive channel MscL beside others. Finally, the exceptional downregulation of transport systems strengthens these findings. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Integrative proteomics, genomics, and translational immunology approaches reveal mutated forms of Proteolipid Protein 1 (PLP1) and mutant-specific immune response in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qendro, Veneta; Bugos, Grace A; Lundgren, Debbie H; Glynn, John; Han, May H; Han, David K

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain mechanistic insights into multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, we utilized a multi-dimensional approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in myelin proteins lead to immune activation and central nervous system autoimmunity in MS. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human MS brain lesions revealed seven unique mutations of PLP1; a key myelin protein that is known to be destroyed in MS. Surprisingly, in-depth genomic analysis of two MS patients at the genomic DNA and mRNA confirmed mutated PLP1 in RNA, but not in the genomic DNA. Quantification of wild type and mutant PLP RNA levels by qPCR further validated the presence of mutant PLP RNA in the MS patients. To seek evidence linking mutations in abundant myelin proteins and immune-mediated destruction of myelin, specific immune response against mutant PLP1 in MS patients was examined. Thus, we have designed paired, wild type and mutant peptide microarrays, and examined antibody response to multiple mutated PLP1 in sera from MS patients. Consistent with the idea of different patients exhibiting unique mutation profiles, we found that 13 out of 20 MS patients showed antibody responses against specific but not against all the mutant-PLP1 peptides. Interestingly, we found mutant PLP-directed antibody response against specific mutant peptides in the sera of pre-MS controls. The results from integrative proteomic, genomic, and immune analyses reveal a possible mechanism of mutation-driven pathogenesis in human MS. The study also highlights the need for integrative genomic and proteomic analyses for uncovering pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. PSAPP mice exhibit regionally selective reductions in gliosis and plaque deposition in response to S100B ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Keith A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. However, the ability of S100B inhibitors to prevent/reverse AD histopathology remains controversial. This study examines the effect of S100B ablation on in vivo plaque load, gliosis and dystrophic neurons. Methods Because S100B-specific inhibitors are not available, genetic ablation was used to inhibit S100B function in the PSAPP AD mouse model. The PSAPP/S100B-/- line was generated by crossing PSAPP double transgenic males with S100B-/- females and maintained as PSAPP/S100B+/- crosses. Congo red staining was used to quantify plaque load, plaque number and plaque size in 6 month old PSAPP and PSAPP/S100B-/- littermates. The microglial marker Iba1 and astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were used to quantify gliosis. Dystrophic neurons were detected with the phospho-tau antibody AT8. S100B immunohistochemistry was used to assess the spatial distribution of S100B in the PSAPP line. Results PSAPP/S100B-/- mice exhibited a regionally selective decrease in cortical but not hippocampal plaque load when compared to PSAPP littermates. This regionally selective reduction in plaque load was accompanied by decreases in plaque number, GFAP-positive astrocytes, Iba1-positive microglia and phospho-tau positive dystrophic neurons. These effects were not attributable to regional variability in the distribution of S100B. Hippocampal and cortical S100B immunoreactivity in PSAPP mice was associated with plaques and co-localized with astrocytes and microglia. Conclusions Collectively, these data support S100B inhibition as a novel strategy for reducing cortical plaque load, gliosis and neuronal dysfunction in AD and suggest that both extracellular as well as intracellular S100B contribute to AD histopathology.

  15. Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides exhibit different metabolomic responses to colonization by the symbiotic fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Plett, Jonathan M; Engle, Nancy L; Deveau, Aurelie; Cushman, Katherine C; Martin, Madhavi Z; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brun, Annick; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Within boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, the majority of trees and shrubs form beneficial relationships with mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi that support plant health through increased access to nutrients as well as aiding in stress and pest tolerance. The intimate interaction between fungal hyphae and plant roots results in a new symbiotic "organ" called the ECM root tip. Little is understood concerning the metabolic reprogramming that favors the formation of this hybrid tissue in compatible interactions and what prevents the formation of ECM root tips in incompatible interactions. We show here that the metabolic changes during favorable colonization between the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor and its compatible host, Populus trichocarpa, are characterized by shifts in aromatic acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. We demonstrate that this extensive metabolic reprogramming is repressed in incompatible interactions and that more defensive compounds are produced or retained. We also demonstrate that L. bicolor can metabolize a number of secreted defensive compounds and that the degradation of some of these compounds produces immune response metabolites (e.g., salicylic acid from salicin). Therefore, our results suggest that the metabolic responsiveness of plant roots to L. bicolor is a determinant factor in fungus-host interactions.

  16. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  17. Helminths and immunological tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunolo...

  18. Two Groups of Thellungiella salsuginea RAVs Exhibit Distinct Responses and Sensitivity to Salt and ABA in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Yang

    Full Text Available Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1 transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the "gain-of-function" transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster

  19. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  20. Drinking water biofilms on copper and stainless steel exhibit specific molecular responses towards different disinfection regimes at waterworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfer, Christina; Friedrich, Frank; Varela Villarreal, Jessica; Brändle, Katharina; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms growing on copper and stainless steel substrata in natural drinking water were investigated. A modular pilot-scale distribution facility was installed at four waterworks using different raw waters and disinfection regimes. Three-month-old biofilms were analysed using molecular biology and microscopy methods. High total cell numbers, low counts of actively respiring cells and low numbers of cultivable bacteria indicated the high abundance of viable but not cultivable bacteria in the biofilms. The expression of the recA SOS responsive gene was detected and underlined the presence of transcriptionally active bacteria within the biofilms. This effect was most evident after UV disinfection, UV oxidation and UV disinfection with increased turbidity at waterworks compared to chemically treated and non-disinfected systems. Furthermore, live/dead staining techniques and environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the presence of living and intact bacteria in biofilms on copper substrata. Cluster analyses of DGGE profiles demonstrated differences in the composition of biofilms on copper and steel materials.

  1. IL-23 p19 knockout mice exhibit minimal defects in responses to primary and secondary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L Kurtz

    Full Text Available Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.

  2. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  3. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  4. What vaccination studies tell us about immunological memory within the innate immune system of cultured shrimp and crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Kumar, Ramya; Ng, Tze Hann; Wang, Han-Ching

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity". In this report, we review recent observations and our current understanding of immunological memory within the innate immune system in cultured shrimp and crayfish after vaccination with live vaccine, killed vaccine and subunit vaccines. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SU-F-T-681: Does the Biophysical Modeling for Immunological Aspects in Radiotherapy Precisely Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Responses?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oita, M [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Nakata, K [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sasaki, M [Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Tominaga, M [Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Aoyama, H [Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Honda, H [Ehime University Hospital, Tohon, Ehime (Japan); Uto, Y [Tokushima University, Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent advances in immunotherapy make possible to combine with radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the TCP/NTCP model with immunological aspects including stochastic distribution as intercellular uncertainties. Methods: In the clinical treatment planning system (Eclipse ver.11.0, Varian medical systems, US), biological parameters such as α/β, D50, γ, n, m, TD50 including repair parameters (bi-exponential repair) can be set as any given values to calculate the TCP/NTCP. Using a prostate cancer patient data with VMAT commissioned as a 6-MV photon beam of Novalis-Tx (BrainLab, US) in clinical use, the fraction schedule were hypothesized as 70–78Gy/35–39fr, 72–81Gy/40–45fr, 52.5–66Gy/16–22fr, 35–40Gy/5fr of 5–7 fractions in a week. By use of stochastic biological model applying for Gaussian distribution, the effects of the TCP/NTCP variation of repair parameters of the immune system as well as the intercellular uncertainty of tumor and normal tissues have been evaluated. Results: As respect to the difference of the α/β, the changes of the TCP/NTCP were increased in hypo-fraction regimens. The difference between the values of n and m affect the variation of the NTCP with the fraction schedules, independently. The elongation of repair half-time (long) increased the TCP/NTCP twice or much higher in the case of hypo-fraction scheme. For tumor, the repopulation parameters such as Tpot and Tstart, which is immunologically working to the tumor, improved TCP. Conclusion: Compared to default fixed value, which has affected by the probability of cell death and cure, hypo-fractionation schemes seemed to have advantages for the variations of the values of m. The possibility of an increase of the α/β or TD50 and repair parameters in tumor and normal tissue by immunological aspects were highly expected. For more precise prediction, treatment planning systems should be incorporated the complicated biological optimization in clinical

  6. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  7. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurons in red nucleus and primary motor cortex exhibit similar responses to mechanical perturbations applied to the upper-limb during posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Michael Herter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary motor cortex (M1 and red nucleus (RN are brain regions involved in limb motor control. Both structures are highly interconnected with the cerebellum and project directly to the spinal cord, although the contribution of RN is smaller than M1. It remains uncertain whether RN and M1 serve similar or distinct roles during posture and movement. Many neurons in M1 respond rapidly to mechanical disturbances of the limb, but it remains unclear whether RN neurons also respond to such limb perturbations. We have compared discharges of single neurons in RN (n = 49 and M1 (n = 109 of one monkey during a postural perturbation task. Neural responses to whole-limb perturbations were examined by transiently applying (300 ms flexor or extensor torques to the shoulder and/or elbow while the monkeys attempted to maintain a static hand posture. Relative to baseline discharges before perturbation onset, perturbations evoked rapid (<100 ms changes of neural discharges in many RN (28 of 49, 57% and M1 (43 of 109, 39% neurons. In addition to exhibiting a greater proportion of perturbation-related neurons, RN neurons also tended to exhibit higher peak discharge frequencies in response to perturbations than M1 neurons. Importantly, neurons in both structures exhibited similar response latencies and tuning properties (preferred torque directions and tuning widths in joint-torque space. Proximal arm muscles also displayed similar tuning properties in joint-torque space. These results suggest that RN is more sensitive than M1 to mechanical perturbations applied during postural control but both structures may play a similar role in feedback control of posture.

  9. A history of pediatric immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiehm, E Richard; Johnston, Jr, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Immunology has played a prominent role in the history of medicine. Pediatric immunologists have focused on immune aberrations in pediatric disorders, particularly those involving host defense mechanisms...

  10. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  11. Human eosinophils express RAGE, produce RAGE ligands, exhibit PKC-delta phosphorylation and enhanced viability in response to the RAGE ligand, S100B

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Colleen S.; Bertics, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human eosinophils produce ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), express RAGE and exhibit RAGE-mediated responses. In examining our microarray data, we identified the presence of RAGE and RAGE ligand (S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, S100P, HMGB1) transcripts. Expression of eosinophil RAGE mRNA was also compared with a known positive control and further assessed via bioinformatics and sequence analysis of RAGE cDNA. P...

  12. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  13. Immunologic Consequences of Hypoxia during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Harmke D.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Pickkers, Peter; Kox, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia and immunity are highly intertwined at the clinical, cellular, and molecular level. The prevention of tissue hypoxia and modulation of systemic inflammation are cornerstones of daily practice in the Intensive Care Unit. Potentially, immunologic effects of hypoxia may contribute to outcome and represent possible therapeutic targets. Hypoxia and activation of downstream signaling pathways result in enhanced innate immune responses, aimed to augment pathogen clearance. On the other hand, hypoxia also exerts anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effects in lymphocytes and other tissues. Although human data on the net immunologic effects of hypoxia and pharmacological modulation of downstream pathways are limited, preclinical data support the concept of tailoring the immune response through modulation of the oxygen status or pharmacological modulation of hypoxia-signaling pathways in critically ill patients. PMID:27183167

  14. Self, intentionality, and immunological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, M

    2000-06-01

    In this paper I propose that there are a number of conceptual reasons to preserve self-concepts in immunology. First, I contend that immunological language, including self-terminology, is neither genuinely anthropomorphic, nor perniciously teleological. Furthermore, although teleology associated with future-directed purposive intent is clearly inappropriate in biological contexts, a special type of teleology, intentionality-as-aboutness, needs to be present if there is to be functional explanation in immunology. Second, based on an analogy with the human self, a self comprised of both non-specific innate functions and somatic self-representation, I claim that self-terminology is very appropriate in immunological contexts. Finally, given the appropriateness of self-concepts in immunology, I suggest that the most satisfactory conceptual structure for self-nonself discrimination probably includes both innate and somatic mechanisms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. New lead structures in the isoxazole system: relationship between quantum chemical parameters and immunological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maczyński, Marcin; Ryng, Stanisław; Artym, Jolanta; Kocieba, Maja; Zimecki, Michał; Brudnik, Katarzyna; Jodkowski, Jerzy T

    2014-01-01

    Potential immunological activities of three compounds: RM54 and its two derivatives RM55 and RM56, were evaluated in several, selected in vitro and in vivo tests such as: mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, the humoral immune response in vitro and carrageenan test. Leflunomide served as a reference drug. The studied compounds showed differential, generally immunosuppressive properties. RM56 exhibited stronger suppressive activities as compared to RM54 and RM55. In particular, RM56 displayed the strongest activity in suppression of the carrageenan inflammation that was correlated with strong suppression of the humoral immune response in vitro and lymphocyte proliferation. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was employed to shed a light on molecular properties of the investigated compounds. The geometrical parameters of the studied molecular structures were fully optimized at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. The atomic charges distribution derived on the base of the Mulliken population analysis was correlated with immunological activity of RM54, RM55 and RM56. The obtained relationships show that the isoxazole ring plays an important role in the observed immunological activities. We also suggest that due to strong anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of RM-56, potential therapeutic applications of this derivative can be broad.

  16. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-07

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process.

  17. FOXP2-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas exhibit a poor response to R-CHOP therapy and distinct biological signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Gascoyne, Duncan M; Soilleux, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    prognosis activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtype display partially blocked plasma cell differentiation. FOXP2 protein expression was detected in ABC-DLBCL cell lines, and in primary DLBCL samples tumoral FOXP2 protein expression was detected in both germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB DLBCL....... In biopsies from DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP), ≥ 20% nuclear tumoral FOXP2-positivity (n = 24/158) correlated with significantly inferior overall survival (OS: P = 0.0017) and progression-free survival (PFS: P = 0.0096). This remained significant in multivariate analysis against...... is directly repressed by FOXP1, and exhibited distinct patterns of gene expression. Specifically in ABC-DLBCL these were associated with lower expression of immune response and T-cell receptor signaling pathways. Further studies are warranted to investigate the potential functional cooperativity between FOXP1...

  18. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  19. Immunology of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloto Valdés, L J; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Gómez Echevarría, A H

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two adult patients with atopic dermatitis were studied at the Allergology Service of the "Hnos. Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital. The diagnosis was established following the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz. A detailed medical history was written for the patients; the study of some immunological parameters, such as the serum immunoglobulin quantification, delayed skin tests with a battery of antigens, and the spontaneous rosette-test, was also carried out. Almost all the patients showed serum IgE values above 150 UI, by means of the ELISA test modified by C.E.N.I.C. The mean values of the spontaneous rosette-test were low; this was more noticeable during the exacerbation period of the lesions. Candida sp, Mantoux and Streptokinase-Streptodornase antigens showed negative results in a high proportion of patients with atopic dermatitis, in relation with the control group. In atopic dermatitis, there are humoral disorders of immunity; this was demonstrated in our group by increased values of IgE and cellular disorders due to skin anergy, and to a low percentage of rosette forming cells; this does not allow to state that these phenomena have an active participation in the etiopathogenesis of this entity.

  20. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An immunologic portrait of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of high-throughput technology challenges the traditional histopathological classification of cancer, and proposes new taxonomies derived from global transcriptional patterns. Although most of these molecular re-classifications did not endure the test of time, they provided bulk of new information that can reframe our understanding of human cancer biology. Here, we focus on an immunologic interpretation of cancer that segregates oncogenic processes independent from their tissue derivation into at least two categories of which one bears the footprints of immune activation. Several observations describe a cancer phenotype where the expression of interferon stimulated genes and immune effector mechanisms reflect patterns commonly observed during the inflammatory response against pathogens, which leads to elimination of infected cells. As these signatures are observed in growing cancers, they are not sufficient to entirely clear the organism of neoplastic cells but they sustain, as in chronic infections, a self-perpetuating inflammatory process. Yet, several studies determined an association between this inflammatory status and a favorable natural history of the disease or a better responsiveness to cancer immune therapy. Moreover, these signatures overlap with those observed during immune-mediated cancer rejection and, more broadly, immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction in other immune pathologies. Thus, a discussion concerning this cancer phenotype is warranted as it remains unknown why it occurs in immune competent hosts. It also remains uncertain whether a genetically determined response of the host to its own cancer, the genetic makeup of the neoplastic process or a combination of both drives the inflammatory process. Here we reflect on commonalities and discrepancies among studies and on the genetic or somatic conditions that may cause this schism in cancer behavior.

  2. An immunologic portrait of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; De Giorgi, Valeria; Liu, Qiuzhen; Bedognetti, Davide; Spivey, Tara L; Murtas, Daniela; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Ayotte, Ben D; Stroncek, David F; Chouchane, Lotfi; Manjili, Masoud H; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-08-29

    The advent of high-throughput technology challenges the traditional histopathological classification of cancer, and proposes new taxonomies derived from global transcriptional patterns. Although most of these molecular re-classifications did not endure the test of time, they provided bulk of new information that can reframe our understanding of human cancer biology. Here, we focus on an immunologic interpretation of cancer that segregates oncogenic processes independent from their tissue derivation into at least two categories of which one bears the footprints of immune activation. Several observations describe a cancer phenotype where the expression of interferon stimulated genes and immune effector mechanisms reflect patterns commonly observed during the inflammatory response against pathogens, which leads to elimination of infected cells. As these signatures are observed in growing cancers, they are not sufficient to entirely clear the organism of neoplastic cells but they sustain, as in chronic infections, a self-perpetuating inflammatory process. Yet, several studies determined an association between this inflammatory status and a favorable natural history of the disease or a better responsiveness to cancer immune therapy. Moreover, these signatures overlap with those observed during immune-mediated cancer rejection and, more broadly, immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction in other immune pathologies. Thus, a discussion concerning this cancer phenotype is warranted as it remains unknown why it occurs in immune competent hosts. It also remains uncertain whether a genetically determined response of the host to its own cancer, the genetic makeup of the neoplastic process or a combination of both drives the inflammatory process. Here we reflect on commonalities and discrepancies among studies and on the genetic or somatic conditions that may cause this schism in cancer behavior.

  3. Immunological control of fish diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnadottir, Bergljot

    2010-08-01

    All metazoans possess innate immune defence system whereas parameters of the adaptive immune system make their first appearance in the gnathostomata, the jawed vertebrates. Fish are therefore the first animal phyla to possess both an innate and adaptive immune system making them very interesting as regards developmental studies of the immune system. The massive increase in aquaculture in recent decades has also put greater emphasis on studies of the fish immune system and defence against diseases commonly associated with intensive fish rearing. Some of the main components of the innate and adaptive immune system of fish are described. The innate parameters are at the forefront of immune defence in fish and are a crucial factor in disease resistance. The adaptive response of fish is commonly delayed but is essential for lasting immunity and a key factor in successful vaccination. Some of the inherent and external factors that can manipulate the immune system of fish are discussed, the main fish diseases are listed and the pathogenicity and host defence discussed. The main prophylactic measures are covered, including vaccination, probiotics and immunostimulation. A key element in the immunological control of fish diseases is the great variation in disease susceptibility and immune defence of different fish species, a reflection of the extended time the present day teleosts have been separated in evolution. Future research will probably make use of molecular and proteomic tools both to study important elements in immune defence and prophylactic measures and to assist with breeding programmes for disease resistance.

  4. Clinical and hemodynamic improvements after adding ambrisentan to background PDE5i therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibiting a suboptimal therapeutic response (ATHENA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Shelley; Torres, Fernando; Feldman, Jeremy; Keogh, Anne; Allard, Martine; Blair, Christiana; Gillies, Hunter; Tislow, James; Oudiz, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a condition which may lead to right ventricular failure and premature death. While recent data supports the initial combination of ambrisentan (a selective ERA) and tadalafil (a PDE5i) in functional class II or III patients, there is no published data describing the safety and efficacy of ambrisentan when added to patients currently receiving a PDE5i and exhibiting a suboptimal response. The ATHENA-1 study describes the safety and efficacy of the addition of ambrisentan in this patient population. PAH patients with a suboptimal response to current PDE5i monotherapy were assigned ambrisentan in an open-label fashion and evaluated for up to 48 weeks. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics (change in PVR as primary endpoint) were evaluated at week 24 and functional parameters and biomarkers were measured through week 48. Time to clinical worsening (TTCW) and survival are also described. Thirty-three subjects were included in the analysis. At week 24, statistically significant improvements in PVR (-32%), mPAP (-11%), and CI (+25%) were observed. Hemodynamic improvements at week 24 were further supported by improvements in the secondary endpoints: 6-min walk distance (+18 m), NT-proBNP (-31%), and maintenance or improvement in WHO FC in 97% of patients. Adverse events were consistent with known effects of ambrisentan. The hemodynamic, functional, and biomarker improvements observed in the ATHENA-1 study suggests that the sequential addition of ambrisentan to patients not having a satisfactory response to established PDE5i monotherapy is a reasonable option. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Norovirus immunology: Of mice and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kira L; Leon, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis in the United States and Europe and are responsible for 20% of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Over the past decade, the understanding of NoV immunology has grown immensely. Studies of the natural immune response to NoV in humans and animal models have laid the foundation for innovations in cell culture systems for NoV and development of new therapeutics. Evidence from animal models, NoV surrogates, observational human research, and human challenge studies suggest that the innate immune response is critical for limiting NoV infection but is insufficient for viral clearance. NoV may antagonize the innate immune response to establish or prolong infection. However, once a robust adaptive immune response is initiated, the immune system clears the infection through the action of T cells and B cells, simultaneously generating highly specific protective immunologic memory. We review here both the current knowledge on norovirus immunity and exciting new developments, with a focus on ongoing vaccine development work, novel cell culture systems, and advances in understanding the role of the gut microbiome. These changes reinforce the need for a better understanding of the human immune response to NoV and suggest novel hypotheses. PMID:26256101

  6. Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of immunological tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Horton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

  7. Validation of a HLA-A2 tetramer flow cytometric method, IFNgamma real time RT-PCR, and IFNgamma ELISPOT for detection of immunologic response to gp100 and MelanA/MART-1 in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanxin; Theobald, Valerie; Sung, Crystal; DePalma, Kathleen; Atwater, Laura; Seiger, Keirsten; Perricone, Michael A; Richards, Susan M

    2008-10-22

    HLA-A2 tetramer flow cytometry, IFNgamma real time RT-PCR and IFNgamma ELISPOT assays are commonly used as surrogate immunological endpoints for cancer immunotherapy. While these are often used as research assays to assess patient's immunologic response, assay validation is necessary to ensure reliable and reproducible results and enable more accurate data interpretation. Here we describe a rigorous validation approach for each of these assays prior to their use for clinical sample analysis. Standard operating procedures for each assay were established. HLA-A2 (A*0201) tetramer assay specific for gp100209(210M) and MART-126-35(27L), IFNgamma real time RT-PCR and ELISPOT methods were validated using tumor infiltrating lymphocyte cell lines (TIL) isolated from HLA-A2 melanoma patients. TIL cells, specific for gp100 (TIL 1520) or MART-1 (TIL 1143 and TIL1235), were used alone or spiked into cryopreserved HLA-A2 PBMC from healthy subjects. TIL/PBMC were stimulated with peptides (gp100209, gp100pool, MART-127-35, or influenza-M1 and negative control peptide HIV) to further assess assay performance characteristics for real time RT-PCR and ELISPOT methods. Validation parameters included specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity of dilution, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). In addition, distribution was established in normal HLA-A2 PBMC samples. Reference ranges for assay controls were established. The validation process demonstrated that the HLA-A2 tetramer, IFNgamma real time RT-PCR, and IFNgamma ELISPOT were highly specific for each antigen, with minimal cross-reactivity between gp100 and MelanA/MART-1. The assays were sensitive; detection could be achieved at as few as 1/4545-1/6667 cells by tetramer analysis, 1/50,000 cells by real time RT-PCR, and 1/10,000-1/20,000 by ELISPOT. The assays met criteria for precision with %CV MART-1 response measured by all 3 validated methods. Our results demonstrated the tetramer flow cytometry assay

  8. Intralesional treatment of stage III metastatic melanoma patients with L19-IL2 results in sustained clinical and systemic immunologic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Benjamin; Eigentler, Thomas K; Pflugfelder, Annette; Zelba, Henning; Martens, Alexander; Pawelec, Graham; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Ruffini, Pier Adelchi; Elia, Giuliano; Neri, Dario; Gutzmer, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen C; Garbe, Claus

    2014-07-01

    L19-IL2 is a recombinant protein comprising the cytokine IL2 fused to the single-chain monoclonal antibody L19. In previous studies, intralesional injection with IL2 has shown efficacy for the locoregional treatment of cutaneous/subcutaneous metastases in patients with advanced melanoma. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether (i) intralesional delivery of a targeted form of IL2 would yield similar results, with reduction of injection frequency and treatment duration; and (ii) systemic immune responses were induced by the local treatment. Patients with stage IIIB/IIIC melanoma and cutaneous/subcutaneous injectable metastases received weekly intratumoral injections of L19-IL2 at a maximum dose of 10 MIU/week for 4 consecutive weeks. Tumor response was evaluated 12 weeks after the first treatment. Twenty-four of 25 patients were evaluable for therapy-induced responses. A complete response (CR) by modified immune-related response criteria (irRC) of all treated metastases was achieved in 6 patients (25%), with long-lasting responses in most cases (5 patients for ≥24 months). Objective responses were documented in 53.9% of all index lesions [44.4% CR and 9.5% partial responses (by irRC)], and 36.5% of these remained stable, while 9.5% progressed. Toxicity was comparable with that of free IL2, and no serious adverse events were recorded. A significant temporary increase of peripheral regulatory T cells and natural killer cells, sustained increase of absolute CD4(+) lymphocytes, and decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells were observed upon treatment. Finally, we recorded encouraging data about the progression time to distant metastases and overall survival. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  10. Translational Immunology Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The development of accurate and reproducible immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses in patients receiving novel immune therapies and...

  11. Immunological and virological response to antiretroviral treatment in migrant and native men and women in Western Europe; is benefit equal for all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monge, S.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, A.; Touloumi, G.; Sighem, A.; Abgrall, S.; Dray-Spira, R.; Spire, B.; Castagna, A.; Mussini, C.; Zangerle, R.; Hessamfar, M.; Anderson, J.; Hamouda, O.; Ehren, K.; Obel, N.; Kirk, O.; Antinori, A.; Girardi, E.; Saracino, A.; Calmy, A.; Wit, S.; Wittkop, L.; Bucher, C.; Montoliu, A.; Raben, D.; Prins, M. [= Maria; Meyer, L.; Chene, G.; Burns, F.; Amo, J.; Judd, Ali; Zangerle, Robert; Touloumi, Giota; Warszawski, Josiane; Meyer, Laurence; Dabis, François; Krause, Murielle; Ghosn, Jade; Leport, Catherine; Wittkop, Linda; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand; Bucher, Heiner; Gibb, Diana; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Amo, Julia; Obel, Niels; Thorne, Claire; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Stephan, Christoph; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Antinori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Prieto, Luis; Conejo, Pablo; Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Battegay, Manuel; Kouyos, Roger; Mussini, Cristina; Tookey, Pat; Casabona, Jordi; Miró, JoseM; Castagna, Antonella; Konopnick, Deborah; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Sönnerborg, Anders; Torti, Carlo; Sabin, Caroline; Teira, Ramon; Garrido, Myriam; Haerry, David; Wit, Stéphane; Miró, Mª; Costagliola, Dominique; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Raben, Dorthe; Chêne, Geneviève; Barger, Diana; Schwimmer, Christine; Termote, Monique; Campbell, Maria; Frederiksen, Casper M.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Kjaer, Jesper; Brandt, Rikke; Berenguer, Juan; Bohlius, Julia; Bouteloup, Vincent; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Davies, Mary-Anne; Dorrucci, Maria; Dunn, David; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Guiguet, Marguerite; Grabar, Sophie; Lambotte, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Lodi, Sara; Matheron, Sophie; Miró, Jose; Monge, Susana; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Paredes, Roger; Phillips, Andrew; Puoti, Massimo; Rohner, Eliane; Schomaker, Michael; Smit, Colette; Sterne, Jonathan; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Valk, Marc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in immunovirological response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in migrant and native men and women within a European collaboration of HIV cohorts Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europ (COHERE) in EuroCoord,

  12. Teleost intestinal immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Abelli, L.; Picchietti, S.; Scapigliati, G.; Kiron, V.

    2011-01-01

    Teleosts clearly have a more diffuse gut associated lymphoid system, which is morphological and functional clearly different from the mammalian GALT. All immune cells necessary for a local immune response are abundantly present in the gut mucosa of the species studied and local immune responses can

  13. Development of Quantitative Proteomics Using iTRAQ Based on the Immunological Response of Galleria mellonella Larvae Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum Microconidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Amalia; Corredor, Mauricio; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Peláez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at

  14. Development of quantitative proteomics using iTRAQ based on the immunological response of Galleria mellonella larvae challenged with Fusarium oxysporum microconidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Muñoz-Gómez

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104

  15. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  16. Immunologic evaluation of patients with polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: evaluation of delayed-type skin hypersensitive response and its relation to clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, K. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei); Hsieh, K.; Tang, S.; Tung, T.; Lee, T.

    1982-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning causes many physiological abnormalities including immune suppression. Cellular immunity was studied in 30 PCB-poisoned patients and 50 normal human subjects. PCB poisoning caused suppression of cellular immunity such as the delayed-type skin response to streptokinase and streptodornase. The suppression of cellular immunity was correlated with the severity of the disease. Thus evaluation of the immune function may be helpful for the diagnosis of PCB poisoning.

  17. A history of pediatric immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard; Johnston, Richard B

    2005-03-01

    Immunology has played a prominent role in the history of medicine. Pediatric immunologists have focused on immune aberrations in pediatric disorders, particularly those involving host defense mechanisms. These efforts have paid rich dividends in terms of fundamental knowledge of the immune system and major therapeutic advances, including 1) i.v. immunoglobulin therapy, 2) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 3) gene therapy. Pediatric immunology as an organized discipline emerged in the early 1950s, when pediatricians and their basic scientist colleagues began to focus on clinical and basic research related to immunodeficiency. Since then, key organizations and infrastructure have been developed to support this research and the clinical care of immunodeficient patients. We review here the evolution of contemporary pediatric immunology, particularly in North America, from its roots in 19th-century Europe to its current expression as one of the fundamental scientific and clinical disciplines of pediatrics.

  18. Sex-response differences of immunological and histopathological biomarkers in gill of Prochilodus argenteus from a polluted river in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Marcela Santos; Ribeiro, Heder José; Pereira, Luciano Almeida; Oliveira Lopes, Gabriel Augusto; Castro, Antônio Carlos Santana; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Russo, Remo Castro; Corrêa, José Dias

    2014-07-01

    The fish gill is in direct and standing contact with the immediate external environment and, therefore, is highly vulnerable to aquatic pollutants. In this study, Prochilodus argenteus were caught at two different points in São Francisco river. The first point is located near Três Marias dam, while the second is placed downstream the Abaeté river. Chemical approaches showed the presence of metals contamination in the first point. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effects of these contaminants and the likely use of biomarkers on fish gills. Biometric data of length and weight of fish were obtained in order to calculate the condition factor as an organismal biomarker. The histological changes in gills and alterations in mucous and rodlet cells occurrence were detected microscopically and evaluated with quantitative analyses. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Eosinophil Peroxidase (EPO) were also assessed in fish gill. The analysis of the water and sediment samples revealed the presence of metals at the two points. As and Cd were detected at higher concentrations at point 1. The presence of lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, lamellar edema and inflammatory foci varied according to the point. Additionally, mucous and rodlet cells and MPO and EPO activities showed variability according to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, with exception of lamellar hyperplasia and eosinophil peroxidase activity, all others parameters showed sex-variation responses. At the first point, male fish showed a chronical inflammation in gills due to the lowest activity of MPO and EPO, as well as low occurrence of inflammatory foci and glycoprotein secretion by mucous cells, while female fish presented an opposite pattern of response to the same environmental conditions. Therefore, we suggest the use of such biomarkers in future monitoring of aquatic systems, taking into account the sex-variation responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Artificial Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains exhibit diverse mechanisms to repress Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae-induced hypersensitive response and non-host resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Cao, Jia-Yi; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) rapidly triggers a hypersensitive response (HR) and non-host resistance in its non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 blocks Xoo-induced HR in N. benthamiana when pre-infiltrated or co-infiltrated, but not when post-infiltrated at 4 h after Xoo inoculation. This suppression by A. tumefaciens is local and highly efficient to Xoo. The HR-inhibiting efficiency of A. tumefaciens is strain dependent. Strain C58C1 has almost no effect on Xoo-induced HR, whereas strains GV3101, EHA105 and LBA4404 nearly completely block HR formation. Intriguingly, these three HR-inhibiting strains employ different strategies to repress HR. Strain GV3101 displays strong antibiotic activity and thus suppresses Xoo growth. Comparison of the genotype and Xoo antibiosis activity of wild-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 and a set of C58-derived strains reveals that this Xoo antibiosis activity of A. tumefaciens is negatively, but not solely, regulated by the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) of the Ti plasmid pTiC58. Unlike GV3101, strains LBA4404 and EHA105 exhibit no significant antibiotic effect on Xoo, but rather abolish hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In addition, expression assays indicate that strains LBA4404 and EHA105 may inhibit Xoo-induced HR by suppression of the expression of Xoo type III secretion system (T3SS) effector genes hpa1 and hrpD6. Collectively, our results unveil the multiple levels of effects of A. tumefaciens on Xoo in N. benthamiana and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the bacterial antibiosis of A. tumefaciens and the non-host resistance induced by Xoo. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    were collected from the GIT segments. Lactic acid concentration was higher (P stomach of the INF+WP+LAB3 fed piglets than in the other piglets, but the difference was not significant compared to the INF+WP+LAB1 and INF+WP+LAB2 fed piglets. Compared to the control diet, the fermented WP......The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding liquid feed containing whey permeate (WP) fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiota and mucosal immune responses of Escherichia coli F4 inoculated piglets post weaning. The study consisted of 52 weaned...

  1. Primate Cerebellar Granule Cells Exhibit a Tonic GABAAR Conductance that is not Affected by Alcohol: A Possible Cellular Substrate of the Low Level of Response Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMohr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate, Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs, non-human primate (NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by 6 subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10M, inhibition by 6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100M, and enhancement by THDOC (10-20nM and THIP (500nM. In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%, application of EtOH (25-105mM did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%, EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate 6 subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral

  2. Primate cerebellar granule cells exhibit a tonic GABAAR conductance that is not affected by alcohol: a possible cellular substrate of the low level of response phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Claudia; Kolotushkina, Olena; Kaplan, Joshua S; Welsh, John; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A; Rossi, David J

    2013-01-01

    In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs) in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate (NHP), Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs), NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by α6δ subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10 μM), inhibition by α6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100 μM), and enhancement by THDOC (10-20 nM) and THIP (500 nM). In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%), application of EtOH (25-105 mM) did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%), EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate α6δ subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral consequences.

  3. Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of the Echinococcus-host interplay remain unexplored. This paper summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the immunology and diagnosis of echinococcosis, indicates areas where information is lacking, and suggests possible new strategies to improve serodiagnosis for practical application.

  4. Immunological and virological response to antiretroviral treatment in migrant and native men and women in Western Europe; is benefit equal for all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Kirk, Ole

    2018-01-01

    ) in EuroCoord, 2004-2013. METHODS: Migrants were defined as those with geographical origin (GO) different from the reporting country and were grouped as originating from Western Europe and Western Countries (WEWC), Eastern Europe (EE), North Africa and the Middle East (NAME), sub-Saharan Africa (SSA......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in immunovirological response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in migrant and native men and women within a European collaboration of HIV cohorts Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europ (COHERE......), Latin America (LA), Caribbean (CRB) and Asia/Oceania (ASIA/OCE). Native (NAT) individuals were defined as those originating from the reporting country. CD4 cell counts were modelled using piecewise linear mixed-effects models with two slopes, whereas models to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios (s...

  5. Preparation and characterization of different liposomal formulations containing P5 HER2/neu-derived peptide and evaluation of their immunological responses and antitumor effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shariat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Tumor-associated antigen (TAA subunit-based vaccines constitute promising tools for anticancer immunotherapy. However, a major limitation in the development of such vaccines is the poor immunogenicity of peptides when used alone.The aim of this study was to develop an efficient vaccine delivery system and adjuvant to enhance anti-tumor activity of a synthetic HER2/neu derived peptide (P5. Materials and Methods: P5 peptide was encapsulated with different liposomal formulations composed of DMPC:DMPG:Chol:DOPE and loaded with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. All formulations were characterized for their physicochemical properties. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, BALB/c mice were first immunized with free peptide or liposomal formulations, then, inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of TUBO tumor cells. Enzyme-linked immunospot, cytotoxicity and intracellular cytokine assays, as well as tumor size and animal survival analysis, were performed to evaluate the immune responses. Results: The results demonstrated that P5 encapsulated into liposomal formulations was not able to induce CD8 and CD4 T cells to produce IFN-γ. That is why, a potent CTL response and antitumor immunity was not induced. Conclusion: The Lip-DOPE-P5-MPL formulation in spite of using pH-sensitive lipid to direct intracellular trafficking of peptide to MHC I presentation pathway and MPL to enhance peptide adjuvanticity was interesting. The failure in inducing anti-tumor immunity may be attributed to low uptake of anionic conventional liposomes by dendritic cells (DCs that have negative surface charge.

  6. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    The induction of a proper adaptive immune response is dependent on the correct transfer of information between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and antigen-specific T cells. Defects in information transfer may result in the development of diseases, e.g. immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity. A disti...

  7. Immunological aspects of blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A

    2000-09-01

    Donor selection based on blood group phenotypes, and blood processing such as leukocyte-depletion, gamma-irradiation or washing to remove plasma, are approaches for therapeutic or preventive use to manage the immunological complications of transfusion. Indications for specific components are prescribed in guidelines provided by (inter)national Transfusion Societies. Although the use of guidelines and protocols is in line with modern medicine, these can create a state of tension with the political sense of values to improve the viral safety of blood products and with the commercial exploitation of pooled plasma-products.A century of blood transfusion therapy has facilitated cancer treatment and advanced surgical interventions. The transfusion product has improved progressively, although mostly in response to disasters such as wars and AIDS. Every blood transfusion interacts with the immune system of the recipient. There are, however, very few quantitative figures to estimate the consequences. This review is based on the available literature on the clinical consequences of transfusion induced immunization and modulation. To a large degree the clinical consequences of transfusion induced immune effects are still a mystery.A blood transfusion is a medical intervention, which in many cases remains experimental with respect to the benefit/risk ratio. Ideally, this uncertainty should be communicated to patients and every transfusion included in a study. Such studies preferentially should be randomized because the perceived need for transfusion is associated with clinical conditions with a worse prognosis than those that do not receive transfusion. This difference may mask the interpretation of the transfusion effect. Since the blood supply services in almost all Western countries have been reorganized and nationalized, or at least operate to national quality standards, the measurement of risk: benefit of transfusion, whether political or evidence-based, needs to be

  8. Immunological Evasion in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Magaña-Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor in Central Nervous System in adults. Among its features, modulation of immune system stands out. Although immune system is capable of detecting and eliminating tumor cells mainly by cytotoxic T and NK cells, tumor microenvironment suppresses an effective response through recruitment of modulator cells such as regulatory T cells, monocyte-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, and microglia as well as secretion of immunomodulators including IL-6, IL-10, CSF-1, TGF-β, and CCL2. Other mechanisms that induce immunosuppression include enzymes as indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. For this reason it is important to develop new therapies that avoid this immune evasion to promote an effective response against glioblastoma.

  9. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunological, ionic and biochemical responses in blood serum of the marine fish Trachinotus ovatus to poly-infection by Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Dan, Xueming; Li, Anxing

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the response of pompano fish (Trachinotus ovatus) to white spot disease, we used the protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans to infect live 450-g specimens at concentrations of 40,000 theronts/fish. We assessed the relative infection intensity (RII), serum immobilizing titer, and immunity-related enzyme activities (ACP, AKP, LZM), and assessed feeding, serum ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and K(+)) and blood biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH) of pompano. The fish were then treated with a lethal dose of C. irritans (70,000 theronts/fish) and the number of deaths was recorded. We found that the relative infection intensities of the control group, group I, and group II were 0, 0.630 ± 0.179, and 0.014 ± 0.006. Poly-infection induced a significant increase in the serum immobilizing titer (853.33 ± 295.60) of group II. In terms of the biochemical assessment, group II had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities than the other groups, and the lowest lysozyme activity (P irritans was 0, 0, and 100 in groups control, I, and II, respectively. In conclusions, based on the food intake of group II, along with the results of relative infection intensity, serum immobilizing titer, and survival, we speculate that the fish in that group acquired high protective immunity following poly-infection by C. irritans, experiencing limited harm for pompano. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  12. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  13. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  14. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  15. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Immunology of Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Michelle A.; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the front line of defense against insult and injury and contains many epidermal and immune elements that comprise the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). The reaction of these components to injury allows an effective cutaneous response to restore homeostasis. Psoriasis vulgaris is the best-understood and most accessible human disease that is mediated by T cells and dendritic cells. Inflammatory myeloid dendritic cells release IL-23 and IL-12 to activate IL-17-producing T cells, Th1 cells, and Th22 cells to produce abundant psoriatic cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-22. These cytokines mediate effects on keratinocytes to amplify psoriatic inflammation. Therapeutic studies with anticytokine antibodies have shown the importance of the key cytokines IL-23, TNF, and IL-17 in this process. We discuss the genetic background of psoriasis and its relationship to immune function, specifically genetic mutations, key PSORS loci, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and the skin transcriptome. The association between comorbidities and psoriasis is reviewed by correlating the skin transcriptome and serum proteins. Psoriasis-related cytokine-response pathways are considered in the context of the transcriptome of different mouse models. This approach offers a model for other inflammatory skin and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24655295

  17. The Immunology of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    The relatively high DNA mutational burden in melanoma allows for the creation of potentially "foreign," immune-stimulating neoantigens, and leads to its exceptional immunogenicity. Brisk tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, a marker of immune editing, confer improved overall survival in melanoma, possibly due to reduced sentinel lymph node spread. Meanwhile, T-cell-stimulating drugs, so-called T-cell checkpoint inhibitors, which reverse peripheral tolerance-dependent tumor escape, have demonstrated unparalleled clinical success in metastatic melanoma. Markers to predict response to immunotherapy are currently imperfect, and the subject of intense research, which will guide the future of ancillary pathologic testing in this setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  19. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  20. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General immunology. 493.927 Section 493.927 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.927 General immunology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for immunology, the annual program...

  1. 42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921... Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are syphilis...

  2. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  4. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in

  5. Targeting Specific Immunologic Pathways in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Guilherme Piovezani; Faubion, William A; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the immunologic pathways in intestinal inflammation is crucial for the development of new therapies that can maximize patient response and minimize toxicity. Targeting integrins and cytokines is intended to control leukocyte migration to effector sites or inhibit the action of proinflammatory cytokines. New approaches to preventing leukocyte migration may target integrin receptors expressed on the intestinal vascular endothelium. The interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 pathway has been a therapeutic target of interest in controlling active Crohn's disease (CD). New therapeutic approaches in CD may involve the enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine pathways and modulation of cellular responses and intranuclear signals associated with intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Latex proteins from Calotropis procera: Toxicity and immunological tolerance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila F; Mota, Érika F; Silva, Ana Claudia M; Tomé, Adriana R; Silva, Maria Z R; de Brito, Daniel; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-08-25

    Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C. procera are reported. Acute toxicity was determined in mice by oral and intraperitoneal administration of latex proteins (LP) and was followed behavioral, hematological and histological analyses. Oral immunological tolerance to LP was assessed by intraperitoneal immunization in mice that had received LP orally before. Animals given 5000 mg/kg orally exhibited only discrete behavioral alterations and augmentation of monocytes. Death was not notified 14 days after exposure. However, all animals receiving LP 150 mg/kg by i.p. died in 1 h. Death (20%) was documented when LP (75 mg/kg) was given in the peritoneum and signs of harmful effects were observed in the survivors (80%). Oral immunological tolerance was observed in animals previously given LP orally, when they were further immunized/challenged with peritoneal exposure to different doses of LP. This was confirmed by the lowering of IgE and IgG in the serum, IL-4 and IFN-γ in spleen homogenates and the absence of anaphylaxis signs. It is therefore concluded that LP exhibited quite discrete adverse effects when orally administrated at higher concentrations and this route of administration did not stimulate adverse immunological reactions. Instead it was observed immunological tolerance. The present study contributes very important information concerning the safe use of C. procera as a phytotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Immunology of Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Şavk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the oldest empirical therapeutic modality in the history of medicine, photo(chemotherapy has well documented benefits but its mode of action is not fully elucidated. Today, thanks to advances in photoimmunology and molecular biology we are provided with important clues as to how photo(chemotherapy works. Initial research on UV light and skin cancer has brought about the groundbreaking discovery of the immunological effects UV. UVB is the UV light most frequently used for therapeutic purposes and its mechanisms of action are best demonstrated. UV light has several distinct effects on various components of the innate and acquired immune systems, especially T lymphocyte functions the common endpoint of which is immune supression. The antiproliferative and antifibrotic therapeutic effects of UVA and UVB have so far not been directly associated with immunological mechanisms.

  8. The immunology of smallpox vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccinat...

  9. Effects of age on paroxetine efficacy in patients with major depressive disorder who do not exhibit an early response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of age on the association between early and eventual responses to paroxetine treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Eighty-nine patients with MDD were administered paroxetine and completed the 6-week protocol. On the basis of our previous study, we defined early responders as those patients with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) improvements higher than 35% at 2 weeks and responders as those patients with MADRS improvements higher than 50% at 6 weeks. The participants were divided into 4 groups in accordance with their responses: early response responders, early response nonresponders, nonearly response responders (NER-Rs), and nonearly response nonresponders (NER-NRs). Demographic data and the MADRS scores between the early response responders and the early response nonresponders and between the NER-Rs and the NER-NRs were compared. We used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze age to determine the cutoff points for distinguishing responders and nonresponders in early and nonearly responders. There was a significant difference in age between the NER-Rs and the NER-NRs, with the NER-Rs being younger than the NER-NRs. The threshold for the response in the early responders was 42 years old. The area under the curve of the ROC curve of the early responders was 0.548. The threshold for the response of the nonearly responders was 55 years old. The area under the curve of the ROC curve of the early responders was 0.733. The effects of age on the association between the responsiveness in the early phase of antidepressant treatment and the eventual response were identified in patients with MDD.

  10. Visitors Center Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  11. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  12. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    The traveling exhibition titled "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and its Affinities" opened first at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and was then moved to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1976. Discusses the exhibition's historic value, how Fauvism passed through three fairly distinct stylistic phases, and the social…

  13. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  14. Immunology taught by human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic studies are rarely conducted for immunological purposes. Instead, they are typically driven by medical and evolutionary goals, such as understanding the predisposition or resistance to infectious or inflammatory diseases, the pathogenesis of such diseases, and human evolution in the context of the long-standing relationships between humans and their commensal and environmental microbes. However, the dissection of these experiments of Nature has also led to major immunological advances. In this review, we draw on some of the immunological lessons learned in the three branches of human molecular genetics most relevant to immunology: clinical genetics, epidemiological genetics, and evolutionary genetics. We argue that human genetics has become a new frontier not only for timely studies of specific features of human immunity, but also for defining general principles of immunity. These studies teach us about immunity as it occurs under "natural" conditions, through the transition from the almost complete wilderness that existed worldwide until about a century ago to the current unevenly distributed medically shaped environment. Hygiene, vaccines, antibiotics, and surgery have considerably decreased the burden of infection, but these interventions have been available only recently, so have yet to have a major impact on patterns of genomic diversity, making it possible to carry out unbiased evolutionary studies at the population level. Clinical genetic studies of childhood phenotypes have not been blurred by modern medicine either. Instead, medical advances have actually facilitated such studies, by making it possible for children with life-threatening infections to survive. In addition, the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases have increased life expectancy at birth from ∼20 yr to ∼80 yr, providing unique opportunities to study the genetic basis of immunological phenomena against which there is no natural counterselection, such as

  15. BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF OVER-TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes fail to perform to the best of their ability if they become infected, stale, sore or malnourished. Excessive training with insufficient recovery can lead to a debilitating syndrome in which performance and well being can be affected for months. Eliminating or minimizing these problems by providing advice and guidelines on training loads, recovery times, nutrition or pharmacological intervention and regular monitoring of athletes using an appropriate battery of markers can help prevent the development of an overtraining syndrome in athletes. The potential usefulness of objective physiological, biochemical and immunological markers of overtraining has received much attention in recent years. Practical markers would be ones that could be measured routinely in the laboratory and offered to athletes as part of their sports science and medical support. The identification of common factors among overtrained athletes in comparison with well-trained athletes not suffering from underperformance could permit appropriate intervention to prevent athletes from progressing to a more serious stage of the overtraining syndrome. To date, no single reliable objective marker of impending overtraining has been identified. Some lines of research do, however, show promise and are based on findings that overtrained athletes appear to exhibit an altered hormonal response to stress. For example, in response to a standardized bout (or repeated bouts of high intensity exercise, overtrained athletes show a lower heart rate, blood lactate and plasma cortisol response. Several immune measures that can be obtained from a resting blood sample (e.g. the expression of specific cell surface proteins such as CD45RO+ on T-lymphocytes also seem to offer some hope of identifying impending overtraining. If an athlete is suspected of suffering from overtraining syndrome, other measures will also required, if only to exclude other possible causes of underperformance including

  16. Microglia and CNS Interleukin-1: Beyond Immunological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of microglia and expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 in the CNS have become almost synonymous with neuroinflammation. In numerous studies, increased CNS IL-1 expression and altered microglial morphology have been used as hallmarks of CNS inflammation. A central concept of how CNS IL-1 and microglia influence functions of the nervous system was derived from the notion initially generated in the peripheral immune system: IL-1 stimulates monocyte/macrophage (the peripheral counterparts of microglia to amplify inflammation. It is increasingly clear, however, CNS IL-1 acts on other targets in the CNS and microglia participates in many neural functions that are not related to immunological activities. Further, CNS exhibits immunological privilege (although not as absolute as previously thought, rendering amplification of inflammation within CNS under stringent control. This review will analyze current literature to evaluate the contribution of immunological and non-immunological aspects of microglia/IL-1 interaction in the CNS to gain insights for how these aspects might affect health and disease in the nervous tissue.

  17. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  18. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  19. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  1. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  2. Emerging single-cell technologies in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herderschee, Jacobus; Fenwick, Craig; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roger, Thierry; Calandra, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    During evolution, the immune system has diversified to protect the host from the extremely wide array of possible pathogens. Until recently, immune responses were dissected by use of global approaches and bulk tools, averaging responses across samples and potentially missing particular contributions of individual cells. This is a strongly limiting factor, considering that initial immune responses are likely to be triggered by a restricted number of cells at the vanguard of host defenses. The development of novel, single-cell technologies is a major innovation offering great promise for basic and translational immunology with the potential to overcome some of the limitations of traditional research tools, such as polychromatic flow cytometry or microscopy-based methods. At the transcriptional level, much progress has been made in the fields of microfluidics and single-cell RNA sequencing. At the protein level, mass cytometry already allows the analysis of twice as many parameters as flow cytometry. In this review, we explore the basis and outcome of immune-cell diversity, how genetically identical cells become functionally different, and the consequences for the exploration of host-immune defense responses. We will highlight the advantages, trade-offs, and potential pitfalls of emerging, single-cell-based technologies and how they provide unprecedented detail of immune responses. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Sistema de Gestión Integrado de Capital Humano y la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial en el Centro de Inmunología Molecular (Integrated Management System for Human Capital and Corporate Social Responsibility at the Center of Molecular Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Zamora Molina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Hoy en día las exigencias del entorno nacional como internacional, hacen que las empresas se vean obligadas a estar más preparadas y desarrollar su actividad de manera eficiente y eficaz, como condición necesaria para alcanzar la excelencia empresarial. En tal sentido, las empresas deben brindar una mayor atención a la gestión empresarial con el objetivo fundamental de mejorar su productividad, sostenibilidad y competitividad. Donde uno de los retos que debe enfrentar la empresa cubana como requisito de competitividad es intentar unificar esfuerzos en una sola dirección: la integración de sus sistemas de gestión. El Centro de Inmunología Molecular, es una de las entidades del sistema empresarial cubano que trabaja con interrelacionados, pero independientes, sistemas de gestión. Se caracteriza por incorporar nuevas maneras de hacer para completar el desempeño adecuado que garantice las exigencias internacionales vigentes, de ahí que la aplicación de la temática de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial es una oportunidad para el perfeccionamiento de su gestión. English abstract. Nowadays, the demands of the national and international environment means that companies are forced to be more prepared and develop their business efficiently and effectively, as necessary conditions to stay up in business and achieve business excellence. In this regard, companies should give more attention to business management with the ultimate goal of improving their productivity, sustainability and competitiveness. One of the main challenges facing the Cuban enterprise as competitive requirement is to try to unify efforts in one direction: the integration of their systems. The Center of Molecular Immunology is one of many Cuban enterprise system entities working with interrelated but separate management systems. It is characterized by incorporating new ways to do to complete the proper performance to ensure current international requirements

  4. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine and Immunologic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cruz Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta, Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1 were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  5. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting observations have been reported concerning the role of CD1d-dependent natural killer T (NKT) cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS), supporting either a disease-promoting or downregulatory function. We studied the role of NKT cells in CHS by comparing the immune response in CD1d...

  6. Haemolytic activity and immunological adjuvant effect of a new steroidal saponin from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira da Silva, Bernadete; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Parente, José Paz

    2012-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-3-{(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxyspirostan-2-one (1). Results of the present study indicated that 1 exhibited haemolytic activity in the in vitro assays, and immunological adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Effects of supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon immunologic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, N.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Sato, T.; Rapaport, F.T.

    1981-03-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow from prospectively selected genotypically and pedigree DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated littermate and nonlittermate recipients within the Copperstown beagle colony has regularly resulted in the establishment of long-term chimerism, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients. It has been demonstrated that irradiated recipients exhibit significant decreases in their ability to muster primary immunological responses during the first months after reconstitution with bone marrow. Beyond the documented capacity of preirradiation blood transfusions to interfere with subsequent engraftment of allogeneic marrow, however, there have been no systematic studies of the possible effects of irradiation and bone marrow transplantation upon immunologic memory. The present study was designed in order to assess this question in greater detail, with particular regard to the effects of irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon host sensitization to skin allografts. The results indicate that, within the experimental limitations described, the state of sensitivity produced by first set skin allograft rejection is not affected significantly by supralethal total body irradiation and reconstitution of the recipient with allogeneic bone marrow.

  8. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  9. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  10. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dental pulp cells possess stem cell like potential and thus may be potential candidates for tissue engineering purposes particularly in the oro-facial region. Successful tissue engineering ideally requires that newly formed bone adapts its mass, shape, and trabecular...... architecture to the prevailing mechanical load and should be able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodeling. In vitro investigation of the responsiveness of different cell types to mechanical loading is so far a relative new research field. The aim of this study was to establish...... and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation...

  11. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and gulf war illness patients exhibit increased humoral responses to the herpesviruses-encoded dUTPase: Implications in disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Peter; Williams, Marshall Vance; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Barnes, Zachary; Ariza, Maria Eugenia

    2017-09-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and Gulf War Illness (GWI) are debilitating diseases with overlapping symptomology and there are currently no validated tests for definitive diagnosis of either syndrome. While there is evidence supporting the premise that some herpesviruses may act as possible triggers of ME/CFS, the involvement of herpesviruses in the pathophysiology of GWI has not been studied in spite of a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in these patients. We have previously demonstrated that the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) possess novel functions in innate and adaptive immunity. The results of this study demonstrate that a significant percentage of patients with ME/CFS (30.91-52.7%) and GWI (29.34%) are simultaneously producing antibodies against multiple human herpesviruses-encoded dUTPases and/or the human dUTPase when compared to controls (17.21%). GWI patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibodies to the HHV-6 and human dUTPases than controls (P = 0.0053 and P = 0.0036, respectively), while the ME/CFS cohort had higher anti-EBV-dUTPase antibodies than in both GWI patients (P = 0.0008) and controls (P < 0.0001) as well as significantly higher anti-human dUTPase antibodies than in controls (P = 0.0241). These results suggest that screening of patients' sera for the presence of various combinations of anti-dUTPase antibodies could be used as potential biomarkers to help identify/distinguish patients with these syndromes and better direct treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  13. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  14. Bacterial, fungal, and plant communities exhibit no biomass or compositional response to two years of simulated nitrogen deposition in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Theresa A.; Morrissey, Ember M.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition affects myriad aspects of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function, and microbial communities may be particularly sensitive to anthropogenic N inputs. However, our understanding of N deposition effects on microbial communities is far from complete, especially for drylands where data are comparatively rare. To address the need for an improved understanding of dryland biological responses to N deposition, we conducted a two-year fertilization experiment in a semiarid grassland on the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. We evaluated effects of varied levels of N inputs on archaeal, bacterial, fungal and chlorophyte community composition within three microhabitats: biological soil crusts (biocrusts), soil below biocrusts, and the plant rhizosphere. Surprisingly, N addition did not affect the community composition or diversity of any of these microbial groups; however, microbial community composition varied significantly among sampling microhabitats. Further, while plant richness, diversity, and cover showed no response to N addition, there were strong linkages between plant properties and microbial community structure. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for some dryland communities to have limited biotic ability to retain augmented N inputs, possibly leading to large N losses to the atmosphere and to aquatic systems.

  15. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemori, Juzoh; Takao, Keizo; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hattori, Satoko; Furuse, Tamio; Wakana, Shigeharu; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-21

    The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits

  16. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blasi

    Full Text Available Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  17. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  18. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  19. Overview of Johne's disease immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the livestock. Most of the economiclosses associated with paratuberculosis are related to decreased milk production, reduced fertility and higher rates of culling.Understanding the immunology of the disease is very important for better understanding of the interplay between the host andthe causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. After uptake of MAPby macrophages residing inhost's intestinal tissue, two possible scenarios may emerge; MAP may be destroyed or may establish persistent infectionwithin the macrophages. If MAPpersists in the infected macrophage, it continuously modulates adaptive immune responsesof the animal. In this short review we describe the host-pathogen interactions in Johne's disease and highlights potentialprotective mechanisms in order for future design of more effective diagnostic method and vaccine.

  20. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  1. The agr Inhibitors Solonamide B and Analogues Alter Immune Responses to Staphylococccus aureus but Do Not Exhibit Adverse Effects on Immune Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Baldry

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance with the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA strains such as USA300 being of particular concern. The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed as an alternative approach to treat multi-drug resistant pathogens. One interesting anti-virulence target is the agr quorum-sensing system, which regulates virulence of CA-MRSA in response to agr-encoded autoinducing peptides. Agr regulation confines exotoxin production to the stationary growth phase with concomitant repression of surface-expressed adhesins. Solonamide B, a non-ribosomal depsipeptide of marine bacterial origin, was recently identified as a putative anti-virulence compound that markedly reduced expression of α-hemolysin and phenol-soluble modulins. To further strengthen solonamide anti-virulence candidacy, we report the chemical synthesis of solonamide analogues, investigation of structure-function relationships, and assessment of their potential to modulate immune cell functions. We found that structural differences between solonamide analogues confer significant differences in interference with agr, while immune cell activity and integrity is generally not affected. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus with selected solonamides was found to only marginally influence the interaction with fibronectin and biofilm formation, thus addressing the concern that application of compounds inducing an agr-negative state may have adverse interactions with host factors in favor of host colonization.

  2. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  3. Evolution and conservation of immunological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students - and even professional immunologists - acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."

  4. Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal ...

  5. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ... AAAAI is proud to endorse HR 2285, the School-Based Respiratory Health Management Act Read Practice Matters! Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Quality ...

  6. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  7. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  8. Dacomitinib, an irreversible Pan-ErbB inhibitor significantly abrogates growth in head and neck cancer models that exhibit low response to cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ather, Ferdows; Hamidi, Habib; Fejzo, Marlena S; Letrent, Stephen; Finn, Richard S; Kabbinavar, Fairooz; Head, Christian; Wong, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is associated with tumor growth in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in humans (HNSCC), and is a major focus of targeted therapy. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, has been successful at prolonging survival but has only a 10% tumor shrinkage response rate in a clinical setting. The goal of this study was to compare dacomitinib (PF-00299804), a next generation small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly blocks multiple HER family receptors (HER-1 (EGFR), HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases), to cetuximab, the current FDA approved anti-EGFR medication for HNSCC and erlotinib, an EGFR specific small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Dacomitinib, erlotinib and cetuximab were tested in a panel of 27 HNSCC cell lines. Treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab or 1 uM of erlotinib inhibited growth by at least 50% in 7/27 cell lines, while treatment with 1 uM of dacomitinib had similar growth inhibition in 17/27 lines. Cell lines representing three levels of sensitivity to dacomitinib were further examined using Western blots, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. Treatment with 100 nM of dacomitinib reduced EGFR activity and downstream AKT and ERK pathways more effectively than treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab in all ten tested lines. Although both compounds induced apoptosis at similar levels, dacomitinib caused greater G0/G1 arrest. Sensitivity to EGFR blockade was associated with levels of EGFR and ERK and was not associated with common oncogenic mutations and copy number variations. Phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK levels correlate with sensitivity to both cetuximab and dacomitinib. Three of the four lines in the exquisitely sensitive group had the highest levels of phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK among the ten lines selected, while the three resistant lines collectively had the lowest levels. Neither pAKT nor tAKT was associated with sensitivity.

  9. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  10. Immunoepidemiology--bridging the gap between immunology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, B

    2001-02-01

    'Immunoepidemiology' combines individual- and population-oriented approaches to create new perspectives. It examines how inter-individual differences in immune responses affect the population dynamics of micro- and macro-parasites to produce the epidemiological patterns of infection observed in heterogeneous host populations. Here, I discuss how research has only just begun to tap the potential of this integrative discipline that incorporates immunology, parasitology, genetics, epidemiology, ecology, mathematical modelling and statistics.

  11. [The time course of changes in cell immunological parameters during administration of live dry plague vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, N V; Darmov, I V; Borisevich, I V; Kriuchkov, A V; Pechenkin, D V

    2009-08-01

    The study of the time course of changes in cell immunological parameters by a magnetic separation technique in human beings during the administration of plague vaccine in relation to the immunological load revealed the higher blood levels of all T lymphocyte subpopulations on day 14 after vaccination. These changes are most typical of a primary vaccinated cohort. The increased frequency of plague vaccine administration and multiple immunizations with live plague, anthrax, and tularemia vaccines produce the time-course of changes in T lymphocyte populations (subpopulations) in response to the regular administration of plague vaccine. A high immunological load in man also promotes a significant reduction in the level of B lymphocytes.

  12. Immunological response to re-infections with clones of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi with different degrees of virulence: influence on pathological features during chronic infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lazaro da Silva Guerreiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi are an aggravating factor for Chagas disease morbidity. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi represents multiclonal populations formed by clonally propagating organisms with different tropisms and degrees of virulence. In the present study, the influence of successive inoculations with clones of the Colombian strain, exhibiting different degrees of virulence, on chronic myocarditis and the humoral and cellular immune responses (Col-C1 high virulence, Col-C8 medium virulence and Col-C5 low virulence were demonstrated. Mice from three groups with a single infection were evaluated during the acute (14th-30th day and chronic phases for 175 days. An immunofluorescence assay, ELISA and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH cutaneous test were also performed. Mice with a triple infection were studied on the 115th-175th days following first inoculation. The levels of IgM and IgG2a were higher in the animals with a triple infection. DTH showed a higher intensity in the inflammatory infiltrate based on the morphometric analysis during a 48 h period of the triple infection and at 24 h with a single infection. The histopathology of the heart demonstrated significant exacerbation of cardiac inflammatory lesions confirmed by the morphometric test. The humoral responses indicate a reaction to the triple infection, even with clones of the same strain.

  13. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  14. Viro-immunological response of drug-naive HIV-1-infected patients starting a first-line regimen with viraemia >500,000 copies/ml in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Di Carlo, Domenico; Armenia, Daniele; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Pinnetti, Carmela; Colafigli, Manuela; Prati, Francesca; Boschi, Andrea; Antoni, Anna Maria Degli; Lagi, Filippo; Sighinolfi, Laura; Gervasoni, Cristina; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Mussini, Cristina; Perno, Carlo Federico; Borghi, Vanni; Sterrantino, Gaetana

    2017-09-22

    Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens. An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL 500,000 copies/mL who start a first-line regimen containing PI+INI or NNRTI yield a better VS compared to those receiving a PI-based regimen.

  15. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds.

  17. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  18. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  19. The 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi

    2012-07-15

    This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology". Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  2. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  3. Biosensors in immunology: the story so far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, S.S.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Optical biosensors are finding a range of applications in immunology. They enable biomolecular interactions to be characterized in real time without the need to label reactants, and, because individual binding steps can be visualized, are particularly suited to complex assays

  4. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  12. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  13. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  14. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common and serious problem associated with long term antiretroviral therapy is waning efficacy over time. To date. a number of studies has suggested an association between drug resistance and clinical deterioration. However. a precise causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In a large American clinical trial. resistance to zidovudine (ZDV was predictive of subsequent disease progression if this therapy was continued. Surprisingly. this was also predictive of deterioration if therapy was changed to didanosine (ddl. This suggests that other factors (perhaps virological and immunological which may be present in addition to resistance. were as important (if not more so in predicting clinical outcomes. It is likely that viral load. resistance. viral phenotype and alterations in immune function interact in this regard. Proper· studies may allow us to determine a “threshold” for a composite virological and immunological parameter beyond which disease progression will occur. As more antiretroviral agents become available. we will be in a position to intervene to “improve” laboratory markers and monitor them prospectively. potentially to maintain clinical latency for an indefinite period of time. In the authors' laboratories, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the evaluation of circulating proviral load has been developed. In an initial study of 70 patients. proviral load/ 106 CD4 cells was clearly associated with the severity of immune disease. with up to 9.6% of cells being infected in subjects with CD4 cell counts below 200/µL. However. large variability in proviral load among individuals with comparable or dissimilar CD4 cell counts precludes the use of this measurement as an individual marker of the severity of immune disease. More recent work evaluated the combined use of proviral load (expressed as a dichotomous variable based on values above or below one copy/a03 CD4 cells and resistance in a prospective

  15. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  16. Efficacy of switching from adefovir to tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B patients who exhibit suboptimal responses to adefovir-based combination rescue therapy due to resistance to nucleoside analogues (SATIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims It remains to be determined whether switching from adefovir (ADV to tenofovir (TDF provides better virological outcomes in patients exhibiting suboptimal responses to ADV plus nucleoside analogue (ADV+NA therapy for NA-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods In this prospective trial, patients who showed partial responses (defined as serum hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA >60 IU/mL to ADV+NA therapy for NA resistance were randomly allocated to receive TDF plus NA (TDF+NA group, n=16 or to continue their current therapy (ADV+NA group, n=16. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with complete virological response (CVR, defined as serum HBV DNA 2log10 IU/mL was more likely in the TDF+NA group at both 24 and 48 weeks (68.8% vs. 56.3%, P=0.014 vs. 81.3% vs. 56.3%, P=0.001, respectively. During the follow-up, the rate of HBeAg seroconversion was higher in the TDF+NA group than the ADV+NA group (12.5% vs. 6.25%, P=0.640, as was that for the hepatitis B surface antigen (6.25% vs. 0%, P=0.080. No serious adverse events due to antiviral agents occurred. Conclusion In patients exhibiting suboptimal responses to ADV+NA therapy for NA-resistant CHB, switching from ADV to TDF might provide better virological outcomes.

  17. Understanding immunology: fun at an intersection of the physical, life, and clinical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the immune system works is a grand challenge in science with myriad direct implications for improving human health. The immune system protects us from infectious pathogens and cancer, and maintains a harmonious steady state with essential microbiota in our gut. Vaccination, the medical procedure that has saved more lives than any other, involves manipulating the immune system. Unfortunately, the immune system can also go awry to cause autoimmune diseases. Immune responses are the product of stochastic collective dynamic processes involving many interacting components. These processes span multiple scales of length and time. Thus, statistical mechanics has much to contribute to immunology, and the oeuvre of biological physics will be further enriched if the number of physical scientists interested in immunology continues to increase. I describe how I got interested in immunology and provide a glimpse of my experiences working on immunology using approaches from statistical mechanics and collaborating closely with immunologists.

  18. NIAID meeting report: improving malaria vaccine strategies through the application of immunological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X Y; Augustine, Alison Deckhut

    2014-02-26

    A highly efficacious vaccine to prevent malaria infection or clinical disease is still far from reality despite several decades of intensive effort and a growing global commitment in malaria vaccine development. Further understanding of the mechanisms required for induction of effective host immune responses and maintenance of long-term protective immunity is needed to facilitate rational approaches for vaccine design and evaluation. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducted a workshop on June 18-19, 2012 with experts in the fields of malaria vaccine development, malaria immunology, and basic immunology to address issues associated with improving our current understanding of malaria vaccine immunity. This report summarizes the discussion and major recommendations generated by the workshop participants regarding the application of recent advances in basic immunology and state-of-the-art immunological tools to improve progress and help address current challenges and knowledge gaps in malaria vaccine development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5735 - Prothrombin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin immunological test system. 866.5735 Section 866.5735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5735 Prothrombin immunological test system. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5750 - Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5750 Radioallergosorbent (RAST) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components...

  2. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Badran, Yousef R; Geha, Raif S; Chou, Janet S; Fried, Ari J

    2017-10-01

    Advances in basic immunology in 2016 included studies that further characterized the role of different proteins in the differentiation of effector T and B cells, including cytokines and proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton. Regulation of granule formation and secretion in cytotoxic cells was also further described by examining patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The role of prenylation in patients with mevalonate kinase deficiency leading to inflammation has been established. We reviewed advances in clinical immunology, as well as new approaches of whole-genome sequencing and genes newly reported to be associated with immunodeficiency, such as linker of activation of T cells (LAT); B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B); RGD, leucine-rich repeat, tropomodulin domain, and proline-rich domain-containing protein (RLTPR); moesin; and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). Trials of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency have had relative success; the use of autologous virus-specific cytotoxic T cells has proved effective as well. New medications are being explored, such as pioglitazone, which is under study for its role in enhancing the oxidative burst in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Development of vaccines for HIV infection continues to provide insight into the immune response against a virus with an extraordinary mutation rate. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5210 - Ceruloplasmin immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceruloplasmin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5210 Section 866.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... aid in the diagnosis of copper metabolism disorders. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  5. [Allergy to drugs and contrast media--recommendations of the Israeli Allergy and Clinical Immunology Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Tal, Yuval; Broides, Arnon; Asher, Ilan; Hersheko, Alon; Staubers, Tali; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2013-09-01

    Drug hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction that was brought about by a specific immunologic response, not related to the pharmacological components of the drug. Additionally, drug related pseudoallergic and anaphylactoid reactions have been encompassed under the umbrella of hypersensitivity. Some of these reactions are linked with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, the hypersensitivity reactions of most drugs can be well defined and recurrence risk following exposure to the culprit drug and/or related drugs can be assessed. Medical history skin, blood and challenge tests, conducted in an allergy clinic, enable prediction and prevention of repeated events as well as unnecessary avoidance of certain compounds. For instance, most patients who report a prior reaction to penicillin are not allergic to beta-lactams upon allergic evaluation, while avoidance of penicillin based on self-reporting alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. On the other hand, for patients who previously exhibited hypersensitivity to a compound which is currently required, premedication or a desensitization protocol can be recommended to allow the use of this compound. Drug hypersensitivity is most commonly attributed to beta-lactams antibiotics, contrast media reagents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Hence, in the current review the recommendations of the Israeli Association for Allergy and Clinical Immunology for the evaluation and treatment of patients suspected to have hypersensitivity to beta-lactams and contrast media reagents are detailed. Recommendations regarding the evaluation of NSAID hypersensitivity will be published on the IMA website, together with those explicated herein.

  6. The immunology of successful pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven, A.L.; Heineman, MJ; Faas, MM

    Immune responses play an important role in various reproductive processes, including ovulation, menstruation and parturition. Clearly, during pregnancy, when the mother must accept a semi-allogeneic fetus, immune responses also play a very important role. This was first recognized by Medawar in

  7. The Immunology of Wild Rodents: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Viney

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals’ immune responses contribute to their evolutionary fitness. These responses are moulded by selection to be appropriate to the actual antigenic environment in which the animals live, but without imposing an excessive energetic demand which compromises other component of fitness. But, exactly what these responses are, and how they compare with those of laboratory animals, has been little studied. Here, we review the very small number of published studies of immune responses of wild rodents, finding general agreement that their humoral (antibody responses are highly elevated when compared with those of laboratory animals, and that wild rodents’ cellular immune system reveals extensive antigenic exposure. In contrast, proliferative and cytokine responses of ex vivo-stimulated immune cells of wild rodents are typically depressed compared with those of laboratory animals. Collectively, these responses are appropriate to wild animals’ lives, because the elevated responses reflect the cumulative exposure to infection, while the depressed proliferative and cytokine responses are indicative of effective immune homeostasis that minimizes immunopathology. A more comprehensive understanding of the immune ecology of wild animals requires (i understanding the antigenic load to which wild animals are exposed, and identification of any key antigens that mould the immune repertoire, (ii identifying immunoregulatory processes of wild animals and the events that induce them, and (iii understanding the actual resource state of wild animals, and the immunological consequences that flow from this. Together, by extending studies of wild rodents, particularly addressing these questions (while drawing on our immunological understanding of laboratory animals, we will be better able to understand how rodents’ immune responses contribute to their fitness in the wild.

  8. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  10. Enzymatic, immunological and phylogenetic characterization of Brucella suis urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranganathan Nammalwar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification and the enzymatic and phylogenomic characterization of urease from Brucella suis strain 1330. Additionally, the urease reactivity of sera from patients diagnosed with brucellosis was examined. Results Urease encoded by the ure-1 operon of Brucella suis strain 1330 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The urease was purified 51-fold with a recovery of 12% of the enzyme activity and 0.24% of the total protein. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5, and showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 28–35°C. The purified enzyme exhibited a Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with a Km of 5.60 ± 0.69 mM. Hydroxyurea and thiourea are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki of 1.04 ± 0.31 mM and 26.12 ± 2.30 mM, respectively. Acetohydroxamic acid also inhibits the enzyme in a competitive way. The molecular weight estimated for the native enzyme was between 130–135 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 157 ± 7 kDa using 5–10% polyacrylamide gradient non-denaturing gel. Only three subunits in SDS-PAGE were identified: two small subunits of 14,000 Da and 15,500 Da, and a major subunit of 66,000 Da. The amino terminal sequence of the purified large subunit corresponded to the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by ureC1. The UreC1 subunit was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. By phylogenetic and cluster structure analyses, ureC1 was related to the ureC typically present in the Rhizobiales; in contrast, the ureC2 encoded in the ure-2 operon is more related to distant species. Conclusion We have for the first time purified and characterized an active urease from B. suis. The enzyme was characterized at the kinetic

  11. Refractory Immunological Thrombocytopenia Purpura and Splenectomy in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bernal-Macías

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count of less than 100,000 platelets per microlitre (mcL. Thrombocytopenia develops in approximately 6-7% of women during pregnancy and at least 3% of these cases are caused by immunological platelet destruction. Herein, we present a pregnant woman who develops at the first trimester autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura associated with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. The disease was refractory to pharmacological treatments but had a favourable response to splenectomy. The patient carried the pregnancy to term without complication and gave birth to a healthy baby girl.

  12. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  13. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  14. Clinical immunology--autoimmunity in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking care of patients with immune-deficiencies, vasculitides and systemic auto-immune diseases. Clinical immunology in the Netherlands has always been an important contributor to basic and clinical science in the Netherlands. Major scientific contributions were made in the field of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and ANCA associated vasculitis. These Dutch contributions will be reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The early history of Stanford Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia P; Herzenberg, Leonore A

    2014-05-01

    From its 1960 beginnings in a pair of windowless Genetics Department laboratories under the Stanford Medical School Dean's Office to its current broad-based program, which joins faculty members from departments across the Medical School, the Stanford Immunology Program has played a central role in shaping both basic and clinical immunology thinking. In this article, we tell the story of the beginnings of this odyssey in a reminiscence-based format that brings the flavor of the time in the words of people who lived and built the history.

  16. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  12. Regulatory immune cells and functions in autoimmunity and transplantation immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gabor; Boros, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2017-05-01

    In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected. Better understanding of the immunological tolerance and the potential modulations of immune regulatory processes are crucial for developing effective therapies in autoimmune diseases as well as in organ transplantation. In this review, we focus on the novel insights regarding the impaired immune regulation and other relevant factors contributing to the development of auto-reactive and graft-reactive immune responses in autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection, respectively. We also address some promising approaches for modification of immune-regulatory processes and tolerogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity and solid organ transplantation, which may be beneficial in future therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunologic effects of emdogain in humans: one-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Symeon; Peteinaki, Efthymia; Castanas, Elias

    2002-06-01

    Tissue regeneration after therapeutic manipulations is essential in periodontology, oral surgery, and trauma of the periodontal tissues. Local inflammation because of poor oral hygiene also plays a crucial role in the above situations. Local inflammatory reaction, accompanied by the local production of cytokines, profoundly influences bone turnover and regeneration. Several products of low immunogenicity for augmenting tissue regeneration have been recently proposed as boosters of soft and mineralized tissue regeneration. Among them, Emdogain, an amelogenin derivative of porcine origin, has recently been introduced. Clinical results indicate that this product might be a good additive, producing fast tissue regeneration with no apparent clinical side effects. In contrast, very little is known about its in vivo immunologic effects. A previous study showed that Emdogain does not modify the cellular or humoral immune response in vitro. In the present work, performed in 10 patients, only a slight, nonsignificant activation of the immune system occurred during the first year following Emdogain application. Neither cellular immunity nor humoral immune response was significantly modified. In addition, the in vitro response of the patients' lymphocytes to Emdogain was assayed 2 and 12 months postoperative. We did not find any significant specific lymphocyte transformation in the presence of Emdogain, although lymphocytes could be stimulated by nonselective mitogens. These results indicate the immunologic safety of the agent in vivo, at least after 1 year.

  14. Advances in immunology. Volume 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following seven chapters: The Antigen-Specific, Major Histocompatibility Complex-Restricted Receptor on T Cells; Immune Response (Ir) Genes of the Murine Major Histocompatibility Complex; The Molecular Genetics of Components of Complement; Molecular Genetics of Human B Cell Neoplasia; Human Lymphocyte Hybridmomas and Monoclonal Antibodies; Internally Transmitted Antigen; and Phagocytosis of Particulate Activators of the Alternative Complement Pathway: Effects of Fibronectin.

  15. Immunology of Reproduction. Second Part

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José; Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Main aspects of reproductive and inmunological interactions are presented in this review. In the first part, we outlined the current knowledge of the immune system, the humoral and cellular factors, pregnancy modifications of the immune response, and the role of the fetus and the placenta. In this second part, we complete the lattest aspect, reviewing the interaction of the maternal and fetal inmunological systems. We continue revising the knowledge on antisperm and antiovary antibodies, male...

  16. The immunological basis of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Johnson, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated the participation of the immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Studies focusing on macrophages and Toll-like receptors have documented involvement of the innate immunity. The requirements of antigen presentation and co-stimulation, the critical importance of T cell-driven inflammation, and the demonstration, in specific conditions, of agonistic antibodies directed to angiotensin II type 1 receptors and adrenergic receptors support the role of acquired immunity. Experimental findings support the concept that the balance between T cell-induced inflammation and T cell suppressor responses is critical for the regulation of blood pressure levels. Expression of neoantigens in response to inflammation, as well as surfacing of intracellular immunogenic proteins, such as heat shock proteins, could be responsible for autoimmune reactivity in the kidney, arteries, and central nervous system. Persisting, low-grade inflammation in these target organs may lead to impaired pressure natriuresis, an increase in sympathetic activity, and vascular endothelial dysfunction that may be the cause of chronic elevation of blood pressure in essential hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Immunological Basis of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Johnson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated the participation of the immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Studies focusing on macrophages and Toll-like receptors have documented involvement of the innate immunity. The requirements of antigen presentation and co-stimulation, the critical importance of T cell–driven inflammation, and the demonstration, in specific conditions, of agonistic antibodies directed to angiotensin II type 1 receptors and adrenergic receptors support the role of acquired immunity. Experimental findings support the concept that the balance between T cell–induced inflammation and T cell suppressor responses is critical for the regulation of blood pressure levels. Expression of neoantigens in response to inflammation, as well as surfacing of intracellular immunogenic proteins, such as heat shock proteins, could be responsible for autoimmune reactivity in the kidney, arteries, and central nervous system. Persisting, low-grade inflammation in these target organs may lead to impaired pressure natriuresis, an increase in sympathetic activity, and vascular endothelial dysfunction that may be the cause of chronic elevation of blood pressure in essential hypertension. PMID:25150828

  18. Haematological and immunological effect of coadministration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the normal control, ...

  19. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Immunology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organised by Moving Academy of Medicine and Biomedicine and. Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Pune sponsored by Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. A Refresher Course in Immunology will be held for college/university teachers at the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, ...

  2. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi. (T. evansi) ..... 54, 8-18. Brener, Z. 1962. Therapeutic activity and criterion of cure on mice experimentally infected with. Trypanosoma cruzi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São. Paulo 4, 389-396.

  6. Immunological aspects of oral vaccination in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, P.H.M.

    1997-01-01


    In this thesis immunological consequences of oral vaccination in fish have been described. The efficacy of oral vaccination can be increased by protection of the antigen against degradation in the foregut, in order to reach the hindgut in sufficient quantities for uptake and

  7. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  8. Interleukin-2 based systemic and locoregional immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Goey (Swan Hoo)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe major impact of recent clinical research with interleukin-2 (IL2) has been the demonstration that a strictly immunological manipulation can mediate the regression of established cancer in humans through the activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and the release of secondary

  9. Advances in basic and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Finkelman, Fred; Shearer, William T

    2006-08-01

    This review comments on basic and clinical immunology articles that were published in 2005, with a focus on those that appeared in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. In the area of basic immunology, mechanisms of the innate immune system and its interaction with the adaptive immune system were described, with special consideration to applications in biodefense strategies. T regulatory cells were further characterized in their role for the control of allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The function of the thymus Hassall's corpuscles was reported to be the generation of T regulatory cells. Flavonoid molecules obtained from medicinal herbs, including astilbin and epigallocatechin gallate, were discovered to have immunomodulatory properties. Advances in clinical immunology resulted from efforts to develop a newborn screening test for severe combined immunodeficiency and the elucidation of the crystal structure of the IL-2 receptor gamma chain. Mutations in the membrane receptor transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor were found in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. New therapeutic options are described, such as the use of infliximab for granulomas and GM-CSF for chronic ulcers in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. The importance of mucosal immunity in acute HIV infection is cited, as is the role of CD8+ T-cell activation in HIV disease progression in children.

  10. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  11. The Immunological Relationship between Typanosoma evansi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax show very high cross-reactivity in serology. This suggests that there is a close immunological relationship between the two parasite species and the possibility that antiserum against one species contains lytic antibodies against the other species was investigated. T. evansi and ...

  12. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  13. Trypanosoma evansi : A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal ...

  14. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values. Objective: ...

  15. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Imagining 'reactivity': allergy within the history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunological aspects of sport nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high-carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low-glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high-dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post exercise may influence immune system status in athletes. In order to maintain robust immunity, athletes need to consume a well-balanced diet that is sufficient to meet their requirements for energy, carbohydrate, protein and micronutrients. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients are well known to be potential causes of immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of some essential minerals including iron and zinc and the vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 are important to maintain a healthy immune function. Vitamin D may be a particular concern as recent studies have emphasised its importance in limiting infection episode incidence and duration in both the general population and in athletes and many individuals exhibit inadequate vitamin D status during the winter months. There is only limited evidence that individual amino acids, β-glucans, herbal extracts and zinc are capable of boosting immunity or reducing infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotics, vitamin D3, bovine colostrum and plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs currently offer the best chance of success, particularly for those individuals who are prone to illness.

  19. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  20. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, there was significant progress in the area of basic immunology, including investigations that led to a better understanding of the function of antigen-presenting cells, such as the secretion of cytokines that inhibit or induce allergic inflammation on antigen stimulation. Mechanisms of IgE function were better characterized, and the clonality of IgE-producing B cells in allergic responses of monosensitized patients was demonstrated. The hygiene hypothesis was re-examined, with most of the evidence suggesting that the increase of atopy prevalence is best explained by the absence of T(H)1 responses rather than the absence of regulatory T cells. The effects of the environment in the allergic inflammation of the lung received new emphasis. Similar progress took place in the area of clinical immunology. Immune adverse reactions to drugs, such as the toxicity of carbamazepine-specific T cells and the safety and efficacy of drugs for the treatment of hereditary angioedema, were better characterized. There were advances in the molecular characterization of primary immunodeficiencies and their management, remarkably the discovery of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene mutations as the cause of hyper-IgE syndrome. Long-term outcomes of bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiencies confirmed the efficacy of this therapy.

  1. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the progress in the field of basic and clinical immunology in 2006, focusing on the articles published in the Journal. The role of Toll-like receptors in the immune response was explored in detail in several articles. The knowledge gained in these investigations is being used to develop strategies that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and to have an immunomodulatory effect on allergic diseases. Other components of the innate immunity reported on were the recognition of allergens with lipid-derived motifs by CD1d-restricted T cells and the role of dendritic cells in the development of an allergic response. More than 120 primary immunodeficiencies were defined at a molecular level, and biological agents such as TNF-alpha antagonists and IFN-alpha were shown to have therapeutic use. New anti-HIV drugs that block cell entry were proven to be effective, thus offering alternative therapies to respond to the development of multidrug-resistant HIV strains. The modern understanding of immunologic concepts is helping to elucidate the mechanisms of defense against viruses, bacteria, and parasites; as a result, strategies to improve management and prevention continue to emerge.

  2. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki [Graduate School of Suzuka Univ. of Med Sci. Master, Suzuka (Japan)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained.

  3. Immunology and Genetic of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C. Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in the third trimester of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality, and fetal death, especially in developing countries, but its aetiology remains unclear. Key findings support a causal role of superficial placentation driven by immune mal maladaptation, which then lead to reduced concentrations of angiogenic growth factors and to an increase in placental debris in the maternal circulation resulting in a maternal inflammatory response. Epidemiological research has consistently demonstrated a substantial familial predisposition to preeclampsia. Unfortunately, the conquest of the genes explaining such a individual susceptibility has been proved to be a hard task. However, genetics will also inform us about causality of environmental factors, and then serve as a tool to prioritize therapeutic targets for preventive strategies.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, for maintaining ...

  5. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious mononucleosis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5570 - Lactoferrin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactoferrin immunological test system. 866.5570... Lactoferrin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A lactoferrin immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the lactoferrin (an iron...

  8. 42 CFR 493.833 - Condition: Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Diagnostic immunology. 493.833 Section..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.833 Condition: Diagnostic immunology. The specialty of diagnostic immunology includes for purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of syphilis serology...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  10. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  11. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  12. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  14. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  15. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunological memory: lessons from the past and a look to the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.L.; Netea, M.G.; Radbruch, A.; Rajewsky, K.; Zinkernagel, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunological memory is considered to be one of the cardinal features of the adaptive immune system. Despite being a recognized phenomenon since the time of the ancient Greeks, immunologists are yet to fully appreciate the mechanisms that control memory responses in the immune system. Furthermore,

  17. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  18. Polish Scientists in Fish Immunology: A Short History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Muiswinkel, Willem B.; Pilarczyk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later starting in the late 1930s. Detailed papers on fish vaccination were published from 1970 onwards. Another important development was the unraveling of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in the 1970s until today. Around 1980, it became more and more clear how important immunomodulation (stimulation or suppression by environmental factors, food components, drugs) was for fish health. The most recent findings are focusing on the discovery of genetic factors, signaling molecules, and receptors, which play a crucial role in the immune response. It can be concluded, that Polish scientists made considerable contributions to our present understanding of fish immunity and to applications in aquaculture worldwide. PMID:26569323

  19. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer: are they immunologically linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Margret; Schott, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common autoimmune disease in humans frequently leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by a cellular immune response with lymphatic infiltration of the thyroid gland by T and B cells, as well as by a humoral immune response leading to specific antibody production. The synchronous appearance of HT and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) indicates an immunological link between the two entities. Three different pathomechanisms may be postulated, including preexisting autoimmunity leading to malignancy due to inflammation, immunity towards preexisiting tumor cells leading to specific autoimmunity, and immune tolerance leading to malignancy despite (auto)immunity. In this article we review data describing these potential mechanisms that might lead to the synchronous appearance of HT and PTC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  2. Advances in clinical immunology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Shearer, William T

    2016-12-01

    Advances in clinical immunology in the past year included the report of practice parameters for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiencies to guide the clinician in the approach to these relatively uncommon disorders. We have learned of new gene defects causing immunodeficiency and of new phenotypes expanding the spectrum of conditions caused by genetic mutations such as a specific regulator of telomere elongation (RTEL1) mutation causing isolated natural killer cell deficiency and mutations in ras-associated RAB (RAB27) resulting in immunodeficiency without albinism. Advances in diagnosis included the increasing use of whole-exome sequencing to identify gene defects and the measurement of serum free light chains to identify secondary hypogammaglobulinemias. For several primary immunodeficiencies, improved outcomes have been reported after definitive therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  4. Immunological Characterization of Pectinatus cerevisiophilus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Haikara, Auli

    1983-01-01

    Eleven Pectinatus cerevisiophilus strains of brewery origin were classified serologically by gel diffusion precipitin tests, immunoelectrophoresis, and the fluorescent antibody staining technique. The Pectinatus strains could be assigned immunologically to three different groups. Groups I and III were found to be very closely related, and only some of the antisera used showed differences. The antisera against the strains belonging to group II contained a common group antigen. A strong precipi...

  5. Survey on some aspects of immunologic reactivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, T; Ghiea, V; Diaconu, V; Păsărică, D

    1995-01-01

    The raport focuses on investigation of a sample of old people, mainly in their eighties, as against a control group of healthy subjects, aged between 25 and 40. In order to investigate the immunologic response the research has been carried on along the following lines. to show self Ab antinuclear (AAN), antimitochondrial (AM) and antismoth muscle (ASM), by using indirect immunofluorescence; to study alteration of serum immunoglobulins by using IDR; to study alteration of serum concentration of C3 fraction in the complement by using IDR; to determine immune complexes by using Haskova method; to investigate IR through R rosetting method. Immunologic reactivity (IR) disturbance was found, with respect to alteration of immunoglobulin ratio IgA, IgG, IgM vere slightly diminished. Self antibodies were present to a percentage of 17% as predominant of ASM, AM and AAN in decreasing order. Increase in C3 associated with increase in immune complexes could account for high incidence of cardio-vascular complications. Decline in IR is shown through the decrease in T lymphocytes where Ts is more markedly decreased as against decreased Ts. The results imbalance between stimulating activated cells and suppressive controlling cells. IR alteration could account for degenerative pathology in the subjects, namely, ATS, cardiovascular diseases, senility, pseudobulb syndrome, schizoaffective psychosis.

  6. Cell source determines the immunological impact of biomimetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Michael; Parodi, Alessandro; Martinez, Jonathan O; Yazdi, Iman K; Cevenini, Armando; van de Ven, Anne L; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; Boada, Christian; Taghipour, Nima; Corbo, Claudia; Brown, Brandon S; Scaria, Shilpa; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Recently, engineering the surface of nanotherapeutics with biologics to provide them with superior biocompatibility and targeting towards pathological tissues has gained significant popularity. Although the functionalization of drug delivery vectors with cellular materials has been shown to provide synthetic particles with unique biological properties, these approaches may have undesirable immunological repercussions upon systemic administration. Herein, we comparatively analyzed unmodified multistage nanovectors and particles functionalized with murine and human leukocyte cellular membrane, dubbed Leukolike Vectors (LLV), and the immunological effects that may arise in vitro and in vivo. Previously, LLV demonstrated an avoidance of opsonization and phagocytosis, in addition to superior targeting of inflammation and prolonged circulation. In this work, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the importance of the source of cellular membrane in increasing their systemic tolerance and minimizing an inflammatory response. Time-lapse microscopy revealed LLV developed using a cellular coating derived from a murine (i.e., syngeneic) source resulted in an active avoidance of uptake by macrophage cells. Additionally, LLV composed of a murine membrane were found to have decreased uptake in the liver with no significant effect on hepatic function. As biomimicry continues to develop, this work demonstrates the necessity to consider the source of biological material in the development of future drug delivery carriers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  8. Highlights of the advances in basic immunology in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Shuxun; Cao, Xuetao

    2012-05-01

    In this review, we summarize the major fundamental advances in immunological research reported in 2011. The highlights focus on the improved understanding of key questions in basic immunology, including the initiation and activation of innate responses as well as mechanisms for the development and function of various T-cell subsets. The research includes the identification of novel cytosolic RNA and DNA sensors as well as the identification of the novel regulators of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway. Moreover, remarkable advances have been made in the developmental and functional properties of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Helper T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells play indispensable roles in orchestrating adaptive immunity. There have been exciting discoveries regarding the regulatory mechanisms of the development of distinct T-cell subsets, particularly Th17 cells and Treg cells. The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in T cell immunity are discussed, as is the recent identification of a novel T-cell subset referred to as follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells.

  9. Immunological sex differences in socially promiscuous African ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Manjerovic

    Full Text Available Differences in how males and females respond to foreign antigens are common across taxa. Such sexual differences in the immune system are predicted to be greater in species with high promiscuity and sociality as these factors increase the likelihood of disease transmission. Intense sperm competition is thought to further this sexual dichotomy as increased investment in spermatogenesis likely incurs additional immunological costs. Xerus inauris, a ground squirrel found throughout southern Africa, is extremely social and promiscuous with one of the highest male reproductive investments among rodents. These life-history attributes suggest males and females should demonstrate a large dichotomy in immunity. Contrary to our prediction, we found no difference in spleen mass between the sexes. However, we did find significant biases in leukocyte types and red blood cell counts, possibly reflecting responses to parasite types. Among males, we predicted greater investments in spermatogenesis would result in reduced immunological investments. We found a negative association between testes and spleen size and a positive relationship between testes and number of lice suggesting trade-offs in reproductive investment possibly due to the costs associated with spermatogenesis and immunity. We suggest when measuring sexual differences in immunity it is important to consider the effects of reproductive pressures, parasite types, and life history costs.

  10. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ramírez, Maria Isabel; Pilat, Andrzej; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the same time period under the same environmental conditions. Changes in counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and natural killer (NK) cells (as immunological markers) between baseline and 20 minutes post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time × groups interaction (F(1,35)=9.33; p=0.004) for CD19. There were no significant time × group interaction effects on CD3, CD4, CD8, or NK cell counts. Intrasubject analyses showed a higher CD19 count in the experimental group post-intervention versus baseline (t=-4.02; p=0.001), with no changes in the control group (t=0.526; p=0.608). A major immunological modulation, with an increased B lymphocyte count, was observed at 20 minutes after the application of craniocervical myofascial induction techniques.

  11. From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cavallari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides (PS are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory. Currently, protection evoked by conjugated PS vaccines lasts for a few years. The same approach failed with PS from staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella. All those germs cause severe infections in humans and often develop resistance to antibiotic therapy. Thereby, prevention is of increasing importance to better control outbreaks. As only 23 of more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes and 4 of 13 clinically relevant Neisseria meningitidis serogroups are covered by available vaccines there is still tremendous clinical need for PS vaccines. This review focuses on glycovaccines and the immunological mechanisms for their success or failure. We discuss recent advances that may facilitate generation of high affinity anti-PS antibodies and confer specific immunity and long-lasting protection.

  12. From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Marco; De Libero, Gennaro

    2017-01-27

    Polysaccharides (PS) are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory. Currently, protection evoked by conjugated PS vaccines lasts for a few years. The same approach failed with PS from staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella. All those germs cause severe infections in humans and often develop resistance to antibiotic therapy. Thereby, prevention is of increasing importance to better control outbreaks. As only 23 of more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes and 4 of 13 clinically relevant Neisseria meningitidis serogroups are covered by available vaccines there is still tremendous clinical need for PS vaccines. This review focuses on glycovaccines and the immunological mechanisms for their success or failure. We discuss recent advances that may facilitate generation of high affinity anti-PS antibodies and confer specific immunity and long-lasting protection.

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The parallel evolution of immunology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is the systematic evaluation of the means through which human beings protect themselves and respond to the attack of internal and external agents, and Edward Jenner (1749-1823) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) are considered pioneers of this field. Jenner observed the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox and inoculated the cowpox in human beings to protect them from the often lethal smallpox. Pasteur developed in his laboratory a vaccine against rabies and elaborated methods for attenuating the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms while maintaining their immunogenicity. Pharmacology is the area of medical science dealing with drugs and their uses, and it was during the nineteenth century that it assumed its status of scientific specialty, mainly in German-speaking Europe, through the establishment of pharmacological institutes and dedicated laboratories. The discovery and the synthesis of drugs and the systematic evaluation of their activity have constituted through time a scientific field in which immunology and pharmacology have met and given origin to notable progress in the history of science. The development of chemotherapy, as well as of organ and tissue transplantation, in the twentieth century has been decisively promoted by both immunology and pharmacology. In the last three decades the relationship between these two scientific branches has become increasingly closer in basic research, clinical science, medical education and also editorial scientific activity, as documented by the Journal hosting this paper.

  15. Polarized release of T-cell-receptor-enriched microvesicles at the immunological synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Kaushik; Llodrá, Jaime; Roth, Eric W.; Tsai, Jones; Gordo, Susana; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Kam, Lance C.; Stokes, David L.; Dustin, Michael L.

    2014-03-01

    The recognition events that mediate adaptive cellular immunity and regulate antibody responses depend on intercellular contacts between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). T-cell signalling is initiated at these contacts when surface-expressed T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide fragments (antigens) of pathogens bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) on APCs. This, along with engagement of adhesion receptors, leads to the formation of a specialized junction between T cells and APCs, known as the immunological synapse, which mediates efficient delivery of effector molecules and intercellular signals across the synaptic cleft. T-cell recognition of pMHC and the adhesion ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on supported planar bilayers recapitulates the domain organization of the immunological synapse, which is characterized by central accumulation of TCRs, adjacent to a secretory domain, both surrounded by an adhesive ring. Although accumulation of TCRs at the immunological synapse centre correlates with T-cell function, this domain is itself largely devoid of TCR signalling activity, and is characterized by an unexplained immobilization of TCR-pMHC complexes relative to the highly dynamic immunological synapse periphery. Here we show that centrally accumulated TCRs are located on the surface of extracellular microvesicles that bud at the immunological synapse centre. Tumour susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) sorts TCRs for inclusion in microvesicles, whereas vacuolar protein sorting 4 (VPS4) mediates scission of microvesicles from the T-cell plasma membrane. The human immunodeficiency virus polyprotein Gag co-opts this process for budding of virus-like particles. B cells bearing cognate pMHC receive TCRs from T cells and initiate intracellular signals in response to isolated synaptic microvesicles. We conclude that the immunological synapse orchestrates TCR sorting and release in extracellular microvesicles. These

  16. History of immunology in Australia: events and identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I R

    2006-06-01

    Immunology originated in Europe during the latter 1900s, and applications can be discerned in colonial Australia. The actual beginnings of immunology in Australia followed Burnet's enunciation of two fundamental principles: natural immune tolerance as an acquired characteristic in 1948 and clonal selection theory in 1957. Laboratory and clinical immunology flourished at various centres from the 1950s. The Australian Society of Immunology was founded in 1971. The merger of clinical immunology with allergy in 1991 created the Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, exemplary for the reamalgamation of these related specialties. Australian immunology over the past 50 years has become recognized nationally and abroad as a highly visible component of the academic, research and biomedical scene and is still on a rising trajectory.

  17. Evaluation of immunological cross-reactivity between clade A9 high-risk human papillomavirus types on the basis of E6-Specific CD4+ memory T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; Redeker, Anke; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Loraine M.; Welters, Marij J. P.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Kenter, Gemma G.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Offringa, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+) T cell responses against the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 5 closely related members of clade A9 (HPV31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) were charted in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy subjects and patients who underwent HPV16 E6/E7-specific vaccination.

  18. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  19. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  20. Haematological and immunological characteristics of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) infected and co-infected with endo- and ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A.; Fallon, Jesse A.; Beck, Michelle L.; Coe, Brittney H.; Jachowski, Catherine M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Disease is among the leading causes of the global decline in amphibian populations. In North America, parasites and pathogens are among the factors implicated in precipitous population declines of the giant hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), but the incidence of infections and the responses of hellbenders to infections remain poorly studied. Here, we document the prevalence of leech and trypanosome infections in a wild population of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) and describe haematological and immunological characteristics of hellbenders harbouring these infections. We hypothesized that hellbenders parasitized by trypanosomes would be anaemic, that individuals infected with either or both parasites would exhibit shifts in white blood cell counts and that hellbenders infected with leeches would exhibit altered plasma bactericidal capacity. We found that 24 and 68% of hellbenders in our sample population were infected with leeches and trypanosomes, respectively, and 20% were co-infected with both parasites. We found no evidence suggestive of anaemia among infected individuals. However, hellbenders infected with either or both parasites exhibited marked shifts in circulating white blood cells that were consistent with predictable responses to parasitic infection. Additionally, we found that hellbenders harbouring leeches had much higher plasma bactericidal capacity than individuals without leeches, and we offer multiple potential mechanistic explanations for this observation. We also found evidence that cellular and serological immune responses to parasites were less robust in juvenile than adult hellbenders. This finding warrants further investigation in light of the demographic characteristics, specifically the scarcity of juvenile age classes, of hellbender populations where disease is a possible contributor to declines. Finally, we describe two methodological advances that will improve future studies seeking to

  1. Immunological response to parenteral vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen virus-like particles expressing Helicobacter pylori KatA epitopes in a murine H. pylori challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiw, Michael; Johnson, Megan; Pandey, Manisha; Fry, Scott; Hazell, Stuart L; Netter, Hans J; Good, Michael F; Olive, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) are immunogenic at the B- and T-cell level. In this study, we inserted overlapping sequences encoding the carboxy terminus of the Helicobacter pylori katA gene product into HBsAg-S. The HBsAg-S-KatA fusion proteins were able to assemble into secretion-competent VLPs (VLP-KatA). The VLP-KatA proteins were able to induce KatA-specific antibodies in immunized mice. The mean total IgG antibody titers 41 days post-primary immunization with VLP-KatA (2.3 × 10(3)) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for vaccination with VLP alone (5.2 × 10(2)). Measurement of IgG isotypes revealed responses to both IgG1 and IgG2a (mean titers, 9.0 × 10(4) and 2.6 × 10(4), respectively), with the IgG2a response to vaccination with VLP-KatA being significantly higher than that for mice immunized with KatA alone (P < 0.05). Following challenge of mice with H. pylori, a significantly reduced bacterial load in the gastric mucosa was observed (P < 0.05). This is the first report describing the use of VLPs as a delivery vehicle for H. pylori antigens.

  2. Immunological Response to Parenteral Vaccination with Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Virus-Like Particles Expressing Helicobacter pylori KatA Epitopes in a Murine H. pylori Challenge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Pandey, Manisha; Fry, Scott; Hazell, Stuart L.; Netter, Hans J.; Good, Michael F.; Olive, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) are immunogenic at the B- and T-cell level. In this study, we inserted overlapping sequences encoding the carboxy terminus of the Helicobacter pylori katA gene product into HBsAg-S. The HBsAg-S–KatA fusion proteins were able to assemble into secretion-competent VLPs (VLP-KatA). The VLP-KatA proteins were able to induce KatA-specific antibodies in immunized mice. The mean total IgG antibody titers 41 days post-primary immunization with VLP-KatA (2.3 × 103) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for vaccination with VLP alone (5.2 × 102). Measurement of IgG isotypes revealed responses to both IgG1 and IgG2a (mean titers, 9.0 × 104 and 2.6 × 104, respectively), with the IgG2a response to vaccination with VLP-KatA being significantly higher than that for mice immunized with KatA alone (P < 0.05). Following challenge of mice with H. pylori, a significantly reduced bacterial load in the gastric mucosa was observed (P < 0.05). This is the first report describing the use of VLPs as a delivery vehicle for H. pylori antigens. PMID:22205658

  3. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  4. Immunological characteristics and management considerations in obese patients with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ather, Jennifer L; Poynter, Matthew E; Dixon, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with severe, poorly controlled asthma that does not respond as well to therapy as asthma in leaner asthmatics. Important insights gained from animal models of obesity and asthma suggests that different forms of obesity may lead to different manifestations of airway disease: obesity is associated with both innate increased airway reactivity and altered responses to aeroallergen and pollutant challenges. In humans, at least two broad groups of obese asthmatics have been recognized: one that is likely unique to obesity and another that is likely lean allergic asthma much complicated by obesity. This article will discuss what we have learned about the immunological and pathophysiological basis of asthma in obesity from animal and human studies, and how this might guide therapy. PMID:25914932

  5. SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study immunological indices and functional activity of neutrophils in women with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, as well as their dependence on severity of cervical morphological alterations, we examined sixty-seven female patients in their reproductive age. It was found that, regardless of severity of pathological changes in uterine cervix, the women with HPV infection show decreased numbers of NK cells and CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, along with increased contents of gd T cells. In cases of combined sub-clinical infection with leukoplakia and endocervicosis, more severe disorders of cellular immunity were detectable than in CIN I and CIN II. It is assumed, that initial neoplastic processes with HPV background are accompanied by a more pronounced immune response. Meanwhile, functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes varies in an inverse manner, being, generally, increased in common HPV infection, followed by most significant changes in CIN I and CIN II.

  6. Immunology studies in non-human primate models of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, JoAnne L; Gideon, Hannah P; Mattila, Joshua T; Lin, Philana Ling

    2015-03-01

    Non-human primates, primarily macaques, have been used to study tuberculosis for decades. However, in the last 15 years, this model has been refined substantially to allow careful investigations of the immune response and host-pathogen interactions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Low-dose challenge with fully virulent strains in cynomolgus macaques result in the full clinical spectrum seen in humans, including latent and active infection. Reagents from humans are usually cross-reactive with macaques, further facilitating the use of this model system to study tuberculosis. Finally, macaques develop the spectrum of granuloma types seen in humans, providing a unique opportunity to investigate bacterial and host factors at the local (lung and lymph node) level. Here, we review the past decade of immunology and pathology studies in macaque models of tuberculosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Elastohydrodynamics and kinetics of protein patterning in the immunological synapse

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The cellular basis for the adaptive immune response during antigen recognition relies on a specialized protein interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). Understanding the biophysical basis for protein patterning by deciphering the quantitative rules for their formation and motion is an important aspect of characterizing immune cell recognition and thence the rules for immune system activation. We propose a minimal mathematical model for the physical basis of membrane protein patterning in the IS, which encompass membrane mechanics, protein binding kinetics and motion, and fluid flow in the synaptic cleft. Our theory leads to simple predictions for the spatial and temporal scales of protein cluster formation, growth and arrest as a function of membrane stiffness, rigidity and kinetics of the adhesive proteins, and the fluid in the synaptic cleft. Numerical simulations complement these scaling laws by quantifying the nucleation, growth and stabilization of proteins domains on the size of the cell. Dire...

  8. Imunologia da hanseníase Immunology of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amaral Mendonça

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é doença crônica infecciosa que se caracteriza por apresentar formas clínicas contrastantes, que são dependentes da interação do bacilo com a resposta imune do hospedeiro. O estudo dos processos imunológicos torna-se fundamental para o entendimento dos mecanismos envolvidos na apresentação e no desenvolvimento da doença. Neste artigo, é revisada a imunopatogênese da hanseníase.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease characterized by contrasting clinical forms that are dependent on the interactions between the bacillus and the host immune response. Thus, the study of the immunological process is extremely relevant for the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in leprosy presentation and development. In this paper, the immunopathogenesis of leprosy is reviewed.

  9. Immunological basis in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Spencer P; Kovilam, Oormila; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy poses a great risk to both maternal and fetal health. Despite extensive research, much of the pathogenesis of this disorder is unknown. The increase in bile acids observed in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been noted to cause a change in the immune system from the normally mediated TH2 response to one that is more oriented towards TH1. In this literature review, we have critically reviewed the current literature regarding the changes in the immune system and the potential effects of immunological changes in the management of the patient. The current treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, is also discussed along with potential combination therapies and future directions for research.

  10. Immunological criteria in risk assessment of nonionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batanov, G.V.; Trifonov, S.I.

    1984-07-01

    A survey is presented of the use of immunological criteria in determining safety limits for nonionizing radiation, in view of occupational, medical and background exposure to various sources of electromagnetic radiation. Many components of the immune system have been shown to be very labile to various external factors and, although experimental and clinical data are quite limited, nonionizing radiation has been demonstrated to affect certain components. For example, irradiation with low power flux density microwaves (to 1 mW/cm/sup 2/) has been shown to enhance certain specific and nonspecific immune responses, while microwaves in the 1-10 mW/cm/sup 2/ range have been shown to be immunosuppressive. In addition, therapeutic-intensity argon, cadmium, helium-neon and chemical HF lasers have been shown to alter serum immunoglobulin levels and antibody reactivity. Other factors of the immune system found susceptible to nonionizing radiation include phagocytic activity, immune cell function, complement activity, antibody formation, etc. 30 references.

  11. Novel marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B infections: immunologic, virologic and radiologic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leibovitch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 is a ubiquitous virus with an estimated seroprevalence of 95% in the adult population. HHV-6 is associated with several neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. Animal models of HHV-6 infection would help clarify its role in human disease but have been slow to develop because rodents lack CD46, the receptor for cellular entry. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HHV-6 infections in a non-human primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. We inoculated a total of 12 marmosets with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously and HHV-6A intranasally. Animals were monitored for 25 weeks post-inoculation clinically, immunologically and by MRI. Marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms and generated virus-specific antibody responses, while those inoculated intravenously with HHV-6B were asymptomatic and generated comparatively lower antibody responses. Viral DNA was detected at a low frequency in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue of a subset of marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously. When different routes of HHV-6A inoculation were compared, intravenous inoculation resulted in virus-specific antibody responses and infrequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery, while intranasal inoculation resulted in negligible virus-specific antibody responses and frequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery. Moreover, marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms, while marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intranasally were asymptomatic. We demonstrate that a marmoset model of HHV-6 infection can serve to further define the contribution of this ubiquitous virus to human neurologic disorders.

  12. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  13. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  14. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  15. Immunological Characterization of Pectinatus cerevisiophilus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikara, A

    1983-11-01

    Eleven Pectinatus cerevisiophilus strains of brewery origin were classified serologically by gel diffusion precipitin tests, immunoelectrophoresis, and the fluorescent antibody staining technique. The Pectinatus strains could be assigned immunologically to three different groups. Groups I and III were found to be very closely related, and only some of the antisera used showed differences. The antisera against the strains belonging to group II contained a common group antigen. A strong precipitation band found near the antigen was shown to represent the interaction of the lipopolysaccharide antibody and the respective antigen.

  16. Basic Genetics and Immunology of Candida Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-03-01

    Candida infections can cause superficial and invasive disease. Several essential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these infections were known for some time, such as neutropenia predisposing to invasive disease, and CD4 lymphopenia causing increased susceptibility to mucosal candidiasis. However, the development of novel genetic screening techniques has led to several new insights in the genetics and immunology of candida infections. This article highlights novel insights in the pathogenesis of mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis that have been identified in recent years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the humoral immunological response after vaccination with a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-embedded bacterin in dairy cows: possible role of the exopolysaccharide specific antibody production in the protection from Staphylococcus aureus induced mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta, Antoni; March, Ricard; Foix, Antoni; Casals, Isidre; Costa, Llorenç

    2010-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze an extracellular component from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which we refer to as slime associated antigenic complex (SAAC), and to investigate the role of SAAC-specific antibody production in protection from S. aureus bovine mastitis. Twelve primiparous gestating cows were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: Group 1 was vaccinated with a S. aureus bacterin with very limited SAAC content; Group 2 received a S. aureus bacterin with high SAAC content and Group 3 served as unvaccinated controls. Animals were vaccinated at 45 days before the expected parturition date and revaccinated 35 days later. All groups were challenged by intramammary infusion with a virulent heterologous strain of S. aureus 23 days after calving. Antibody response against SAAC in serum and in milk, general clinical signs, mastitis score, somatic cell count (SCC) and count of S. aureus in milk were evaluated before and after challenge. Immunization with a high SAAC content in the S. aureus bacterin (Group 2) significantly enhanced antibody titers against SAAC (in serum and milk) and reduced the S. aureus concentration in milk during the post-challenge period compared to Group 1 and Group 3. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was observed between SAAC antibody production on the day of the challenge and the S. aureus count in milk by 1 day after challenge. However, there was no evidence of a difference between vaccinated and control groups with regard to clinical signs of mastitis following the challenge. Nevertheless, the SAAC antibody concentration on the day of the challenge negatively correlated with the mastitis score in quarters infected with S. aureus at 2 days post-challenge. These results indicate that the vaccines did not prevent S. aureus intramammary infection (IMI) after the experimental challenge, but immunization with a S. aureus bacterin with high SAAC content was able to reduce S. aureus multiplication in

  18. HPV infection: immunological aspects and their utility in future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Giannouli, Aikaterini; Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos; Karountzos, Vasileios; Vatopoulou, Anastasia; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Creatsas, George

    2013-01-01

    High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2) and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.

  19. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios Deligeoroglou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.

  20. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2010-03-01

    In 2009, reports on basic and clinical immunology had an increased focus on human disease mechanisms and management. The molecular pathogenesis of familial angioedema associated with estrogen was further explored to find possible factors affecting severity, including polymorphisms in enzymes and receptors related to bradykinin pathways. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate in patients with hereditary angioedema demonstrated the safety of its use and its efficacy to reduce the duration of angioedema attacks. The interaction of innate immunity and adaptive responses was further examined in several reports, establishing the significant role of Toll-like receptor stimulation for the development of optimal specific antibody responses. The 2009 update of the classification of primary immunodeficiencies introduced more than 15 new genetic defects related to the immune response, including of dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) mutations, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive form of the hyper-IgE syndrome. Other reports expanded the clinical spectrum of disease and improved the characterization of conditions such as warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and myelokathexis syndrome or the occurrence of mucormycosis and Serratia species infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The frequent presentation of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies was recognized, and recommendations for management were reviewed. Clinical research focused on severe combined immunodeficiency included the development and implementation of a state-wide newborn screening program for this condition, a desired goal considering the significant reduction of mortality rate when the diagnosis is made early before opportunistic infections occur.

  1. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  2. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  3. Accumulation of coal combustion residues and their immunological effects in the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, David L; Hamilton, Matthew T; Jones, Amanda L; Finger, John W; Bringolf, Robert B; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as industrial processes often produce copious amounts of contaminants that have the potential to negatively impact growth, survival, and reproduction of exposed wildlife. Coal combustion residues (CCRs) represent a major source of pollutants globally, resulting in the release of potentially harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) into the environment. In the United States, CCRs are typically stored in aquatic settling basins that may become attractive nuisances to wildlife. Trace element contaminants, such as CCRs, may pose a threat to biota yet little is known about their sublethal effects on reptiles. To assess the effects of CCR exposure in turtles, we sampled 81 yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) in 2014-2015 from CCR-contaminated and uncontaminated reference wetlands located on the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC, USA). Specific aims were to (1) compare the accumulation of trace elements in T. s. scripta claw and blood samples between reference and CCR-contaminated site types, (2) evaluate potential immunological effects of CCRs via bacterial killing assays and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) assays, and (3) quantify differences in hemogregarine parasite loads between site types. Claw As, Cd, copper (Cu), and Se (all p ≤ 0.001) and blood As, Cu, Se, and strontium (Sr; p ≤ 0.015) were significantly elevated in turtles from CCR-contaminated wetlands compared to turtles from reference wetlands. Turtles from reference wetlands exhibited lower bacterial killing (p = 0.015) abilities than individuals from contaminated sites but neither PHA responses (p = 0.566) nor parasite loads (p = 0.980) differed by site type. Despite relatively high CCR body burdens, sliders did not exhibit apparent impairment of immunological response or parasite load. In addition, the high correlation between claw and blood concentrations within individuals suggests that nonlethal tissue sampling may be

  4. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Shearer, William T

    2013-03-01

    Basic and clinical immunology articles published in the Journal in 2012 were mostly related to the expanding area of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Novel forms of PID were identified by using whole-exome sequencing or after careful examination of flow cytometric data, as in the reports of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase, CD27, and CD21 deficiencies. Absent IgG and IgA memory B cells were described in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome, which is consistent with defective antibody response and suggests a potential benefit of immunoglobulin replacement. Impaired production of antibodies to polysaccharide antigens by the human B-cell subset analog to murine B-1 cells was reported in a child with selective polysaccharide antibody deficiency. Increased production of inflammatory cytokines by monocyte-derived cells on Toll-like receptor activation was reported in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia, underscoring the important role of Bruton tyrosine kinase in modulation of inflammation. The mechanisms explaining susceptibility to yeast infections and development of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis were extensively studied. Universal newborn screening for T-cell deficiencies is being implemented in several states, resulting in the diagnosis of a higher number of immunodeficient newborns than previously estimated. The use of laboratory testing to distinguish PIDs from HIV infection was clarified. In the management of PIDs, refinement of indication and strategies to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation resulted in improved outcomes. The use of anti-IL-6 mAbs showed promise as an alternative treatment in patients with Schnitzler syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2009-02-01

    We reviewed selected reports in the field of basic and clinical immunology published in 2008. Research progress in the immunologic mechanisms of allergic disease included the modulation of T(H)2 responses by specific transcription factors and receptors associated with the innate immunity, underscoring the importance of the interactions between adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. Investigations of the pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema included a variety of host factors with roles in bradykinin metabolism and vasomotor activity, explaining the variable severity of the clinical presentation. The research focus in HIV infection has shifted from control of disease progression to the barriers for viral eradication, and the search for vaccine designs that provide immunity in the short window between infection and establishment of viral reservoirs. HIV-infected individuals who receive antiviral treatment develop a high incidence of asthma, resembling the inflammatory processes associated with immunoreconstitution. The correlation of molecular diagnosis and clinical presentation was analyzed in 4 relatively rare primary immunodeficiencies: hyper-IgE syndrome; immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked disease; cartilage-hair hypoplasia; and nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator deficiency. Studies of patients with partial DiGeorge syndrome and chronic granulomatous disease unveiled subclinical deficiencies that might have an impact in their care. Long-term outcomes from patients with severe combined immunodeficiency who received bone marrow transplants were considered successful compared with the alternative of no intervention. However, the occurrence of adverse events reinforces the need for coordinate efforts to develop optimal protocols for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe immune defects.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients (ID 960, 961, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 960, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), and stimulation of immunological responses (ID 962, 968, 970, 972, 976, 984, 986, 995, 997, 999, 1007, 1015) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and stimulation of immunological responses. The food constituents, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis THT 010801, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis THT 010201......, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum THT 010301, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum THT 010501, Lactobacillus casei THT 030401, Lactobacillus gasseri THT 031301, Lactobacillus helveticus THT 031102, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030701, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030707, Lactobacillus reuteri THT...

  7. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  8. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  9. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  10. Primary immunodeficiencies: a pictorial immunology primer for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, D.E.; Sikka, S. [Dept. Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Reid, B.; Roifman, C. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology/Allergy, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    The immune response constitutes a complex array of interconnecting pathways and mechanisms that result in a sophisticated series of communicative reactions designed to protect against foreign substances. Recent advances in immunologic investigations have begun to unlock many of the previous mysteries underlying the body's defense mechanisms. The complexities of organ transplantation, the isolation of organisms that selectively impair the immune system, and the widespread use of sophisticated anti-neoplastic therapies have necessitated a more comprehensive understanding of underlying immune mechanisms by all physicians. This review presents a simplified view of the development of the immune response. We present strategic examples of primary (i.e., congenital) disorders of immune function to create a framework to understand the major mechanisms that constitute the various ''arms'' of the immune system. It is sometimes easier to understand complex mechanisms when one sees how disease processes interfere with these mechanisms. We have excluded many of the more detailed and complicated mechanisms involved in the immune response in an effort to maintain simplicity.

  11. Immunomodulators in SLE: Clinical evidence and immunologic actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, L; Petri, M

    2016-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease. Current treatment strategies rely heavily on corticosteroids, which are in turn responsible for a significant burden of morbidity, and immunosuppressives which are limited by suboptimal efficacy, increased infections and malignancies. There are significant deficiencies in our immunosuppressive armamentarium, making immunomodulatory therapies crucial, offering the opportunity to prevent disease flare and the subsequent accrual of damage. Currently available immunomodulators include prasterone (synthetic dehydroeipandrosterone), vitamin D, hydroxychloroquine and belimumab. These therapies, acting via numerous cellular and cytokine pathways, have been shown to modify the aberrant immune responses associated with SLE without overt immunosuppression. Vitamin D is important in SLE and supplementation appears to have a positive impact on disease activity particularly proteinuria. Belimumab has specific immunomodulatory properties and is an effective therapy in those with specific serological and clinical characteristics predictive of response. Hydroxychloroquine is a crucial background medication in SLE with actions in many molecular pathways. It has disease specific effects in reducing flare, treating cutaneous disease and inflammatory arthralgias in addition to other effects such as reduced thrombosis, increased longevity, improved lipids, better glycemic control and blood pressure. Dehydroeipandrosterone is also an immunomodulator in SLE which can have positive effects on disease activity and has bone protective properties. This review outlines the immunologic actions of these drugs and the clinical evidence supporting their use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccines for the future: learning from human immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Ennio; Rappuoli, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Summary Conventional vaccines have been extremely successful in preventing infections by pathogens expressing relatively conserved antigens through antibody‐mediated effector mechanisms. Thanks to vaccination some diseases have been eradicated and mortality due to infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. However, there are still many infections that are not preventable with vaccination, which represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. Some of these infections are caused by pathogens with a high degree of antigen variability that cannot be controlled only by antibodies, but require a mix of humoral and cellular immune responses. Novel technologies for antigen discovery, expression and formulation allow now for the development of vaccines that can better cope with pathogen diversity and trigger multifunctional immune responses. In addition, the application of new genomic assays and systems biology approaches in human immunology can help to better identify vaccine correlates of protection. The availability of novel vaccine technologies, together with the knowledge of the distinct human immune responses that are required to prevent different types of infection, should help to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:21880117

  13. Reproductive immunology: biomarkers of compromised pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulk, W.P.; Coulam, C.B.; McIntyre, J.A.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to consider several catagories of biomarkers of human pregnancy. The design of the report is to discuss useful and promising markers and techniques. Research gaps, needs, and priorities are also defined. Useful markers are mixed lymphocyte culture reactions, measures of lymphocytotoxic antibodies, histocompatibility (HLA) typing, and immunohematological evaluations. Promising markers are measures of major basic protein and early pregnancy factor, as well as determinations of trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive (TLX) antigens. Promising techniques are flourescence-activated cell-sorter analysis of maternal blood for fetal and extraembryonic tissues and immunotherapy with TLX and other antigens to prevent spontaneous abortion. It is concluded that immunology has much to offer the development of biomarkers of human pregnancy.

  14. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dimitroulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature.

  15. Origins and evolution of reproductive immunology: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, W David

    2015-04-01

    This is a brief personal assessment of the origins and development of the field of reproductive immunology from the 19th century to the present day, with special reference to the founding of the Journal of Reproductive Immunology in 1979. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system....5870 Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid autoantibody...

  17. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  18. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  19. 42 CFR 493.837 - Standard; General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; General immunology. 493.837 Section 493.837 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.837 Standard; General immunology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology at Siriraj Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichyanond, Pakit

    2002-08-01

    Like other parts of the world, prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in Thailand, particularly of asthma and allergic rhinitis, has risen sharply over the past decade. Epidemiologic studies in this country indicated that allergic sensitization (mainly to house dust mites, cockroaches and cat dander) is the major important risk factor for the development of asthma. House dust mites are the most important source of allergens causing sensitization among allergic Thai children. A nationwide survey indicated that house dust mites are ubiquitous in Thai homes. Despite the authors' earlier finding that mite allergen levels in Thailand (mean group-I allergen level of 11 mcg/g dust), exceeded the recommended international threshold level to induce asthmatic symptoms (10 mcg/g dust), mite allergen levels in homes within the Bangkok area are in the modest range (5 mcg/g dust). With mattresses in Thailand being commonly laid on hardwood surfaces, the authors demonstrated that only top-covering of these mattresses with locally produced mite-impermeable membrane, mite allergens could be substantially reduced. Other active research in pediatric allergy in Thailand include complete surveys of outdoor aeroallergens and research in pharmacologic managements of allergic diseases. The Thailand Registry of Primary Immune Deficiency has recently been established to collect data on patients with these disorders and to improve means for diagnosis and treatment for these unfortunate patients. Finally, with a recent approval for board certification in pediatric allergy and immunology, it is expected that the number of specialists in this field will increase to a sufficient level to provide adequate care for allergic/immunologic children in Thailand.