DeMartini, Daniel G; Ghoshal, Amitabh; Pandolfi, Erica; Weaver, Aaron T; Baum, Mary; Morse, Daniel E
Loliginid squid use tunable multilayer reflectors to modulate the optical properties of their skin for camouflage and communication. Contained inside specialized cells called iridocytes, these photonic structures have been a model for investigations into bio-inspired adaptive optics. Here, we describe two distinct sexually dimorphic tunable biophotonic features in the commercially important species Doryteuthis opalescens: bright stripes of rainbow iridescence on the mantle just beneath each fin attachment and a bright white stripe centered on the dorsal surface of the mantle between the fins. Both of these cellular features are unique to the female; positioned in the same location as the conspicuously bright white testis in the male, they are completely switchable, transitioning between transparency and high reflectivity. The sexual dimorphism, location and tunability of these features suggest that they may function in mating or reproduction. These features provide advantageous new models for investigation of adaptive biophotonics. The intensely reflective cells of the iridescent stripes provide a greater signal-to-noise ratio than the adaptive iridocytes studied thus far, while the cells constituting the white stripe are adaptive leucophores--unique biological tunable broadband scatterers containing Mie-scattering organelles activated by acetylcholine, and a unique complement of reflectin proteins.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...
The slight female-plus dimorphism in SVL and male-plus dimorphism in head dimensions is suggested to be related to life in the cold montane environment, and to differential growth to increase female reproductive fitness, rather than to be the result of sexual selection. Males exhibit testicular recrudescence during autumn, ...
aim of this study was to determine the sexual dimorphism of P. obscura using the parameters such as morphometric parameters ... All rights reserved. Keywords: Parachanna obscura, sexual dimorphism, condition factor, weight-length relationship. INTRODUCTION. Reproduction is essential for species conservation (Niass ...
Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.
Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and
Taken together, our work reports SSD in small African plovers that exhibit monomorphic plumage, and we propose that SSD may be more common than currently acknowledged; we term this 'cryptic sexual size dimorphism'. Our results also suggest sexual selection and/or natural selection exert different pressures on body ...
Dec 23, 2008 ... One trait which frequently exhibits sexual dimorphism is developmental time; many animal species show ... insects (reviewed in Morbey and Ydenberg 2001). Most re- search on protandry has tended to ..... ized heritability for protandry, we used the FMSF and SMFF lines, for divergence in development time ...
3INRA, Station de Recherches Avicoles 37380 – Nouzilly, France. Abstract. Most animal species exhibit sexual size dimorphism (SSD). SSD is a trait difficult to quantify for genetical purposes since it must be simultaneously measured on two kinds of individuals, and it is generally expressed either as a differ- ence or as a ...
Adults of the African pyrgomorphid grasshopper, Zonocerus elegans Thunberg, exhibit strong alar polymorphism, especially in the male sex, with wings either vestigial or fully developed. Analysis of body and elytron lengths of about 400 insects revealed sexual dimorphism, females being larger than males, and showed a ...
James B. Johnson; Lance D. McBrayer; Daniel Saenz
Hemidactylus tucrius is a small gekkonid lizard native to the Middle East and Asia that is known to exhibit sexual dimorphism in head size. Several potential explanations exist for the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism in lizards. We tested 2 of these competing hypotheses concerning diet partitioning and differential growth. We found no...
Ubelaker, Douglas H; DeGaglia, Cassandra M
Research has documented considerable population variation in sexual dimorphism related to human growth and development. This variation represents both genetic and environmental factors which impact methodologies used to estimate sex from human skeletal remains. This article provides an overview of known variation in skeletal sexual dimorphism among populations through documented research on samples from around the world. Variation in juvenile growth patterns of populations and differences in adult skeletal size and characteristics are discussed. This recognized variation should be considered by forensic anthropologists when estimating sex from skeletal remains and appropriate population-specific data should be utilized. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Davis, Jon R; Denardo, Dale F
Sex-specific variation in morphology (sexual dimorphism) is a prevalent phenomenon among animals, and both dietary intake and resource allocation strategies influence sexually dimorphic traits (e.g., body size or composition). However, we investigated whether assimilation efficiency (AE), an intermediate step between dietary intake and allocation, can also vary between the sexes. Specifically, we tested whether sex-based differences in AE can explain variation in phenotypic traits. We measured morphometric characteristics (i.e., body length, mass, condition, and musculature) and AE of total energy, crude protein, and crude fat in post-reproductive adult Children's pythons (which exhibit a limited female-biased sexual size dimorphism) fed both low and high dietary intakes. Meal size was negatively related to AE of energy. Notably, male snakes absorbed crude protein more efficiently and increased epaxial (dorsal) musculature faster than females, which demonstrates a link between AE and phenotype. However, females grew in body length faster but did not absorb any nutrient more efficiently than males. Although our results do not provide a direct link between AE and sexual size dimorphism, they demonstrate that sexual variation in nutrient absorption exists and can contribute to other types of sex-based differences in phenotype (i.e., sexual dimorphism in growth of musculature). Hence, testing the broader applicability of AE's role in sexually dimorphic traits among other species is warranted.
Lockwood, C A
Recently discovered crania of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4 and Makapansgat enlarge the size range of the species and encourage a reappraisal of both the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism. Resampling methodology (bootstrapping) is used here to establish that A. africanus has a greater craniofacial size range than chimpanzees or modern humans, a range which is best attributed to a moderately high degree of sexual dimorphism. Compared to other fossil hominins, this variation is similar to that of Homo habilis (sensu lato) but less than that of A. boisei. The finding of moderately high dimorphism is corroborated by a CV-based estimate and ratios between those specimens considered to be male and those considered to be female. Inferences about the pattern of craniofacial dimorphism in the A. africanus face currently rely on the relationship of morphology and size. Larger specimens, particularly Stw 505, show prominent superciliary eminences and glabellar regions, but in features related in part to canine size, such as the curvature of the infraorbital surface, large and small specimens of A. africanus are similar. In this respect, the pattern resembles that of modern humans more so than chimpanzees or lowland gorillas. A. africanus may also show novel patterns of sexual dimorphism when compared to extant hominines, such as in the form of the anterior pillar. However, males of the species do not exhibit characteristics of more derived hominins, such as A. robustus.
Chenoweth, Stephen F; Blows, Mark W
The evolution of sexual dimorphism may occur when natural and sexual selection result in different optimum trait values for males and females. Perhaps the most prominent examples of sexual dimorphism occur in sexually selected traits, for which males usually display exaggerated trait levels, while females may show reduced expression of the trait. In some species, females also exhibit secondary sexual traits that may either be a consequence of a correlated response to sexual selection on males or direct sexual selection for female secondary sexual traits. In this experiment, we simultaneously measure the intersex genetic correlations and the relative strength of sexual selection on males and females for a set of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila serrata. There was significant directional sexual selection on both male and female cuticular hydrocarbons: the strength of sexual selection did not differ among the sexes but males and females preferred different cuticular hydrocarbons. In contrast with many previous studies of sexual dimorphism, intersex genetic correlations were low. The evolution of sexual dimorphism in D. serrata appears to have been achieved by sex-limited expression of traits controlled by genes on the X chromosome and is likely to be in its final stages.
Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María
The pattern of sexual dimorphism in 15 mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH Middle Pleistocene site, attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, is explored. Two modern human samples of known sex are used as a baseline for establishing sexing criteria. The mandible was divided for analysis into seven study regions and differential expression of sexual dimorphism in these regions is analysed. A total of 40 continuous and 32 discrete variables were scored on the mandibles. The means method given in Regh & Leigh (Am. J. phys. Anthrop.110, 95-104, 1999) was followed for evaluating the potential of correct sex attribution for each variable. On average, the mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH site present a degree of sexual dimorphism about eight points higher than in H. sapiens samples. However, mandibular anatomy of the European Middle Pleistocene hominid records sexual dimorphism differentially. Different areas of the Atapuerca-SH mandibles exhibit quite distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism. For instance, variables of the alveolar arcade present very low or practically no sexual dimorphism. Variables related to overall size of the mandible and symphysis region present a medium degree of sex differences. Finally, ramus height, and gonion and coronoid process present a high degree of sexual dimorphism (indexes of sexual dimorphism are all above 130%). Whether this marked sexual dimorphism in specific anatomical systems affects sexual differences in body size is not completely clear and further studies are needed. Sexual differences detected in the mandible of modern humans have at least two components: differences related to musculo-skeletal development and differences related to a different growth trajectory in males and females (relative development of some of the basal border features). The Atapuerca-SH mandibles display little variation in the basal border, however. The limited variation of this mandibular region may indicate that the pattern of sexual variation in H
Patterns of sexual pelvic bone dimorphism in mammals are well documented. However, limited osteo-morphometrical examinations exist of the nature of dimorphism in the bony pelvis of the bat. This study, therefore, investigated the patterns of size and shape dimorphism in the pelvic bone of the West African fruit bat, ...
Meiri, Shai; Kadison, Amy E; Novosolov, Maria; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Itescu, Yuval; Raia, Pasquale; Pincheira‐Donoso, Daniel; Colli, Guarino
.... Interspecific competition, however, is thought to limit sexual dimorphism, as larger competitors in the community will prevent the larger sex from evolving larger size, and smaller species may...
Kishi, Shigeki; Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishida, Takayoshi
Dimorphic sexual differences in shape and body size are called sexual dimorphism and sexual size dimorphism, respectively. The degrees of both dimorphisms are considered to increase with sexual selection, represented by male-male competition. However, the degrees of the two dimorphisms often differ within a species. In some dung beetles, typical sexual shape dimorphisms are seen in male horns and other exaggerated traits, although sexual size dimorphism looks rare. We hypothesized that the evolution of this sexual shape dimorphism without sexual size dimorphism is caused by male-male competition and their crucial and sex-indiscriminate provisioning behaviors, in which parents provide the equivalent size of brood ball with each of both sons and daughters indiscriminately. As a result of individual-based model simulations, we show that parents evolve to provide each of sons and daughters with the optimal amount of resource for a son when parents do not distinguish the sex of offspring and males compete for mates. This result explains why crucial and sex-indiscriminate parental provisioning does not prevent the evolution of sexual shape dimorphism. The model result was supported by empirical data of Scarabaeidae beetles. In some dung beetles, sexual size dimorphism is absent, compared with significant sexual size dimorphism in other horned beetles, although both groups exhibit similar degrees of sexual shape dimorphism in male horns and other exaggerated traits.
Baotic, Anton; Stoeger, Angela S
This study used the source and filter theory approach to analyse sex differences in the acoustic features of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) low-frequency rumbles produced in social contexts ('social rumbles'). Permuted discriminant function analysis revealed that rumbles contain sufficient acoustic information to predict the sex of a vocalizing individual. Features primarily related to the vocalizer's size, i.e. fundamental frequency variables and vocal tract resonant frequencies, differed significantly between the sexes. Yet, controlling for age and size effects, our results indicate that the pronounced sexual size dimorphism in African elephants is partly, but not exclusively, responsible for sexual differences in social rumbles. This provides a scientific foundation for future work investigating the perceptual and functional relevance of specific acoustic characteristics in African elephant vocal sexual communication.
Charadrius plovers generally show little sexual or seasonal dimorphism in size and coloration, but most published measurements come from museum specimens. We aimed to determine sexual size dimorphism in live Kittlitz's Plovers Charadrius pecuarius, based on measurements of 96 males and 112 females ringed at ...
Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter
We examined sexual dimorphism in the anthropometry of 68 Australasian and Pacific powerlifters (14 females, 54 males) who were competing in one of two national or international powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. All powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) Level II and III accredited anthropometrists. While the powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974), these characteristics were often more pronounced in male than female lifters. No significant inter-gender differences in any of the measures of adiposity were observed. When normalized through the Phantom, the female and male powerlifters had relatively similar segment lengths and bone breadths, indicating that regardless of gender, competitive powerlifters possess comparable skeletal proportions. These results indicate that although competitive powerlifters exhibit sexual dimorphism for many absolute anthropometric measures, little dimorphism is found for measures of adiposity and for proportional segment lengths and bone breadths. These results further support the importance of anthropometric profiling for powerlifting, and suggest that successful male and female powerlifters will possess similar proportional characteristics.
Schulte-Hostedde, A I; Kuula, S; Martin, C; Schank, C C M; Lesbarrères, D
Allometry of secondary sexual traits has been the subject of recent debate, and the generality of positive allometry and its association with sexual selection have been recently questioned. Whereas some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for traits under sexual selection and isometry or a negative allometry for traits not under such pressure, other studies argue that this pattern results from the study of exaggerated (ornamental) traits. To answer the call for an examination of the allometry of less-exaggerated sexually selected traits, we have examined morphological data from 14 sexually dimorphic traits and six monomorphic traits from three anuran species. Although we found evidence of positive allometry in male secondary sexual traits of several species and populations, not all nonsexual traits were isometric or exhibited negative allometry. Furthermore, our results indicate that larger traits in the populations that we studied were not associated with greater allometric slopes. Therefore, our study is in line with the contention suggesting no specific kind of allometric pattern for sexual and nonsexual characters, and we can only advocate for further investigation of trait allometry and sexual selection to understand the complexity underlying the evolution of allometry in sexual traits. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Angolosaurus skoogi is a large, herbivorous lizard of the northern Namib dune sea. Adults are sexually dimorphic in body size and colouration and these differences may be related to social organization. Whether the observed dimorphism is a result of the mating system, as is the case with several other herbivorous lizards, ...
Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Yingxia; Paidoula, Yahefujiang; Cheng, Xin; Rodrigues, Taissa; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Jialiang; Li, Ning; Zhou, Zhonghe
The pterosaur record is generally poor, with little information about their populations, and pterosaur eggs are even rarer, with only four isolated and flattened eggs found to date. We report here a population of a new sexually dimorphic pterosaur species (Hamipterus tianshanensis gen. et sp. nov.), with five exceptionally well-preserved three-dimensional eggs, from the Early Cretaceous deposit in northwestern China. About 40 male and female individuals in total were recovered, but the actual number associated might be in the hundreds. All of the discovered skulls have crests, which exhibit two different morphologies in size, shape, and robustness. The eggs show pliable depressions with cracking and crazing on the outer surface. The eggshell, observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, comprises a thin calcareous external hard shell followed by a soft membrane. These fossils shed new light on the reproductive strategy, ontogeny, and behavior of pterosaurs. The cranial crests show sexually dimorphic morphologies, with presumed males and females differing in crest size, shape, and robustness. Ontogenetic variation is reflected mainly in the expansion of the rostrum. The eggs have some external rigidity of the general pliable eggshell, and the microstructure of the eggshell is similar to that of some modern "soft" snake eggs. We suggest that this new pterosaur nested in colonies and thus exhibited gregarious behavior, a possible general trend for at least derived pterodactyloid pterosaurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
K S Nagesh
Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.
S. A. Shaffer; H. Weimerskirch; D. P. Costa
1. The investigation covered whether sexual dimorphism could affect flight performance in a manner that is consistent with differences in at-sea distribution of male and female Wandering Albatrosses...
Wyman, M J; Stinchcombe, J R; Rowe, L
Sexual differences are often dramatic and widespread across taxa. Their extravagance and ubiquity can be puzzling because the common underlying genome of males and females is expected to impede rather than foster phenotypic divergence. Widespread dimorphism, despite a shared genome, may be more readily explained by considering the multivariate, rather than univariate, framework governing the evolution of sexual dimorphism. In the univariate formulation, differences in genetic variances and a low intersexual genetic correlation (rMF) can facilitate the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, studies that have analysed sex-specific differences in heritabilities or genetic variances do not always find significant differences. Furthermore, many of the reported estimates of rMF are very high and positive. When monomorphic heritabilities and a high rMF are present together, the evolution of sexual dimorphism on a trait-by-trait basis is severely constrained. By contrast, the multivariate formulation has greater generality and more flexibility. Although the number of multivariate sexual dimorphism studies is low, almost all support sex-specific differences in the G (variance-covariance) matrix; G matrices can differ with respect to size and/or orientation, affecting the response to selection differently between the sexes. Second, whereas positive values of the univariate quantity rMF only hinder positive changes in sexual dimorphism, positive covariances in the intersexual covariance B matrix can either help or hinder. Similarly, the handful of studies reporting B matrices indicate that it is often asymmetric, so that B can affect the evolution of single traits differently between the sexes. Multivariate approaches typically demonstrate that genetic covariances among traits can strongly constrain trait evolution when compared with univariate approaches. By contrast, in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, a multivariate view potentially reveals more opportunities for
Ketola, Tarmo; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kellermann, Vanessa M
dimorphism and its genetic background could be environmentally sensitive. Yet few studies have explored the sensitivity of the genetic background of sexual dimorphism on environmental variation. In this study, on Drosophila melanogaster, we used a large nested full-sib–half-sib breeding design where families...... were split into four different developmental temperatures: two constant temperature treatments of 25 and 30oC and two cycling temperatures with means of 25 and 30oC, respectively. After emergence, we tested heat shock tolerance of adult flies. We found that sexual dimorphism was strongly affected...
Hall, AJ; Englehard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Vecchione, A; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH
The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts,
Hall, A.J.; Engelhard, G.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Vecchione, A.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.
The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' predicts that highly sexually dimorphic and polygynous species will exhibit sex differences in immunity. We tested this hypothesis in southern elephant and grey seals during their early development by measuring the following parameters: leucocyte counts,
De Lisle, Stephen P; Rowe, Locke
Empirical evidence suggests that Rensch's rule of allometric scaling of male and female body size, which states that body size divergence is greater across males than across females of a clade, is not universal. In fact, quantitative genetic theory indicates that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size. Thus, the pattern of covariance between allometry of male and female body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) across related clades allows a test of this causal hypothesis for macroevolutionary trends in SSD. We compiled a data set of published body size estimates from the amphibians, a class with predominantly female-biased SSD, to examine variation in allometry and SSD among clades. Our results indicate that females become the more size-variant sex across species in a family as the magnitude of SSD in that family increases. This rejects Rensch's rule and implicates selection on females as a driver of both amphibian allometry and SSD. Further, when we combine our data into a single analysis of allometry for the class, we find a significant nonlinear allometric relationship between female body size and male body size. These data suggest that allometry changes significantly as a function of size. Our results illustrate that the relationship between female size and male size varies with both the degree of sexual dimorphism and the body size of a clade.
Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels
SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...... the direct measurements. The mean angle was greater in females (48.2° ± 7.2°) than in males (45.38° ±8.06°) but the difference was not significant (t-test, p = 0.063). A statistically significant difference in cranial base shape existed between the two sexes, but the results also demonstrated a major overlap...
Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka
The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fischer, Barbara; Mitteroecker, Philipp
Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis has evolved in response to several jointly acting selection regimes that result from the pelvis' multiple roles in locomotion and childbirth, among others. Because human males are, on average, taller than females, some aspects of sexual dimorphism in pelvis shape might result from allometry, the association between stature and pelvis shape across individuals. In this study, they aimed to disentangle and quantify the two components contributing to pelvic sex differences: the allometric component, which emerges as a consequence of dimorphism in stature, and the remaining non-allometric sexual dimorphism component. A geometric morphometric analysis of a dense set of 3D landmarks, measured on 99 female and male adult individuals was conducted. While pelvis size was similar in both sexes, the average differences in pelvis shape reflected the well-documented pattern of sexual dimorphism. There was almost no overlap between females and males in shape space. Their analysis showed that pelvis size and shape were similarly associated with stature in both sexes. It was found that dimorphism in the height-to-width ratio of the pelvis and in the orientation of the iliac blades was largely allometric, whereas dimorphism in the subpubic angle and the relative size and distance of the acetabula was largely non-allometric. It was concluded that, in contrast to the overall pelvic proportions, sexual dimorphism in the birth-relevant pelvic dimensions was mainly of non-allometric origin and was presumably mediated via steroid hormone secretion during puberty. Anat Rec, 300:698-705, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K
Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. © 2014 Anatomical Society.
687–696. Raihani G, Székely T, Serrano-Meneses M A, Pitra C and Goriup. P 2006 The influence of sexual selection and male agility on sexual size dimorphism in bustards (Otididae); Anim. Behav. 71 833–838. Rensch B 1950 Die Abhangigkeit der relativen Sexualdifferenz von der Korpergroße. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 1 58–69.
The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis.
Fox, Gerad A; Cooper, Allen M; Hayes, William K
Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution in interpreting
Mouat, Margaret A; Coleman, James L J; Smith, Nicola J
Cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of mortality worldwide and there is a clear gender gap in disease occurrence: men are predisposed to earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension, than are women. Oestrogen may be a driving factor for female-specific cardioprotection, though androgens and sex chromosomes are also likely to contribute to sexual dimorphism in the cardiovascular system. Many G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated processes are involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and some exhibit clear sex-divergence. Here we focus on the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor, endothelin receptors ET A and ET B , and the eicosanoid GPCRs, discussing the evidence and potential mechanisms leading to gender dimorphic responses in the vasculature. Use of animal models and pharmacological tools has been essential to understanding the role of these receptors in the cardiovascular system, and will be key to further delineating their sex-specific effects. Ultimately, this may illuminate wider sex differences in cardiovascular pathology and physiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Furtado, M F D; Travaglia-Cardoso, S R; Rocha, M M T
Bothrops jararaca is an abundant snake in Brazil, and its venom has been studied exhaustively. The species exhibits adult size dimorphism in which female are larger. We registered the growth in Snout-Vent Length and weight of one litter (with 11 females and 12 males). We compared growth curves and venom profile between male and female of B. jararaca in order to establish the relationship of those characters and sex. Their venoms were analyzed when they were 36 months old, concerning SDS PAGE, protein content, proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic, blood-clotting, edematogenic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic activities, and lethality. Differences in the growth curves of the females and the males were significantly different after the 12th month of age, with the females growing faster. Females produced five times more venom than males. The electrophoretic patterns were variable: the venom from males had more protein bands than females. Venom composition varied significantly between males and females. Venom from females is more potent for hyaluronidasic, hemorrhagic, and lethality activities, whereas venom from males is more potent for coagulant, phospholipasic, and myotoxic activities. The variability of proteolytic and edematogenic activities were not significant. The important sexual dimorphism in body size and mass, amount of venom produced, and venom composition in B. jararaca may reflect a divergence in niche partitioning.
Zorba, E; Vanna, V; Moraitis, K
Sexual dimorphism in teeth has been an area of research for osteoarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists studying human skeletal remains. As most studies have been based on the mesiodistal and buccolingual crown measurements, sexual dimorphism from root length dimensions remains "neglected" by comparison to crown dimensions. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of sexual dimorphism in the root length of single-rooted teeth with the purpose of investigating whether maximum root length can be reliably used to determine sex. A total of 774 permanent teeth in 102 individuals (58 males and 44 females) from the Athens Collection were examined. The maximum root length of each tooth was measured on the mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual side. Almost all teeth presented a high degree of sexual dimorphism with males showing numerically higher values in root length than females. The most dimorphic teeth were the maxillary second incisors followed by maxillary canines. The percentage of sexual dimorphism reached 16.56%, with maxillary teeth showing the highest degree of dimorphism. The classification results show that the overall correctly specified group percentage ranged from 58.6% to 90.0%. The data generated from this study suggest that root length measurements offer a reliable method for determining sex and are therefore useful in osteoarchaeological studies, particularly in cases of fragmented or cremated material, but also in forensic contexts. Moreover, root length can be used to separate the remains of female and male subadult individuals with a high level of accuracy thus addressing one of the most problematic issues in human osteoarchaeology and anthropology as immature skeletons are the most difficult to sex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; González, José Miguel; Cuadrado, Mariano
Sexual cannibalism is a widespread phenomenon among a few animal taxa. Its occurrence is interpreted as female and/or male optimal reproductive decisions or as a non-adaptive side effect of selection for efficiently foraging females. In spite of the amount of research addressed at understanding its evolutionary origins, we lack accurate information about the proximate causes of sexual cannibalism. In a moderately sexually dimorphic wolf spider (Hogna radiata, Araneae, Lycosidae) we assessed the factors mediating the occurrence of sexual cannibalism and its fitness benefits to females. Sexual cannibalism was a rather common outcome of laboratory mating interactions, occurring in more than a quarter percent of courtship interactions involving virgin females. Sexual cannibalism mostly followed mating. Occurrence of sexual cannibalism depended on male vulnerability to female attacks: relatively smaller males were at higher risk of being attacked and older males were less likely to avoid female attacks. Sexual cannibalism had direct and positive effects on female fitness, as sexually cannibalistic females exhibited increased fecundity irrespective of their size, condition and foraging rate. Male consumption was almost complete and represented a relevant food intake to females. We interpret sexual cannibalism as a strategic foraging decision for H. radiata females that adjust their aggressive behaviour towards males so as to limit its potential costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Vark, G N; van der Sman, P G; Dijkema, J; Buikstra, J E
Two multivariate statistical tests are presented for examining differences in sexual dimorphism between human populations. One test refers to general differences in sexual dimorphism; the other, only to differences in size aspects of sexual dimorphism. There is no current resolution to the complementary problem of testing for differences of direction in sexual dimorphism. By applying the tests to a comparison of sexual dimorphism in 26 samples of skulls from a world-wide distribution of human populations, significant results (at alpha = 0.05) were found in the majority of cases with the general test, and in a minority of cases with the size test.
Mandibles of known age and gender from cadavers of Tanzanian Bantu population were studied to determine if the human mandible could be sexually dimorphic in a homogenous population. All mandibles were measured using electronic two-digit millimetre veneer calliper. All of the male (100%) and 96% of the female ...
SAFRING ringing data was used to investigate the differences in the timing and duration of primary wing moult between males and females of sexually dimorphic passerines from the Western Cape, South Africa. In the sunbirds, weavers and canaries that were considered, the males generally started moult before the ...
Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...
Sexual dimorphism in the Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis from the south-western Atlantic coast was evaluated based on body proportions and ontogenetic changes. All regions of the body were found to have differences in body proportions between the sexes, except the spiracles. The nature of allometric and ...
Rubolini, Diego; Pupin, Fabio; Sacchi, Roberto; Gentilli, Augusto; Zuffi, Marco A L; Galeotti, Paolo; Saino, Nicola
Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios has been reported for humans, a few other mammals, and two bird species. This dimorphism is thought to arise via an interaction between the prenatal exposure of the embryo to sex hormones and the Hox genes, which are highly conserved among vertebrates and control the development of both the appendices, including fingers and toes, and the urogenital system. In this study, we report on sexual dimorphism in 2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D contralateral ratios of the forelimbs in two species of oviparous lizards, the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) and the tree skink (Mabuya planifrons), as measured on museum specimens. We found that male P. muralis had a larger 2D:4D ratio on both sides and larger 2D:3D ratio on the left side than females, whereas in M. planifrons, males had lower 2D:3D ratios than females on the left side. The two species show opposite patterns of sexual dimorphism in body size, males being larger than females in P. muralis, and the reverse in M. planifrons, suggesting that interspecific variation of sex differences in digit ratios could be associated with sex-specific growth trajectories. There was a limited evidence for directional asymmetry in digit ratios. Therefore, our findings provide the first evidence that digit ratios are sexually dimorphic in any reptile species and are consistent with the idea that the genetic link between limb development and the urogenital system had been established with the evolution of the earliest terrestrial tetrapods. Importantly, many lizard species with genetic sex determination, including the ones we studied, are oviparous and may represent valuable animal models for experimental tests of the association between prenatal exposure to androgens or estrogens and digit ratios. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.
Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke
Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.
Immonen, Elina; Sayadi, Ahmed; Bayram, Helen; Arnqvist, Göran
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes arise largely from sex-specific gene expression, which hasmainly been characterized in sexually naive adults. However, we expect sexual dimorphism in transcription to be dynamic and dependent on factors such as reproductive status. Mating induces many behavioral and physiological changes distinct to each sex and is therefore expected to activate regulatory changes in many sex-biased genes. Here, we first characterized sexual dimorphism in gene expression in Callo...
Lauren P Angel
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.
Baughan, B; Demirjian, A
The major sexual dimorphisms in body size appear at puberty but, by then, 95% of the growth of the cranium is completed. As sexual dimorphism in the cranium is as great as for other parts of the body, this suggests that it must appear at an earlier age, and that cranium/body size ratios for the two sexes will vary during growth. Results from a longitudinal study of Montreal children are used to investigate this phenomenon. The effect is expressed quantitatively by proportional growth and growth velocity curves, based on the final size of boys, which show that the dimorphism indeed makes an early appearance. The data are also analyzed on an age scale relative to the ages of peak growth velocity in stature, derived from the individual growth curves. This shows that although there is a minor pubertal spurt in growth for the external cranial dimensions of boys, it contributes relatively little to the final dimorphism in cranial size. To summarize this aspect of growth, an index of cephalization is calculated: head length X head width/stature. Cross-sectional standards for the change of the mean index with age show a linear decline for boys and girls until puberty, with a constant difference between them. After puberty, the index becomes equal in the two sexes. Individual development curves for the index are however not linear.
Miyazaki, Satoshi; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Gaku; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Miura, Toru
Most hymenopteran species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism due to ecological differences between the sexes. As hymenopteran genomes, under the haplodiploid genetic system, exhibit quantitative differences between sexes while remaining qualitatively identical, sexual phenotypes are assumed to be expressed through sex-specific gene usage. In the present study, the molecular basis for expression of sexual dimorphism in a queenless ant, Diacamma sp., which exhibits a distinct color dimorphism, was examined. Worker females of the species appear bluish-black, while winged males exhibit a yellowish-brown body color. Initially, observations of the pigmentation processes during pupal development revealed that black pigmentation was present in female pupae but not in males, suggesting that sex-specific melanin synthesis was responsible for the observed color dimorphism. Therefore, five orthologs of the genes involved in the insect melanin synthesis (yellow, ebony, tan, pale and dopa decarboxylase) were subcloned and their spatiotemporal expression patterns were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of the genes examined, yellow, which plays a role in black melanin synthesis in insects, was expressed at higher levels in females than in males throughout the entire body during the pupal stage. RNA interference of yellow was then carried out in order to determine the gene function, and produced females with a more yellowish, brighter body color similar to that of males. It was concluded that transcriptional regulation of yellow was responsible for the sexual color dimorphism observed in this species.
Full Text Available Most hymenopteran species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism due to ecological differences between the sexes. As hymenopteran genomes, under the haplodiploid genetic system, exhibit quantitative differences between sexes while remaining qualitatively identical, sexual phenotypes are assumed to be expressed through sex-specific gene usage. In the present study, the molecular basis for expression of sexual dimorphism in a queenless ant, Diacamma sp., which exhibits a distinct color dimorphism, was examined. Worker females of the species appear bluish-black, while winged males exhibit a yellowish-brown body color. Initially, observations of the pigmentation processes during pupal development revealed that black pigmentation was present in female pupae but not in males, suggesting that sex-specific melanin synthesis was responsible for the observed color dimorphism. Therefore, five orthologs of the genes involved in the insect melanin synthesis (yellow, ebony, tan, pale and dopa decarboxylase were subcloned and their spatiotemporal expression patterns were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of the genes examined, yellow, which plays a role in black melanin synthesis in insects, was expressed at higher levels in females than in males throughout the entire body during the pupal stage. RNA interference of yellow was then carried out in order to determine the gene function, and produced females with a more yellowish, brighter body color similar to that of males. It was concluded that transcriptional regulation of yellow was responsible for the sexual color dimorphism observed in this species.
Pomatto, Laura C D; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J A
External and internal stimuli cause modifications to gene and biochemical pathways. In turn, demonstrating that biological systems continuously make short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of "normal" capacity, due to mild conditional changes, or to subtoxic, nondamaging levels of chemical agents. This is termed as "Adaptive Homeostasis," defined with the following: "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, nondamaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." Research from several laboratories, including our own, found that adaptive homeostasis declines with age in organisms as diverse as worms, flies, and mammals, and decreases with senescence in mammalian cell cultures. We suggest that diminishing adaptive homeostasis may play a causal role as a factor responsible for the aging phenotype. Furthermore, although studies of humans, animals, and model organisms are often limited to a single sex, and cell culture studies may even be conducted with lines whose donor's sex was unknown, studies reveal distinct sexual dimorphism in adaptive homeostasis. Interestingly, although young males and females may exhibit dramatic differences in adaptive capacities and/or preferences, these distinctions are lost with age as adaptive homeostasis patterns converge. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
A group of researchers has argued that sexual stature dimorphism (SSD) can serve as an indicator of living standards. This argument is based on evidence that boys' physical growth is more sensitive to environmental conditions than girls' physical growth. Because Korea's economic growth in the second half of the 20th century was unprecedentedly rapid, according to their logic, it is likely to see an increasing trend in SSD. We aimed to determine whether SSD can serve as an accurate indicator of living standards for a population that would exhibit a pronounced trend in SSD, providing that the logic for use of SSD is correct. We employed nationally representative Korean men born in 1941-1990 (n = 17 268) and women born in 1941-1991 (n = 22 543) and estimated mean heights by sex and birth years. We then calculated SSD values and charted the trend. Although male height increased faster than female height, the SSD trend was flat for the pooled observations and for sub-groups by socioeconomic status. These results cast doubt on the argument for using SSD as an indicator of living standards.
Basbaum, A.I., Fields, H.L., 1984. Endogenous pain control systems: brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 309–338...joint. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 291 (2), R343–R348. Gintzler, A.R., 1980. Endorphin -mediated increases in pain threshold during...Review The neuroanatomy of sexual dimorphism in opioid analgesia Dayna R. Loyd a, Anne Z. Murphy b,⁎ a Pain Management Research Area, United States
Keller, Isabel Salome
I investigated how the interrelationship between parental investment and sexual immune dimorphism shape the evolution of parental care strategies within the cichlids and syngnathids. To understand why parental investment is displayed in such diversity in the animal kingdom, I assessed evolutionary and provisioning costs of parental investment in male pregnancy, biparental and maternal mouthbrooding. Additionally, to address the importance of parental investment, I tested for maternal effects ...
Shahnaz S. Tambawala
The overall values of the parameters were significantly greater in the males as compared to the females with the right height (90.0% and the left height (83.3% being the best predictors. This study proposes the importance of sexual dimorphism of maxillary sinus dimensions particularly the sinus height, when other methods used in the field of forensics seem to be indecisive. It suggests the use of CBCT in forensics thus obviating the complete dependence on the usage of conventional CT.
Corcobado Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Gironés Miguel A; De Mas Eva; Moya-Laraño Jordi
Abstract Background Explanations for the evolution of female-biased, extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD), which has puzzled researchers since Darwin, are still controversial. Here we propose an extension of the Gravity Hypothesis (i.e., the GH, which postulates a climbing advantage for small males) that in conjunction with the fecundity hypothesis appears to have the most general power to explain the evolution of SSD in spiders so far. In this "Bridging GH" we propose that bridging locomotio...
Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E
Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.
Karp, Natasha A; Mason, Jeremy; Beaudet, Arthur L; Benjamini, Yoav; Bower, Lynette; Braun, Robert E; Brown, Steve D M; Chesler, Elissa J; Dickinson, Mary E; Flenniken, Ann M; Fuchs, Helmut; Angelis, Martin Hrabe de; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Shiying; Greenaway, Simon; Heller, Ruth; Herault, Yann; Justice, Monica J; Kurbatova, Natalja; Lelliott, Christopher J; Lloyd, K C Kent; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Mank, Judith E; Masuya, Hiroshi; McKerlie, Colin; Meehan, Terrence F; Mott, Richard F; Murray, Stephen A; Parkinson, Helen; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Santos, Luis; Seavitt, John R; Smedley, Damian; Sorg, Tania; Speak, Anneliese O; Steel, Karen P; Svenson, Karen L; Wakana, Shigeharu; West, David; Wells, Sara; Westerberg, Henrik; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K
The role of sex in biomedical studies has often been overlooked, despite evidence of sexually dimorphic effects in some biological studies. Here, we used high-throughput phenotype data from 14,250 wildtype and 40,192 mutant mice (representing 2,186 knockout lines), analysed for up to 234 traits, and found a large proportion of mammalian traits both in wildtype and mutants are influenced by sex. This result has implications for interpreting disease phenotypes in animal models and humans.
Banerjee, Abhishek; Kamath, Venkatesh V; Satelur, Krishnanand; Rajkumar, Komali; Sundaram, Lavanya
Sexual dimorphism refers to the variations in tooth size and shape between the sexes. The consistency of these variations is valuable in the identification of the sex of an individual in times of mass disaster when whole body parts get destroyed or are unavailable. There exist differences in the expression of these variables across races and regions. This study aims to tabulate and identify the variations in tooth measurements using standarized reference points in an attempt to establish parameters of sexual dimorphism. 100 individuals (50 of each sex) in the age group 19-23 years were assessed for standard morphometric parameters of the maxillary central incisor, canine, premolar and molar. Odontometric measurements of established parameters were recorded from impression casts of the maxillary jaws. The mesiodistal width (MDW), the bucco-ligual width (BLW), the crown length (CL) and the cervical angle (CA) were charted among the teeth. The consistency of the variations was statistically analyzed and a logistic regression table was prepared to identify the sex of the individual from the tooth measurements. The BLW, MDW and CL reflected significant variations among all the teeth to be effective in establishing sexual dimorphism. CA as a parameter was inadequate across all the teeth. The permanent maxillary canine was the most important tooth to be reflective of the gender and statistically significant to be utilized for gender determination.
Ilić Bojan S.
Full Text Available Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867 is one of the largest European millipedes and an endemic species of the Balkan Peninsula. We present data on sexual dimorphism in size and body proportions obtained from 179 adult specimens of this species from four caves in Serbia and one in Montenegro using univariate and multivariate morphometric techniques. Sexual dimorphism was apparent and female-biased for all measured characters, except for lengths of the antennae and the 24th leg pair (which were larger in males and lengths of the first, second and fourth leg pairs, which exhibited small differences between sexes. Generally, females had significantly greater body size than males, while males expressed significantly greater values in traits that can be associated with mobility and copulation behavior. Also, we found significant variations in sexual size and body proportions dimorphism among analyzed populations. The influences of fecundity and sexual selection on the adult body plan in A. insculpta are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038
Fangfang Wen; Bin Zuo; Yang Wu; Shan Sun; Ke Liu
Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of s...
López-Rull, I; Vergara, P; Martínez-Padilla, J; Fargallo, J A
Sexual dimorphism (SD) has evolved in response to selection pressures that differ between sexes. Since such pressures change across an individual's life, SD may vary within age classes. Yet, little is known about how selection on early phenotypes may drive the final SD observed in adults. In many dimorphic species, juveniles resemble adult females rather than adult males, meaning that out of the selective pressures established by sexual selection feminized phenotypes may be adaptive. If true, fitness benefits of early female-like phenotypes may constrain the expression of male phenotypes in adulthood. Using the common kestrel Falco tinnunculus as a study model, we evaluated the fitness advantages of expressing more feminized phenotypes at youth. Although more similar to adult females than to adult males, common kestrel fledglings are still sexually dimorphic in size and coloration. Integrating morphological and chromatic variables, we analysed the phenotypic divergence between sexes as a measure of how much each individual looks like the sex to which it belongs (phenotypic sexual resemblance, PSR). We then tested the fitness benefits associated with PSR by means of the probability of recruitment in the population. We found a significant interaction between PSR and sex, showing that in both sexes more feminized phenotypes recruited more into the population than less feminized phenotypes. Moreover, males showed lower PSR than females and a higher proportion of incorrect sex classifications. These findings suggest that the mechanisms in males devoted to resembling female phenotypes in youth, due to a trend to increase fitness through more feminized phenotypes, may provide a mechanism to constrain the SD in adulthood. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Hofman, M A; Swaab, D F
Many neuroanatomical sex differences have been identified in both animals and humans, which may form the neural bases for sex-specific behavior and reproductive as well as non-reproductive functions. The present essay gives a brief review of the findings on sex differences in the human brain. Our observations on the human hypothalamus revealed that the shape of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)--a structure involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms and reproductive cycles--is elongated in females and more spherical in males. In addition, an extremely large SCN was observed in the brains of homosexual men who died from AIDS. Both the volume of the SCN and the number of vasopressin neurons were about twice as large as in a male reference group. In contrast to the SCN, in which only shape differences were found in relation to gender, the volume and cell number of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) showed a marked sexual dimorphism. The mean volume of the SDN-POA was 2.2 times larger in males than in females and contained about twice as many cells. The function of this sexually dimorphic area in humans is not known, but presumably it is involved in the control of male sexual behavior. The fact that no differences in either volume or cell number were observed between the SDN-POAs of homo- and heterosexual men indicates a selectivity of the SCN in this respect and contradicts the view that male homosexuals have a 'female' hypothalamus.
Kovacs, William J; Olsen, Nancy J
Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and recent data suggest that they also suffer greater disability than men with this disease. The reasons for these sexually dimorphic patterns of disease incidence and progression are unknown, but investigations into the underlying mechanisms could provide useful insights into RA pathogenesis and may also suggest new treatment approaches. The processes of sexual differentiation involve genetic input, gonadal hormone signaling and responses from target cells and tissues. Layered upon these processes are behavioral characteristics of males and females acquired as a result of their social context. Differences in disease presentation between the sexes could be the result of complex combinations of all these factors. Recent research suggests that the developmental processes of sexual differentiation might render women more susceptible than men to similar levels of immune or inflammatory burden by virtue of sex-specific differences in body composition and structure.
Previous studies have shown that sexual dimorphism in the brain can present two morphological patterns: one in which males present greater morphological measures than females (male>female) and another in which the opposite is true (female>male). These studies have also shown that at least the part of amygdala namely the cortical and medial amygdala, an olfactory region involved in the control of reproductive physiology and behavior, is sexually dimorphic in the rat and other rodents. However, data comparing the basolateral and central amygdala between the sexes is lacking. To my knowledge, the present study is the first morphological work that systematically describes sexual dimorphism throughout the entire amygdala in the guinea pig. The results show that sex differences were found in: (a) the medial amygdala (ME) and its dorsal (MEd) and ventral (MEv) subdivisions, males showing greater values than females in volume and number of neurons, (b) the cortical amygdala (CO) and especially its posterior (COp) subdivision. In the CO, males exhibited a greater number of neurons and in the COp, males showed a greater volume and number of neurons. No differences between the sexes were observed in the basolateral and central amygdala. The results of the present study indicate that in the guinea pig sex differences are present in the large part of the amygdala and they present the male>female pattern, as it was observed in other rodents (rat and hamster), but not in the rabbit. As some previous neurochemical and functional studies have indicated that all parts of the amygdala may be sexually dimorphic, further studies are required to elucidate how much this brain region differs in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gerald S Wilkinson
Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and
Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations. Here we examined the consequences of developing on a novel plant for the expression of size and shape in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). The males of this species possess enlarged, sexually dimorphic femurs on their hind legs. These legs are used as weapons in male-male contests. Females are typically larger in overall body size. Our study revealed that developing upon a novel host can lead to pronounced phenotypically plastic change in sexually dimorphic traits. Male hind femurs were greatly impacted by the novel diet to the extent that the sexual dimorphism in hind femurs was lost. Further, dimorphism in body size increased, as males became tiny adults while females better maintained their body size. These patterns underscore the complex effects that novel species interactions may have on sexual phenotypes. © 2017 The Author(s).
Petelo, Maria; Swierk, Lindsey
Whether or not sexually selected traits consistently exhibit positive allometry (i.e. are disproportionately large in larger individuals) is an ongoing debate. Multiple models and exceptions to this rule suggest that the underlying drivers of sexual trait allometry are nuanced. Here, we compare allometries of sexual and non-sexual traits of a species (Anolis aquaticus) within a well-studied lizard genus to test the competing hypotheses that sexual traits are, or are not, defined by positive allometry. We further consider the relationships of trait functions, which are relatively well understood in the genus Anolis, and allometry to identify potential drivers of allometric patterns. In particular, we explore how trait allometries interact to influence total organism function and generate sexual dimorphism. We quantified size (of targeted traits) and color of a sexual signal (the dewlap) in Anolis aquaticus in the field. The dewlap conveyed information relevant to intra-sexual combat and exhibited positive allometry. Overall, our results suggest that using single-trait allometries as indicators of past selection provides only an incomplete understanding of trait evolution. Although the function of positive allometry in some individual sexual signals (e.g. those conveying "super-honest" information) may be straightforward, we illustrate how scaling relationships interact synergistically to influence the function of phenotypes and propose avenues for future research. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Sexual selection is expected to drive phenotypic differences between conspecific male and females, a widespread phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. At the same time, individuals may exhibit some degree of intra-sexual variation. We examined the sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in different body parts of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae, a cosmopolitan rove beetle commonly found on carrion. Male C. maxillosus had significantly wider head and pronotum, longer mandibles, and more distant eyes than females. The head width was positively correlated to mandible length, which may reflect stronger adductor muscles and higher bite force in larger individuals. The allometry of traits can be examined by plotting the logarithms of that specific trait against the logarithm of body size and determining the slope (b of the regression line. Isometry occurs when b=1, i.e. the ratio of given traits to body size remains constant across individuals. Negative allometry occurs when b1, so that larger individuals have disproportionately larger traits. A positive allometry was found in head width (b=1.32, mandible length (b=2.28, and ocular distance (b=1.49 of males. Our results show that, particularly head size, mandible length and ocular distance are probably under sexual selection in males, while traits such as eye size are isometric to body size. The potential role of these traits in male-male combat as well as female attractiveness has been frequently documented in different insect taxa. The striking similarities in patterns of sexual dimorphism among independently evolved insects indicate that common evolutionary force(s are probably at work.
Maria João Fernandes Martins
Full Text Available Assessing the long-term macroevolutionary consequences of sexual selection has been hampered by the difficulty of studying this process in the fossil record. Cytheroid ostracodes offer an excellent system to explore sexual selection in the fossil record because their readily fossilized carapaces are sexually dimorphic. Specifically, males are relatively more elongate than females in this superfamily. This sexual shape difference is thought to arise so that males carapaces can accommodate their very large copulatory apparatus, which can account for up to one-third of body volume. Here we test this widely held explanation for sexual dimorphism in cytheroid ostracodes by correlating investment in male genitalia, a trait in which sexual selection is seen as the main evolutionary driver, with sexual dimorphism of carapace in the genus Cyprideis. We analyzed specimens collected in the field (C. salebrosa, USA; C. torosa, UK and from collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (C. mexicana. We digitized valve outlines in lateral view to obtain measures of size (valve area and shape (elongation, measured as length to height ratio, and obtained several dimensions from two components of the hemipenis: the muscular basal capsule, which functions as a sperm pump, and the section that includes the intromittent organ (terminal extension. In addition to the assessment of this primary sexual trait, we also quantified two dimensions of the male secondary sexual trait-where the transformed right walking leg functions as a clasping organ during mating. We also measured linear dimensions from four limbs as indicators of overall (soft-part body size, and assessed allometry of the soft anatomy. We observed significant correlations in males between valve size, but not elongation, and distinct structural parts of the hemipenis, even after accounting for their shared correlation with overall body size. We also found weak but significant
Monroe, Melanie J; Alonzo, Suzanne H.
Sex differences in parental care are thought to arise from differential selection on the sexes. Sexual dimorphism, including sexual size dimorphism (SSD), is often used as a proxy for sexual selection on males. Some studies have found an association between male-biased SSD (i.e., males larger than females) and the loss of paternal care. While the relationship between sexual selection on males and parental care evolution has been studied extensively, the relationship between female-biased SSD ...
Cooke, B M; Tabibnia, G; Breedlove, S M
Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulating hormones can alter the size of mammalian brain regions as revealed by Nissl stains. We now report a sexual dimorphism in the volume of a brain nucleus in rats that can be completely accounted for by adult sex differences in circulating androgen. The posterodorsal nucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD) has a greater volume in male rats than in females, but adult castration of males causes the volume to shrink to female values within four weeks, whereas androgen treatment of adult females for that period enlarges the MePD to levels equivalent to normal males. This report demonstrates that adult hormone manipulations can completely reverse a sexual dimorphism in brain regional volume in a mammalian species. The sex difference and androgen responsiveness of MePD volume is reflected in the soma size of neurons there.
Turk, Eva; Kuntner, Matjaž; Kralj-Fišer, Simona
Males and females are often subjected to different selection pressures for homologous traits, resulting in sex-specific optima. Because organismal attributes usually share their genetic architectures, sex-specific selection may lead to intralocus sexual conflict. Evolution of sexual dimorphism may resolve this conflict, depending on the degree of cross-sex genetic correlation ( r MF) and the strength of sex-specific selection. In theory, high r MF implies that sexes largely share the genetic base for a given trait and are consequently sexually monomorphic, while low r MF indicates a sex-specific genetic base and sexual dimorphism. Here, we broadly test this hypothesis on three spider species with varying degrees of female-biased sexual size dimorphism, Larinioides sclopetarius (sexual dimorphism index, SDI = 0.85), Nuctenea umbratica (SDI = 0.60), and Zygiella x-notata (SDI = 0.46). We assess r MF via same-sex and opposite-sex heritability estimates. We find moderate body mass heritability but no obvious patterns in sex-specific heritability. Against the prediction, the degree of sexual size dimorphism is unrelated to the relative strength of same-sex versus opposite-sex heritability. Our results do not support the hypothesis that sexual size dimorphism is negatively associated with r MF. We conclude that sex-specific genetic architecture may not be necessary for the evolution of a sexually dimorphic trait.
Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.
Madrigal, Lorena; Kelly, William
Applied to skin color, the sexual selection hypothesis proposes that male preference for light-skinned females explains the presence of light skin in areas of low solar radiation. According to this proposal, in areas of high solar radiation, natural selection for dark skin overrides the universal preference of males for light females. But in areas in which natural selection ceases to act, sexual selection becomes more important, and causes human populations to become light-skinned, and females to be lighter than males. The sexual selection hypothesis proposes that human sexual dimorphism of skin color should be positively correlated with distance from the equator. We tested the prediction that sexual dimorphism should increase with increasing latitude, using adult-only data sets derived from measurements with standard reflectance spectrophotometric devices. Our analysis failed to support the prediction of a positive correlation between increasing distance from the equator and increased sexual dimorphism. We found no evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Chou, Chun-Chia; Iwasa, Yoh; Nakazawa, Takefumi
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) describes divergent body sizes of adult males and females. While SSD has traditionally been explained by sexual and fecundity selection, recent advances in physiology and developmental biology emphasize that SSD would occur proximately because of sexual differences in ontogenetic growth trajectories (i.e., growth rate and duration). Notably, these ontogenetic traits are subject to energetic or time constraints and thus traded off with fitness components (e.g., survival and reproduction). To elucidate the importance of such ontogenetic trade-offs in the evolution of SSD, we developed a new theoretical framework by extending quantitative genetic models for the evolution of sexual dimorphism in which we reinterpret the trait as body size and reformulate sex-specific fitness in size-dependent manners. More specifically, we assume that higher growth rate or longer growth duration leads to larger body size and higher reproductive success but incurs the cost of lower survivorship or shorter reproduction period. We illustrate how two sexes would optimize ontogenetic growth trajectories in sex-specific ways and exhibit divergent body sizes. The present framework provides new insights into the evolutionary theory of SSD and predictions for empirical testing. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.
Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung
Intraspecific male-male aggression, important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel, ppk29, and was mediated by male specific GABAergic neurons acting upon GABA-a receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activation of this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. PMID:24241395
Bourisly Ali K.
Full Text Available Sex-biased psychophysiology, behavior, brain function, and conditions are extensive, yet underlying structural brain mechanisms remain unclear. There is contradicting evidence regarding sexual dimorphism when it comes to brain structure, and there is still no consensus on whether or not there exists such a dimorphism for brain white matter. Therefore, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis along with global volume analysis for white matter across sex. We analyzed 384 T1-weighted MRI brain images (192 male, 192 female to investigate any differences in white matter (WM between males and females. In the VBM analysis, we found males to have larger WM, compared to females, in occipital, temporal, insular, parietal, and frontal brain regions. In contrast, females showed only one WM region to be significantly larger than males: the right postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe region. Although, on average, males showed larger global WM volume, we did not find any significant difference in global WM volume between males and females.
da Silva, Jessica M.; Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G. John; Tolley, Krystal A.
Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal’s foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal’s performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and
Fairbairn, Daphne J; Preziosi, Richard F
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often attributed to sexual selection, particularly when males are the larger sex. However, sexual selection favoring large males is common even in taxa where females are the larger sex, and is therefore not a sufficient explanation of patterns of SSD. As part of a more extensive study of the evolution of SSD in water striders (Heteroptera, Gerridae), we examine patterns of sexual selection and SSD in 12 populations of Aquarius remigis. We calculate univariate and multivariate selection gradients from samples of mating and single males, for two sexually dimorphic traits (total length and profemoral width) and two sexually monomorphic traits (mesofemoral length and wing form). The multivariate analyses reveal strong selection favoring larger males, in spite of the female-biased SSD for this trait, and weaker selection favoring aptery and reduced mesofemoral length. Selection is weakest on the most dimorphic trait, profemoral width, and is stabilizing rather than directional. The pattern of sexual selection on morphological traits is therefore not concordant with the pattern of SSD. The univariate selection gradients reveal little net selection (direct + indirect) on any of the traits, and suggest that evolution away from the plesiomorphic pattern of SSD is constrained by antagonistic patterns of selection acting on this suite of positively correlated morphological traits. We hypothesize that SSD in A. remigis is not in equilibrium, a hypothesis that is consistent with both theoretical models of the evolution of SSD and our previous studies of allometry for SSD. A negative interpopulation correlation between the intensity of sexual selection and the operational sex ratio supports the hypothesis that, as in several other water strider species, sexual selection in A. remigis occurs through generalized female reluctance rather than active female choice. The implications of this for patterns of sexual selection are discussed. © 1996 The
Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.
Devineni, Anita V.; Heberlein, Ulrike
In mammalian and insect models of ethanol intoxication, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotor activity whereas high doses induce sedation. Sex differences in acute ethanol responses, which occur in humans, have not been characterized in Drosophila. In this study, we find that male flies show increased ethanol hyperactivity and greater resistance to ethanol sedation compared with females. We show that the sex determination gene transformer (tra) acts in the developing nervous system, likely through regulation of fruitless (fru), to at least partially mediate the sexual dimorphism in ethanol sedation. Although pharmacokinetic differences may contribute to the increased sedation sensitivity of females, neuronal tra expression regulates ethanol sedation independently of ethanol pharmacokinetics. We also show that acute activation of fru-expressing neurons affects ethanol sedation, further supporting a role for fru in regulating this behavior. Thus, we have characterized previously undescribed sex differences in behavioral responses to ethanol, and implicated fru in mediating a subset of these differences. PMID:23213244
Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.
García-Parra, Patricia; Pérez Fernández, Ángela; Djorojevic, Mirjana; Botella, Miguel; Alemán, Inmaculada
Sex estimation is one of the first steps in forensic anthropology to identify human remains. In absence of the skull or the pelvis, any skeletal remain becomes fundamental for identification, especially in mass-disaster cases. The sternum is a potentially useful element in anthropological analysis with a high recovery rate in both forensic-and archaeological context. This study aims to develop classification functions for use in Spanish population. For this, sternum sexual dimorphism is studied in a sample of 105 individuals, known age-at-death, ancestry and sex, from San José Municipal Cemetery of Granada (Spain). Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was used to estimate intra-and inter-observer error. In discriminant analysis for estimating sex, cross-validation shows accuracy rates exceeds 90% for sternum body length and maximum width (91.8%), or total length with maximum width (90.7%). Isolated variables with higher accuracy rates are total sternum length (89.1%), and sternum body length (87%). Although there is compliance with Hyrtl's law it is not useful for estimating sex in Spanish population. These discriminant functions have also been validated successfully in two samples from Portugal (Coimbra identified skeletal collection--CISC, and 21st century identified ckeletal collection--Santarém XXI): the variables with higher accuracy rates sternum total length with its maximum width (92.3% the correctly classified individual in the sample CISC; and 83.5% in the sample of Santarém XXI) and the sternum total length (92.1% and 78.5%, respectively). The discriminant functions achieved with the collection of the San Jose cemetery of Granada can be applied to current remains, provided that study populations present a similar sexual dimorphism, like the two samples from Portuguese population presented in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling and the integration of whole-genome genetic association data has proven to be a powerful tool to comprehensively explore gene regulatory networks and to investigate the effects of genetic variation at the molecular level. Serum metabolite concentrations allow a direct readout of biological processes, and association of specific metabolomic signatures with complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders has been shown. There are well-known correlations between sex and the incidence, prevalence, age of onset, symptoms, and severity of a disease, as well as the reaction to drugs. However, most of the studies published so far did not consider the role of sexual dimorphism and did not analyse their data stratified by gender. This study investigated sex-specific differences of serum metabolite concentrations and their underlying genetic determination. For discovery and replication we used more than 3,300 independent individuals from KORA F3 and F4 with metabolite measurements of 131 metabolites, including amino acids, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, acylcarnitines, and C6-sugars. A linear regression approach revealed significant concentration differences between males and females for 102 out of 131 metabolites (p-values<3.8×10(-4; Bonferroni-corrected threshold. Sex-specific genome-wide association studies (GWAS showed genome-wide significant differences in beta-estimates for SNPs in the CPS1 locus (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, significance level: p<3.8×10(-10; Bonferroni-corrected threshold for glycine. We showed that the metabolite profiles of males and females are significantly different and, furthermore, that specific genetic variants in metabolism-related genes depict sexual dimorphism. Our study provides new important insights into sex-specific differences of cell regulatory processes and underscores that studies should consider sex-specific effects in design and
Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Scherrer, Marc; Ponce de León, Marcia S
Pelvic sexual dimorphism in primates is typically seen as the result of female-specific adaptations to obstetric constraints, which arise from the tight fit between the neonate head and the maternal pelvis. However, it remains debated to which extent pelvic dimorphism is a correlate of obstetric constraints, of body size dimorphism, and/or of other factors. Also, little is known on how pelvic dimorphism develops. Here we use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to address these questions in two hylobatid species, Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus. These species differ markedly in body size, but within each species, there is only little body size dimorphism. Results show that the neonates of H. lar are large compared to the maternal pelvis, resulting in high cephalopelvic proportions and substantial obstetric constraints. Pelvic sexual dimorphism is moderate but significant: During puberty, females develop a more capacious pelvic inlet than males, while overall pelvic size is similar in both sexes. S. syndactylus has substantially larger pelves than H. lar, but neonates are similar in size to those of H. lar. Cephalopelvic proportions are thus low, and there are no obstetric constraints. Pelvic sexual dimorphism is absent. Overall, these data indicate that pelvic sexual dimorphism in hylobatids reflects obstetric constraints. Anat Rec, 300:859-869, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kahlon, Harkiranjot; Singh, Arshdeep; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Gaur, Akanksha
Forensic odontology is basically the science dealing with establishing identity by teeth and has played an important, often crucial, role in the identification of victims of mass disasters. Among all teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit greatest sexual dimorphism. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex. The study was conducted on 62 subjects (31 males, 31 females). Mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines was measured with the help of digital Vernier calipers. Intercanine distance was measured with the help of a divider. The standard MCI value is used as a cut off point to differentiate males from females. Statistical analysis was done using t-test. The width of mandibular canine was higher in males than in females, which was statistically significant. The left canine is found to exhibit greater sexual dimorphism, i.e., 7.62% as compared with right canine, i.e., 6.85%. The calculated standard MCI for both male and female was 0.247. With these calculations, the overall percentage of sex determination was 79.03%. The ability to determine gender using Standard MCI was estimated to be 73.33% in males and 80% in females. It was concluded that with standard MCI, it was possible to detect sex for forensic purposes.
Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana
In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendry, C R; Guiher, T J; Pyron, R A
Hypotheses for the origin and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) fall into three primary categories: (i) sexual selection on male size, (ii) fecundity selection on female size and (iii) ecological selection for gender-specific niche divergence. We investigate the impact of these forces on SSD evolution in New World pitvipers (Crotalinae). We constructed a phylogeny from up to eight genes (seven mitochondrial, one nuclear) for 104 species of NW crotalines. We gathered morphological and ecological data for 82 species for comparative analyses. There is a strong signal of sexual selection on male size driving SSD, but less evidence for fecundity selection on female size across lineages. No support was found for allometric scaling of SSD (Rensch's rule), nor for directional selection for increasing male size (the Fairbairn-Preziosi hypothesis) in NW crotalines. Interestingly, arboreal lineages experience higher rates of SSD evolution and a pronounced shift to female-biased dimorphism. This suggests that fecundity selection on arboreal females exaggerates ecologically mediated dimorphism, whereas sexual selection drives male size in terrestrial lineages. We find that increasing SSD in both directions (male- and female-biased) decreases speciation rates. In NW crotalines, it appears that increasing magnitudes of ecologically mediated SSD reduce rates of speciation, as divergence accumulates within species among sexes, reducing adaptive divergence between populations leading to speciation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical "males" and "females" within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between "males" and "females" are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.
R Craig Stillwell
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.
Steegenga, Wilma T; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; Pruis, Maurien Gm; Lendvai, Agnes; Verkade, Henkjan J; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Plösch, Torsten; Müller, Michael
Background: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and
Steegenga, W.T.; Mischke, M.; Lute, C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Pruis, M.G.; Lendvai, A.; Verkade, H.J.; Boekhorst, J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Plosch, T.; Muller, M
BACKGROUND: There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and
Steegenga, W.T.; Mischke, M.; Lute, C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Pruis, M.G.M.; Lendvai, A.; Verkade, H.J.; Boekhorst, J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Plösch, T.; Müller, M.R.
Background There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and
Neil Crooks; Lucy Babey; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.
The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the f...
Miller, Jill S; Venable, D Lawrence
Plants of Lycium californicum, L. exsertum, and L. fremontii produce flowers that are either male-sterile (female) or hermaphroditic, and populations are morphologically gynodioecious. As is commonly found in gynodioecious species, flowers on female plants are smaller than those on hermaphrodites for a number of floral traits. Floral size dimorphism has often been hypothesized to be the result of either a reduction in female flower size that allows reallocation to greater fruit and seed production, or an increase in hermaphroditic flower size due to the increased importance of pollinator attraction and pollen export for hermaphroditic flowers. We provide a test of these two alternatives by measuring 11 floral characters in eight species of Lycium and using a phylogeny to reconstruct the floral size shifts associated with the evolution of gender dimorphism. Our analyses suggest that female flowers are reduced in size relative to the ancestral condition, whereas flowers on hermaphrodites have changed only slightly in size. Female and hermaphroditic flowers have also diverged both from one another and from ancestral cosexual species in several shape characteristics. We expected sexual dimorphism to be similar among the three dimorphic taxa, as gender dimorphism evolved only a single time in the ancestor of the American dimorphic lineage. While the floral sexual dimorphism is broadly similar among the three dimorphic species, there are some species-specific differences. For example, L. exsertum has the greatest floral size dimorphism, whereas L. fremontii had the greatest size-independent dimorphism in pistil characters. To determine the degree to which phylogenetic uncertainty affected reconstruction of ancestral character states, we performed a sensitivity analysis by reconstructing ancestral character states on alternative topologies. We argue that investigations such as this one, that examine floral evolution from an explicitly phylogenetic perspective, provide new
Isabelle Mifom Vea
Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.
Full Text Available Sex-specific gene expression before the onset of gonadogensis has been documented in embryos of mammals and chickens. In several mammalian species, differences in gene expression are accompanied by faster growth of pre-implantation male embryos. Here we asked whether avian embryos before gonadal differentiation are also sex-dimorphic in size and what genes regulate their growth. We used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata whose freshly laid eggs were artificially incubated for 36-40 hours. Analyses controlling for the exact time of incubation of 81 embryos revealed that males were larger than females in terms of Hamburger and Hamilton stage and number of somites. Expression of 15 genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth, metabolic activity, steroidogenic pathway and stress modulation were measured using RT-PCR in 5 male and 5 female embryos incubated for exactly 36 h. We found that in the presence of equal levels of the growth hormone itself, the faster growth of male embryos is most likely achieved by the overexpression of the growth hormone receptor gene and three other genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and metabolism, all of them located on the Z chromosome. Autosomal genes did not show sex-specific expression, except for the steroidogenic factor 1 which was expressed only in female embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report of sexual size dimorphism before gonadogenesis in birds. The finding suggests that faster growth of early male embryos is conserved through the mammalian and bird phyla, irrespective of their differential sex chromosome systems.
Shi, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Su, Bing
Sexual dimorphism in brain size is common among primates, including humans, apes and some Old World monkeys. In these species, the brain size of males is generally larger than that of females. Curiously, this dimorphism has persisted over the course of primate evolution and human origin, but there is no explanation for the underlying genetic controls that have maintained this disparity in brain size. In the present study, we tested the effect of the female hormone (estradiol) on seven genes known to be related to brain size in both humans and nonhuman primates, and we identified half estrogen responsive elements (half EREs) in the promoter regions of four genes (MCPH1, ASPM, CDK5RAP2 and WDR62). Likewise, at sequence level, it appears that these half EREs are generally conserved across primates. Later testing via a reporter gene assay and cell-based endogenous expression measurement revealed that estradiol could significantly suppress the expression of the four affected genes involved in brain size. More intriguingly, when the half EREs were deleted from the promoters, the suppression effect disappeared, suggesting that the half EREs mediate the regulation of estradiol on the brain size genes. We next replicated these experiments using promoter sequences from chimpanzees and rhesus macaques, and observed a similar suppressive effect of estradiol on gene expression, suggesting that this mechanism is conserved among primate species that exhibit brain size dimorphism. Brain size dimorphism among certain primates, including humans, is likely regulated by estrogen through its sex-dependent suppression of brain size genes during development.
Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L
Sexual cannibalism varies widely among spiders, but no general evolutionary hypothesis has emerged to explain its distribution across taxa. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) also varies widely among spiders and could affect the vulnerability of males to cannibalistic attacks by females. We tested for a relationship between SSD and sexual cannibalism within and among species of spiders, using a broad taxonomic data set. For most species, cannibalism was more likely when males were much smaller than females. In addition, using phylogenetically controlled and uncontrolled analyses, there was a strong positive relationship between average SSD of a species and the frequency of sexual cannibalism. This is the first evidence that the degree of size difference between males and females is related to the phylogenetic distribution of sexual cannibalism among a broad range of spiders.
Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Yu, Guofeng; Cheng, Mengting; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Zhen
Potassium homeostasis plays an essential role in the control of blood pressure. It is unknown, however, whether potassium balance is involved in the gender-associated blood pressure differences. We therefore investigated the possible mechanism of sexual dimorphism in blood pressure regulation by measuring the blood pressure, plasma potassium, renal actions of potassium channels and upstream regulator in male and female mice. Here we found that female mice exhibited lower blood pressure and higher plasma K(+) level as compared to male littermates. Western blot analyses of mouse kidney extract revealed a significant decrease in renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel expression, while large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) as well as the upstream regulator with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) enhanced in female mice under normal condition. Surprisingly, both dietary K(+) loading and K(+) depletion eliminated the differences in plasma K(+) and blood pressure between females and males, and the differences of renal K(+) channels and WNK1 also attenuated in both groups of mice. These findings indicated the existence of a close correlation between K(+) homeostasis and sex-associated blood pressure. Moreover, the differential regulation of ROMK, BK-α and NKCC2 between female and male mice, at least, were partly mediated via WNK1 pathway, which may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of plasma K(+) and blood pressure control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corcobado, Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; De Mas, Eva; Moya-Laraño, Jordi
Explanations for the evolution of female-biased, extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD), which has puzzled researchers since Darwin, are still controversial. Here we propose an extension of the Gravity Hypothesis (i.e., the GH, which postulates a climbing advantage for small males) that in conjunction with the fecundity hypothesis appears to have the most general power to explain the evolution of SSD in spiders so far. In this "Bridging GH" we propose that bridging locomotion (i.e., walking upside-down under own-made silk bridges) may be behind the evolution of extreme SSD. A biomechanical model shows that there is a physical constraint for large spiders to bridge. This should lead to a trade-off between other traits and dispersal in which bridging would favor smaller sizes and other selective forces (e.g. fecundity selection in females) would favor larger sizes. If bridging allows faster dispersal, small males would have a selective advantage by enjoying more mating opportunities. We predicted that both large males and females would show a lower propensity to bridge, and that SSD would be negatively correlated with sexual dimorphism in bridging propensity. To test these hypotheses we experimentally induced bridging in males and females of 13 species of spiders belonging to the two clades in which bridging locomotion has evolved independently and in which most of the cases of extreme SSD in spiders are found. We found that 1) as the degree of SSD increased and females became larger, females tended to bridge less relative to males, and that 2) smaller males and females show a higher propensity to bridge. Physical constraints make bridging inefficient for large spiders. Thus, in species where bridging is a very common mode of locomotion, small males, by being more efficient at bridging, will be competitively superior and enjoy more mating opportunities. This "Bridging GH" helps to solve the controversial question of what keeps males small and also contributes to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Explanations for the evolution of female-biased, extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD, which has puzzled researchers since Darwin, are still controversial. Here we propose an extension of the Gravity Hypothesis (i.e., the GH, which postulates a climbing advantage for small males that in conjunction with the fecundity hypothesis appears to have the most general power to explain the evolution of SSD in spiders so far. In this "Bridging GH" we propose that bridging locomotion (i.e., walking upside-down under own-made silk bridges may be behind the evolution of extreme SSD. A biomechanical model shows that there is a physical constraint for large spiders to bridge. This should lead to a trade-off between other traits and dispersal in which bridging would favor smaller sizes and other selective forces (e.g. fecundity selection in females would favor larger sizes. If bridging allows faster dispersal, small males would have a selective advantage by enjoying more mating opportunities. We predicted that both large males and females would show a lower propensity to bridge, and that SSD would be negatively correlated with sexual dimorphism in bridging propensity. To test these hypotheses we experimentally induced bridging in males and females of 13 species of spiders belonging to the two clades in which bridging locomotion has evolved independently and in which most of the cases of extreme SSD in spiders are found. Results We found that 1 as the degree of SSD increased and females became larger, females tended to bridge less relative to males, and that 2 smaller males and females show a higher propensity to bridge. Conclusions Physical constraints make bridging inefficient for large spiders. Thus, in species where bridging is a very common mode of locomotion, small males, by being more efficient at bridging, will be competitively superior and enjoy more mating opportunities. This "Bridging GH" helps to solve the controversial question of
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tendency for male-larger sexual size dimorphism (SSD to scale with body size - a pattern termed Rensch's rule - has been empirically supported in many animal lineages. Nevertheless, its theoretical elucidation is a subject of debate. Here, we exploited the extreme morphological variability of domestic dog (Canis familiaris to gain insights into evolutionary causes of this rule. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied SSD and its allometry among 74 breeds ranging in height from less than 19 cm in Chihuahua to about 84 cm in Irish wolfhound. In total, the dataset included 6,221 individuals. We demonstrate that most dog breeds are male-larger, and SSD in large breeds is comparable to SSD of their wolf ancestor. Among breeds, SSD becomes smaller with decreasing body size. The smallest breeds are nearly monomorphic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSD among dog breeds follows the pattern consistent with Rensch's rule. The variability of body size and corresponding changes in SSD among breeds of a domestic animal shaped by artificial selection can help to better understand processes leading to emergence of Rensch's rule.
Full Text Available Cohort studies have demonstrated a higher vulnerability in males towards ischemic and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury in infants born near- or full-term. Male sex was also associated with limited brain repair following neonatal stroke and hypoxia-ischemia, leading to increased incidence of long-term cognitive deficits compared to females with similar brain injury. As a result, the design of pre-clinical experiments considering sex as an important variable was supported and investigated because neuroprotective strategies to reduce brain injury demonstrated sexual dimorphism. While the mechanisms underlining these differences between boys and girls remain unclear, several biological processes are recognized to play a key role in long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes: gonadal hormones across developmental stages, vulnerability to oxidative stress, modulation of cell death, and regulation of microglial activation. This review summarizes the current evidence for sex differences in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic and/or ischemic brain injury, considering the major pathways known to be involved in cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with damages of the developing brain.
Ippolito, Joseph E.; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Rubin, Joshua B.
The molecular bases for sex differences in cancer remain undefined and how to incorporate them into risk stratification remains undetermined. Given sex differences in metabolism and the inverse correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and survival, we hypothesized that glycolytic phenotyping would improve glioma subtyping. Using retrospectively acquired lower-grade glioma (LGG) transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we discovered male-specific decreased survival resulting from glycolytic gene overexpression. Patients within this high-glycolytic group showed significant differences in the presence of key genomic alterations (i.e., 1p/19q codeletion, CIC, EGFR, NF1, PTEN, FUBP1, and IDH mutations) compared with the low-glycolytic group. Although glycolytic stratification defined poor prognostic males independent of grade, histology, TP53, and ATRX mutation status, we unexpectedly found that females with high-glycolytic gene expression and wild-type IDH survived longer than all other wild-type patients. Validation with an independent metabolomics dataset from grade 2 gliomas determined that glycolytic metabolites selectively stratified males and also uncovered a potential sexual dimorphism in pyruvate metabolism. These findings identify a potential synergy between patient sex, tumor metabolism, and genomic alterations in determining outcome for glioma patients. PMID:28768910
Speiser, Daniel I; Lampe, Rebecca I; Lovdahl, Valerie R; Carrillo-Zazueta, Brenna; Rivera, Ajna S; Oakley, Todd H
Sexual dimorphisms have long drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists. However, we still have much to learn about the evolutionary, genetic, and developmental drivers of sexual dimorphisms. Here, we introduce ostracods of the genus Euphilomedes (Myodocopida, Ostracoda, and Crustacea) as a promising new system in which to investigate why and how sexual dimorphisms evolve. First, we ask whether male-skewed selective pressure from pelagic predators may help explain a dramatic sexual dimorphism in which male Euphilomedes have compound eyes, but females do not. Manipulative experiments demonstrate that blindfolding reduces the survival rate of male Euphilomedes when they are exposed to predatory fish. Blindfolding of the female rudimentary eyes (rudiments) does not, however, similarly influence the survival rate of brooding females. Further, numerical estimates of sighting distances, based on reasonable extrapolations from Euphilomedes's eye morphology, suggest that the eyes of male Euphilomedes are useful for detecting objects roughly the size of certain pelagic predators, but not conspecifics. We conclude that eyes do not mediate direct interactions between male and female Euphilomedes, but that differences in predation pressure-perhaps associated with different reproductive behaviors-contribute to maintaining the sexually dimorphic eyes of these ostracods. Second, through transcriptome sequencing, we examined potential gene regulatory networks that could underlie sexual dimorphism in Euphilomedes' eyes. From the transcriptome of juvenile male Euphilomedes' eyes, we identified phototransduction genes and components of eye-related developmental networks that are well characterized in Drosophila and other species. The presence of suites of eye regulatory genes in our Euphilomedes juvenile male transcriptome will allow us, in future studies, to test how ostracods regulate the development of their sexually dimorphic eyes.
Willemart, Rodrigo H; Pérez-González, Abel; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Gnaspini, Pedro
Sexually dimorphic glands often release sexual pheromones both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Species of Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones) seem to depend on chemical communication but few studies have addressed this topic. In this study, we review the literature for the Phalangida and present new data for 23 species of Laniatores. In 16 taxa, we found previously undescribed sexually dimorphic glandular openings on the femur, patella, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs I and metatarsus of legs III and IV. For the other species, we provide scanning electron micrographs of previously undescribed sexually dimorphic setae and pegs located on swollen regions of the legs. We also list additional species in which males have swollen regions on the legs, including the tibia, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs I, trochanter and tibia of legs II, femur, metatarsus, and tarsus of legs III, and metatarsus and tarsus of legs IV. The function and biological role of the secretions released by these glands are discussed.
San-Jose, Luis M; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Ducret, Valérie; Béziers, Paul; Simon, Céline; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Roulin, Alexandre
Variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene result in abrupt, naturally selected colour morphs. These genetic variants may differentially affect sexual dimorphism if one morph is naturally selected in the two sexes but another morph is naturally or sexually selected only in one of the two sexes (e.g. to confer camouflage in reproductive females or confer mating advantage in males). Therefore, the balance between natural and sexual selections can differ between MC1R variants, as suggest studies showing interspecific correlations between sexual dimorphism and the rate of nonsynonymous vs. synonymous amino acid substitutions at the MC1R. Surprisingly, how MC1R is related to within-species sexual dimorphism, and thereby to sex-specific selection, has not yet been investigated. We tackled this issue in the barn owl (Tyto alba), a species showing pronounced variation in the degree of reddish pheomelanin-based coloration and in the number and size of black feather spots. We found that a valine (V)-to-isoleucine (I) substitution at position 126 explains up to 30% of the variation in the three melanin-based colour traits and in feather melanin content. Interestingly, MC1R genotypes also differed in the degree of sexual colour dimorphism, with individuals homozygous for the II MC1R variant being 2 times redder and 2.5 times less sexually dimorphic than homozygous individuals for the VV MC1R variant. These findings support that MC1R interacts with the expression of sexual dimorphism and suggest that a gene with major phenotypic effects and weakly influenced by variation in body condition can participate in sex-specific selection processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Integrating the insights derived from both phylogenetic and experimental approaches offers a more complete understanding of evolutionary patterns and processes, yet it is rarely a feature of investigations of the evolutionary significance of trait variation. We combine these approaches to reinterpret the patterns and processes in the evolution of female biased sexual size dimorphism in Nephilidae, a spider lineage characterized by the most extreme sexual size dimorphism among terrestrial animals. We use a molecular phylogeny to reconstruct the size evolution for each sex and reveal a case of sexually dimorphic gigantism: both sexes steadily outgrow their ancestral sizes, but the female and male slopes differ, and hence sexual size dimorphism steadily increases. A review of the experimental evidence reveals a predominant net selection for large size in both sexes, consistent with the phylogenetic pattern for females but not for males. Thus, while sexual size dimorphism in spiders most likely originates and is maintained by fecundity selection on females, it is unclear what selection pressures prevent males from becoming as large as females. This integrated approach highlights the dangers of inferring evolutionary significance from experimental studies that isolate the effects of single selection pressures.
Ammerpohl, Ole; Bens, Susanne; Appari, Mahesh; Werner, Ralf; Korn, Bernhard; Drop, Stenvert L S; Verheijen, Frans; van der Zwan, Yvonne; Bunch, Trevor; Hughes, Ieuan; Cools, Martine; Riepe, Felix G; Hiort, Olaf; Siebert, Reiner; Holterhus, Paul-Martin
Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.
Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Attig, Linda
A new definition of sexual dimorphism is required. The divergent biology of the sexes is still largely ignored, overshadowed by sociocultural considerations and confined to its hormonal organizational and activational effects, while the genes unequally expressed by the sex chromosomes play an important role much earlier, after conception, to set the stage and throughout life. These different components have independent and parallel effects that can interact in a synergistic or antagonistic manner on differentiation and response processes to trigger or erase sex-specific differences. The epigenetic marks and machinery represent the perfect tools to keep the memory of which sex is ours from the very beginning of life. Within the context of the developmental origin of adult health and diseases (DOHaD), owing to their flexibility to the environment, epigenetic marks also represent a support to archive the effects of environments during development, according to the sex of the parent, in a sex-specific mode. In all tissues, including gonads and brain, different trajectories of genes and pathways are used at the basal levels and to modulate/dictate responses according to sex and gender. It is urgent to emphasize the need to take into consideration this new knowledge and to apply less sex-biased approaches in research, medicine and society, to enhance women health and well-being. A critical review and realization of gender-specific social constraints, an indeniably but slowly on-going process, should allow us to "set free our sex biology" while detracting the delusion of hierarchy of the complex mechanisms involved. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.
Full Text Available Sex differences are well known to be determinants of development, health and disease. Epigenetic mechanisms are also known to differ between men and women through X-inactivation in females. We hypothesized that epigenetic sex differences may also result from sex hormone functions, in particular from long-lasting androgen programming. We aimed at investigating whether inactivation of the androgen receptor, the key regulator of normal male sex development, is associated with differences of the patterns of DNA methylation marks in genital tissues. To this end, we performed large scale array-based analysis of gene methylation profiles on genomic DNA from labioscrotal skin fibroblasts of 8 males and 26 individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS due to inactivating androgen receptor gene mutations. By this approach we identified differential methylation of 167 CpG loci representing 162 unique human genes. These were significantly enriched for androgen target genes and low CpG content promoter genes. Additional 75 genes showed a significant increase of heterogeneity of methylation in AIS compared to a high homogeneity in normal male controls. Our data show that normal and aberrant androgen receptor function is associated with distinct patterns of DNA-methylation marks in genital tissues. These findings support the concept that transcription factor binding to the DNA has an impact on the shape of the DNA methylome. These data which derived from a rare human model suggest that androgen programming of methylation marks contributes to sexual dimorphism in the human which might have considerable impact on the manifestation of sex-associated phenotypes and diseases.
Full Text Available The adults and larvae of Passalidae are subsocial insects commonly found in tropical forests, living in decaying wood gallery systems constructed by adults. Currently, few repots on the larvae of Neotropical Passalidae have been published and information is scarce. In this study, the Passalus (Pertinax gravelyiMoreira, 1922 larvae is described for the first time, based on ten larval specimens 1 (1° instar, 4 (2° instar, and 5 (3° instar associated with three adults collected from a single colony at the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The description was carried out based on electronic and digital photographs of diagnostic structures, with some details on the systematic of the species. The larvae of Passalus gravelyihas the general setal 'Pertinax' pattern and differed from others by 16 to 18 setae on the anal ring, the other larvae data from Brazilian species show the anal ring with 10 to 12 setae. A discussion on the presence of sexual dimorphism in 62 species of two and three instars of Passalidae larvae is provided for the first time. Besides, a description of the terminal ampullapresent as a cuticular structure found in the medial-ventral area of the 9th abdominal sternite in males is also given. The terminal ampullawas only observed in the Passalidae male larvae and was not visible in female larvae. The terminal ampullaare acknowledged now in males of 64 passalid species, that are taxonomically distributed in world tropical forests, at the Oriental and Australian subfamily Aulacocyclinae (Aulacocyclini & Ceracupini and the cosmotropical subfamily Passalinae (Solenocyclini, Macrolinini, Passalini, & Proculini.
Full Text Available Background: We examined the accuracy and characteristics of saccadic eye movements in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD compared with typically developing control children. Previous studies have found that children with FASD produce saccades that are quantifiably different from controls. Additionally, animal studies have found sex-based differences for behavioral effects after prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, we hypothesized that eye movement measures will show sexually dimorphic results.Methods: Children (aged 5-18 years with FASD (n=71 and typically developing controls (n=113 performed a visually-guided saccade task. Saccade metrics and behavior were analyzed for sex and group differences. Results: Female control participants had greater amplitude saccades than control males or females with FASD. Accuracy was significantly poorer in the FASD group, especially in males, which introduced significantly greater variability in the data. Therefore, we conducted additional analyses including only those trials in which the first saccade successfully reached the target within a ±1˚ window. In this restricted amplitude dataset, the females with FASD made saccades with significantly lower velocity and longer duration, whereas the males with FASD did not differ from the control group. Additionally, the mean and peak deceleration were selectively decreased in the females with FASD. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit specific deficits in eye movement control and sensory-motor integration associated with cerebellar and/or brain stem circuits. Moreover, prenatal alcohol exposure may have a sexually dimorphic impact on eye movement metrics, with males and females exhibiting differential patterns of deficit.
Lombardo, Michael V.; Ashwin, Emma; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
In non-human species, testosterone is known to have permanent ‘organizing’ effects early in life that predict later expression of sex differences in brain and behavior. However, in humans it is still unknown if such mechanisms have organizing effects on neural sexual dimorphism. In human males, we show that variation in fetal testosterone (FT) predicts later local gray matter volume of specific brain regions in a direction that is congruent with sexual dimorphism observed in a large independent sample of age-matched males and females from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository. Right temporo-parietal junction/posterior superior temporal sulcus (RTPJ/pSTS), planum temporale/parietal operculum (PT/PO), and posterior lateral orbitofrontal cortex (plOFC) had local gray matter volume that was both sexually dimorphic and predicted in a congruent direction by FT. That is, gray matter volume in RTPJ/pSTS was greater for males compared to females and was positively predicted by FT. Conversely, gray matter volume in PT/PO and plOFC was greater in females compared to males and was negatively predicted by FT. Subregions of both amygdala and hypothalamus were also sexually dimorphic in the direction of Male>Female, but were not predicted by FT. However, FT positively predicted gray matter volume of a non-sexually dimorphic subregion of the amygdala. These results bridge a longstanding gap between human and non-human species in showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain. PMID:22238103
Carlson, Kristian J; Grine, Frederick E; Pearson, Osbjorn M
Throughout much of prehistory, humans practiced a hunting and gathering subsistence strategy. Elevated postcranial robusticity and sexually dimorphic mobility patterns are presumed consequences of this strategy, in which males are attributed greater robusticity and mobility than females. Much of the basis for these trends originates from populations where skeletal correlates of activity patterns are known (e.g., cross-sectional geometric properties of long bones), but in which activity patterns are inferred using evidence such as archaeological records (e.g., Pleistocene Europe). Australian hunter-gatherers provide an opportunity to critically assess these ideas since ethnographic documentation of their activity patterns is available. We address the following questions: do skeletal indicators of Australian hunter-gatherers express elevated postcranial robusticity and sexually dimorphic mobility relative to populations from similar latitudes, and do ethnographic accounts support these findings. Using computed tomography, cross-sectional images were obtained from 149 skeletal elements including humeri, radii, ulnae, femora, and tibiae. Cross-sectional geometric properties were calculated from image data and standardized for body size. Australian hunter-gatherers often have reduced robusticity at femoral and humeral midshafts relative to forager (Khoi-San), agricultural/industrialized (Zulu), and industrialized (African American) groups. Australian hunter-gatherers display more sexual dimorphism in upper limb robusticity than lower limb robusticity. Attributing specific behavioral causes to upper limb sexual dimorphism is premature, although ethnographic accounts support sex-specific differences in tool use. Virtually absent sexual dimorphism in lower limb robusticity is consistent with ethnographic accounts of equivalently high mobility among females and males. Thus, elevated postcranial robusticity and sexually dimorphic mobility do not always characterize hunter
Lau, Alice Ching Ching; Asahara, Masakazu; Han, Sung Yong; Kimura, Junpei
Sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter in South Korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. Images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. Results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. Correlations between the size and shape variations have not been observed in this study. The bivariate plots with centroid size showed size dimorphism between males and females with some overlapping. Most relative warp (RW) scores were not significantly different between males and females. We observed only RW2 for dorsal and ventral view of the skull, and only RW1 for mandible was significantly different between the sexes. Shape dimorphisms were revealed at the postorbital constriction, temporal-mandibular joint, coronoid process, mandibular condyle and angular process of the skull. Based on our study, sexual dimorphism exists in Eurasian otter from the South Korean population in terms of both the size and shape. Furthermore, the degree of size dimorphism is greater than shape dimorphism.
Full Text Available While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats, the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values
Pomatto, Laura C D; Wong, Sarah; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J A
Sexual dimorphism includes the physical and reproductive differences between the sexes, including differences that are conserved across species, ranging from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Sex-dependent variations in adaptive homeostasis, and adaptive stress responses may offer insight into the underlying mechanisms for male and female survival differences and into differences in chronic disease incidence and severity in humans. Earlier work showed sex-specific differences in adaptive responses to oxidative stressors in hybrid laboratory strains of D. melanogaster. The present study explored whether this phenomenon is also observed in wild-type D. melanogaster strains Oregon-R (Or-R) and Canton-S (Ca-S), as well as the common mutant reference strain w, in order to better understand whether such findings are descriptive of D. melanogaster in general. Flies of each strain were pretreated with non-damaging, adaptive concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or of different redox cycling agents (paraquat, DMNQ, or menadione). Adaptive homeostasis, and changes in the expression of the Proteasome and overall cellular proteasomal proteolytic capacity were assessed. Redox cycling agents exhibited a male-specific adaptive response, whereas H2O2 exposure provoked female-specific adaptation. These findings demonstrate that different oxidants can elicit sexually dimorphic adaptive homeostatic responses in multiple fly strains. These results (and those contained in a parallel study ) highlight the need to address sex as a biological variable in fundamental science, clinical research, and toxicology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Huntington's disease (HD patients. In the general population, women are more prone to develop depression and such susceptibility might be related to serotonergic dysregulation. There is yet to be a study of sexual dimorphism in the development and presentation of depression in HD patients. We investigated whether 8-week-old male and female R6/1 transgenic HD mice display depressive-like endophenotypes associated with serotonergic impairments. We also studied the behavioral effects of acute treatment with sertraline. We found that only female HD mice exhibited a decreased preference for saccharin as well as impaired emotionality-related behaviors when assessed on the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT and the forced-swimming test (FST. The exaggerated immobility time displayed by female HD in the FST was reduced by acute administration of sertraline. We also report an increased response to the 5-HT(1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT in inducing hypothermia and a decreased 5-HT(2A receptor function in HD animals. While tissue levels of serotonin were reduced in both male and female HD mice, we found that serotonin concentration and hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 mRNA levels were higher in the hippocampus of males compared to female animals. Finally, the antidepressant-like effects of sertraline in the FST were blunted in male HD animals. This study reveals sex-specific depressive-related behaviors during an early stage of HD prior to any cognitive and motor deficits. Our data suggest a crucial role for disrupted serotonin signaling in mediating the sexually dimorphic depression-like phenotype in HD mice.
Full Text Available Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt, simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.
Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas
the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been...
Cox, R M; Costello, R A; Camber, B E; McGlothlin, J W
Darwin viewed the ornamentation of females as an indirect consequence of sexual selection on males and the transmission of male phenotypes to females via the 'laws of inheritance'. Although a number of studies have supported this view by demonstrating substantial between-sex genetic covariance for ornament expression, the majority of this work has focused on avian plumage. Moreover, few studies have considered the genetic basis of ornaments from a multivariate perspective, which may be crucial for understanding the evolution of sex differences in general, and of complex ornaments in particular. Here, we provide a multivariate, quantitative-genetic analysis of a sexually dimorphic ornament that has figured prominently in studies of sexual selection: the brightly coloured dewlap of Anolis lizards. Using data from a paternal half-sibling breeding experiment in brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), we show that multiple aspects of dewlap size and colour exhibit significant heritability and a genetic variance-covariance structure (G) that is broadly similar in males (Gm ) and females (Gf ). Whereas sexually monomorphic aspects of the dewlap, such as hue, exhibit significant between-sex genetic correlations (rmf ), sexually dimorphic features, such as area and brightness, exhibit reduced rmf values that do not differ from zero. Using a modified random skewers analysis, we show that the between-sex genetic variance-covariance matrix (B) should not strongly constrain the independent responses of males and females to sexually antagonistic selection. Our microevolutionary analysis is in broad agreement with macroevolutionary perspectives indicating considerable scope for the independent evolution of coloration and ornamentation in males and females. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Gorman, Kristen B; Williams, Tony D; Fraser, William R
Sexual segregation in vertebrate foraging niche is often associated with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e., ecological sexual dimorphism. Although foraging behavior of male and female seabirds can vary markedly, differences in isotopic (carbon, δ13C and nitrogen, δ15N) foraging niche are generally more pronounced within sexually dimorphic species and during phases when competition for food is greater. We examined ecological sexual dimorphism among sympatric nesting Pygoscelis penguins asking whether environmental variability is associated with differences in male and female pre-breeding foraging niche. We predicted that all Pygoscelis species would forage sex-specifically, and that higher quality winter habitat, i.e., higher or lower sea ice coverage for a given species, would be associated with a more similar foraging niche among the sexes. P2/P8 primers reliably amplified DNA of all species. On average, male Pygoscelis penguins are structurally larger than female conspecifics. However, chinstrap penguins were more sexually dimorphic in culmen and flipper features than Adélie and gentoo penguins. Adélies and gentoos were more sexually dimorphic in body mass than chinstraps. Only male and female chinstraps and gentoos occupied separate δ15N foraging niches. Strong year effects in δ15N signatures were documented for all three species, however, only for Adélies, did yearly variation in δ15N signatures tightly correlate with winter sea ice conditions. There was no evidence that variation in sex-specific foraging niche interacted with yearly winter habitat quality. Chinstraps were most sexually size dimorphic followed by gentoos and Adélies. Pre-breeding sex-specific foraging niche was associated with overall SSD indices across species; male chinstrap and gentoo penguins were enriched in δ15N relative to females. Our results highlight previously unknown trophic pathways that link Pygoscelis penguins with variation in Southern Ocean sea ice suggesting that
Duxbury, Elizabeth M L; Rostant, Wayne G; Chapman, Tracey
Sexual dimorphism for lifespan (SDL) is widespread, but poorly understood. A leading hypothesis, which we test here, is that strong SDL can reduce sexual conflict by allowing each sex to maximize its sex-specific fitness. We used replicated experimental evolution lines of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which had been maintained for over 360 generations on either unpredictable 'Random' or predictable 'Regular' feeding regimes. This evolutionary manipulation of feeding regime led to robust, enhanced SDL in Random over control, Regular lines. Enhanced SDL was associated with a significant increase in the fitness of focal males, tested with wild-type (WT) females. This was due to sex-specific changes to male life history, manifested as increased early reproductive output and reduced survival. In contrast, focal female fitness, tested with WT males, did not differ across regimes. Hence increased SDL was associated with a reduction in sexual conflict, which increased male fitness and maintained fitness in females. Differences in SDL were not associated with developmental time or developmental survival. Overall, the results showed that the expression of enhanced SDL, resulting from experimental evolution of feeding regimes, was associated with male-specific changes in life history, leading to increased fitness and reduced sexual conflict. © 2017 The Authors.
Gosden, Thomas P; Shastri, Krishna-Lila; Innocenti, Paolo; Chenoweth, Stephen F
The extent to which sexual dimorphism can evolve within a population depends on an interaction between sexually divergent selection and constraints imposed by a genetic architecture that is shared between males and females. The degree of constraint within a population is normally inferred from the intersexual genetic correlation, r(mf) . However, such bivariate correlations ignore the potential constraining effect of genetic covariances between other sexually coexpressed traits. Using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, a species that exhibits mutual mate preference for blends of homologous contact pheromones, we tested the impact of between-sex between-trait genetic covariances using an extended version of the genetic variance-covariance matrix, G, that includes Lande's (1980) between-sex covariance matrix, B. We find that including B greatly reduces the degree to which male and female traits are predicted to diverge in the face of divergent phenotypic selection. However, the degree to which B alters the response to selection differs between the sexes. The overall rate of male trait evolution is predicted to decline, but its direction remains relatively unchanged, whereas the opposite is found for females. We emphasize the importance of considering the B-matrix in microevolutionary studies of constraint on the evolution of sexual dimorphism. © 2012 The Author(s).
Steegenga, Wilma; Mischke, Mona; Lute, Carolien; Muller, Michael; Plösch, T.
There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and female mice. In
Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.
Lengkeek, W.; Didderen, K.; Côté, I.M.; Zee, van der E.M.; Snoek, R.C.; Reynolds, J.D.
Comparative analyses of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) across species have led to the discovery of Rensch's rule. This rule states that SSD increases with body size when males are the largest sex, but decreases with increasing size when females are larger. Within-species comparisons of SSD in fish are
Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.
The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…
Schroeder, Julia; Lourenco, Pedro M.; van der Velde, Marco; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Both, Christiaan; Piersma, Theunis; Heg, Dik
Systematic sex-related differences in size and plumage are informative of sex-specific selection pressures. Here, we present an analysis of sexual dimorphism in body size and plumage of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa from a breeding population in The Netherlands. Molecular methods were
Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.
Duijns, S.; van Gils, J.A.; Spaans, B.; ten Horn, J.; Brugge, M.; Piersma, T.
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) implies correlated differences in energetic requirements and feeding opportunities, such that sexes will face different trade-offs in habitat selection. In seasonal migrants, this could result in a differential spatial distribution across the wintering range. To identify
Currie, D.; Mateman, A.C.; Lessells, C.M.; Fanchette, R.
The Seychelles Scops Owl Otus insularis is a critically endangered species restricted to the forests of Mahé in the Republic of Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. This study presents the first biometric data collected from live individuals and investigates the occurence of sexual size dimorphism.
Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Dramsdahl, Margaretha
Recent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest sexual dimorphism in the micro-structural architecture of the corpus callosum. However, the corpus callosum is also found to be larger in males than in females, a fact that might introduce a systematic bias to the analysis of DTI parameters...
Loonstra, A. H. Jelle; Verhoeven, Mo A.; Piersma, Theunis
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common in birds and has been linked to various selective forces. Nevertheless, the question of how and when the sexes start to differentiate from each other is poorly studied. This is a critical knowledge gap, as sex differences in growth may cause different responses
Loonstra, A.H.J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Piersma, T.
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common in birds and has been linked to various selectiveforces. Nevertheless, the question of how and when the sexes start to differentiatefrom each other is poorly studied. This is a critical knowledge gap, as sex differences ingrowth may cause different responses to
Harvey, J.A.; Strand, M.R.
Sexual dimorphisms in adult size (SSD) and development time (SDTD) occur in many groups of organisms. In insects, some of the best examples occur in parasitoid wasps where most studies report that females are larger than males but take longer to develop. Sex-specific differences in the effects of
Frank A. ROMANO III
Full Text Available A fifteen month study (December 2002 though February 2004 of a meiofaunal community living in moss and lichen from a Pecan tree on the campus of Jacksonville State University reports 9,791 microinvertebrates. Echiniscus mauccii was the most prevalent tardigrade species (1,329 specimens and was chosen to determine population dynamics and some aspects of their life histories. The average length of all the specimens (adults, juveniles, males, and females for each month was determined. A plot of all E. mauccii specimens was used to determine the following life stages of this species; juvenile, pre-reproductive, and reproductive. The studied population exhibited relatively constant population size and juvenile recruitment occurred year round with no increased reproduction during a season of the year. Thus, E. mauccii is an opportunistic breeder. Males of this species were found for the first time on a Laurasian land mass and females were found to be significantly larger than males. A protected Fisher's LSD test revealed a significant negative relationship between average adult length and the number of adults collected per month, but not between adult and juvenile lengths. As the population became more dense the average adult size decreased suggesting competition between at least the adults. Echiniscus mauccii is a sexually dimorphic animal that is iteroparous, breeds whenever conditions are appropriate, has a relatively constant population size, produces a small number of large eggs, and exhibits competition between adults. Thus, E. mauccii exhibits classic K-selected traits.
Hugo A. BENÍTEZ, Jorge AVARIA-LLAUTUREO, Cristian B. CANALES-AGUIRRE, Viviane JEREZ, Luis E. PARRA, Cristián E. HERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available Although the degree of mate competition, given extreme differences in sex ratio, explains much of the pattern of male-biased size dimorphism among diverse taxa, it fails for some species which have potential for intense male competition for mates and yet exhibit little or no sexual size dimorphism (SSD. This fact suggest that species with low SSD should be express the effect of evolutionary pressure in non-obvious geometrical shape promoted by sex ratio in an evolutionary time scale. To evaluate this hypothesis we used phylogenetic comparative method in a Bayesian framework to investigate the evolution of SSD and the role of sex ratio at inter-specific level in the species of Ceroglossus (Coleoptera: Carabidae. In our results the proportion farthest from 1:1 is associated with more disparate body shape, even though the entire group has minimum variation in sex ratio, which is an intrinsic life history character of this group considering its phylogenetic conservatism or phylogenetic signal. We suggest that the sex ratio has determined the dimorphism degree during evolution of this group, since both traits have increased or decreased together during the species divergence (i.e. positive phylogenetic correlation: r2≈0.85. We suggest that morphological studies of SSD will benefit from using comparative method with Bayesian approaches to assess the effect of phylogenetic history and its uncertainty. Finally, this will be allow to researchers to quantify the uncertainty of specific evolutionary hypotheses accounting for observed sexual dimorphism patterns [Current Zoology 59 (6: 769–777, 2013].
Full Text Available Sjögren's syndrome is a complex autoimmune disease with an array of diverse immunological, genetic and environmental etiologies, making identification of the precise autoimmune mechanism difficult to define. One of the most distinctive aspects of Sjögren's syndrome is the high sexual dimorphism with women affected 10-20 times more than men. It is nearly impossible to study the sexual dimorphic development of Sjögren's syndrome in human patients; therefore it is pertinent to develop an appropriate animal model which resembles human disease. The data indicated that female C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice developed an earlier onset of sialadenitis with a higher composition of CD3+ T cells and a 10-fold increase in glandular infiltration of Th17 cells at the onset of clinical disease compared to male mice. Inflammatory Th17 cells of female mice exhibited a stronger proliferation in response to disease-specific antigen than their male counterpart. At the clinical disease stage, altered autoantibody patterns can be detected in females whereas they are seldom observed in male C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice. Interestingly, male C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice developed an earlier loss of secretory function, despite the fact that female C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice exhibited a more rapid secretory loss. This data indicates the strong sexual dimorphism in the SjS-susceptible C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 animal model, making it an appropriate animal model to examine human disease.
Brown, Kirsten M
Sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis is commonly assumed to be related to the intensity of obstetrical selective pressures. With intense obstetrical selective pressures, there should be greater shape dimorphism; with minimal obstetrical selective pressures, there should be reduced shape dimorphism. This pattern is seen in the nondimorphic anterior spaces and highly dimorphic posterior spaces. Decoupling sexual dimorphism in these spaces may in turn be related to the differential influence of other selective pressures, such as biomechanical ones. The relationship between sexual dimorphism and selective pressures in the human pelvis was examined using five skeletal samples (total female n = 101; male n = 103). Pelvic shape was quantified by collecting landmark coordinate data on articulated pelves. Euclidean distance matrix analysis was used to extract the distances that defined the anterior and posterior pelvic spaces. Sex and body mass were used as proxies for obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, respectively. MANCOVA analyses demonstrate significant effects of sex and body mass on distances in both the anterior and the posterior spaces. A comparison of the relative contribution of shape variance attributed to each of these factors suggests that the posterior space is more influenced by sex, and obstetrics by proxy, whereas the anterior space is more influenced by body mass, and biomechanics by proxy. Although the overall shape of the pelvis has been influenced by obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, there is a differential response within the pelvis to these factors. These results provide new insight into the ongoing debate on the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barreto, Felipe S; Avise, John C
Male-biased size dimorphism is usually expected to evolve in taxa with intense male-male competition for mates, and it is hence associated with high variances in male mating success. Most species of pycnogonid sea spiders exhibit female-biased size dimorphism, and are notable among arthropods for having exclusive male parental care of embryos. Relatively little, however, is known about their natural history, breeding ecology, and mating systems. Here we first show that Ammothella biunguiculata, a small intertidal sea spider, exhibits male-biased size dimorphism. Moreover, we combine genetic parentage analysis with quantitative measures of sexual selection to show that male body size does not appear to be under directional selection. Simulations of random mating revealed that mate acquisition in this species is largely driven by chance factors, although actual paternity success is likely non-randomly distributed. Finally, the opportunity for sexual selection (I(s)), an indirect metric for the potential strength of sexual selection, in A. biunguiculata males was less than half of that estimated in a sea spider with female-biased size dimorphism, suggesting the direction of size dimorphism may not be a reliable predictor of the intensity of sexual selection in this group. We highlight the suitability of pycnogonids as model systems for addressing questions relating parental investment and sexual selection, as well as the current lack of basic information on their natural history and breeding ecology. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1170-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
González-Suárez, M.; Cassini, Marcelo H.
The theory of evolution by sexual selection for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) postulates that SSD primarily reflects the adaptation of males and females to their different reproductive roles. For example, competition among males for access to females increases male body size because larger males are better able to maintain dominant status than smaller males. Larger dominant males sire most offspring while smaller subordinate males are unsuccessful, leading to skew in reproductive success. Ther...
Maxwell H. Marlowe
Full Text Available The rove beetle Triacrus dilatus is found in the Atlantic forest of South America and lives in the refuse piles of the paper wasp Agelaia vicina. Adults of T. dilatus are among the largest rove beetles, frequently measuring over 3 cm, and exhibit remarkable variation in body size. To examine sexual dimorphism and allometric relationships we measured the length of the left mandible, ocular distance and elytra. We were interested in determining if there are quantifiable differences between sexes, if there are major and minor forms within each sex and if males exhibit mandibular allometry. For all variables, a t-test was run to determine if there were significant differences between the sexes. Linear regressions were run to examine if there were significant relationships between the different measurements. A heterogeneity of slopes test was used to determine if there were significant differences between males and females. Our results indicated that males had significantly larger mandibles and ocular distances than females, but the overall body length was not significantly different between the sexes. Unlike most insects, both sexes showed positive linear allometric relationships for mandible length and head size (as measured by the ocular distance. We found no evidence of major and minor forms in either sex.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful reduction of body weight (BW is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE and adipose tissue (AT metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain. RESEARCH DESIGN: Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m and female (f mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20% by caloric restriction (CR followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. RESULTS: Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; p<0.001. In consonance, lean mass-specific EE was significantly higher in females compared to males during BW-gain. Under CR female mice reached their target-BW significantly faster than male mice (m:12.2 days; f:7.6 days; p<0.001 accompanied by a sustained sex-difference in EE. In addition, female mice predominantly downsized gonadal AT whereas the relation between gonadal and total body fat was not altered in males. Accordingly, only females exhibited an increased rate of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα-deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ERα exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. CONCLUSION: The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid
Sandel, Michael; Rohde, Fritz C; Harris, Phillip M
The genus Elassoma represents a small but unique component of the aquatic biodiversity hotspot in southeastern North America. We present the first phylogeny of the seven described species, corroborated by sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear protein coding genes. This analysis reveals a Coastal Plain clade sister to the geographically isolated, and federally protected, Elassoma alabamae. The Coastal Plain clade contains the widespread E. zonatum, which is sister to a clade primarily restricted to lowland Neogene subprovinces. We analyzed morphometric data in a phylogenetic context to illustrate the evolution of sexual shape dimorphism within the genus. Sixteen univariate and three multivariate traits were tested for significant sexual dimorphism for each species, and relative transformation rates were inferred from the time tree. A simple index of interspecific sexual dimorphism revealed greater disparity among sympatric species comparisons than among allopatric comparisons. Results implicate geology as a primary factor influencing ecological diversification, and sexual selection as a mechanism reinforcing reproductive isolation in areas of secondary contact. We discuss putative roles of geological history and sexual selection in the generation and maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity gradient in southeastern North America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reno, Philip L; Meindl, Richard S; McCollum, Melanie A; Lovejoy, C Owen
The substantial fossil record for Australopithecus afarensis includes both an adult partial skeleton [Afar Locality (A.L.) 288-1, "Lucy"] and a large simultaneous death assemblage (A.L. 333). Here we optimize data derived from both to more accurately estimate skeletal size dimorphism. Postcranial ratios derived from A.L. 288-1 enable a significant increase in sample size compared with previous studies. Extensive simulations using modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas confirm that this technique is accurate and that skeletal size dimorphism in A. afarensis was most similar to that of contemporary Homo sapiens. These data eliminate some apparent discrepancies between the canine and skeletal size dimorphism in hominoids, imply that the species was not characterized by substantial sexual bimaturation, and greatly increase the probability that the reproductive strategy of A. afarensis was principally monogamy.
M Teague O'Mara
Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.
Full Text Available Species exhibiting sex-role reversal provide an unusual perspective on the evolution of sex roles and sex differences. However, the proximate effects of sex-role reversal are largely unknown. Endocrine disruptors provide an experimental mechanism to address hormonal regulation of sexually dimorphic gene expression in sex-role-reversed taxa. Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles. Using next-generation RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq, we detected sexually dimorphic hepatic gene expression patterns, with a total of 482 differentially expressed genes between the sexes in Gulf pipefish. Two-thirds of these genes were over-expressed in females, and the sex-specific transcriptomes of this sex-role-reversed pipefish's liver were superficially similar to those of fishes with conventional sex-roles. We exposed females, pregnant males, and non-pregnant males to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2 at ecologically relevant concentrations of 5ng/L and compared gene expression patterns in the livers of exposed fish to control fish. Several genes that were up-regulated in EE2-exposed males relative to control males were also found to be female-biased in control animals. These genes included several of the classic estrogen biomarkers, such as vitellogenin, choriogenin, and zona pellucida. Thus, estrogen exposure induced feminization of the male liver transcriptome in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. These results suggest that the ancestral state of estrogen-regulated female reproductive physiology has been retained in all sex-role-reversed vertebrates thus far studied, despite substantial evolution of the hormonal regulation of ornamentation and mating behavior in these interesting taxa.
Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa
The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.
Rose, Emily; Flanagan, Sarah P; Jones, Adam G
.... Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles...
Balogová, Monika; Nelson, Emma; Uhrin, Marcel; Figurová, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Zyśk, Bartłomiej
It has been proposed that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker of early developmental effects. Specifically, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been linked to the effects of sex hormones and their receptor genes, but other digit ratios have also been investigated. Across taxa, patterns of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios are ambiguous and a scarcity of studies in basal tetrapods makes it difficult to understand how ratios have evolved. Here, we focus on examining sex differences in digit ratios (2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D) in a common amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra). We used graphic software to measure soft tissue digit length and digit bone length from X-rays. We found a nonsignificant tendency in males to have a lower 2D:3D than females; however, no sexual differences were detected in the other ratios. We discuss our results in the context of other studies of digit ratios, and how sex determination systems, as well as other factors, might impact patterns of sexual dimorphism, particularly in reptiles and in amphibians. Our findings suggest that caution is needed when using digit ratios as a potential indicator of prenatal hormonal effects in amphibians and highlight the need for more comparative studies to elucidate the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms implicated in sexually dimorphic patterns across taxonomic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mat?j?, Jan; Kratochv?l, Luk??
Introduction Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to ?Rensch?s rule?, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in t...
Van Sinderen, Michelle; Steinberg, Gregory; Jorgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D Y; Simpson, Evan R; Jones, Margaret E E; Boon, Wah Chin
We investigated the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis using the Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) mouse, which is unable to convert androgens into estrogens. The ArKO mouse is a model of total estrogen ablation which develops symptoms of metabolic syndrome. To determine the development and progression of whole body state of insulin resistance of ArKO mice, comprehensive whole body tolerance tests were performed on WT, ArKO and estrogen administrated mice at 3 and 12 months of age. The absence of estrogens in the male ArKO mice leads to hepatic insulin resistance, glucose and pyruvate intolerance from 3 to 12 months with consistent improvement upon estrogen treatment. Estrogen absence in the female ArKO mice leads to glucose intolerance without pyruvate intolerance or insulin resistance. The replacement of estrogens in the female WT and ArKO mice exhibited both insulin sensitizing and resistance effects depending on age and dosage. In conclusion, this study presents information on the sexually dimorphic roles of estrogens on glucose homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Alexander M; Bejder, Lars; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Hunt, Tim; Smith, Jennifer L; Allen, Simon J
Determining the sex of free-ranging cetaceans can be challenging. Sexual dimorphism among external features may allow inferences on sex, but such patterns may be difficult to detect and are often confounded by age and geographic variation. Dorsal fin images of 107 female and 54 male Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD) were used to investigate sex, age and geographic differences in colouration, height/length quotient and number of notches. Adult males exhibited more dorsal fin notches (pdolphins, which could potentially be applied to populations throughout their range. In contrast to adults, presumed immature animals showed little or no loss of pigmentation or spotting; however, the rate of development of these features remains unknown. There were pronounced differences between QLD and WA in the intensity of spotting on dorsal fins and the extent of pigmentation loss around the posterior insertion and trailing edge of the dorsal fin. While based on a limited sample size, these geographic differences may have conservation implications in terms of population subdivision and should be investigated further. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexual differences in scaling of head, limb and tail dimensions were mainly the result of differential asymptotic sizes reached by the sexes. Head size was also influenced by a faster increase in head dimensions with increasing snout to vent length in males compared to females, probably as a result of sexual selection.
Roulin, A; Jensen, H
Theory states that genes on the sex chromosomes have stronger effects on sexual dimorphism than genes on the autosomes. Although empirical data are not necessarily consistent with this theory, this situation may prevail because the relative role of sex-linked and autosomally inherited genes on sexual dimorphism has rarely been evaluated. We estimated the quantitative genetics of three sexually dimorphic melanin-based traits in the barn owl (Tyto alba), in which females are on average darker reddish pheomelanic and display more and larger black eumelanic feather spots than males. The plumage traits with higher sex-linked inheritance showed lower heritability and genetic correlations, but contrary to prediction, these traits showed less pronounced sexual dimorphism. Strong offspring sexual dimorphism primarily resulted from daughters not expressing malelike melanin-based traits and from sons expressing femalelike traits to similar degrees as their sisters. We conclude that in the barn owl, polymorphism at autosomal genes rather than at sex-linked genes generate variation in sexual dimorphism in melanin-based traits. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi, a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.
Ibor Oju Richard
Full Text Available In this study, the pattern and magnitude of sexual dimorphic differences have been investigated in black jaw tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron (n = 160; 74 males and 86 females and banded jewelfish (Hemichromis fasciatus (n = 120; 42 males and 78 females from the Great Kwa River, Calabar, Nigeria. Fish samples were collected between July and December 2015. Fourteen morphometric variables, including body weight, total length, standard length, body depth, cheek depth, pre-orbital length, postorbital length, pectoral fin length (right and left, pelvic fin length (right and left, head length, gonad weight, eye diameter and four meristic variables, including number of pectoral fins (right and left and number of pelvic fins (right and left, were taken using standard methods. Size-adjusted morphometric measurements subjected to step-wise discriminant function analysis were used to determine predictor variables to morphologically differentiate sexes for both species; magnitude of dimorphism between sexes was estimated using percentage classification accuracy of the discriminant function analysis. From the discriminant function analysis, the pectoral fin length and gonad weight positively contributed significantly to morphometric dimorphism (magnitude=69.2% in male and female S. melanotheron suggesting adaptation for reproductive function; while for H. fasciatus the body depth and standard length were important contributors to sexual dimorphism (magnitude=84.2% suggesting size dimorphism for aggressiveness, territorial behavior and improving swimming performance. Overall, our results indicate that the different magnitude of sexual dimorphism between the two species could be attributable to the type and functional role of sexual dimorphic traits.
Timo L. Kvamme
Conclusions: These findings dovetail with previous studies reporting that a state effect of BD in college-aged drinkers and the severity of alcohol use are associated with volumetric alterations in the cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. Our study indicates that these widespread volumetric changes vary differentially by gender, suggesting either sexual dimorphic endophenotypic risk factors, or differential neurotoxic sensitivities for males and females.
Immonen, Elina; Sayadi, Ahmed; Bayram, Helen; Arnqvist, Göran
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes arise largely from sex-specific gene expression, which has mainly been characterized in sexually naïve adults. However, we expect sexual dimorphism in transcription to be dynamic and dependent on factors such as reproductive status. Mating induces many behavioral and physiological changes distinct to each sex and is therefore expected to activate regulatory changes in many sex-biased genes. Here, we first characterized sexual dimorphism in gene expression in Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. We then examined how females and males respond to mating and how it affects sex-biased expression, both in sex-limited (abdomen) and sex-shared (head and thorax) tissues. Mating responses were largely sex-specific and, as expected, females showed more genes responding compared with males (∼2,000 vs. ∼300 genes in the abdomen, ∼500 vs. ∼400 in the head and thorax, respectively). Of the sex-biased genes present in virgins, 16% (1,041 genes) in the abdomen and 17% (243 genes) in the head and thorax altered their relative expression between the sexes as a result of mating. Sex-bias status changed in 2% of the genes in the abdomen and 4% in the head and thorax following mating. Mating responses involved de-feminization of females and, to a lesser extent, de-masculinization of males relative to their virgin state: mating decreased rather than increased dimorphic expression of sex-biased genes. The fact that regulatory changes of both types of sex-biased genes occurred in both sexes suggests that male- and female-specific selection is not restricted to male- and female-biased genes, respectively, as is sometimes assumed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Bugoni, Leandro; Furness, Robert W.
We present data on age composition and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters in southern Brazil for 301 birds of 14 species captured live at sea. The pelagic community of seabirds off Brazil comprises birds of different ages and breeding status according to species. Although juveniles of some species such as Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris and Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus predominated, all age classes (including breeding birds) wer...
Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P.; Imamura, Yorishige; シマダ, ヒデアキ; ハシグチ, タカシ; ヤスタケ, アキラ; イマムラ, ヨリシゲ; 島田, 秀昭; 橋口, 敬志; 安武 章; 今村, 順茂
The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals.Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) ratswith the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility tocadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmiumtoxicity. In the present study, weattempted to furtherelucidate the mechanism for sexdifferencesin cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium(5.0 mg Cd/kg, s.c.)...
Xu, Jun; Zhan, Shuai; Chen, Shuqing; Zeng, Baosheng; Li, Zhiqian; James, Anthony A; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that insect dsx genes have sex-specific alternative splicing isoforms, whereas other taxa do not. We exploited genome editing and transgenesis technologies to induce mutations in either the male-specific isoform (dsx(M)) or common region (dsx(C)) of dsx in the somatic tissues of the lepidopteran model insect Bombyx mori. Disruptions of gene function produced either male-specific sexually-dimorphic defects or intersexual phenotypes; these results differ from those observed in other insects, including Drosophila melanogaster. Our data provide insights into the divergence of the insect sex determination pathways related to the most conserved downstream component dsx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.
Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feuer, Sky K.; Donjacour, Annemarie; Simbulan, Rhodel K.; Lin, Wingka; Liu, Xiaowei; Maltepe, Emin
The preimplantation embryo is particularly vulnerable to environmental perturbation, such that nutritional and in vitro stresses restricted exclusively to this stage may alter growth and affect long-term metabolic health. This is particularly relevant to the over 5 million children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). We previously reported that even optimized IVF conditions reprogram mouse postnatal growth, fat deposition, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic fashion. To more clearly interrogate the metabolic changes associated with IVF in adulthood, we used nontargeted mass spectrometry to globally profile adult IVF- and in vivo-conceived liver and gonadal adipose tissues. There was a sex- and tissue-specific effect of IVF on adult metabolite signatures indicative of metabolic reprogramming and oxidative stress and reflective of the observed phenotypes. Additionally, we observed a striking effect of IVF on adult sexual dimorphism. Male-female differences in metabolite concentration were exaggerated in hepatic IVF tissue and significantly reduced in IVF adipose tissue, with the majority of changes affecting amino acid and lipid metabolites. We also observed female-specific changes in markers of oxidative stress and adipogenesis, including reduced glutathione, cysteine glutathione disulfide, ophthalmate, urate, and corticosterone. In summary, embryo manipulation and early developmental experiences can affect adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and metabolic physiology. PMID:25211591
Schlager, Stefan; Rüdell, Alexandra
The human zygomatic structure, consisting of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, is an essential part of the masticatory apparatus and has been shown to reflect population history and sexual dimorphism to varying degrees. In this study, we analyzed the predictive value of the outlines vs. the complete surface shape of the zygomatic bone in a sample of 98 Chinese (50 ♀, 48 ♂) and 96 Germans (49 ♀, 47 ♂). We first applied a surface registration process based on statistical shape modeling. A dense set of 1,480 pseudo-landmarks was then sampled automatically from the surface of the pooled mean shape and three curves were digitized manually along the outlines of the zygomatic bone. Both sets of pseudo-landmarks were automatically transferred to all specimens. Analysis of sex and population affinity showed both factors to be independently significant, but the interaction between them was not. Population affinity could be predicted quite accurately with correct classification of 97.9% using the surface data and 93.3% with the curve data. Sexual dimorphism was less distinct with 89.2% correct sex determination when using surface information compared with 77.8% when using the curve data. Population-related shape differences were captured primarily in the outlines, while sexual dimorphism is distributed more uniformly throughout the entire surface of the zygomatic structure. Anat Rec, 300:226-237, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anastasiou, Evilena; Chamberlain, Andrew T
The ability to correctly estimate the sex of skeletal remains is vital in forensic sciences. This article investigates the sexual dimorphism of the human sacro-iliac joint, using geometric morphometric techniques that assess morphological characters better than the traditional approaches for recording outline shapes, which are subject to quantification and inter-observer problems. Eight two-dimensional landmarks were recorded from digital images of 29 female and 35 male auricular surfaces of the ilium and sacrum. The specimens were analyzed using geometric morphometric methods (Generalized Procrustes analysis, relative warp analysis, Goodall's F) and multivariate statistics (ANOVA, MANCOVA, principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis [DFA]). Both the size and shape of the analyzed structures were found to be sexually dimorphic. The DFA illustrated that when the form of both the iliac and sacral articular surface is taken as a predictor variable, 94.5% of the individuals are assigned to the correct sex. The successful sex determination obtained by the DFA makes the further study of the sacro-iliac joint's sexual dimorphism promising. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Torres-Tamayo, Nicole; García-Martínez, Daniel; Lois Zlolniski, Stephanie; Torres-Sánchez, Isabel; García-Río, Francisco; Bastir, Markus
Sexual dimorphism in the human respiratory system has been previously reported at the skeletal (cranial and thoracic) level, but also at the pulmonary level. Regarding lungs, foregoing studies have yielded sex-related differences in pulmonary size as well as lung shape details, but different methodological approaches have led to discrepant results on differences in respiratory patterns between males and females. The purpose of this study is to analyse sexual dimorphism in human lungs during forced respiration using 3D geometric morphometrics. Eighty computed tomographies (19 males and 21 females) were taken in maximal forced inspiration (FI) and expiration (FE), and 415 (semi)landmarks were digitized on 80 virtual lung models for the 3D quantification of pulmonary size, shape and kinematic differences. We found that males showed larger lungs than females (P 3D approach shows sexual dimorphism in human lungs likely due to a greater diaphragmatic action in males and a predominant intercostal muscle action in females during breathing. These size and shape differences would lead to different respiratory patterns between sexes, whose physiological implications need to be studied in future research. © 2017 Anatomical Society.
Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P
Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women.
Full Text Available The scope of gender related differences observed in mentally ill persons provides a major source of inference about the role of gonadal steroids in brain function and behavior. Reported gender dimorphism in psychiatry includes the following: prevalence of certain mental disorders specific to female gender, phenomenology and treatment characteristics, i.e. response to the applied psychopharmacotherapy. Structural and functional relationship between the hormonal system and central nervous system is closely correlated with vulnerability to various psychopathological disturbances in biologically different stages in women. It has been observed, for instance, that the association of gonadal steroid activity with serotonin is relevant to mood change in premenstrual and postpartum mood disturbances. Gender related hormonal fluctuations may cause or be correlated with the development of several gender-related psychopathological disturbances. The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning gender-related specificities of psychopharmacological treatment of some of the most important mental disorders in women, such as affective disorder in menopause, premenstrual syndrome and postpartum mood disorders.
Ezra M. Orlofsky
Full Text Available The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD and glutathione transferases (GSTs were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle.
Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro; Pérez, Martha; Coro, Frank
Both sexes of Phoenicoprocta capistrata have functional tymbals. The scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in the morphology of these organs in males and females. Male tymbals have a well-developed striated band, constituted by 21 ± 2 regularly arranged striae whereas female tymbals lack a striated band. This type of sexual dimorphism is rare in Arctiidae. The recording of the sound produced by moths held by the wings revealed that while males produced trains of pulses organized in modulation cycles, females produced clicks at low repetition rate following very irregular patterns. Statistically, there are differences between sexes in terms of the duration of pulses, which were 355 ± 24 μs in the case of males and 289 ± 29 μs for females. The spectral characteristics of the pulses also show sexual dimorphism. Male pulses are more tuned ( Q 10 = 5.2 ± 0.5) than female pulses ( Q 10 = 2.7 ± 0.5) and have a higher best frequency (42 ± 1 kHz vs. 29 ± 2 kHz). To our knowledge, this is the first report on an arctiid moth showing sexual dimorphism in tymbal’s anatomy that leads to a best frequency dimorphism. Males produce sound at mating attempts. The sounds recorded during mating are modulation cycles with the same spectral characteristics as those recorded when males are held by the wings. The morphological and acoustic features of female tymbals could indicate a process of degeneration and adaptation to conditions under which the emission of complex patterns is not necessary.
Rolff, Jens; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Coltman, David W.
: a common genetic architecture constrains the response to selection on a trait subjected to sexually asymmetric selection pressures. Here we show that males and females of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor differ in the quantitative genetic architecture of four traits related to immune defense...
I suggest three proximate mechanisms that may cause sex-related differences in adult head size of O. c. cuvieri based on natural selection; to reduce intersexual food competition, sexual selection involving mate acquisition in males, and ontogenetic change of allometry to improve reproductive output in females. Key words: ...
When males are the larger sex, a positive allometric relationship between male and female sizes is often found across populations of a single species (i.e. Rensch's rule). This pattern is typically explained by a sexual selection pressure on males. Here, we report that the allometric relationship was negative across ...
Wehi, P M; Nakagawa, S; Trewick, S A; Morgan-Richards, M
Theory proposes that sexually dimorphic, polygynous species are at particularly high risk of sex-biased predation, because conspicuous males are more often preyed upon compared to females. We tested the effects of predation on population sex ratio in a highly sexually dimorphic insect genus (Hemideina). In addition, introduction of a suite of novel mammalian predators to New Zealand during the last 800 years is likely to have modified selection pressures on native tree weta. We predicted that the balance between natural and sexual selection would be disrupted by the new predator species. We expected to see a sex ratio skew resulting from higher mortality in males with expensive secondary sexual weaponry; combat occurs outside refuge cavities between male tree weta. We took a meta-analytic approach using generalized linear mixed models to compare sex ratio variation in 58 populations for six of the seven species in Hemideina. We investigated adult sex ratio across these populations to determine how much variation in sex ratio can be attributed to sex-biased predation in populations with either low or high number of invasive mammalian predators. Surprisingly, we did not detect any significant deviation from 1 : 1 parity for adult sex ratio and found little difference between populations or species. We conclude that there is little evidence of sex-biased predation by either native or mammalian predators and observed sex ratio skew in individual populations of tree weta is probably an artefact of sampling error. We argue that sex-biased predation may be less prevalent in sexually dimorphic species than previously suspected and emphasize the usefulness of a meta-analytic approach to robustly analyse disparate and heterogeneous data. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Timmermans, M J T N; Thompson, M J; Collins, S; Vogler, A P
Several species of swallowtail butterflies (genus Papilio) are Batesian mimics that express multiple mimetic female forms, while the males are monomorphic and nonmimetic. The evolution of such sex-limited mimicry may involve sexual dimorphism arising first and mimicry subsequently. Such a stepwise scenario through a nonmimetic, sexually dimorphic stage has been proposed for two closely related sexually dimorphic species: Papilio phorcas, a nonmimetic species with two female forms, and Papilio dardanus, a female-limited polymorphic mimetic species. Their close relationship indicates that female-limited polymorphism could be a shared derived character of the two species. Here, we present a phylogenomic analysis of the dardanus group using 3964 nuclear loci and whole mitochondrial genomes, showing that they are not sister species and thus that the sexually dimorphic state has arisen independently in the two species. Nonhomology of the female polymorphism in both species is supported by population genetic analysis of engrailed, the presumed mimicry switch locus in P. dardanus. McDonald-Kreitman tests performed on SNPs in engrailed showed the signature of balancing selection in a polymorphic population of P. dardanus, but not in monomorphic populations, nor in the nonmimetic P. phorcas. Hence, the wing polymorphism does not balance polymorphisms in engrailed in P. phorcas. Equally, unlike in P. dardanus, none of the SNPs in P. phorcas engrailed were associated with either female morph. We conclude that sexual dimorphism due to female polymorphism evolved independently in both species from monomorphic, nonmimetic states. While sexual selection may drive male-female dimorphism in nonmimetic species, in mimetic Papilios, natural selection for protection from predators in females is an alternative route to sexual dimorphism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goel, Archana; Patnaik, Vvg; Puri, Nidhi
The study comprised lip morphometry of 600 North Indian adults (300 males and 300 females). The aim of the study was to create base data of various linear and vertical measurements of the upper and lower lips and width of the mouth. This standard may serve as a guideline for sexual dimorphism as well as for restoration or enhancement of esthetic and plastic surgery for the lips in the north Indian population, which will enable the surgeon to offer a better cosmetic result. Prior informed written consent from all the subjects was obtained. The exclusion and inclusion criteria for the subjects were predefined. The analysis shows the sexual dimorphism in most parameters of lips being greater in males. The results were compared with the available data for north white Americans, Malays, Malaysian Indians, Italians, western Indians and Caucasians. In the population under study, the measurements differ in all dimensions with Malays, Italians and Caucasians and show resemblance to the Malaysian Indians. Knowledge of the proportion between the upper and lower lips helps in surgical correction of the region. This study highlights the applied significance of observations of the present study to forensic, namely racial and sex dimorphic, criteria of identification. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Gene expression changes during aging are partly conserved across species, and suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and proteotoxicity result from mitochondrial malfunction and abnormal mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Mitochondrial maintenance failure may result from trade-offs between mitochondrial turnover versus growth and reproduction, sexual antagonistic pleiotropy and genetic conflicts resulting from uni-parental mitochondrial transmission, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear mutations and loss of epigenetic regulation. Aging phenotypes and interventions are often sex-specific, indicating that both male and female sexual differentiation promote mitochondrial failure and aging. Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging. The data support a model where the genes Sxl in Drosophila, sdc-2 in C. elegans, and Xist in mammals regulate mitochondrial maintenance across generations and in aging. Several interventions that increase life span cause a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), and UPRmt is also observed during normal aging, indicating hormesis. The UPRmt may increase life span by stimulating mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, and/or by inhibiting the production of hormones and toxic metabolites. The data suggest that metazoan life span interventions may act through a common hormesis mechanism involving liver UPRmt, mitochondrial maintenance and sexual differentiation. PMID:25447815
Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of sex differences in the response to cannabinoid compounds focusing mainly on behaviours belonging to the cognitive and emotional sphere. Sexual dimorphism exists in the different components of the endocannabinoid system.. Males seem to have higher CB1 receptor binding sites than females, but females seem to possess more efficient CB1 receptors. Differences between sexes have been also observed in the metabolic processing of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The consistent dimorphism in the endocannabinoid system and THC metabolism may justify at least in part the different sensitivity observed between male and female animals in different behavioural paradigms concerning emotion and cognition after treatment with cannabinoid compounds.On the bases of these observations, we would like to emphasize the need of including females in basic research and to analyze results for sex differences in epidemiological studies.
Full Text Available Aim of Study: The aim is to evaluate existence of sexual dimorphism by variation in right and left permanent maxillary molars using buccolingual width (BLW and mesio-distal width (MDW measured intraorally and on study casts among Sri Ganganagar population. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females with 17–25 years of age were selected. Impressions of maxillary arch were taken and the BLW and MDW were measured using digital Vernier calipers on study casts and intraorally. Results: Highly significant correlation was found between MDW and BLW of both the maxillary permanent first molars for both genders (P < 0.05 intraorally. The MDW and BLW on study cast of both sides in both gender were more on left side in males while on right side in females. Conclusion: Left maxillary permanent first molar showed minimum mean difference of measurements on study cast and introrally than right, thus better predictor for gender dimorphism in forensics.
Mehta, Sakshi; Kaur, Sukhleen; Verma, Pradhuman; Khosa, Rameen; Sudan, Madhu; Kaur, Harpreet
The aim is to evaluate existence of sexual dimorphism by variation in right and left permanent maxillary molars using buccolingual width (BLW) and mesio-distal width (MDW) measured intraorally and on study casts among Sri Ganganagar population. Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females) with 17-25 years of age were selected. Impressions of maxillary arch were taken and the BLW and MDW were measured using digital Vernier calipers on study casts and intraorally. Highly significant correlation was found between MDW and BLW of both the maxillary permanent first molars for both genders (P BLW on study cast of both sides in both gender were more on left side in males while on right side in females. Left maxillary permanent first molar showed minimum mean difference of measurements on study cast and introrally than right, thus better predictor for gender dimorphism in forensics.
Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix; Jones, Owen
dimorphism. We tested the effect of individual heterogeneity on age-specific mortality, and the extent by which this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length as measures of an individual’s frailty. 3. We found that sex differences in age-specific mortality were primarily....... However, the effect of wing length was different between the two sexes. While larger females had higher survival, larger males had lower chances to survive. 5. Our results contribute a novel perspective to the ongoing debate about the mechanisms that drive sex differences in vital rates in vertebrates....... Although we found that variables that relate to the cost of reproduction and sexual dimorphism are at least partially involved in determing these sex differences, it is through their effect on the level of frailty that they affect age patterns of mortality. Therefore, our results raise the possibility...
Hens, Samantha M
The orangutan is widely recognized as a highly dimorphic species. An ontogenetic approach to the study of sexual dimorphism can assist researchers in understanding both where and when these differences develop. In this study, 357 orangutans from Borneo were divided into five developmental stages representing infancy to mature adulthood. Three-dimensional (3D) coordinate data from 16 landmarks representing the face and palate were analyzed by means of a Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA), a quantitative method for the comparison of forms. Three separate analyses (an age-specific static comparison of forms, a sex-specific analysis of growth trajectories, and an intersex comparison of patterns of relative growth) were carried out with the intent to describe the rate, timing, magnitude, and pattern of growth in the orangutan face and palate. The results indicate that generally males and females share a similar, but not identical, pattern of growth or local form change, but differ in growth rate, timing, and magnitude of difference. Dimorphism in the face and palate can be localized in infancy and traced throughout all age intervals. Orangutan females grow slightly faster than males from infancy to adolescence, at which time male growth exceeds female growth. Female growth ceases with the advent of adulthood, while male growth continues (i.e., both the number and magnitude of the dimorphic dimensions increase). Males and females are similar in facial dimensions and growth related to the orbits, upper face, and palate width. They maintain these similarities throughout development. However, they differ in facial and nasal height, palate length, snout projection, depth of the nasopharynx, and hafting of the face onto the skull. The face broadens and the zygomatic bone flares dramatically in adult males, corresponding to the development of cheek pads. While growth patterns are similar between the two sexes, they differ in the lateral orbit, snout projection, and
Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R.; Nowakowski, A. Justin; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Todd, Brian D.
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables. We found that geographic variation, magnitude and direction of turtle SSD are best explained by habitat association, annual temperature variance and annual precipitation. Use of semi-aquatic and terrestrial habitats was associated with male-biased SSD, whereas use of aquatic habitat was associated with female-biased SSD. Our results also suggest that greater temperature variability is associated with female-biased SSD. In contrast, wetter climates are associated with male-biased SSD compared with arid climates that are associated with female-biased SSD. We also show support for a global latitudinal trend in SSD, with females being larger than males towards the poles, especially in the families Emydidae and Geoemydidae. Estimates of phylogenetic signal for both SSD and habitat type indicate that closely related species occupy similar habitats and exhibit similar direction and magnitude of SSD. These global patterns of SSD may arise from sex-specific reproductive behaviour, fecundity and sex-specific responses to environmental factors that differ among habitats and vary systematically across latitude. Thus, this study adds to our current understanding that while SSD can vary dramatically across and within turtle species under
Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Li, Cun; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Casey, Cameron P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Maloyan, Alina
Poor maternal nutrition causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, its effects on fetal cardiac development are unclear. We have developed a baboon model of moderate maternal undernutrition, leading to IUGR. We hypothesized that IUGR affects fetal cardiac structure and metabolism. Six control pregnant baboons ate ad-libitum (CTRL)) or 70% CTRL from 0.16 of gestation (G). Fetuses were euthanized at C-section at 0.9G under general anesthesia. Male but not female IUGR fetuses showed left ventricular fibrosis inversely correlated with birth weight. Expression of extracellular matrix protein TSP-1 was increased ( SMAD3 and ALK-1 were downregulated in male IUGRs with no difference in females. Autophagy was present in male IUGR evidenced by upregulation of ATG7 expression and lipidation LC3B. Global miRNA expression profiling revealed 56 annotated and novel cardiac miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in female IUGR, and 38 cardiac miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in males (p<0.05). Fifteen (CTRL) and 23 (IUGR) miRNAs, were differentially expressed between males and. females (p<0.05) suggesting sexual dimorphism, which can be at least partially explained by differential expression of upstream transcription factors (e.g. HNF4α, and NFκB p50). Lipidomics analysis exhibited a net increase in diacylglycerol and plasmalogens, and a decrease in triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines. In summary, IUGR resulting from decreased maternal nutrition is associated with sex-dependent dysregulations in cardiac structure, miRNA expression, and lipid metabolism. If these changes persist postnatally, they may program offspring for higher later life cardiac risk.
The earlier mean adult emergence between males and females, protandry, has been well studied mathematically and in comparative studies. However, quantitative and evolutionary genetic research on protandry is scarce. The butterfly, Bicyclus anynana exhibits protandry and here we selected for each of the different ...
Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D
Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.
Rossiter, Stephen J; Ransome, Roger D; Faulkes, Christopher G; Dawson, Deborah A; Jones, Gareth
Most mammalian groups are characterized by male-biased sexual size dimorphism, in which size-dependent male-male competition and reproductive skew are tightly linked. By comparison, little is known about the opportunity for sexual selection in mammalian systems without male-biased dimorphism, where the traits under sexual selection might be less obvious. We examined 10 years of parentage data in a colony of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) to determine the magnitude of male reproductive skew and the opportunity for sexual selection in a mammal in which females are the larger sex. Annual paternity success was weakly skewed but consistent patterns led to strong longitudinal paternity skew among breeders. Just three males accounted for a third of all paternity assignments, representing at least a fifth of all colony offspring born in a decade. Paternity success was in part determined by age but was not influenced by dispersal status. Our results show that paternity skew and the opportunity for sexual selection in a species with reversed sexual size dimorphism can approach levels reported for classical examples of species with polygyny and male-biased dimorphism, even where the traits under sexual selection are not known.
Muralimanoharan, S; Maloyan, A; Myatt, L
Preeclampsia (PE) affects 5-8% of pregnancies and is responsible for 18% of maternal deaths in the US, and for long-term complications in mother and child. PE is an inflammatory state and may influence placental function in a sex-specific manner. We determined if there is a sexual dimorphism in the placental inflammatory and apoptotic responses in preeclamptic pregnancies. Placentas were collected from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies with either male or female fetuses (MPE and FPE respectively) after c-section at term with no labor. Expression patterns of markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, as well as hypoxia, apoptosis and angiogenesis markers measured by Western blotting were determined in the placenta. Consistent with previous studies, an increase in inflammation, hypoxia, and apoptotic cell death was observed in PE compared to normotensive pregnancies. Levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8, and HIF-1α were significantly greater, whereas the angiogenic marker VEGF was significantly reduced in MPE vs. FPE. Sexual dimorphism was also observed in the activation of cell death: the number of TUNEL-positive cells, and the expression pro-apoptotic markers PUMA and Bax being higher in MPE vs. FPE. We also found an increase in the levels of protein and DNA-binding activity of NFκB p65 in MPE vs. FPE. In summary, we show here that in preeclamptic pregnancies the placentas of males were associated with significantly higher expression of inflammatory, hypoxia and apoptotic molecules but reduced expression of a pro-angiogenic marker compared to placentas of female fetuses. We propose that the transcription factor NFκB p65 might, at least partially, be involved in sexual dimorphism during PE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Studies of visible (extrasulcal surface of the brain hemispheres are not feasible for measurements of the brain size, but are valuable for analysis and quantification of sexual dimorphism and/or asymmetries of the human brain. Morphological and morphometric investigations of the brain may contribute in genetic studies of the human nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine and to quantify sexual dimorphism and the right/left morphological asymmetry of the visible surface of medial frontal gyrus (gyrus frontalis medialis - GFM. Methods. Measurements and analysis of the visible surface of GFM were done on 84 hemispheres (42 brains from the persons of both sexes: 26 males and 16 females, 20-65 years of age. After fixation in 10% formalin and dissection, digital morphometric measurements were performed. We studied these in relation to the side of the hemisphere and the person's sex. Standardized digital AutoCAD planimetry of the visible surface of GFM was enabled by the use of coordinate system of intercommissural line. Results. In the whole sample, the visible surface of the right GFM (21.39 cm2 was statistically significantly greater (p < 0.05 than the left GFM (18.35 cm2 indicating the right/left asymmetry of the visible surface of GFM. Also, the visible surface of the right GFM in the males (22.66 cm2 was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the females (19.35 cm2, while the difference in size of the left GFM between the males and the females was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Morphological analysis of visible surface of GFM performed by digital planimetry showed sexual dimorphism of the visible surface and the presence of right/left asymmetry of GFM.
Pap, Péter L.; Gergely Osváth; José Miguel Aparicio; Lőrinc Bărbos; Piotr Matyjasiak; Diego Rubolini; Nicola Saino; Vágási, Csongor I.; Orsolya Vincze; Anders Pape Møller
Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Fu...
Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex
Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.
Full Text Available Selection pressures that act differently on males and females produce numerous differences between the sexes in morphology and behaviour. However, apart from the controversial report that males have slightly heavier brains than females in humans, evidence for substantial sexual dimorphism in brain size is scarce. This apparent sexual uniformity is surprising given that sexually distinct selection pressures are ubiquitous and that brains are one of the most plastic vertebrate organs. Here we demonstrate the highest level of sexual brain size dimorphism ever reported in any vertebrate: male three-spined stickleback of two morphs in an Icelandic lake have 23% heavier brains than females. We suggest that this dramatic sexual size dimorphism is generated by the many cognitively demanding challenges that males are faced in this species, such as an elaborate courtship display, the construction of an ornate nest and a male-only parental care system. However, we consider also alternative explanations for smaller brains in females, such as life-history trade-offs. Our demonstration of unprecedented levels of sexual dimorphism in brain size in the three-spined stickleback implies that behavioural and life-history differences among the sexes can have strong effects also on neural development and proposes new fields of research for understanding brain evolution.
Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J
Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Ashley N. Ogawa-Wong
Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant properties and health benefits, attributed to its presence in selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly catalyzes hydrolysis of selenocysteine to selenide and alanine, facilitating re-utilization of Se for de novo selenoprotein synthesis. Previously, it was reported that male Scly−/− mice develop increased body weight and body fat composition, and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, compared to wild type mice. Strikingly, females appeared to present with a less severe phenotype, suggesting the relationship between Scly and energy metabolism may be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Here, we report that while body weight and body fat gain occur in both male and female Scly−/− mice, strikingly, males are susceptible to developing glucose intolerance, whereas female Scly−/− mice are protected. Because Se is critical for male reproduction, we hypothesized that castration would attenuate the metabolic dysfunction observed in male Scly−/− mice by eliminating sequestration of Se in testes. We report that fasting serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in castrated males compared to controls, but islet area was unchanged between groups. Finally, both male and female Scly−/− mice exhibit reduced hypothalamic expression of selenoproteins S, M, and glutathione peroxidase 1.
Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. Objective: To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Methods: Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Results: Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C compared with men (p < 0.0001. After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001, regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002, whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017. Conclusions: Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations.
Smiderle, Lisiane [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Luciana O.; Hutz, Mara Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sand, Cézar Roberto Van der; Sand, Luiz Carlos Van der; Ferreira, Maria Elvira Wagner; Pires, Renan Canibal [Centro de Diagnóstico Cardiológico, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Silvana; Fiegenbaum, Marilu [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men) were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with men (p < 0.0001). After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001), regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002), whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017). Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in females than in males, whereas males have higher mortality associated with infectious diseases. To increase our understanding of this sexual dimorphism in the immune system, we sought to identify and characterize inherent differences in immune response programs in the spleens of male and female mice before, during and after puberty. Results After the onset of puberty, female mice showed a higher expression of adaptive immune response genes, while males had a higher expression of innate immune genes. This result suggested a requirement for sex hormones. Using in vivo and in vitro assays in normal and mutant mouse strains, we found that reverse signaling through FasL was directly influenced by estrogen, with downstream consequences of increased CD8+ T cell-derived B cell help (via cytokines and enhanced immunoglobulin production. Conclusion These results demonstrate that sexual dimorphism in innate and adaptive immune genes is dependent on puberty. This study also revealed that estrogen influences immunoglobulin levels in post-pubertal female mice via the Fas-FasL pathway.
Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G; Al Dhafeeri, Obaid; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Al Ibrahim, Rana; Nagesh, K R; Ramadan, Selma Uysal
Demographic assessment of skeletal remains in forensic investigations includes identification of sex. The present study aimed to develop population-specific, sex-discriminating anthropometric standards for the mastoid triangle of a documented Saudi population using computed tomographic (CT) images of the lateral aspect of the skull. The present study was performed on 206 CT images of a documented Saudi population of known sex and age. The clinical CT images of subjects visiting the Department of Radiology, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia (KSA) were evaluated to know the validity of the metric assessment of the mastoid triangle for identification of sex in a Saudi population. The distance between asterion to porion (AP), asterion to mastoidale (AM), porion to mastoidale (PM) were measured and the area of the mastoid triangle (AMT) was calculated using these measurements. Discriminant function procedure was used to analyze the data for sexual dimorphism. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that all the 3 sides of the mastoid triangle and AMT were sexually dimorphic in the sampled Saudi population with PM being the best individual parameter in discriminating sex with an accuracy of 69.4%. Whereas, all the parameters combined showed the highest accuracy (71.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willemart, Rodrigo H; Osses, Francini; Chelini, Marie Claire; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Machado, Glauco
The evolution of sexually dimorphic traits has been the focus of much theoretical work, but empirical approaches to this topic have not been equally prolific. Males of the neotropical family Gonyleptidae usually present a strong fourth pair of legs armed with spines, but their functional significance is unknown. We investigated the putative functions of the leg armature in the harvestman Neosadocus maximus. Being a non-visual species, the spines on male legs can only be perceived by females through physical contact. Thus, we could expect females to touch the armature on the legs of their mates if they were to evaluate it. However, we found no support for this hypothesis. We did show that (1) leg armature is used as a weapon in contests between males and (2) spines and associated sensilla are sexually dimorphic structures involved in "nipping behavior", during which a winner emerged in most fights. Finally, we demonstrate that five body structures directly involved in male-male fights show positive allometry in males, presenting slopes higher than 1, whereas the same structures show either no or negative allometry in the case of females. In conclusion, leg armature in male harvestmen is clearly used as a device in intrasexual contests.
Mundorff, Amy Z; Bartelink, Eric J; Murad, Turhon A
Previous research has demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in friction ridge skin characteristics. This study uses a novel method for measuring sexual dimorphism in finger ridge breadths to evaluate its utility as a sex estimation method from an unknown fingerprint. Beginning and ending in a valley, the width of ten parallel ridges with no obstructions or minutia was measured in a sample of 250 males and females (N = 500). The results demonstrate statistically significant differences in ridge breadth between males and females (p < 0.001), with classification accuracy for each digit varying from 83.2% to 89.3%. Classification accuracy for the pooled finger samples was 83.9% for the right hand and 86.2% for the left hand, which is applicable for cases where the digit number cannot be determined. Weight, stature, and to a lesser degree body mass index also significantly correlate with ridge breadth and account for the degree of overlap between males and females. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
García-Martínez, Daniel; Torres-Tamayo, Nicole; Torres-Sanchez, Isabel; García-Río, Francisco; Bastir, Markus
The human respiratory apparatus is characterized by sexual dimorphism, the cranial airways of males being larger (both absolutely and relatively) than those of females. These differences have been linked to sex-specific differences in body composition, bioenergetics, and respiratory function. However, whether morpho-functional variation in the thorax is also related to these features is less clear. We apply 3D geometric morphometrics to study these issues and their implications for respiratory function. Four hundred two landmarks and semilandmarks were measured in CT-reconstructions of rib cages from adult healthy subjects (Nmale = 18; Nfemale = 24) in maximal inspiration (MI) and maximal expiration (ME). After Procrustes registration, size and shape data were analyzed by mean comparisons and regression analysis. Respiratory function was quantified through functional size, which is defined as the difference of rib cage size between MI and ME. Males showed significantly larger thorax size (p thorax widening and rib orientation were unrelated to allometry, thorax shortening showed a slight allometric signal. Our findings are in line with previous research on sexual dimorphism of the respiratory system. However, we add that thorax shortening observed previously in males is the only feature caused by allometry. The more horizontally oriented ribs and the wider thorax of males may indicate a greater diaphragmatic contribution to rib cage kinematics than in females, and differences in functional size fit with the need for greater oxygen intake in males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in the mesiodistal dimensions of mandibular canines had any role in sex determination. Materials and methods. The study comprised of patients in the 19‒24-year age group (20 males and 20 females. Mesiodistal dimensions of mandibular canines was measured at the maximum mesiodistal width, first intraorally, then on plaster models of the same patient, followed by intraoral periapical radiograph of the same patient. The values were subjected to statistical analysis using t-test. Results. It might be concluded from the results that there exists a definite statistically significant difference in the mesiodistal width of mandibular canines when measured for males and females. Moreover, the left mandibular canine showed a greater sexual dimorphism (9.7% when compared to the right mandibular canine (7.4%. Conclusion. The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for determining sex and in identification of an unknown individual.
Bastir, Markus; Godoy, Paula; Rosas, Antonio
Sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial system is an important feature of intraspecific variation in recent and fossil humans. Although several studies have reported different morphological patterns of sexual dimorphism in different populations, this study searches for common morphological aspects related to functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. 3D geometric morphometrics were used to test the hypothesis that due to higher daily energy expenditure and associated greater respiratory air consumption as well as differences in body composition, males should have absolutely and relatively greater air passages in the bony cranial airways than females. We measured 25 3D landmarks in five populations (N = 212) of adult humans from different geographic regions. Male average cranial airways were larger in centroid sizes than female ones. Males tended to show relatively taller piriform apertures and, more consistently, relatively taller internal nasal cavities and choanae than females. Multivariate regressions and residual analysis further indicated that after standardizing to the same size, males still show relatively larger airway passages than females. Because the dimensions of the choanae are limiting factors for air transmission towards the noncranial part of the respiratory system, the identified sex-specific differences in cranial airways, possibly shared among human populations, may be linked with sex-specific differences in body size, composition, and energetics. These findings may be important to understanding trends in hominin facial evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs. Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.
Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto
The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.
Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto
The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618
Persons, W Scott; Funston, Gregory F; Currie, Philip J; Norell, Mark A
The hypothesis that oviraptorosaurs used tail-feather displays in courtship behavior previously predicted that oviraptorosaurs would be found to display sexually dimorphic caudal osteology. MPC-D 100/1002 and MPC-D 100/1127 are two specimens of the oviraptorosaur Khaan mckennai. Although similar in absolute size and in virtually all other anatomical details, the anterior haemal spines of MPC-D 100/1002 exceed those of MPC-D 100/1127 in ventral depth and develop a hitherto unreported "spearhead" shape. This dissimilarity cannot be readily explained as pathologic and is too extreme to be reasonably attributed to the amount of individual variation expected among con-specifics. Instead, this discrepancy in haemal spine morphology may be attributable to sexual dimorphism. The haemal spine form of MPC-D 100/1002 offers greater surface area for caudal muscle insertions. On this basis, MPC-D 100/1002 is regarded as most probably male, and MPC-D 100/1127 is regarded as most probably female.
Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige
The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or β-estradiol (200 μg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and β-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats.
Jennings, Jackson H; Etges, William J; Schmitt, Thomas; Hoikkala, Anneli
Sexual selection within populations can play an important role in speciation when divergence in mating signals and their corresponding preferences occur along different coevolutionary trajectories in different populations. In insects, one potential target of sexual selection is the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which often show intra- and interspecific variation, sexual dimorphism and may act as pheromones. In Drosophila montana, a cold-adapted, circumboreal member of the Drosophila virilis species group, flies from different populations have been found to show significant premating isolation as well as variation in male mating signal (song) and female preference. While the role of male courtship song in mate choice has been studied extensively, CHCs in this species have received little attention. In this study, we identified most of the CHCs found on the cuticle of D. montana and characterized population divergence and sexual dimorphism of CHC profiles among flies established from three natural populations - one European and two North American. We also studied their potential role as pheromones by analyzing CHCs of flies used in female-choice mating experiments. We report significant population×sex effects on CHC profiles, as well as significant relationships between some CHC principal components and particular mating behaviours, such as female attractiveness and male mating success, providing evidence that CHCs may play a role in mate choice in this species. The study also provides evidence for variation in the degree to which CHCs play a role in chemical communication among these populations, which may have an influence on the speciation process itself, and could be due to variation in interactions with other closely-related species that occur sympatrically with D. montana in some, but not other, parts of its distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Heikkinen, Päivi; Andersson, Patrik L; Viluksela, Matti
Many chemicals are known to exhibit endocrine activity and affect reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. Endocrine effects include influences on sexual differentiation of the brain during development and reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in adult offspring. We previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which was reconstituted according to the congener pattern found in human breast milk caused feminization of sweet preference as a sexually dimorphic behavior in adult male rats, following decreases in aromatase activity in the brain of newborn male pups. This result may be due to dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs and their respective effects on steroid hormones. The aim of the present experiments was to determine if exposure to highly purified NDL-PCBs (to remove Ah receptor active contaminants) also results in alteration of sweet preference. Pregnant rats were orally exposed to PCB52 (6 dose groups, total dose of 0-3000mg/kg body weight) or PCB180 (6 dose groups, total dose of 0-1000mg/kg body weight). In a further experiment rat dams were treated with equimolar doses of PCB74 or PCB95 (total dose, 760μmol/kg body weight, corresponding to 229mg/kg or 248mg/kg body weight of PCB74 and PCB95, respectively). Adult male and female offspring were given a choice between a bottle of saccharin solution (0.25%) and a bottle of tap water on five consecutive days. Control females consumed approximately twice as much sweetened solution compared with control males, thus, demonstrating sexual dimorphism of this behavior. Only non-significant reduction of sweet preference was found at the top dose level in female offspring after exposure to PCB52. Female offspring exposed to PCB180 exhibited signs of supernormal behavior as illustrated by increased saccharin consumption at intermediate dose levels. Decreased sweet preference was observed in females after developmental PCB74, whereas males
Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Horák, Z.; Velemínská, J.
Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166461. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human tibia * geometric morphometrics * sexual dimorphism * surface-based analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016
van de Pol, Martijn; Oosterbeek, Kornelis; Rutten, Anne L.; Ens, B; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Verhulst, Simon
Molecular sexing of birds has been possible for over a decade, but for practical reasons many studies still use biometric data for sex discrimination. In some species, the sexes are easy to distinguish but sexual dimorphism is often more subtle, requiring the use of statistical analyses of biometric
Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723
Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.; Corti, Claudia; Angelici, Francesco M.
Sex-biased differences in dietary habits of snakes are often linked to pronounced sexual size dimorphism in absolute body size or in relative head size. We studied the food habits of free-ranging forest cobras (Naja melanoleuca) in southern Nigeria to find whether any intersexual dietary divergence
Todd E. Katzner; Daniel S. Jackson; Jamie Ivy; Evgeny A. Bragin; Andrew. Dewoody
Sex ratio theory attempts to explain observed variation in offspring sex ratio at both the population and the brood levels. In the context of low-fecundity organisms producing high-investment offspring, the drivers of adaptive variation in sex ratio are incompletely understood. For raptors that display reverse sexual dimorphism (RSD), preferential allocation of...
Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Sinclair, Jordan P; Hochwender, Cris; Janzen, Fredric J
In dioecious species, selection should favor different leaf sizes in males and females whenever the sexes experience distinct environments or constraints such as different costs of reproduction. We took advantage of a long-term experimental study of Ocotea tenera (Lauraceae), a dioecious understory tree in Monteverde, Costa Rica, to explore leaf size differences between genders and age classes across generations. We measured leaf size in adult trees in a natural population, in their adult F(1) offspring in two experimental populations, and in their F(2) offspring at the seedling stage. Individual trees were measured at various times over 20 yr. Leaves of female trees averaged 8% longer and 12% greater in area than those of males. Leaves were sexually dimorphic at reproductive maturity. Leaf size declined during the lifetime of most trees. Heritability estimates for leaf length were positive although not statistically significant (h(2) = 0.63, SE = 0.48, P = 0.095). We ruled out the ecological causation hypothesis for sexual dimorphism in leaf size because male and female trees co-occurred in the same habitats. Sexual dimorphism appeared not to result from genetic or phenotypic correlations with other traits such as height or flower size. Rather, females appear to compensate for higher costs of reproduction and diminished photosynthetic capacity by producing larger leaves. Additive genetic variance in leaf size, a prerequisite for an evolutionary response to selection for sexual dimorphism, was suggested by positive (although only marginally significant) heritability estimates.
Isaksson, C.; Magrath, M. J. L.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Komdeur, J.
In birds, early exposure to androgens has been shown to influence offspring growth and begging behaviour, and has been proposed as a mechanism for the development of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Sex specific effects during development can occur due to sex-specific allocation of maternal androgens,
Cuervo, José J; Møller, A P
The static allometry of secondary sexual characters is currently subject to debate. While some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for such traits, but isometry or negative allometry for nonornamental traits, other studies maintain that any kind of allometric pattern is possible. Therefore, we investigated the allometry of sexually size dimorphic feather ornaments in 67 species of birds. We also studied the allometry of female feathers homologous to male ornaments (female ornaments in the following) and ordinary nonsexual traits. Allometries were estimated as reduced major axis slopes of trait length on tarsus length. Ornamental feathers showed positive allometric slopes in both sexes, although that was not a peculiarity for ornamental feathers, because nonsexual tail feathers also showed positive allometry. Migration distance (in males) and relative size of the tail ornament (in females) tended to be negatively related to the allometric slope of tail feather ornaments, although these results were not conclusive. Finally, we found an association between mating system and allometry of tail feather ornaments, with species with more intense sexual selection showing a smaller degree of allometry of tail ornaments. This study is consistent with theoretical models that predict no specific kind of allometric pattern for sexual and nonsexual characters.
Full Text Available The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR and liver x receptor (LXR play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2 or 11-keto testosterone (KT11, were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study
Paulina L González-Gómez
Full Text Available In scatter-hoarding species, several behavioral and neuroanatomical adaptations allow them to store and retrieve thousands of food items per year. Nectarivorous animals face a similar scenario having to remember quality, location and replenishment schedules of several nectar sources. In the green-backed firecrown hummingbird (Sephanoides sephanoides, males are territorial and have the ability to accurately keep track of nectar characteristics of their defended food sources. In contrast, females display an opportunistic strategy, performing rapid intrusions into males territories. In response, males behave aggressively during the non-reproductive season. In addition, females have higher energetic demands due to higher thermoregulatory costs and travel times. The natural scenario of this species led us to compared cognitive abilities and hippocampal size between males and females. Males were able to remember nectar location and renewal rates significantly better than females. However, the hippocampal formation was significantly larger in females than males. We discuss these findings in terms of sexually dimorphic use of spatial resources and variable patterns of brain dimorphisms in birds.
Thomas J Webb
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.
Mohammed Asif Syed
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dimorphism of permanent mandibular and maxillary canine teeth as well as intercanine and intermolar distance plays a role in establishing sex identity. Materials and Methods: Four hundred volunteers comprising 200 males and 200 females, with age ranging from 18 to 50 years, were selected. The greatest mesiodistal width of the canine teeth and the distance between the tips of canines of both arches and intermolar arch width were measured using vernier caliper with 0.02 mm resolution. All data were tabulated and analysis done by "t" test. Results: The widths of the mandibular and maxillary right and left canine teeth were almost bilaterally symmetrical in females and males. The mean values for left and right mandibular and maxillary canine widths were less in females than in males and the differences were statistically significant. The mean values for mandibular and maxillary intercanine and intermolar distances were less in females than in males and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in maxillary and mandibular canines and intermolar arch width. It can be concluded that standard canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a three-dimensional (3D morphometrical assessment of human tibia sexual dimorphism based on whole bone digital representation. To detect shape-size and shape differences between sexes, we used geometric morphometric tools and colour-coded surface deviation maps. The surface-based methodology enabled analysis of sexually dimorphic features throughout the shaft and articular ends of the tibia. The overall study dataset consisted of 183 3D models of adult tibiae from three Czech population subsets, dating to the early medieval (9-10th century (N = 65, early 20th century (N = 61 and 21st-century (N = 57. The time gap between the chronologically most distant and contemporary datasets was more than 1200 years. The results showed that, in all three datasets, sexual dimorphism was pronounced. There were some sex-dimorphic characteristics common to all three samples, such as tuberosity protrusion, anteriorly bowed shaft and relatively larger articular ends in males. Diachronic comparisons also revealed substantial shape variation related to the most dimorphic area. Male/female distinctions showed a consistent temporal trend regarding the location of dimorphic areas (shifting distally with time, while the maximal deviation between male and female digitized surfaces fluctuated and reached the lowest level in the 21st-century sample. Sex determination on a whole-surface basis yielded the lowest return of correct sex assignment in the 20th-century group, which represented the lowest socioeconomic status. The temporal variation could be attributed to changes in living conditions, the decreasing lower limb loading/labour division in the last 12 centuries having the greatest effect. Overall, the results showed that a surface-based approach is successful for analysing complex long bone geometry.
Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Niu, Hongxing; Feng, Jiang
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread within the animal kingdom. Rensch's rule describes a relationship between SSD and body size: SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Rensch's rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. Furthermore, most studies have investigated Rensch's rule across a variety of taxa; but among-population studies supporting Rensch's rule are lacking, especially in taxa that display only slight SSD. Here, we tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD in greater horseshoe bats conform to Rensch's rule, and evaluated the contribution of latitude to Rensch's rule. Our results showed SSD was consistently female-biased in greater horseshoe bats, although female body size was only slightly larger than male body size. The slope of major axis regression of log10 (male) on log10 (female) was significantly different from 1. Forearm length for both sexes of greater horseshoe bats was significantly negatively correlated with latitude, and males displayed a slightly but nonsignificant steeper latitudinal cline in body size than females. We suggest that variation in patterns of SSD among greater horseshoe bat populations is consistent with Rensch's rule indicating that males were the more variable sex. Males did not have a steeper body size-latitude relationship than females suggesting that sex-specific latitudinal variation in body size may not be an important contributing factor to Rensch's rule. Future research on greater horseshoe bats might best focus on more comprehensive mechanisms driving the pattern of female-biased SSD variation.
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is widespread within the animal kingdom. Rensch's rule describes a relationship between SSD and body size: SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Rensch's rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. Furthermore, most studies have investigated Rensch's rule across a variety of taxa; but among-population studies supporting Rensch's rule are lacking, especially in taxa that display only slight SSD. Here, we tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD in greater horseshoe bats conform to Rensch's rule, and evaluated the contribution of latitude to Rensch's rule. Our results showed SSD was consistently female-biased in greater horseshoe bats, although female body size was only slightly larger than male body size. The slope of major axis regression of log10 (male on log10 (female was significantly different from 1. Forearm length for both sexes of greater horseshoe bats was significantly negatively correlated with latitude, and males displayed a slightly but nonsignificant steeper latitudinal cline in body size than females. We suggest that variation in patterns of SSD among greater horseshoe bat populations is consistent with Rensch's rule indicating that males were the more variable sex. Males did not have a steeper body size-latitude relationship than females suggesting that sex-specific latitudinal variation in body size may not be an important contributing factor to Rensch's rule. Future research on greater horseshoe bats might best focus on more comprehensive mechanisms driving the pattern of female-biased SSD variation.
Farzalieva, Gyulli Sh; Nefediev, Pavel S; Tuf, Ivan H
Disphaerobius Attems, 1926, the sole constituent genus of the subfamily Pterygoterginae, is synonymized with Pterygotergum Verhoeff, 1934 syn. nov., and is shown to comprise only two species: D. svenhedini (Verhoeff, 1934) comb. nov. ex Pterygotergum, and D. loricatus (Sseliwanoff, 1881) (= Lithobius magnificus Trotzina, 1895), both syn. nov. and comb. nov. ex Lithobius Leach, 1814. Disphaerobius is rediagnosed, both of its basically Central Asian species are redescribed from fresh material of both sexes, and their distributions are mapped. Disphaerobius svenhedini is newly recorded from S Kazakhstan and W Mongolia. New material of D. loricatus is also recorded. Sexual dimorphic characters in Lithobiomorpha are briefly discussed, these being considered especially strongly pronounced and unique in Disphaerobius.
Kristine S. Ziemba
Full Text Available In the Empress Leilia butterfly, Asterocampa leilia, as in many insects, males have larger eyes than females. We explore the morphological causes and consequences of this dimorphism in eye size by comparing the corneal surface area, facet numbers, and patterns of variation in facet dimensions in males and females. We report that, with body size (measured by forewing length controlled, male eyes are consistently larger than female eyes, and that, although males and females do not differ significantly in the number of facets per eye, males have significantly larger facets. Also, males have disproportionately larger facets both frontally and dorsally. As a result of these sexual differences in eye structure, males are expected to have a larger and more acute visual field than females which could be advantageous in the context of this species' mate searching tactic.
Nicholas D Testa
Full Text Available The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that of the uneclosed adult SSD with weight loss between peak larval mass and pupariation playing an important role in generating the final SSD. Our finding that weight loss is an important regulator of SSD adds additional complexity to our understanding of how body size is regulated in different sexes. Collectively, these data allow for the elucidation of the molecular-genetic mechanisms that generate SSD, an important component of understanding how SSD evolves.
Fernandes, Nathália da Silva; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata
Sexually dimorphic glands have convergently appeared in animals and are often responsible for the production of pheromones. In the suborder Laniatores of the order Opiliones (Arachnida), glands of such type are widespread, but there is not a single paper on how they are used. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and a behavioral approach, we describe glandular openings and how these glands are used, in the harvestmen Gryne perlata and Gryne coccinelloides (Cosmetidae). Males of these two species have glandular openings on the metatarsi of legs I and on the metatarsi IV. Males were shown rubbing the glands of the metatarsi I against their other legs, whereas glands on the metatarsi IV are gently touched on the substrate or rubbed either against other legs, or against the substrate. Not all behaviors were seen in both species. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J
Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.
Kaliontzopoulou, A; Carretero, M A; Adams, D C
Understanding how phenotypic diversity evolves is a major interest of evolutionary biology. Habitat use is an important factor in the evolution of phenotypic diversity of many animal species. Interestingly, male and female phenotypes have been frequently shown to respond differently to environmental variation. At the macroevolutionary level, this difference between the sexes is frequently analysed using phylogenetic comparative tools to assess variation in sexual dimorphism (SD) across taxa in relation to habitat. A shortcoming of such analyses is that they evaluate the degree of dimorphism itself and therefore they do not provide access to the evolutionary trajectories of each sex. As such, the relative contribution of male and female phenotypes on macroevolutionary patterns of sexual dimorphism cannot be directly assessed. Here, we investigate how habitat use shapes phenotypic diversity in wall lizards using phylogenetic comparative tools to simultaneously assess the tempo and mode of evolution in males, females and the degree of sexual dimorphism. We find that both sexes have globally diversified under similar, but not identical, processes, where habitat use seems to drive macroevolutionary variation in head shape, but not in body size or relative limb length. However, we also observe small differences in the evolutionary dynamics of male and female phenotypes that have a marked impact on macroevolutionary patterns of SD, with important implications for our interpretation of what drives phenotypic diversification within and between the sexes. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Melo, A C; Ramsdell, J S
In this study we identified sex-dependent dimorphism of brain aromatase in the teleost medaka and examined its regulation by sex steriods. We first investigated differential distribution of brain aromatase activity in sexually mature male and female medaka in serial coronal sections of the brain and identified the hypothalamic nuclei contained in each section using the brain atlas of medaka. In the brain of male medaka, high levels of activity are localized in sections containing the preoptic (POA) and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SC) (63-75 fmol/hr) and low levels in the nuclei periventricular dorsalis (HD), ventralis (HV), and caudalis (Hc), nuclei diffusus of lobulus inferiores (NDIL), and nuclei tuberi anteriores (TA) and posteriores (TP) (< 25 fmol/hr). In the brain of female medaka high aromatase activity is localized in sections containing the HD, HV, Hc, NDIL, TA, and TP (85-80 fmol/hr) and highly variable levels in the POA and SC (23-70 fmol/hr). The concentration and time dependency of the exposure of male medaka to estradiol on the total brain aromatase activity and morphologic sex characteristics were determined next. Estradiol increased the activity of brain aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner at 2.5 and 25 microg/L, but the increase was lower at higher concentrations of the hormone. The effect was time dependent, gradually increasing up to the fifth day of exposure, after which it reached a plateau. Estradiol induction of brain aromatase analyzed using Lineweaver-Burke plots of saturation assays revealed a non-first-order reaction. The results indicate that a positive feedback mechanism regulates brain aromatase and imply that the sexual dimorphic distribution of aromatase may be highly sensitive to physiologic cues and environmental perturbations in fish. PMID:11333187
Full Text Available Rapisma McLachlan, 1866 (Neuroptera: Ithonidae is a rarely encountered genus of lacewings found inmontane tropical or subtropical forests in Oriental Asia. In Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet of China there are two sympatrically distributed species of Rapisma, i.e. Rapisma xizangense Yang, 1993 and Rapisma zayuanum Yang, 1993, in which R. xizangense is only known as male and has dull brownish body and wing coloration, while R. zayuanum is only known as female and has bright green body and wing coloration. In order to clarify the relationship between these two species, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt genomes of R. xizangense and R. zayuanum for the first time. The mt genomes are 15,961 and 15,984 bp in size, respectively, and comprised 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. A major noncoding (control region was 1,167 bp in R. xizangense and 1,193 bp in R. zayuanum with structural organizations simpler than that reported in other Neuropterida species, notably lacking conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Besides similar mitogenomic structure, the genetic distance between R. xizangense and R. zayuanum based on two rRNAs and 13 protein coding genes (PCGs as well as the genetic distance between each of these two Tibetan Rapisma species and a Thai Rapisma species (R. cryptunum based on partial rrnL show that R. xizangense and R. zayuanum are most likely conspecific. Thus, R. zayuanum syn. nov. is herein treated as a junior synonym of R. xizangense. The present finding represents a rare example of distinct sexual dimorphism in lacewings. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds new light on the identification of rare species with sexual dimorphism and the biology of Neuroptera.
Full Text Available Many biological processes depend on very few copies of intervening elements, which makes such processes particularly susceptible to the stochastic fluctuations of these elements. The intrinsic stochasticity of certain processes is propagated across biological levels, causing genotype- and environment-independent biological variation which might permit populations to better cope with variable environments. Biological variations of stochastic nature might also allow the accumulation of variations at the genetic level that are hidden from natural selection, which might have a great potential for population diversification. The study of any mechanism that resulted in the modulation of stochastic variation is, therefore, of potentially wide interest. I propose that sex might be an important modulator of the stochastic variation in gene expression, i.e., gene expression noise. Based on known associations between different patterns of gene expression variation, I hypothesize that in metazoans the gene expression noise might be generally larger in heterogametic than in homogametic individuals. I directly tested this hypothesis by comparing putative genotype- and environment-independent variations in gene expression between females and males of Drosophila melanogaster strains. Also, considering the potential effect of the propagation of gene expression noise across biological levels, I indirectly tested the existence of a metazoan sexual dimorphism in gene expression noise by analyzing putative genotype- and environment-independent variation in phenotypes related to interaction with the environment in D. melanogaster strains and metazoan species. The results of these analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that gene expression is generally noisier in heterogametic than in homogametic individuals. Further analyses and discussion of existing literature permits the speculation that the sexual dimorphism in gene expression noise is ultimately based on
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in shell-bearing snails expressed by characteristic traits of their respective shells would offer the possibility for a lot of studies about gender distribution in populations, species, etc. In this study, the seven main shell characters of the snail Cochlostoma septemspirale were measured in both sexes: (1 height and (2 width of the shell, (3 height and (4 width of the aperture, (5 width of the last whorl, (6 rib density on the last whorl, and (7 intensity of the reddish or brown pigments forming three bands over the shell. The variation of size and shape was explored with statistical methods adapted to principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. In particular, we applied some multivariate morphometric tools for the analysis of ratios that have been developed only recently, that is, the PCA ratio spectrum, allometry ratio spectrum, and LDA ratio extractor. The overall separation of the two sexes was tested with LDA cross validation.The results show that there is a sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of shells. Females are more slender than males and are characterised by larger size, a slightly reduced aperture height but larger shell height and whorl width. Therefore they have a considerable larger shell volume (about one fifth in the part above the aperture. Furthermore, the last whorl of females is slightly less strongly pigmented and mean rib density slightly higher. All characters overlap quite considerably between sexes. However, by using cross validation based on the 5 continuous shell characters more than 90% of the shells can be correctly assigned to each sex.
Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth as well as inter-canine width in north Indian population. Study Design: The study was carried out at department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, King George′s Medical University, Lucknow, India on students and patients reporting at OPD. Out of total 180 subjects examined 90 subjects were female and 90 were male. Impressions of the upper arch were made using alginate and casts poured in dental stone. The mesiodistal diameter (MD of the crown of permanent maxillary canine both on right and left sides and inter-canine width were measured. From these measurements, maxillary canine index was calculated. The percentage of sexual dimorphism (SD was assessed for all the parameters. Results: In the present study, the MD of maxillary canine for both right (P = 0.001 and left side (P = 0.005 was significantly higher among male subjects than females, Similar observation was found for inter-canine width too (P = 0.0001. However, the maxillary canine index for right and left was almost similar (P > 0.05 for both male and female subjects. The SD in right and left MDs of maxillary canine was 4.2% and 3.6% respectively. For, inter-canine width it was maximum (13.7%. However, SD in right and left canine index showed negative values (−2.1% and -0.9% respectively. Conclusion: There was SD in MD and inter-canine width of permanent maxillary canine teeth. SD was more on right permanent maxillary canine teeth than left permanent maxillary canine.
Regis, Koy W; Meik, Jesse M
The macroevolutionary pattern of Rensch's Rule (positive allometry of sexual size dimorphism) has had mixed support in turtles. Using the largest carapace length dataset and only large-scale body mass dataset assembled for this group, we determine (a) whether turtles conform to Rensch's Rule at the order, suborder, and family levels, and (b) whether inferences regarding allometry of sexual size dimorphism differ based on choice of body size metric used for analyses. We compiled databases of mean body mass and carapace length for males and females for as many populations and species of turtles as possible. We then determined scaling relationships between males and females for average body mass and straight carapace length using traditional and phylogenetic comparative methods. We also used regression analyses to evalutate sex-specific differences in the variance explained by carapace length on body mass. Using traditional (non-phylogenetic) analyses, body mass supports Rensch's Rule, whereas straight carapace length supports isometry. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, both body mass and straight carapace length support Rensch's Rule with strong congruence between metrics. At the family level, support for Rensch's Rule is more frequent when mass is used and in phylogenetic comparative analyses. Turtles do not differ in slopes of sex-specific mass-to-length regressions and more variance in body size within each sex is explained by mass than by carapace length. Turtles display Rensch's Rule overall and within families of Cryptodires, but not within Pleurodire families. Mass and length are strongly congruent with respect to Rensch's Rule across turtles, and discrepancies are observed mostly at the family level (the level where Rensch's Rule is most often evaluated). At macroevolutionary scales, the purported advantages of length measurements over weight are not supported in turtles.
Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Watkins, Christopher D; Welling, Lisa L M; DeBruine, Lisa M
Recent studies investigating the relationship between sexual desire and sexual attraction have found that heterosexual women's reported sexual desire is positively correlated with their reported attraction to both own- and opposite-sex individuals, but that heterosexual men's reported sexual desire is positively correlated with their reported attraction to opposite-sex individuals only. These findings have led to the proposal that sexual desire is a generalized energizer of sexual attraction in heterosexual women (i.e., influences women's attraction to both men and women), but only energizes heterosexual men's sexual attraction to women. Here we show that heterosexual men's scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex, but not own-sex, faces. Together with previous research showing that heterosexual women's reported sexual desire is positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in both own- and opposite-sex faces, our findings present novel converging evidence for sex-specific relationships between sexual desire and attractiveness judgments of own- and opposite-sex individuals.
Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G
Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the sister species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L. erinacea and L. ocellata and its relationship to the development of reproductive organs, based on previous work on the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. We found that allometric trajectories of overall pectoral shape were different in both species of skate, but only L. erinacea varied significantly with respect to endoskeleton development. Male maturation was characterized by a number of sex-specific morphological changes, which appeared concurrently in developmental timing with elongation of cartilage-supported claspers. We suggest that external sexual dimorphism of pectoral fins in skates is a byproduct of skeletal growth needed for clasper development. Further, the magnitude of male shape change appears to be linked to the differential life histories of species. This work reports for the first time that pectoral dimorphism is a persistent feature in rajoid fishes, occurring in varying degrees across several genera. Lastly, our results suggest that pectoral morphology may be useful as a relative indicator of reproductive strategy in some species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Emily Rose; Sarah P Flanagan; Adam G Jones
.... Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles...
Chen, Jin-e; Li, Jian-ying; You, Zheng-ying; Liu, Li-li; Liang, Jian-she; Ma, Ying-ying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Hua-rong; Jiang, Zhen-dong; Zhong, Bo-xiong
Sexual dimorphism is initialed by the components of the sex determination pathway and is most evident in gonads and germ cells. Although striking dimorphic expressions have been detected at the transcriptional level between the silkworm larval testis and the ovary, the sex-dimorphic expressions at the protein level have not yet been well characterized. The proteome of silkworm larval gonads was investigated using a shotgun-based identification. A total of 286 and 205 nonredundant proteins were identified from the silkworm testis and ovary, respectively, with a false discovery rate (FDR) lower than 1%. Only 40 and 16 proteins were previously identified, and 246 and 189 proteins were newly identified in the silkworm testis and the ovary, respectively. The gametogenesis mechanism of silkworm was demonstrated using the protein expression profile and bioinformatics analysis. Cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) showed to be highly abundant in testis, while tubulins were abundant in ovary. Several homologies of Drosophila essential proteins for gametogenesis were identified in silkworm, such as male meiotic arrest gene product ALY and VISMAY in testis, and maternal mRNA localization protein exuperantia and SQUID in ovary. The gene ontology (GO) annotation and pathway analysis provide system-level insights into the sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis.
Maan, Martine E.; Cummings, Molly E.
It is commonly assumed that natural selection imposed by predators is the prevailing force driving the evolution of aposematic traits. Here, we demonstrate that aposematic signals are shaped by sexual selection as well. We evaluated sexual selection for coloration brightness in populations of the
Fantucci, Marina Zilio; Biagi, Renata; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis
In the Anomura, studies on growth patterns are infrequent, possibly because the heterogeneity of the group, especially in terms of morphology, makes it difficult to construct generalized growth models. Particularly hermit crabs are an interesting group to evaluate aspects of growth, because of their unique body. Isocheles sawayai, a hermit crab found only in the western Atlantic Ocean, poorly known with respect to its sexual dimorphism and maturity, was investigated here based on morphometry. Monthly collections (July 2001 through June 2003) were made from a shrimp fishing boat in the Caraguatatuba region on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The specimens were measured and weighed, and had their sex checked. Throughout the sampling period, 374 specimens of I. sawayai were collected (11.23% nonovigerous females, 6.69% ovigerous females, 79.41% males and 2.67% intersexes). The size at which morphological sexual maturity was reached by both sexes ranged from 4.0 to 4.3 mm shield length, according to the relative growth and the size of the smallest ovigerous female. Sexual dimorphism was shown by males, which were significantly larger than females, and by differences in growth pattern between the sexes, especially for relationships that involved the pleopods, which is related to their different functions in males and females. The present study is one of the first to use pleopod morphometry to determine sexual maturity and dimorphism in hermit crabs, especially for species with intersexuality such as I. sawayai.
Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia
Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α-deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.
Kubička, Lukáš; Schořálková, Tereza; Červenka, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) reflects sex-specific solutions to the allocation of energy among growth, reproduction and survival; however, the proximate mechanisms behind these solutions are still poorly known even in vertebrates. In squamates, sexual differences in body size used to be attributed to direct energy allocation to energetically demanding processes, largely to reproduction. In addition, SSD is assumed to be controlled by specific endogenous mechanisms regulating growth in a sex-specific manner, namely masculinization by male gonadal androgens or feminization by ovarian hormones. We performed a manipulative growth experiment in females of the male-larger gecko Paroedura picta in order to test the reproductive cost hypothesis, the male androgen hypothesis and the ovarian hormone hypothesis. Specifically, we investigated the effect of total ovariectomy, prepubertal ovariectomy, unilateral ovariectomy, and total ovariectomy followed by exogenous estradiol, dihydrotestosterone or testosterone treatment, on female growth in comparison to males and reproductively active females. The present results and the results of our previous experiments do not support the hypotheses that SSD reflects direct energy allocation to reproduction and that male gonadal androgens are involved. However, all lines of evidence, particularly the comparable growth of reproducing intact and unilaterally ovariectomized females, were concordant with the control of SSD by ovarian hormones. We suggest that feminization of growth by female gonadal hormones should be taken into consideration as an endogenous pathway responsible for the ontogeny of SSD in squamates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen
Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α–deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. PMID:26999605
Full Text Available The post-larval development of the majid crab Maja brachydactyla Balss, 1922 was studied using laboratory-reared larvae obtained from adult individuals collected in the NE Atlantic. The morphology of the first juvenile stage is described in detail, while the most relevant morphological changes and sexual differentiation are highlighted for subsequent juvenile stages, until juvenile 8. The characteristic carapace spines of the adult phase are present in the first juvenile stage, though with great differences in the degree of development and relative size. The carapace shows a high length/weight ratio, which becomes similar to that of adults at stage 7-8. Males and females can be distinguished from juvenile stage 4, based on sexual dimorphism in the pleopods and the presence of gonopores. In addition, the allometric growth of the pleon is sex-dependent from juvenile stage 4, with females showing a positive allometry (b=1.23 and males an isometric allometry (b=1.02.
Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Ghosh, Pamela; Roy, Sib Sankar
PITX2, a multifunctional Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, plays obligatory role during development of organs like heart, brain and pituitary. It regulates differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Although we earlier reported the Pitx2/PITX2 expression in gonad, but the expression pattern of its different isoforms in mammalian gonads especially during development is still not known. As PITX2 participates in the development of multiple organs and different homeobox genes have been shown to control gonadal functions, we wanted to investigate the role of PITX2 in gonadal development and its function. The objective of our study was to know the expression profile of different Pitx2/PITX2 isoforms and its localization throughout the development of gonads. Here we show the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Pitx2/PITX2 and its localization throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages of rat gonads. Pitx2/PITX2 expression profile reveals the differential and dimorphic expression pattern of its two isoforms PITX2B2 and-Cβ throughout the embryonic development stages and also in the postnatal stages, where it becomes more prominent. This is the first report where PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor shows isoform-specific sexually dimorphic expression. In addition, PITX2 localization was found in the embryonic ovarian primordial germ cell clusters and germ cells inside the testicular cords and also in somatic cells. In adults, ovarian granulosa and theca cells as well as germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules in testis express PITX2. All the evidences suggest that the differential expression of PITX2 might be associated with sex-specific embryonic and postnatal gonadal development and the physiological processes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kelly, Clint D
Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Morphological studies of the various parts of the brain show certain morphological and morphometric differences in correlation with sex, so-called sexual dimorphism of the brain. Our research has been done on the cerebral hemispheres, taken from cadavers of both sexes and different age without pathological processes in the brain. The sample comprised 26 male brains and 16 female brains. We studied three primary grooves (sulcus cinguli, sulcus parietooccipitalis and sulcus calcarinus of the medial surface of the human cerebral hemispheres. We conducted morphological typology of grooves and morphometric measurements of primary brain grooves length in relation to sex and side of hemisphere. The results showed a statistically significant sex difference in the cingulate sulcus length (p0,05. Determined morphometric sexual dimorphism in cingulate sulcus length is significant because it implies the correlation between morphology and function of the explored areas of the cerebral cortex.
Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie Olivia; Farrell, Edward D.
Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1729–1735.Boarfish (Capros aper) have, in recent years, become of increasing commercial importance due to their apparent increase...... in abundance in the Northeast Atlantic. This study presents detailed biological information relevant to understanding stock structure and dynamics. Boarfish are a long-lived species that reach a maximum age of >30 years. The size distribution is skewed towards larger sizes, as expected from an unexploited...... stock with sexual dimorphism, where females are, on average, larger than males. No seasonal effects occur in size distribution and sex ratio, indicating that females and males stay together in shoals throughout the year. Females become increasingly dominant in abundance at larger sizes and older ages...
Pagh, Sussie; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Birger
For the first time, temporal variability in body size and sexual dimorphism is revealed in foxes Vulpes vulpes from the same geographical area at over time. The weights and lengths of 552 Danish foxes were documented during three different periods: 1965–1977, 2012–2014 and the winter of 2015....../2016. During the first and the third periods, the fox population was below the carrying capacity due to hunting pressure and canine distemper, respectively. Adult males were significantly (p ...–1977 and compared to 2015/2016, compared to 2012–2014, when population density was high (the mean weight: 6.8 kg). However, no significant differences were found in the weight of females. Hence, sexual dimorphism ranged from 7.6 to 3.6 in adult foxes in low and high-density periods, respectively. During the winters...
Squarcia, S M; Sidorkewicj, N S; Camina, R; Casanave, E B
The aim of this study was to study the sexual dimorphism in adult Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804), from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Eight mandibular traits were measured in 37 males and 34 females. Univariate and multivariate morphometric analysis were applied to the data set. Results showed that C. villosus was sexually dimorphic, with higher absolute values corresponding to females. The total length of the mandible was the most important variable to discriminate sexes, followed by the height at the level of the last tooth and body length. The percentages of sex discrimination were high, as they were when a new sample (17 males, 13 females) was tested. Females have larger mandibles than males independently of their larger cranial size. They also showed a higher degree of correlation between variables, suggesting a more stable shape for the mandible than in males.
Alexandre Ribeiro da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes ontogenetic allometry in Aegla marginata Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994, a freshwater crustacean, in order to evaluate the growth pattern and the presence of sexual dimorphism, using a multivariate approach. The specimens were sampled from streams in Intervales State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil. For each specimen, we measured the following structures: carapace length and width, chelae height and length, and abdomen length. Allometry was evaluated using Jolicoeur’s multivariate allometric coefficient. Our results showed that for females, ABL (abdomen length and LCH (left chelae heigh presented positive allometry; LCL (left chelae length and RCH (right chelae heigh isometry; and CL (carapace length, CW (carapace width, and RCL (right chelae length negative allometry. For males, RCH, LCH, and LCL presented positive allometry; RCL (right chelae length isometry; and CL, CW, and ABL negative allometry. In addition, sexual dimorphism was amplified with body size.
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is widespread among animals, with larger females usually attributed to an optimization of resources in reproduction and larger males to sexual selection. A general pattern in the evolution of SSD is Rensch’s rule, which states that SSD increases with body size in species with larger males but decreases when females are larger. We studied the evolution of SSD in the genus Limnebius (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae, measuring SSD and male genital size and complexity of ca. 80% of its 150 species and reconstructing its evolution in a molecular phylogeny with 71 species. We found strong support for a higher evolutionary lability of male body size, which had an overall positive allometry with respect to females and higher evolutionary rates measured over the individual branches of the phylogeny. Increases in SSD were associated to increases in body size, but there were some exceptions with an increase associated to changes in only one sex. Secondary sexual characters (SSC in the external morphology of males appeared several times independently, generally on species that had already increased their size. There was an overall significant correlation between SSD, male body size and male genital size and complexity, although some lineages with complex genitalia had low SSD, and some small species with complex genitalia had no SSD. Our results suggest that the origin of the higher evolutionary variance of male body size may be due to lack of constraints rather than to sexual selection, that may start to act in species with already larger males due to random variation.
Choo Hock Tan; Kae Yi Tan; Michelle Khai Khun Yap; Nget Hong Tan
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable in...
Kranioti, E K; García-Donas, J G; Almeida Prado, P S; Kyriakou, X P; Langstaff, H C
Sex estimation is an essential step in the identification process of unknown heavily decomposed human remains as it eliminates all possible matches of the opposite sex from the missing person's database. Osteometric methods constitute a reliable approach for sex estimation and considering the variation of sexual dimorphism between and within populations; standards for specific populations are required to ensure accurate results. The current study aspires to contribute osteometric data on the tibia from contemporary Greek-Cypriots to assist the identification process. A secondary goal involves osteometric comparison with data from Crete, a Greek island with similar cultural and dietary customs and environmental conditions. Left tibiae from one hundred and thirty-two skeletons (70 males and 62 females) of Greek-Cypriots and one hundred and fifty-seven skeletons (85 males, 72 females) of Cretans were measured. Seven standard metric variables including Maximum length (ML), Upper epiphyseal breadth (UB), Nutrient foramen anteroposterior diameter (NFap), Nutrient Foramen transverse diameter (NFtrsv), Nutrient foramen circumference (NFCirc), Minimum circumference (MinCirc) and Lower epiphyseal breadth (LB) were compared between sexes and populations. Univariate and multivariate discriminant functions were developed and posterior probabilities were calculated for each sample. Results confirmed the existence of sexual dimorphism of the tibia in both samples as well as the pooled sample. Classification accuracy for univariate functions ranged from 78% to 85% for Greek-Cypriots and from 69% to 83% for Cretans. The best multivariate equations after cross-validation resulted in 87% for Greek-Cypriots and 90% accuracy for Cretans. When the samples were pooled accuracy reached 87% with over 95% confidence for about one third of the population. Estimates with over 95% of posterior probability can be considered reliable while any less than 80% should be treated with caution. This
Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan; Maddock, Steve; He, Taiping; Wang, Xingce; Deng, Qingqiong
Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images. There are two parts to the method. First, skull and facial landmarks are manually marked to guide the model's registration so that dense corresponding vertices occupy the same relative position in every sample. Statistical shape spaces of the skull and face in dense corresponding vertices are constructed using PCA. Variations in these vertices, captured in every principal component (PC), are visualized to observe shape variability. The correlations of skull- and face-based PC scores are analysed, and linear regression is used to fit the craniofacial relationship. We compute the PC coefficients of a face based on this craniofacial relationship and the PC scores of a skull, and apply the coefficients to estimate a 3D face for the skull. To evaluate the accuracy of the computed craniofacial relationship, the mean and standard deviation of every vertex between the two models are computed, where these models are reconstructed using real PC scores and coefficients. Second, each PC in facial space is analysed for sex determination, for which support vector machines (SVMs) are used. We examined the correlation between PCs and sex, and explored the extent to which the choice of PCs affects the expression of sexual dimorphism. Our results suggest that skull- and face-based PCs can be used to describe the craniofacial relationship and that the accuracy of the method can be improved by using an increased number of face-based PCs. The results show that the accuracy of
Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix Eva; Jones, Owen R; Conde, Dalia A
Sex differences in mortality are pervasive in vertebrates, and usually result in shorter life spans in the larger sex, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. On the other hand, differences in frailty among individuals (i.e. individual heterogeneity), can play a major role in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size dimorphism. We tested the effect of individual heterogeneity on age-specific mortality, and the extent by which this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length as measures of an individual's frailty. We found that sex differences in age-specific mortality were primarily driven by the differences in individual heterogeneity between the two sexes. Females were more heterogeneous than males in their level of frailty. Thus, a larger number of females with low frailty are able to survive to older ages than males, with life expectancy for the least frail adult females reaching up to 4·23 years, while for the least frail adult males it was of 2·68 years. We found that 50% of this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length in both sexes. For both, individuals with high average reproductive output had also higher chances to survive. However, the effect of wing length was different between the two sexes. While larger females had higher survival, larger males had lower chances to survive. Our results contribute a novel perspective to the ongoing debate about the mechanisms that drive sex differences in vital rates in vertebrates. Although we found that variables that relate to the cost of reproduction and sexual dimorphism are at least partially involved in determining these sex differences, it is through their effect on the
Background The construction of genetic linkage maps in free-living populations is a promising tool for the study of evolution. However, such maps are rare because it is difficult to develop both wild pedigrees and corresponding sets of molecular markers that are sufficiently large. We took advantage of two long-term field studies of pedigreed individuals and genomic resources originally developed for domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to construct a linkage map for bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis. We then assessed variability in genomic structure and recombination rates between bighorn sheep populations and sheep species. Results Bighorn sheep population-specific maps differed slightly in contiguity but were otherwise very similar in terms of genomic structure and recombination rates. The joint analysis of the two pedigrees resulted in a highly contiguous map composed of 247 microsatellite markers distributed along all 26 autosomes and the X chromosome. The map is estimated to cover about 84% of the bighorn sheep genome and contains 240 unique positions spanning a sex-averaged distance of 3051 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 14.3 cM. Marker synteny, order, sex-averaged interval lengths and sex-averaged total map lengths were all very similar between sheep species. However, in contrast to domestic sheep, but consistent with the usual pattern for a placental mammal, recombination rates in bighorn sheep were significantly greater in females than in males (~12% difference), resulting in an autosomal female map of 3166 cM and an autosomal male map of 2831 cM. Despite differing genome-wide patterns of heterochiasmy between the sheep species, sexual dimorphism in recombination rates was correlated between orthologous intervals. Conclusions We have developed a first-generation bighorn sheep linkage map that will facilitate future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation in this species. While domestication has been hypothesized to be responsible for the
De Busserolles, Fanny
Deep-sea fishes possess several adaptations to facilitate vision where light detection is pushed to its limit. Lanternfishes (Myctophidae), one of the world\\'s most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes, possess a novel and unique visual specialisation, a sexually dimorphic photostable yellow pigmentation, constituting the first record of a visual sexual dimorphism in any non-primate vertebrate. The topographic distribution of the yellow pigmentation across the retina is species specific, varying in location, shape and size. Spectrophotometric analyses reveal that this new retinal specialisation differs between species in terms of composition and acts as a filter, absorbing maximally between 356 and 443 nm. Microspectrophotometry and molecular analyses indicate that the species containing this pigmentation also possess at least 2 spectrally distinct rod visual pigments as a result of a duplication of the Rh1 opsin gene. After modelling the effect of the yellow pigmentation on photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, we suggest that this unique specialisation acts as a filter to enhance contrast, thereby improving the detection of bioluminescent emissions and possibly fluorescence in the extreme environment of the deep sea. The fact that this yellow pigmentation is species specific, sexually dimorphic and isolated within specific parts of the retina indicates an evolutionary pressure to visualise prey/predators/mates in a particular part of each species\\' visual field. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; O'Brien, Liam M; Horton, Nicholas J; Kennedy, David N; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T
Previous studies suggest that the impact of early insults predisposing to schizophrenia may have differential consequences by sex. We hypothesized that brain regions found to be structurally different in normal men and women (sexual dimorphisms) and abnormal in schizophrenia would show significant sex differences in brain abnormalities, particularly in the cortex, in schizophrenia. Forty outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia by DSM-III-R were systematically sampled to be comparable within sex with 48 normal comparison subjects on the basis of age, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and handedness. A comprehensive assessment of the entire brain was based on T1-weighted 3-dimensional images acquired from a 1.5-T magnet. Multivariate general linear models for correlated data were used to test for sex-specific effects regarding 22 hypothesized cortical, subcortical, and cerebrospinal fluid brain volumes, adjusted for age and total cerebrum size. Sex x group interactions were also tested on asymmetries of the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, additionally controlled for handedness. Normal patterns of sexual dimorphisms were disrupted in schizophrenia. Sex-specific effects were primarily evident in the cortex, particularly in the frontomedial cortex, basal forebrain, cingulate and paracingulate gyri, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and planum temporale. Normal asymmetry of the planum was also disrupted differentially in men and women with schizophrenia. There were no significant differential sex effects in subcortical gray matter regions or cerebrospinal fluid. Factors that produce normal sexual dimorphisms may be associated with modulating insults producing schizophrenia, particularly in the cortex.
Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.
Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N
Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.
Abel Olusegun OGUNTUNJI
Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI, sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological traits; body weight, body girth, body length, wing length, shank length, shank circumference, thigh length, total leg length, bill length and bill width were taken from 1,020 extensively managed adult Muscovy ducks comprising 287 males and 733 females. These birds were randomly sampled from Rain Forest, Derived Savanna and Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Sex significantly (P < 0.001 affected all morphometric measurements in favour of males. Assessment of relative contribution of morphological traits to SSD through SDI and SSDI revealed that body weight followed by skeletal frame-related variables (body length and wing length were the most dimorphic traits. Three Principal Components were generated for each sex; accounting for 62.70 % and 54.24 % of the total variance explained of male and female ducks, respectively. In tandem with the SDI and SSDI results, Stepwise Discriminant analysis indicated body weight as the best predictor of sex of adult Muscovy ducks followed by wing length and body length; correctly classifying 98.5 % of ducks and are reliable for sex determination in the field. The established SSD in this study could be employed for description, utilization, selection and planning of improvement programs of male and female Muscovy ducks.
Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel
The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N.
Evidence suggests that women are more susceptible to stress-related disorders than men. Animal studies demonstrate a similar female sensitivity to stress and have been used to examine the underlying neurobiology of sex-specific effects of stress. Although our understanding of the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress has grown in recent years, few studies have reported the effects of adolescent stress on depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic mixed modality stressor (consisting of isolation, restraint, and social defeat) during adolescence (PND37-49) resulted in differential and sustained changes in depressive-like behavior in male and female Wistar rats. Female rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress displayed decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity in the elevated plus maze, decreased activity in the forced swim test, and a blunted corticosterone response to an acute forced swim stress compared to controls during both adolescence (PND48-57) and adulthood (PND96-104). Male rats exposed to chronic adolescent stress did not manifest significant behavioral changes at either the end of adolescence or in adulthood. These data support the proposition that adolescence may be a stress sensitive period for females and exposure to stress during adolescence results in behavioral effects that persist in females. Studies investigating the sex-specific effects of chronic adolescent stress may lead to a better understanding of the sexually dimorphic incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders in humans and ultimately improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21466807
Karoglu, Elif Tugce; Halim, Dilara Ozge; Erkaya, Bahriye; Altaytas, Ferda; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Konu, Ozlen; Adams, Michelle M
The zebrafish has become a popular model for studying normal brain aging due to its large fecundity, conserved genome, and available genetic tools; but little data exists about neurobiological age-related alterations. The current study tested the hypothesis of an association between brain aging and synaptic protein loss across males and females. Western blot analysis of synaptophysin (SYP), a presynaptic vesicle protein, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and gephyrin (GEP), excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptor-clustering proteins, respectively, was performed in young, middle-aged, and old male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that PSD-95 significantly increased in aged females and SYP significantly decreased in males, but GEP was stable. Thus, these key synaptic proteins vary across age in a sexually dimorphic manner, which has been observed in other species, and these consequences may represent selective vulnerabilities for aged males and females. These data expand our knowledge of normal aging in zebrafish, as well as further establish this model as an appropriate one for examining human brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We investigated the gender differences in heme-oxygenase (HO enzyme, which produces endogenous vascular protective carbon monoxide (CO. We studied (1 the activity and expression of HO enzymes in the left ventricle (LV and aorta, (2 basal increase in basal blood pressure provoked by arginine vasopressine (AVP in vivo, (3 the heart perfusion induced by AVP, (4 the ST segment depression provoked by adrenaline and 30 seconds later phentolamine, and (5 the aorta ring contraction induced by AVP in female and male Wistar rats. We found that HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were increased in female rat aorta and LV. We demonstrated that the basal blood pressure and administration of AVP provoked blood pressure response are increased in the males; the female myocardium was less sensitive towards angina. Both differences could be aggravated by the inhibition of HO. The aorta rings were more susceptible towards vasoconstriction by AVP in males; isolated heart perfusion decrease was higher in males. The HO inhibition aggravated the heart perfusion in both sexes. In conclusion, the increased HO activity and expression in females might play a role in the sexual dimorphism of cardiovascular ischemia susceptibility during the reproductive age.
Main, Julie C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C
Although gaze direction and face shape have each been shown to affect perceptions of the dominance of others, the question whether gaze direction and face shape have independent main effects on perceptions of dominance, and whether these effects interact, has not yet been studied. To investigate this issue, we compared dominance ratings of faces with masculinised shapes and direct gaze, masculinised shapes and averted gaze, feminised shapes and direct gaze, and feminised shapes and averted gaze. While faces with direct gaze were generally rated as more dominant than those with averted gaze, this effect of gaze direction was greater when judging faces with masculinised shapes than when judging faces with feminised shapes. Additionally, faces with masculinised shapes were rated as more dominant than those with feminised shapes when faces were presented with direct gaze, but not when faces were presented with averted gaze. Collectively, these findings reveal an interaction between the effects of gaze direction and sexually dimorphic facial cues on judgments of the dominance of others, presenting novel evidence for the existence of complex integrative processes that underpin social perception of faces. Integrating information from face shape and gaze cues may increase the efficiency with which we perceive the dominance of others.
Kalezić Miloš L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a key evolutionary feature that has been studied in many organisms. In a wide range of species, this pattern is more complex because of polymorphism within each sex. However, it is not known whether the magnitude and direction of SSD could be affected by alternative developmental trajectories within sexes. Our aim was to test whether an intrasexual polymorphism, facultative paedomorphosis (a process in which the development of somatic and gonadal tissues differs in alternative morphs, could affect SSD variation patterns in European newts. Results We report here the first evidence that SSD varies depending on the paedomorphic or metamorphic ontogenetic pathway. In species with a consistent female-biased SSD, paedomorphosis decreased the SSD level, but did not affect its direction. In species with moderate female-biased SSD or variable SSD patterns, paedomorphosis changed the magnitude, or both the magnitude and the direction, of SSD. Conclusion Our study highlights the importance of developmental processes for shaping SSD patterns in populations in which contrasting life-history pathways evolved. European newts express different SSD patterns depending on their developmental pathway (i.e., metamorphosis versus paedomorphosis, as well as their species and population. These findings emphasize the importance of studying alternative morphotypes, which are found in a wide range of animal groups, to understand the evolution of SSD.
Bhérer, Claude; Campbell, Christopher L.; Auton, Adam
In humans, males have lower recombination rates than females over the majority of the genome, but the opposite is usually true near the telomeres. These broad-scale differences have been known for decades, yet little is known about differences at the fine scale. By combining data sets, we have collected recombination events from over 100,000 meioses and have constructed sex-specific genetic maps at a previously unachievable resolution. Here we show that, although a substantial fraction of the genome shows some degree of sexually dimorphic recombination, the vast majority of hotspots are shared between the sexes, with only a small number of putative sex-specific hotspots. Wavelet analysis indicates that most of the differences can be attributed to the fine scale, and that variation in rate between the sexes can mostly be explained by differences in hotspot magnitude, rather than location. Nonetheless, known recombination-associated genomic features, such as THE1B repeat elements, show systematic differences between the sexes.
Scherberich, Jan; Hummel, Jennifer; Schöneich, Stefan; Nowotny, Manuela
From mammals to insects, acoustic communication is in many species crucial for successful reproduction. In the duetting bushcricket Ancylecha fenestrata, the mutual acoustic communication between males and females is asymmetrical. We investigated how those signalling disparities are reflected by sexual dimorphism of their ears. Both sexes have tympanic ears in their forelegs, but male ears possess a significantly longer crista acustica containing 35% more scolopidia. With more sensory cells to cover a similar hearing range, the male hearing organ shows a significantly expanded auditory fovea that is tuned to the dominant frequency of the female reply to facilitate phonotactic mate finding. This sex-specific auditory fovea is demonstrated in the mechanical and neuronal responses along the tonotopically organized crista acustica by laservibrometric and electrophysiological frequency mapping, respectively. Morphometric analysis of the crista acustica revealed an interrupted gradient in organ height solely within this auditory fovea region, whereas all other anatomical parameters decrease continuously from proximal to distal. Combining behavioural, anatomical, biomechanical and neurophysiological information, we demonstrate evidence of a pronounced auditory fovea as a sex-specific adaptation of an insect hearing organ for intraspecific acoustic communication. © 2017 The Author(s).
Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David
Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices. Men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's and men's voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men's voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men's tendency to perceive masculinized men's and women's voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices.
Emmons, Scott W
Studies of the development of the Caenorhabditis elegans male have been carried out with the aim of understanding the basis of sexual dimorphism. Postembryonic development of the two C. elegans sexes differs extensively. Development along either the hermaphrodite or male pathway is specified initially by the X to autosome ratio. The regulatory events initiated by this ratio include a male-determining paracrine intercellular signal. Expression of this signal leads to different consequences in three regions of the body: the nongonadal soma, the somatic parts of the gonad, and the germ line. In the nongonadal soma, activity of the key Zn-finger transcription factor TRA-1 determines hermaphrodite development; in its absence, the male pathway is followed. Only a few genes directly regulated by TRA-1 are currently known, including members of the evolutionarily conserved, male-determining DM domain Zn-finger transcription factors. In the somatic parts of the gonad and germ line, absence of TRA-1 activity is not sufficient for full expression of the male pathway. Several additional transcription factors involved have been identified. In the germ line, regulatory genes for sperm development that act at the level of RNA in the cytoplasm play a prominent role. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Emmons, Scott W.
Studies of the development of the C. elegans male have been carried out with the aim of understanding the basis of sexual dimorphism. Postembryonic development of the two C. elegans sexes differs extensively. Development along either the hermaphrodite or male pathway is specified initially by the X to autosome ratio. The regulatory events initiated by this ratio include a male-determining paracrine intercellular signal. Expression of this signal leads to different consequences in three regions of the body: the non-gonadal soma, the somatic parts of the gonad, and the germ line. In the non-gonadal soma, activity of the key Zn-finger transcription factor TRA 1 determines hermaphrodite development; in its absence, the male pathway is followed. Only a few genes directly regulated by TRA 1 are currently known, including members of the evolutionarily conserved, male-determining DM domain Zn-finger transcription factors. In the somatic parts of the gonad and germ line, absence of TRA 1 activity is not sufficient for full expression of the male pathway. Several additional transcription factors involved have been identified. In the germ line, regulatory genes for sperm development that act at the level of RNA in the cytoplasm play a prominent role. PMID:25262817
Bolton, Jessica L; Auten, Richard L; Bilbo, Staci D
Environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a primary component of air pollution, would prime microglia long-term, resulting in exacerbated metabolic and affective outcomes following exposure to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Time-mated mouse dams were intermittently exposed to respiratory instillations of either vehicle (VEH) or DEP throughout gestation. Adult male and female offspring were then fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. The male offspring of DEP-exposed dams exhibited exaggerated weight gain, insulin resistance, and anxiety-like behavior on HFD compared to the male offspring of VEH-exposed dams, whereas female offspring did not differ according to prenatal treatment. Furthermore, HFD induced evidence of macrophage infiltration of both adipose tissue and the brain in both sexes, but these cells were more activated specifically in DEP/HFD males. DEP/HFD males also expressed markedly higher levels of microglial/macrophage, but not astrocyte, activation markers in the hippocampus, whereas females exhibited only a suppression of astrocyte activation markers due to HFD. In a second experiment, DEP male offspring mounted an exaggerated peripheral IL-1β response to an LPS challenge at postnatal day (P)30, whereas their central IL-1β response did not differ from VEH male offspring, which is suggestive of macrophage priming due to prenatal DEP exposure. In sum, prenatal air pollution exposure "programs" offspring for increased susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic, behavioral, and neuroinflammatory changes in adulthood in a sexually dimorphic manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
He, Zhen; Cui, Li; Ferguson, Sherry A; Paule, Merle G
The neurovascular unit (NVU) can be conceptualized as a functional entity consisting of neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells that operate in concert to affect blood flow to a very circumscribed area. Although we are currently in a "golden era" of bioengineering, there are, as yet, no living NVUs-on-a-chip modules available and the development of a neural chip that would mimic NVUs is a seemingly lofty goal. The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) is a tiny brain structure (between 0.001~0.007 mm 3 in rats) with an assessable biological function (i.e., male sexual behavior). The present effort was undertaken to determine whether there are identifiable NVUs in the SDN-POA by assessing its vasculature relative to its known neural components. First, a thorough and systematic review of thousands of histologic and immunofluorescent images from 201 weanling and adult rats was undertaken to define the characteristics of the vessels supplying the SDN-POA: its primary supply artery/arteriole and capillaries are physically inseparable from their neural elements. A subsequent immunofluorescent study targeting α-smooth muscle actin confirmed the identity of an artery/arteriole supplying the SDN-POA. In reality, the predominant components of the SDN-POA are calbindin D28k-positive neurons that are comingled with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive projections. Finally, a schematic of an SDN-POA NVU is proposed as a working model of the basic building block of the CNS. Such modules could serve the study of neurovascular mechanisms and potentially inform the development of next generation bioengineered neural transplants, i.e., the construct of an NVU neural chip.
Goldsby, Jessica A; Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Rissman, Emilie F
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound used to manufacture plastics; it is present in linings of food cans, bottles, thermal receipts, and many other everyday items and is detectable in human urine and blood. Exposure to BPA during development can disrupt sexual differentiation of some brain regions. Moreover, BPA can have transgenerational effects on gene expression and behaviors. Here, we used a diet and breeding regimen that produces transgenerational effects on behaviors. C57BL/6J mice consumed control or BPA-containing diets during pregnancy. We examined vasopressin (AVP) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunoreactivity (ir) in sexually dimorphic brain regions from first-generation (F1) offspring and transgenerational effects of BPA in third-generation offspring. In all but one brain region examined, the expected sex differences were noted in both generations of control mice. In F1 mice, a diet by sex interaction was present for AVP-ir in the lateral septum and posterodorsal medial amygdala. In both regions, BPA exposure reduced immunoreactivity in male brains. An interaction between diet and sex for ERα-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus was caused by reduced immunoreactivity in BPA-exposed females. Of interest, BPA had transgenerational effects on ERα-ir in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Our data show that BPA produces immunoreactive differences in ERα-ir generations after exposure to BPA. We speculate that actions of BPA in utero on ERα-ir in brain have long-term consequences for reproduction and social behavior. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.
Ana V Oliveira-Pinto
Full Text Available Sex differences in the human olfactory function reportedly exist for olfactory sensitivity, odorant identification and memory, and tasks in which odors are rated based on psychological features such as familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and others. Which might be the neural bases for these behavioral differences? The number of cells in olfactory regions, and especially the number of neurons, may represent a more accurate indicator of the neural machinery than volume or weight, but besides gross volume measures of the human olfactory bulb, no systematic study of sex differences in the absolute number of cells has yet been undertaken. In this work, we investigate a possible sexual dimorphism in the olfactory bulb, by quantifying postmortem material from 7 men and 11 women (ages 55-94 years with the isotropic fractionator, an unbiased and accurate method to estimate absolute cell numbers in brain regions. Female bulbs weighed 0.132 g in average, while male bulbs weighed 0.137 g, a non-significant difference; however, the total number of cells was 16.2 million in females, and 9.2 million in males, a significant difference of 43.2%. The number of neurons in females reached 6.9 million, being no more than 3.5 million in males, a difference of 49.3%. The number of non-neuronal cells also proved higher in women than in men: 9.3 million and 5.7 million, respectively, a significant difference of 38.7%. The same differences remained when corrected for mass. Results demonstrate a sex-related difference in the absolute number of total, neuronal and non-neuronal cells, favoring women by 40-50%. It is conceivable that these differences in quantitative cellularity may have functional impact, albeit difficult to infer how exactly this would be, without knowing the specific circuits cells make. However, the reported advantage of women as compared to men may stimulate future work on sex dimorphism of synaptic microcircuitry in the olfactory bulb.
Hayek Lee-Ann C.
Full Text Available Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means for two groups (females and males. We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.
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Morishita, Masahiro; Maejima, Sho; Tsukahara, Shinji
We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth. Sex differences in the volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv emerged before puberty. These sex differences became prominent in adulthood with increasing volume in females and loss of neurons in males during the pubertal/adolescent period. Prepubertal orchiectomy did not affect the BNSTpv, although prepubertal ovariectomy reduced the volume increase and induced loss of neurons in the female BNSTpv. In contrast, the volume and neuron number of male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei that are composed of mainly calbindin neurons and are located in the preoptic area and BNST were decreased by prepubertal orchiectomy but not affected by prepubertal ovariectomy. Testicular testosterone during the postnatal period may defeminize the BNSTpv via binding directly to the androgen receptor and indirectly to the estrogen receptor after aromatization, although defeminization may proceed independently of testicular hormones in the pubertal/adolescent period. Ovarian hormones may act to feminize the BNSTpv during the pubertal/adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
Izdebska-Straszak, Grazyna; Gubala, Elzbieta; Jedrzejowska-Szypulka, Halina; Klencki, Mariusz; Wiczkowski, Andrzej; Jarzab, Barbara
beta-adrenergic ligands have been shown to influence sexual differentiation of the brain. In the present study we document that short postnatal treatment with beta-adrenergic agonists or antagonists may permanently reverse the morphological sex of the brain, as judged by the volume of sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Female rats treated by beta(2)-adrenergic stimulating ligands exhibit an increased, male type SDN-POA volume while male rats treated by beta1-adrenergic antagonists show a decreased, female type of SDN-POA volume. To analyze the volume of SDN-POA of adult rats after postnatal administration of betaadrenergic ligands. From the second day of life, over 5 consecutive days, all the neonates were injected subcutaneously with the following drugs: isoproterenol, salbutamol, metoprolol alprenolol or saline. SDN-POA volumes were estimated planimetrically on serial brain slides. In male rats the mean volume of SDN-POA was 9.97 +/- 1.66 x 10(-3) mm(3), in female rats the respective volume reached 4.02 +/- 1.26 x 10(-3) mm(3) only and was 2.5 times lower, the difference being highly statistically significant. Postnatal administration of isoproterenol remained without effect in male rats but diminished the SDN-POA volume in female rats, thus increasing the sexual dimorphism. The disappearance of sexual dimorphism was noted in rats treated postnatally with salbutamol. This effect was due to the increase in SDN-POA volumes in female rats, up to 9.81 +/- 2.64 x 10(-3) mm(3), the levels approaching the male type of POA differentiation. Postnatal alprenolol treatment influenced the sexual dimorphism of the brain by decreasing the SDN-POA volume reached by adult males. In fact, in rats treated postnatally with alprenolol, the volume of the nucleus reached only 4,44 +/- 1,61 x 10(-3) mm(3), being not statistically different from female nuclei. The effect of metoprolol pretreatment was similar to alprenolol. Male volumes of SDN-POA were restored
Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.
Jayasena, Channa N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Comninos, Alexander N; Abbara, Ali; Januszewki, Adam; Vaal, Meriel L; Sriskandarajah, Labosshy; Murphy, Kevin G; Farzad, Zohreh; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S
Kisspeptin peptides are critical in human reproductive physiology and are potential therapies for infertility. Kisspeptin-10 stimulates gonadotropin release in both male and female rodents. However, few studies have investigated the effects of kisspeptin-10 on gonadotropin release in humans, and none have investigated the effect in women. If kisspeptin is to be useful for treating reproductive disease, its effects in both men and women must be established. To compare the effects of kisspeptin-10 administration on reproductive hormone release in healthy men and women. Intravenous bolus kisspeptin-10 was administered to men and women (n = 4-5 per group). Subcutaneous bolus and i.v. infusion of kisspeptin-10 was also administered to female women (n = 4-5 per group). Circulating reproductive hormones were measured. In healthy men, serum LH and FSH were elevated after i.v. bolus kisspeptin-10, at doses as low as 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/kg, respectively. In healthy women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, no alterations in serum gonadotropins were observed after i.v. bolus, s.c. bolus, or i.v. infusion of kisspeptin-10 at maximal doses of 10 nmol/kg, 32 nmol/kg, and 720 pmol/kg/min, respectively. In women during the preovulatory phase, serum LH and FSH were elevated after i.v. bolus kisspeptin-10 (10 nmol/kg). Kisspeptin-10 stimulates gonadotropin release in men as well as women during the preovulatory phase of menstrual cycle but fails to stimulate gonadotropin release in women during the follicular phase. The sexual dimorphism of the responsiveness of healthy men and women to kisspeptin-10 administration has important clinical implications for the potential of kisspeptin-10 to treat disorders of reproduction.
Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley
Visceral pain is the hallmark feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a gastrointestinal disorder, which is more commonly diagnosed in women. Female IBS patients frequently report a history of early life adversity (ELA); however, sex differences in ELA-induced visceral pain and the role of ovarian hormones have yet to be investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ELA induces visceral hypersensitivity through a sexually dimorphic mechanism mediated via estradiol. As a model of ELA, neonatal rats were exposed to different pairings of an odor and shock to control for trauma predictability. In adulthood, visceral sensitivity was assessed via a visceromotor response to colorectal distension. Following ovariectomy and estradiol replacement in a separate group of rats, the visceral sensitivity was quantified. We found that females that received unpredictable odor-shock developed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. In contrast, visceral sensitivity was not significantly different following ELA in adult males. Ovariectomy reversed visceral hypersensitivity following unpredictable ELA, whereas estradiol replacement reestablished visceral hypersensitivity in the unpredictable group. This study is the first to show sex-related differences in visceral sensitivity following unpredictable ELA. Our data highlight the activational effect of estradiol as a pivotal mechanism in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity. This article directly implicates a critical role for ovarian hormones in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity following ELA, specifically identifying the activational effect of estradiol as a key modulator of visceral sensitivity. These data suggest that ELA induces persistent functional abdominal pain in female IBS patients through an estrogen-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.
McCulloch, Kyle J; Yuan, Furong; Zhen, Ying; Aardema, Matthew L; Smith, Gilbert; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Andolfatto, Peter; Briscoe, Adriana D
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells. In order to better understand the selective pressures giving rise to the violet receptor, we characterized opsin expression patterns using immunostaining (14 species) and RNA-Seq (18 species), and reconstructed evolutionary histories of visual traits in five major lineages within Heliconius and one species from the genus Eueides. Opsin expression patterns are hyperdiverse within Heliconius. We identified six unique retinal mosaics and three distinct forms of sexual dimorphism based on ommatidial types within the genus Heliconius. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed independent losses of opsin expression, pseudogenization events, and relaxation of selection on UVRh2 in one lineage. Despite this diversity, the newly evolved violet receptor is retained across most species and sexes surveyed. Discriminability modeling of behaviorally preferred 3-OHK yellow wing coloration suggests that the violet receptor may facilitate Heliconius color vision in the context of conspecific recognition. Our observations give insights into the selective pressures underlying the origins of new visual receptors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tomlinson, Sean; Menz, Myles H M
A typical explanation for ecologically stable strategies that apply to only a proportion of a population, is bet hedging, where increased reproductive success offsets reduced reproductive rate. One such is partial migration, where only a proportion of a population moves seasonally to avoid inclement climatic conditions. Bet hedging may overlook unseen costs to maintain broad physiological resilience, implied by encountering a breadth of environmental conditions. We investigated the physiological correlates of partial migration by measuring standard metabolic rates, and rates of evaporative water loss, and then estimating upper and lower thermal tolerance in males and females of two hoverfly species, Episyrphus balteatus and Eristalis tenax. In central Europe, females of these species may either migrate or overwinter, whereas males may migrate south to the Mediterranean, but have not been found overwintering. Both species were sexually dimorphic; female Ep. balteatus were lighter than males, but female Er. tenax were heavier than males. While allometrically- corrected metabolic rate in both species increased with temperature, the most parsimonious models included no sex-specific differences in metabolic rate for either species. Evaporative water loss of both species also increased with temperature, but was higher for females of both species than males. Assuming that resting metabolism is congruent with the activity requirements of migration, highly consistent thermal tolerance and metabolic rate suggests that any given fly could migrate, although water loss patterns suggest that females may be less well-adapted to Mediterranean climates. We infer that partial migration probably results from the imperatives of their reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emily T Griffiths
Full Text Available Bird species often use flight calls to engage in social behavior, for instance maintain group cohesion and to signal individual identity, kin or social associations, or breeding status of the caller. Additional uses also exist, in particular among migrating songbirds for communication during nocturnal migration. However, our understanding of the information that these vocalizations convey is incomplete, especially in nocturnal scenarios. To examine whether information about signaler traits could be encoded in flight calls we quantified several acoustic characteristics from calls of a nocturnally migrating songbird, the American Redstart. We recorded calls from temporarily captured wild specimens during mist-netting at the Powdermill Avian Research Center in Rector, PA. We measured call similarity among and within individuals, genders, and age groups. Calls from the same individual were significantly more similar to one another than to the calls of other individuals, and calls were significantly more similar among individuals of the same sex than between sexes. Flight calls from hatching-year and after hatching-year individuals were not significantly different. Our results suggest that American Redstart flight calls may carry identifiers of gender and individual identity. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of individuality or sexual dimorphism in the flight calls of a migratory songbird. Furthermore, our results suggest that flight calls may have more explicit functions beyond simple group contact and cohesion. Nocturnal migration may require coordination among numerous individuals, and the use of flight calls to transmit information among intra- and conspecifics could be advantageous. Applying approaches that account for such individual and gender information may enable more advanced research using acoustic monitoring.
Heepe, Lars; Petersen, Dennis S.; Tölle, Lisa; Wolff, Jonas O.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Many insects possess adhesive foot pads, which enable reliable attachment to diverse and unpredictable substrates. The function of these adhesive organs was shown to be affected by environmental conditions such as substrate roughness, chemistry, and ambient humidity. So far, the attachment ability of insects and also that of spiders and geckos has been tested on rigid substrates only. However, the natural habitats of climbing animals may provide a variety of substrate stiffness ranging from rigid rock surfaces to soft, biofilm covered substrates. In order to test the effect of different substrate stiffness on the attachment ability of insects, we have performed friction experiments with female and male ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata on smooth silicone elastomer substrates of different stiffness, using a centrifugal force tester. Whereas in females, the attachment ability was not affected by the substrate stiffness within the range of tested stiffness, males showed decreasing attachment ability with decreasing substrate stiffness. This sexual dimorphism in attachment ability is explained by the presence of a specialized, discoidal seta type in males, which is not present in females. It is argued that discoidal setae, when softer if compared to the substrate, may show an advantageous peak-free interfacial stress distribution when being pulled off the substrate. For such setae being stiffer if compared the substrate, they potentially show increased edge stress concentration. In this case, lower pull-off forces are expected, in agreement with the experimentally obtained results. With the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the substrate stiffness may have an effect on the attachment ability of climbing animals, which may also be of relevance for technical and medical applications involving adhesion to soft substrates.
Mitjans, M; Begemann, M; Ju, A; Dere, E; Wüstefeld, L; Hofer, S; Hassouna, I; Balkenhol, J; Oliveira, B; van der Auwera, S; Tammer, R; Hammerschmidt, K; Völzke, H; Homuth, G; Cecconi, F; Chowdhury, K; Grabe, H; Frahm, J; Boretius, S; Dandekar, T; Ehrenreich, H
Ambra1 is linked to autophagy and neurodevelopment. Heterozygous Ambra1 deficiency induces autism-like behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. Extraordinarily, autistic features are seen in female mice only, combined with stronger Ambra1 protein reduction in brain compared to males. However, significance of AMBRA1 for autistic phenotypes in humans and, apart from behavior, for other autism-typical features, namely early brain enlargement or increased seizure propensity, has remained unexplored. Here we show in two independent human samples that a single normal AMBRA1 genotype, the intronic SNP rs3802890-AA, is associated with autistic features in women, who also display lower AMBRA1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to female GG carriers. Located within a non-coding RNA, likely relevant for mRNA and protein interaction, rs3802890 (A versus G allele) may affect its stability through modification of folding, as predicted by in silico analysis. Searching for further autism-relevant characteristics in Ambra1(+/-) mice, we observe reduced interest of female but not male mutants regarding pheromone signals of the respective other gender in the social intellicage set-up. Moreover, altered pentylentetrazol-induced seizure propensity, an in vivo readout of neuronal excitation-inhibition dysbalance, becomes obvious exclusively in female mutants. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals mild prepubertal brain enlargement in both genders, uncoupling enhanced brain dimensions from the primarily female expression of all other autistic phenotypes investigated here. These data support a role of AMBRA1/Ambra1 partial loss-of-function genotypes for female autistic traits. Moreover, they suggest Ambra1 heterozygous mice as a novel multifaceted and construct-valid genetic mouse model for female autism.
Jones, Frederick S; Jing, Jie; Stonehouse, Anthony H; Stevens, Anthony; Edelman, Gerald M
Epidemiological studies indicate that caffeine consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, and antagonists of the adenosine 2A receptor ameliorate the motor symptoms of PD. These findings motivated us to identify proteins whose expression is regulated by caffeine in a sexually dimorphic manner. Using mass spectroscopy, we found that Cox7c, a nuclear-encoded subunit of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase, is up-regulated in the striatum of male but not female mice after receiving a single dose of caffeine. The expression of two other Cox subunits, Cox1 and Cox4, was also stimulated by caffeine in a male-specific fashion. This up-regulation of Cox subunits by caffeine was accompanied by an increase in Cox enzyme activity in the male striatum. Caffeine-induced stimulation of Cox expression and activity were reproduced using the adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR)-specific antagonist 5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-epsilon]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261), and coadministration of the A2AR-specific agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) counteracted the elevation of Cox expression and activity by caffeine. Caffeine also increased Cox activity in PC-12 cells. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Cox7c expression in PC-12 cells blunted Cox activity, and this was counteracted by caffeine treatment. Caffeine was also found to increase Cox7c mRNA expression in the striatum and in PC-12 cells. This occurred at the level of transcription and was mediated by a segment of the Cox7c promoter. Overall, these findings indicate that cytochrome oxidase is a metabolic target of caffeine and that stimulation of Cox activity by caffeine via blockade of A2AR signaling may be an important mechanism underlying the therapeutic benefits of caffeine in PD.
Raznahan, Armin; Lue, YanHe; Probst, Frank; Greenstein, Deanna; Giedd, Jay; Wang, Christina; Lerch, Jason; Swerdloff, Ronald
Murine sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) provide powerful models for charting sex chromosome influences on mammalian brain development. Here, building on prior work in X-monosomic (XO) mice, we use spatially non-biased high-resolution imaging to compare and contrast neuroanatomical alterations in XXY and XO mice relative to their wild-type XX and XY littermates. First, we show that carriage of a supernumerary X chromosome in XXY males (1) does not prevent normative volumetric masculinization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala, but (2) causes distributed anatomical alterations relative to XY males, which show a statistically unexpected tendency to be co-localized with and reciprocal to XO-XX differences in anatomy. These overlaps identify the lateral septum, BNST, ventral group thalamic nuclei and periaqueductal gray matter as regions with replicable sensitivity to X chromosome dose across two SCAs. We then harness anatomical variation across all four karyotype groups in our study--XO, XX, XY and XXY--to create an agnostic data-driven segmentation of the mouse brain into five distributed clusters which (1) recover fundamental properties of brain organization with high spatial precision, (2) define two previously uncharacterized systems of relative volume excess in females vs. males ("forebrain cholinergic" and "cerebelo-pontine-thalamo-cortical"), and (3) adopt stereotyped spatial motifs which delineate ordered gradients of sex chromosome and gonadal influences on volumetric brain development. Taken together, these data provide a new framework for the study of sexually dimorphic influences on brain development in health and disrupted brain development in SCA.
Kant, L; Yilmaz, O; Taskiran, D; Kulali, B; Furedy, J J; Demirgören, S; Pögün, S
Recent studies using the water maze (WM) found marked sex differences in behavioral strategy employed in place learning tasks in adult rats. When a change in the platform position is introduced following learning the place of a platform (visible or hidden) in a different position, female rats escape to the newly positioned visible platform faster than males. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in place learning, and there are regional sex differences in its stable metabolites, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), in rat brain. Furthermore, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels are sensitive to ovariectomy in female rats. The effect of sex hormones on brain development and function is well documented. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of ovariectomy and hormonal manipulations on cognitive performance in a WM task designed to test differences in behavioral strategy in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) of both sexes. Some of the females rats were ovariectomised and received either hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone alone or in combination) or the vehicle. Cortical and hippocampal NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels were determined after behavioral testing. There were no group differences in cognitive ability or non-cognitive factors such as motivation or swim speed. Males and intact females differed in their cognitive style, but hormonal manipulations in female rats did not affect this relative use of behavioral strategy. There was a correlation between performance on the trial where sex differences were most prominent and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels in the cortex. Our results suggest that the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones do not play a major role in sexually dimorphic cognitive styles.
Banu, Sakhila K; Stanley, Jone A; Taylor, Robert J; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Zeng, Lixia; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Padmanabhan, Vasantha
Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the U.S and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. Environmental exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and subsequent health of two generations, resulting in higher pregnancy loss, spontaneous abortion and low birth rate. Pregnant women exposed to CrVI through occupational settings experience increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death. Children of the CrVI exposed women experience respiratory problems, perinatal jaundice, and increased birth defects. Since placental dysfunction may have a role in such adverse pregnancy outcome, we tested the hypothesis that environmental Cr exposure in pregnant women results in Cr accumulation in the human placenta, which could increase placental oxidative stress by disrupting antioxidant machinery and inducing apoptosis . Studies using frozen, deidentified human term placenta samples indicated that: (i) Cr accumulates in human term placenta tissues and (ii) increase in Cr accumulation is positively correlated with oxidative stress and apoptotic markers, and altered antioxidants levels. Interestingly, there was a sexual dimorphism in the correlation between Cr accumulation and oxidative stress, and expression of apoptotic and antioxidant markers. Mechanistic in vitro studies using human trophoblast cells BeWo confirmed the detrimental effects of Cr in altering antioxidant genes. For the first time, the current study provides evidence in support of a positive correlation between Cr accumulation in the human placenta and accelerated oxidative stress, with a gender bias towards the male sex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis
Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.
BLOMQUIST, G. E.; WILLIAMS, L. E.
Offspring size is often an intimate link between the fitness of parents and offspring. Among mammals, neonate mass is also related to adult levels of dimorphism and intrasexual competitive mating. We describe the sex-specific genetic architecture of neonate mass in captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), a small Neotropical primate. Best fitting quantitative genetic models show strong maternal genetic effects with little difference between sexes offering limited opportunity for neonatal dimorphism to respond to observed or hypothetical selection. Heritabilities that are approximately zero also imply it is unlikely that neonatal dimorphism can evolve as a correlated response to selection on adult size. However, male mass is also more dependent on maternal condition (age and parity) making dimorphism plastic. Finally, we hypothesize that large maternal genetic effects reflect income breeding and tightly synchronized seasonal reproduction in squirrel monkeys, both of which require strong maternal control of offspring growth and timing of birth. PMID:23437981
Barker, Laura A; Dazin, Paul F; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G
Since stress both activates the sympathoadrenal axis and profoundly affects inflammation and inflammatory diseases, many of which are sexually dimorphic, we tested whether the effect of stress on neutrophil recruitment, a primary component of the acute inflammatory response, is sexually dimorphic. The effect of intermittent sound (over 4 days), a nonhabituating stress, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced recruitment of neutrophils was evaluated in vivo in the rat air pouch model. At 24 h following the last stress exposure, LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment was enhanced in male rats, but not in females. When gonadectomized prepubertally and tested as adults, stress significantly inhibited the magnitude of LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in males, while it still had no effect in gonadectomized females. In males, following adrenal denervation, the increase in LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment produced by stress was prevented. Since these data suggest that the effect of stress is dependent on the sympathoadrenal axis, we tested the hypothesis that catecholamines mediate the stress effects. In male rats, the effect of stress on LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment was significantly attenuated by continuous administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol (4 mg kg−1 day−1), during sound stress exposure, and administration of isoproterenol (10 nmoles, i.v.) significantly increased neutrophil recruitment in males, an effect that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the effect of stress. Propranolol significantly increased neutrophil recruitment in nonstressed female rats, but did not significantly affect neutrophil recruitment in stressed females. These findings indicate a marked male sex hormone-dependent sexual dimorphism in the sympathoadrenal-dependent effect of stress on neutrophil migration, a primary component of the inflammatory response, and suggest that the sympathoadrenal axis contributes to this effect via release
Débora M. Siqueira
Full Text Available We obtained data on time of sexual maturity, dimorphism, fecundity and on the reproductive cycle of Mastigodryas boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796 through the examination of 321 preserved specimens, of which 221 were collected in the Brazilian Amazon region and 100 in the Cerrado savannas of Central Brazil. The degree of sexual size dimorphism (snout-vent length, SVL was significantly greater in the specimens from the Cerrado in comparison with those from the Amazon. Females had a significantly larger number of ventral scales, on average, whereas males had more sub-caudal scales. However, there was no intersexual difference in tail length or head width, although the heads of the males were significantly longer, which may reflect dietary differences. Breeding females from the Amazon region contained between one and six eggs (N = 12, mean = 3.0, whereas two females from the Cerrado had four to six eggs (N = 10, mean = 5.0. No relationship was found between the SVL of the Amazonian females and the number of eggs or vitellogenic follicles they contained (Cerrado females were not analyzed here due to small sample size. Males are smaller than their female counterpart when they reach sexual maturity. Even though females from the Amazon reproduce throughout the year, females from the Cerrado breed seasonality.
Full Text Available The study was conducted in the area of the Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountain and the Thracian Plain in period 1996-2014. On a total of 262 golden jackals (Canis aureus L., 1758 (119 males and 143 females thirteen somatometric parameters were measured. The comparison of the linear body parameters and the weights between males and females showed apparent sexual dimorphism in the jackals with a high level of reliability, with an exception of the length of the tail. The index of body compactness and the weight index were calculated and compared. The index of body compactness did not differ between sexes. The body weight (10,994.24 g for males and 9,776.02 g for females in average showed clear sexual dimorphism – male-female ratio was 11.08%. Our findings indicated that the sexual size dimorphism in golden jackal was weaker and lower than those in red fox and wolf.
Péter L Pap
Full Text Available Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1 and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6 and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5 tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the
Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape
Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these
Zuha, Raja Muhammad; Omar, Baharudin
Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a limbic nucleus, representing part of the striatum body, and together with the caudate nucleus and putamen, it lies on the septum. The aim of this study was to examine morphological sexual dimorphism in spine density and also to undertake an immunohistochemical study of expression for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the medium-sized neurons in the nucleus accumbens. The research was conducted on twenty human brains of persons of both sexes, between the age of 20-75 years. The Golgi method was applied to determine the types and subtypes of neurons, morphologies of soma, dendrites and axons, as well as the relations between the cells and glial elements. The following were quantitatively examined: the maximum diameter of the neurons, the minimal diameter of the neurons, and the total length of the dendrites. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone, their distribution and intensity were defined immunohistochemically. The parameters of the bodies of neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens were studied in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found. Examination of the spine density showed statistical significance in terms of a higher density of spines in women. Immunohistochemically, in the female brain estrogen expression is diffusely spread in a large number of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance and high intensity. In the male brain, expression of estrogen is visible and distributed over about one half of different types of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance, mostly of middle and low staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the female brain was very discreet and on a very small number of neurons; it was extra nuclear and with a weak staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the male brain was distributed on a small number of neurons. It had a granular appearance, it was extra nuclear, with a very low
Jumat, Nur Ramziahrazanah; Chong, Mun Yee; Seman, Zainina; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Wong, Nyet Kui; Abdullah, Maha
Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA+) non-CD4+ lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69+ cells, and higher percentage of CD69+ populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a+ NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25+CD4+ lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4+ T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.
Full Text Available Over the past decades the incidence of gout has increased in the world. Despite the well studied mechanisms of development and characteristics of the clinical picture of the di-sease, gout is diagnosed late. Gout is believed to occur in 1 - 3% of the population of the developed countries, predominantly in men over 45, but in modern literature there is information about the age reduction for the gout onset and the incidence of gout in women. An ever-increasing incidence, an early disability, impaired quality of life, and a high risk of death make the gout problem highly relevant one and require the improvement of the detection methods, early gout detection and optimization of tactics for managing patients with gout. The object of the present research is the identification of sexual dimorphism of gout clinic (adapted from the materials of rheumatology departments of Saransk hospitals. Materials and Methods The study included 195 patients with gout (169 men and 26 women surveyed in 2011– 2015 in reumatology сlinices GBUZ “MRCB” and GBUZ “RCH № 5” of Saransk. The average age of women was 52,3 ± 12,3, of men – to 54,3 ± 13,2, median disease du-ration was 5,2 (2,6–7,8 years for women and 9 (3,5–14,5 years for men. Results Chronic arthritis was detected in 58,8 % of women and 67,5 % of men. The formation of tophi in women was observed earlier and in greater numbers than in men: the average duration of the disease before the formation of tophi in women was 3,1 years, and for men 5,7 years. In the group of women the average duration of the first artrit bout was 13 days, in the group of men – 10 days. The metobolic syndrome components such as arte¬rial hypertension, diabetes mellitus of the 2nd type, dyslipidemia were observed more often in women than in men Discussion and Conclusions Clinical course of women’s gout has its features. Since gout in women is more severe, the chronic tophy gout develops earlier than in men. Women
Provost Pierre R
Full Text Available Abstract Background In human, respiratory distress of the neonates, which occurs in prematurity, is prevalent in male. Late in gestation, maturation of type II pneumonocytes, and consequently the surge of surfactant synthesis are delayed in male fetuses compared with female fetuses. Although the presence of higher levels of androgens in male fetuses is thought to explain this sex difference, the identity of genes involved in lung maturation that are differentially modulated according to fetal sex is unknown. We have studied the sex difference in developing mouse lung by gene profiling during a three-day gestational window preceding and including the emergence of mature PTII cells (the surge of surfactant synthesis in the mouse occurs on GD 17.5. Methods Total RNA was extracted from lungs of male and female fetal mice (gestation days 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, converted to cRNA, labeled with biotin, and hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix MOE430A. Analysis of data was performed using MAS5.0, LFCM and Genesis softwares. Results Many genes involved in lung maturation were expressed with no sex difference. Of the approximative 14 000 transcripts covered by the arrays, only 83 genes presented a sex difference at one or more time points between GDs 15.5 and 17.5. They include genes involved in hormone metabolism and regulation (i.e. steroidogenesis pathways, apoptosis, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and lipid metabolism with four apolipoprotein genes. Genes involved in immune functions and other metabolisms also displayed a sex difference. Conclusion Among these sexually dimorphic genes, some may be candidates for a role in lung maturation. Indeed, on GD 17.5, the sex difference in surfactant lipids correlates with the sex difference in pulmonary expression of apolipoprotein genes, which are involved in lipid transport. This suggests a role for these genes in the surge of surfactant synthesis. Our results would help to
With advancing age the kidney shows both functional declines (falls in GFR) and development of structural damage. In most individuals this occurs slowly and does not lead to severe renal impairment unless additional insults are superimposed. There is a pronounced sexual dimorphism with females protected, due both to beneficial effects of the estrogens and damaging effects of androgens, some of which act directly on the glomerular mesangial cell to regulate growth and extracellular matrix production. Nitric oxide is a major factor in regulation of vascular tone and growth and becomes deficient with advancing age, as endothelial dysfunction develops. Although the abundance of the substrate, L-arginine, is well maintained during aging, there are increases in the concentration of circulating endogenous nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors, which will contribute, to the endothelial dysfunction. There is a clear sexual dimorphism in the NO system, with pre-menopausal females producing more NO than men. Within the kidney, declines in the abundance and activity of the neuronal form of the nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) correlate with development of disease. In the male rat where injury and dysfunction occurs, nNOS abundance declines markedly, whereas in the protected female, renal nNOS abundance is maintained. Taken together, it is likely that age-dependent declines in NO generation contribute to age-dependent kidney damage.
Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Feng, Ying; Sun, Tao
The Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela, represents one of the most dramatic examples of sexual dimorphism in any insect species. In this study, we showed that although E. pela males display complete metamorphosis similar to holometabolous insects, the species forms the sister group to Acyrthosiphon pisum and cluster with hemimetabolous insects. The gene expression profile and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the two sexes engaged in distinct developmental programs. In particular, female development appeared to prioritize the expression of genes related to cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes and to anatomical structure formation in nymphs. By contrast, male nymphal development is characterized by the significant down-regulation of genes involved in chitin, the respiratory system, and neurons. The wing and appendage morphogenesis, anatomical and tissue structure morphogenesis programs activated after male nymphal development. Transcription factors (that convey juvenile hormone or ecdysone signals, and Hox genes) and DNA methyltransferase were also differentially expressed between females and males. These results may indicate the roles that these differentially expressed genes play in regulating sexual dimorphism through orchestrating complex genetic programs. This differential expression was particularly prominent for processes linked to female development and wing development in males. PMID:25634031
Matějů, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to "Rensch's rule", which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in the structural body size of ground squirrels, an otherwise ecologically relatively homogenous group of terrestrial rodents. We found the general trend of male-biased SSD in ground squirrels, however, male size increases nearly perfectly isometrically with female size among species and sociality does not explain departures from this relationship. Species with different sociality grades significantly differ in body size, with the most social species tending to be the largest. We suggest that lack of conformity with Rensch´s rule in ground squirrels may be attributed to their low variation in SSD, and briefly discuss three potential causes of small magnitude of SSD in the structural size in rodents: low selection on SSD in structural dimensions, ontogenetic and genetic constraints and the existence of ecological/selection factors preventing the evolution of extensive SSD.
López-Olvera, Jorge R; Serrano, Emmanuel; Armenteros, Anna; Pérez, Jesús M; Fandos, Paulino; Carvalho, João; Velarde, Roser; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Ráez, Arián; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón C; Granados, José E
In sexually dimorphic species, male susceptibility to parasite infection and mortality is frequently higher than in females. The Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is a sexually dimorphic mountain ungulate endemic to the Iberian Peninsula commonly affected by sarcoptic mange, a chronic catabolic skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. Since 1992, sarcoptic mange affects the Iberian ibex population of the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS). This study aims at exploring whether mange severity, in terms of prevalence and its effects on body condition, is male-biased in Iberian ibex. One thousand and seventy-one adult Iberian ibexes (439 females and 632 males) were randomly shot-harvested in the SNNS from May 1995 to February 2008. Sarcoptic mange stage was classified as healthy, mildly infected or severely infected. Sex-biased prevalence of severe mange was evaluated by a Chi-square test whereas the interaction between mange severity and sex on body condition was assessed by additive models. Among scabietic individuals, the prevalence of severely affected males was 1.29 times higher than in females. On the other hand, both sexes were not able to take profit of a higher availability of seasonal food resources when sarcoptic, particularly in the severe stages. Sarcoptic mange severity is male-biased in Iberian ibex, though not mange effects on body condition. Behavioural, immunological and physiological characteristics of males may contribute to this partial sex-biased susceptibility to sarcoptic mange.
Johnson, P J; Noonan, M J; Kitchener, A C; Harrington, L A; Newman, C; Macdonald, D W
The tendency for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) to increase with body mass in taxa where males are larger, and to decrease when females are larger, is known as Rensch's rule. In mammals, where the trend occurs, it is believed to be the result of a competitive advantage for larger males, while female mass is constrained by the energetics of reproduction. Here, we examine the allometry of SSD within the Felidae and Canidae, demonstrating distinctly different patterns: in felids, there is positive allometric scaling, while there is no trend in canids. We hypothesize that feeding ecology, via its effect on female spacing patterns, is responsible for the difference; larger male mass may be advantageous only where females are dispersed such that males can defend access to them. This is supported by the observation that felids are predominately solitary, and all are obligate carnivores. Similarly, carnivorous canids are more sexually dimorphic than insectivores and omnivores, but carnivory does not contribute to a Rensch effect as dietary variation occurs across the mass spectrum. The observed inter-familial differences are also consistent with reduced constraints on female mass in the canids, where litter size increases with body mass, versus no observable allometry in the felids.
Contractor, Tanupriya; Kobayashi, Shinta; da Silva, Edaise; Clausen, Richard; Chan, Chang; Vosburgh, Evan; Tang, Laura H; Levine, Arnold J; Harris, Chris R
In a mouse model for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (PanNETs), liver metastasis occurred at a higher frequency in males. Male mice also had higher serum and intratumoral levels of the innate immunity protein complement C5. In mice that lost the ability to express complement C5, there was a lower frequency of metastasis, and males no longer had a higher frequency of metastasis than females. Treatment with PMX53, a small molecule antagonist of C5aR1/CD88, the receptor for complement C5a, also reduced metastasis. Mice lacking a functional gene for complement C5 had smaller primary tumors, which were less invasive and lacked the CD68+ macrophages that have previously been associated with metastasis in this type of tumor. This is the first report of a gene that causes sexual dimorphism of metastasis in a mouse model. In the human disease, which also shows sexual dimorphism for metastasis, clinically advanced tumors expressed more complement C5 than less advanced tumors.
Kijimoto, Teiya; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Pespeni, Melissa H.; Rocha, Guilherme; Kafadar, Karen; Moczek, Armin P.
Developmental responses to nutritional variation represent one of the ecologically most important classes of adaptive plasticity. However, knowledge of genome-wide patterns of nutrition-responsive gene expression is limited. Here, we studied genome-wide transcriptional responses to nutritional variation and their dependency on trait and sex in the beetle Onthophagus taurus. We find that averaged across the transcriptome, nutrition contributes less to overall variation in gene expression than do sex or body region, but that for a modest subset of genes nutrition is by far the most important determinant of expression variation. Furthermore, our results reject the hypothesis that a common machinery may underlie nutrition-sensitive development across body regions. Instead, we find that magnitude (measured by number of differentially expressed contigs), composition (measured by functional enrichment) and evolutionary consequences (measured by patterns of sequence variation) are heavily dependent on exactly which body region is considered and the degree of sexual dimorphism observed on a morphological level. More generally, our findings illustrate that studies into the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of nutrition-biased gene expression must take into account the dynamics and complexities imposed by other sources of variation in gene expression such as sexual dimorphism and trait type. PMID:25377458
Fairbairn, Daphne J
Within any given clade, male size and female size typically covary, but male size often varies more than female size. This generates a pattern of allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) known as Rensch's rule. I use allometry for SSD among populations of the water strider Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) to test the hypothesis that Rensch's rule evolves in response to sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits and an alternative hypothesis that it is caused by greater phenotypic plasticity of body size in males. Comparisons of three populations reared under two temperature regimes are combined with an analysis of allometry for genital and somatic components of body size among 25 field populations. Contrary to the sexual-selection hypothesis, genital length, the target of sexual selection, shows the lowest allometric slope of all the assayed traits. Instead, the results support a novel interpretation of the differential-plasticity hypothesis: that the traits most closely associated with reproductive fitness (abdomen length in females and genital length in males) are "adaptively canalized." While this hypothesis is unlikely to explain Rensch's rule among species or higher clades, it may explain widespread patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD recently documented for many insect species.
Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723
Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723
Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán
Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,72...
Cox, Robert M; Cox, Christian L; McGlothlin, Joel W; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Castoe, Todd A
The evolution of sexual dimorphism is predicted to occur through reductions in between-sex genetic correlations (rmf) for shared traits, but the physiological and genetic mechanisms that facilitate these reductions remain largely speculative. Here, we use a paternal half-sibling breeding design in captive brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to show that the development of sexual size dimorphism is mirrored by the ontogenetic breakdown of rmf for body size and growth rate. Using transcriptome data from the liver (which integrates growth and metabolism), we show that sex-biased gene expression also increases dramatically between ontogenetic stages bracketing this breakdown of rmf. Ontogenetic increases in sex-biased expression are particularly evident for genes involved in growth, metabolism, and cell proliferation, suggesting that they contribute to both the development of sexual dimorphism and the breakdown of rmf. Mechanistically, we show that treatment of females with testosterone stimulates the expression of male-biased genes while inhibiting the expression of female-biased genes, thereby inducing male-like phenotypes at both organismal and transcriptomic levels. Collectively, our results suggest that sex-specific modifiers such as testosterone can orchestrate sex-biased gene expression to facilitate the phenotypic development of sexual dimorphism while simultaneously reducing genetic correlations that would otherwise constrain the independent evolution of the sexes.
Ehl, Stefan; Hostert, Katharina; Korsch, Jana; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas
Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behavior and morphology. Analyses of differences in behavior are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on 2 species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behavior to investigate differences between sexes. Both sexes were mostly sedentary and the movement distances of males and females similar. However, obvious differences in dispersal behavior between the sexes were found in the movement patterns. Three different patterns were distinguished. Most males showed intensive flight activity, but mostly flew only in a limited part of the entire habitat (i.e., their individual home range) searching for females, whereas females were less flight active and flew only to find places for oviposition or feeding. The third pattern, where individuals flew larger distances, was only observed in a small number of males, which always returned to their home range. Nearly all feeding was observed on Asteraceae. However, males preferred the genera Leontodon and Crepis, while females preferred Leontodon and Carduus. Apart from this sexual difference in foraging, individuals of both sexes were found to be more or less specialised on nectar sources. Flight activity was generally greater in males than females. Therefore, we think that sex-specific requirements in nectar ingredients exist, that is, sugar for the intensive flight activity of males and amino acids for egg production of females. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size and weaponry was examined in two Cinetorhynchus shrimp species in order to formulate hypotheses on their sexual and mating systems. Collections of C. sp. A and C. sp. B were made in March, 2011 on Coconut Island, Hawaii, by hand dipnetting and minnow traps in coral rubble bottom in shallow water. Although there is overlap in male and female size, some males are much larger than females. The major (pereopod 1 chelipeds of males are significantly larger and longer than those of females. In these two Cinetorhynchus species, males and females have third maxillipeds of similar relative size, i.e., those of males are not hypertrophied and probably not used as spear-like weapons as in some other rhynchocinetid (Rhynchocinetes species. Major chelae of males vary with size, changing from typical female-like chelae tipped with black corneous stout setae to subchelate or prehensile appendages in larger males. Puncture wounds or regenerating major chelipeds were observed in 26.1 % of males examined (N = 38 including both species. We interpret this evidence on sexual dimorphism as an indication of a temporary male mate guarding or “neighborhoods of dominance” mating system, in which larger dominant robustus males defend females and have greater mating success than smaller males. Fecundity of females increased with female size, as in most caridean species (500–800 in C. sp. A; 300–3800 in C. sp. B. Based on the sample examined, we conclude that these two species have a gonochoric sexual system (separate sexes like most but not all other rhynchocinetid species in which the sexual system has been investigated.
Perinatal testosterone exposure is critical for the development of the male-specific sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that mediates erection and ejaculation
Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Katayama, Nao; Edey, Tomoca; Satoh, Keita; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka
Background In rats, a sexually dimorphic spinal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord projects to spinal centers that control erection and ejaculation. This system controls the sexual function of adult males in an androgen-dependent manner. In the present study, we assessed the influence of androgen exposure on the spinal GRP system during a critical period of the development of sexual dimorphism. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine if the develo...
Full Text Available The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP and neurokinin B (NKB in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf. These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (≥50 years and female (>55 years subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males.
Rahim Abdolahi Mesbah
Full Text Available The males and females of Colorado beetles do not reveal clear dimorphism and therefore they have high resemblance so that recognition of the sexes by simple eye is too difficult. In order to study sexual dimorphism in Colorado beetle, three geographical populations were collected from potato fields in Ardabil, Bahar and Hamedan regions by manual method and direct observation in the summer of 2012. Fore and hind wings were separated and 7 and 8 landmarks were orderly selected for the fore and hind wings at the end and angle of veins. Geometric coordinate of landmarks were converted to shape and size variables as comparison factors between the sexes. Wings relative variations were determined separately in male and female and it revealed variations of wing shape in evolutionary process. Multivariate analysis based on the results of regression of shape variables showed fore wing had allometry and hind wing had not allometry. Two way MANOVA analysis was conducted for observation of shape differences (base on average of shape variables and size differences. The analysis showed that there were significant differences in shape of fore wing between the sexes.
Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, Charles Delbert; Kissling, Grace E
The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 11-12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6-21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He, Z., Paule, M. G. and Ferguson, S. A. (2012) Low oral doses of bisphenol A increase volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male, but not female, rats at postnatal day 21. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 331-337). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their
Saitta, Evan Thomas
Conclusive evidence for sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs has been elusive. Here it is shown that dimorphism in the shape of the dermal plates of Stegosaurus mjosi (Upper Jurassic, western USA) does not result from non-sex-related individual, interspecific, or ontogenetic variation and is most likely a sexually dimorphic feature. One morph possessed wide, oval plates 45% larger in surface area than the tall, narrow plates of the other morph. Intermediate morphologies are lacking as principal component analysis supports marked size- and shape-based dimorphism. In contrast, many non-sex-related individual variations are expected to show intermediate morphologies. Taphonomy of a new quarry in Montana (JRDI 5ES Quarry) shows that at least five individuals were buried in a single horizon and were not brought together by water or scavenger transportation. This new site demonstrates co-existence, and possibly suggests sociality, between two morphs that only show dimorphism in their plates. Without evidence for niche partitioning, it is unlikely that the two morphs represent different species. Histology of the new specimens in combination with studies on previous specimens indicates that both morphs occur in fully-grown individuals. Therefore, the dimorphism is not a result of ontogenetic change. Furthermore, the two morphs of plates do not simply come from different positions on the back of a single individual. Plates from all positions on the body can be classified as one of the two morphs, and previously discovered, isolated specimens possess only one morph of plates. Based on the seemingly display-oriented morphology of plates, female mate choice was likely the driving evolutionary mechanism rather than male-male competition. Dinosaur ornamentation possibly served similar functions to the ornamentation of modern species. Comparisons to ornamentation involved in sexual selection of extant species, such as the horns of bovids, may be appropriate in predicting the
Reno, Philip L.; Meindl, Richard S.; McCollum, Melanie A.; Lovejoy, C. Owen
The substantial fossil record for Australopithecus afarensis includes both an adult partial skeleton [Afar Locality (A.L.) 288-1, “Lucy”] and a large simultaneous death assemblage (A.L. 333). Here we optimize data derived from both to more accurately estimate skeletal size dimorphism. Postcranial ratios derived from A.L. 288-1 enable a significant increase in sample size compared with previous studies. Extensive simulations using modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorilla...
The clone FHG22, isolated from a female minus male subtracted cDNA library obtained from the sexually dimorphic Syrian hamster Harderian glands (HG) is 440 bp long with a 95 amino acids ORF, and hybridizes to a female HG-specific 0.6 kb mRNA. The FHG22 nucleotide and amino acid sequences are similar to the subunits from prostatein, uteroglobin, major cat allergen Fel dI (chain 1) and mouse salivary androgen binding proteins (subunit alpha). Therefore I propose that all those polypeptides belong to a common new family. The hamster genome has a single copy of the FHG22 gene, without homologous genes. FHG22 mRNA is also found in male and female parotid (higher levels in females) and submandibular glands, indicating a tissue and sex-dependent control of expression.
Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.
Tiago Rozário da Silva
Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.
Prince, Calais S; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie
Obesity is a major clinical problem in obstetrics being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal programming. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a validated miR-210 target, is necessary for placental development, fetal growth, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Plasma BDNF levels are reduced in obese individuals; however, placental BDNF has yet to be studied in the context of maternal obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal obesity and sexual dimorphism on placental BDNF signaling. BDNF signaling was measured in placentas from lean (pre-pregnancy BMI 30) women at term without medical complications that delivered via cesarean section without labor. MiRNA-210, BDNF mRNA, proBDNF, and mature BDNF were measured by RT - PCR, ELISA, and Western blot. Downstream signaling via TRKB (BDNF receptor) was measured using Western blot. Maternal obesity was associated with increased miRNA-210 and decreased BDNF mRNA in placentas from female fetuses, and decreased proBDNF in placentas from male fetuses. We also identified decreased mature BDNF in placentas from male fetuses when compared to female fetuses. Mir-210 expression was negatively correlated with mature BDNF protein. TRKB phosphorylated at tyrosine 817, not tyrosine 515, was increased in placentas from obese women. Maternal obesity was associated with increased phosphorylation of MAPK p38 in placentas from male fetuses, but not phosphorylation of ERK p42/44. BDNF regulation is complex and highly regulated. Pre-pregnancy/early maternal obesity adversely affects BDNF/TRKB signaling in the placenta in a sexually dimorphic manner. These data collectively suggest that induction of placental TRKB signaling could ameliorate the placental OB phenotype, thus improving perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Agha, Mickey
The attainment of sexual maturity has been shown to affect measures of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and adult sex ratios in several groups of vertebrates. Using data for turtles, we tested the model that sex ratios are expected to be male-biased when females are larger than males and female-biased when males are larger than females because of the relationship of each with the attainment of maturity. Our model is based on the premise that the earlier-maturing sex remains smaller, on average throughout life, and predominates numerically unless the sexes are strongly affected by differential mortality, differential emigration, and immigration, or biased primary sex ratios. Based on data for 24 species in seven families, SSD and sex ratios were significantly negatively correlated for most analyses, even after the effect of phylogenetic bias was removed. The analyses provide support for the model that SSD and adult sex ratios are correlated in turtles as a result of simultaneous correlation of each with sexual differences in attainment of maturity (bimaturism). Environmental sex determination provides a possible mechanism for the phenomenon in turtles and some other organisms.
Ciccotto, P J; Mendelson, T C
To test hypotheses explaining variation in elaborate male colouration across closely related species groups, ancestral-state reconstructions and tests of phylogenetic signal and correlated evolution were used to examine the evolution of male body and fin colouration in a group of sexually dichromatic stream fishes known as darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae). The presence or absence of red-orange and blue-green male colour traits were scored across six body regions in 99 darter species using a recently estimated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) phylogeny for comparative analyses. Ancestral-state reconstructions infer the most recent common ancestor of darters to lack red-orange colour and possess blue-green colour on different body regions, suggesting variation between species is due to independent gains of red-orange and losses of blue-green. Colour traits exhibit substantial phylogenetic signal and are highly correlated across body regions. Comparative analyses were repeated using an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, yielding similar results to analyses based on the AFLP phylogeny. Red-orange colouration in darters appears to be derived; whereas, blue-green appears to be ancestral, which suggests that different selection mechanisms may be acting on these two colour classes in darters. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D, which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%, who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood
Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484) and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50) and Gorilla (N = 47) skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.
Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.
Ito, T; Oti, T; Takanami, K; Satoh, K; Ueda, Y; Sakamoto, T; Sakamoto, H
Experimental animal study. Although a population of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has an important role in erection and ejaculation in rats, little information exists on this GRP system in primates. To identify the male-specific GRP system in the primate spinal cord, we studied the lumbosacral cord in macaque monkeys as a non-human primate model. University laboratory in Japan. To determine the gene sequence of GRP precursors, the rhesus macaque monkey genomic sequence data were searched, followed by phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, immunocytochemical analysis for GRP was performed in the monkey spinal cord. We have used bioinformatics to identify the ortholog gene for GRP precursor in macaque monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that primate prepro-GRP is separated from that of other mammalian species and clustered to an independent branch as primates. Immunocytochemistry for GRP further demonstrated that male-dominant sexual dimorphism was found in the spinal GRP system in monkeys as in rodents. We have demonstrated in macaque monkeys that the GRP system in the lower spinal cord shows male-specific dimorphism and may have an important role in penile functions not only in rodents but also in primates. Tissues of Nihonzaru (Japanese macaque monkeys) were provided in part by National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) through the National Bio-Resource Project (NBRP) of the MEXT, Japan. This work was supported in part by KAKENHI from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (to KT; 15KK0343, 15J40220 and HS; 15K15202, 15KK0257, 15H05724).Spinal Cord advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.105.
Fessler, Daniel M T
In contemporary foraging societies men typically hunt more than women. This observation has played an important role in many reconstructions of hominid evolution. The gender difference in human hunting, likely a product of both ecological and cultural factors, is mirrored by a similar sex difference among nonhuman primates. Existing explanations of such primate behavioral dimorphism are augmented by the recognition of an additional factor that may contribute to differences between males and females in the value of meat. Episodic female immunosuppression is a normal part of reproduction. Because meat is a source of pathogens, females can be expected to exhibit less constant attraction to meat. Sexual dimorphism in the attraction to meat may then contribute to dimorphic foraging specializations, a divergence that is likely augmented by the differential value of insectivory across the sexes. With the rise of cultural transmission of foraging knowledge, dimorphic foraging behaviors would have been reinforced, creating a more comprehensive gender-based division of labor.
Full Text Available Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.
Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C
Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR...... adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1...... and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10¿¿ to P = 1.8 × 10¿4°) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10¿³ to P = 1.2 × 10¿¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate...
Amores, Anabel; Botella, Miguel C; Alemán, Inmaculada
Sex determination is an important task in physical anthropology and forensic medicine. The study sample comprised 121 individuals of known sex, age, and cause of death from San Jose cemetery in Granada (Spain). Eight dimensions were analyzed, and discriminant function analysis was performed for each vertebra to obtain discriminating functions and study the percentage of correct assignations of these functions. The percentage accuracy was approximately 80% for both vertebrae, but varied according to the sex, being higher for the 7th cervical in males and higher for the 12th thoracic in females. As reported in other populations, the greatest dimorphism values were found for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body and the width and length of the vertebral foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra and for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil, were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.
Randall Joshua C; Winkler Thomas W; Kutalik Zoltán; Berndt Sonja I; Jackson Anne U; Monda Keri L; Kilpeläinen Tuomas O; Esko Tõnu; Mägi Reedik; Li Shengxu; Workalemahu Tsegaselassie; Feitosa Mary F; Croteau-Chonka Damien C; Day Felix R; Fall Tove
Author Summary Men and women differ substantially regarding height, weight, and body fat. Interestingly, previous work detecting genetic effects for waist-to-hip ratio, to assess body fat distribution, has found that many of these showed sex-differences. However, systematic searches for sex-differences in genetic effects have not yet been conducted. Therefore, we undertook a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic genetic effects for anthropometric traits including 133,723 individuals in a ...
Bugoni, Leandro; Griffiths, Kate; Furness, Robert W.
Abstract Skewed adult sex ratio (ASR) has been proposed as a common pattern in birds, frequently biased towards males and with larger biases in globally threatened species. In albatrosses and petrels, it has been suggested that differential mortality of one gender in fisheries is caused either by sexual size dimorphism giving males a competitive advantage, which allows more access of the larger sex (i.e. males) to discards and/or baits, or to at sea segregation of sexes. Here, we t...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most countries, men seem to be more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB than women, but only few studies have investigated the reasons of this gender incidence difference. The effect of sexual hormones on immunity is possible. METHODS: Data from children and adults, living in Tuscany, hospitalized for TB in all the thirty-one regional hospitals from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2011, were analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. RESULTS: During the study period, 10,744 patients were hospitalized with TB diagnosis, precisely 279 (2.6% children [0-14 years], 205 (1.9% adolescents [15-18 years] and 10,260 (95.5% adults [≥ 18 years]. The male population ranged from 249 patients (51.4% in children and adolescents, to 6,253 (60.9% in adults. Pulmonary TB was the most common form both in children and adults. Men were more likely than women to have pulmonary TB after puberty, while no significant differences were found between males and females in the hospitalized children. The male gender also resulted the most affected for the extra-pulmonary disease sites, excluding the lymphatic system, during the reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a possible role of sexual hormones in the development of TB. No significant male-female difference was found in TB incidence among children, while a sex ratio significantly different from 1:1 emerged among reproductive age classes. An increased incidence difference also persisted in older men, suggesting that male-biased risk factors could influence TB progression. Some limitations of the study are the sample size, the method of discharge diagnosis which could be deficient in accuracy in some cases, the increasing number of immigrants and the lack of possible individual risk factors (smoke and alcohol. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible hormone-driven immune mechanisms determining the sexual dimorphism in TB.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of unisexual flowers entails one of the most extreme changes in plant development. Cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L., is uniquely suited for the study of unisexual flower development as it is dioecious and it achieves unisexually by the absence of organ development, rather than by organ abortion or suppression. Male staminate flowers lack fourth whorl primordia and female pistillate flowers lack third whorl primordia. Based on theoretical considerations, early inflorescence or floral organ identity genes would likely be directly involved in sex-determination in those species in which organ initiation rather than organ maturation is regulated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism occurs through the regulation of B class floral organ gene expression by experimentally knocking down gene expression by viral induced gene silencing. Results Suppression of B class genes in spinach resulted in the expected homeotic transformation of stamens into carpels but also affected the number of perianth parts and the presence of fourth whorl. Phenotypically normal female flowers developed on SpPI-silenced male plants. Suppression of the spinach C class floral organ identity gene, SpAG, resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity, and indeterminate flowers, but did not result in additional sex-specific characteristics or structures. Analysis of the genomic sequences of both SpAP3 and SpPI did not reveal any allelic differences between males and females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in spinach is not the result of homeotic transformation of established organs, but rather is the result of differential initiation and development of the third and fourth whorl primordia. SpAG is inferred to have organ identity and meristem termination functions similar to other angiosperm C class genes. In contrast, while SpPI and SpAP3 resemble other angiosperms in their essential functions in establishing stamen
Background Evolution of unisexual flowers entails one of the most extreme changes in plant development. Cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L., is uniquely suited for the study of unisexual flower development as it is dioecious and it achieves unisexually by the absence of organ development, rather than by organ abortion or suppression. Male staminate flowers lack fourth whorl primordia and female pistillate flowers lack third whorl primordia. Based on theoretical considerations, early inflorescence or floral organ identity genes would likely be directly involved in sex-determination in those species in which organ initiation rather than organ maturation is regulated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism occurs through the regulation of B class floral organ gene expression by experimentally knocking down gene expression by viral induced gene silencing. Results Suppression of B class genes in spinach resulted in the expected homeotic transformation of stamens into carpels but also affected the number of perianth parts and the presence of fourth whorl. Phenotypically normal female flowers developed on SpPI-silenced male plants. Suppression of the spinach C class floral organ identity gene, SpAG, resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity, and indeterminate flowers, but did not result in additional sex-specific characteristics or structures. Analysis of the genomic sequences of both SpAP3 and SpPI did not reveal any allelic differences between males and females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in spinach is not the result of homeotic transformation of established organs, but rather is the result of differential initiation and development of the third and fourth whorl primordia. SpAG is inferred to have organ identity and meristem termination functions similar to other angiosperm C class genes. In contrast, while SpPI and SpAP3 resemble other angiosperms in their essential functions in establishing stamen identity, they also appear to have
Harrison, Paul J; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M
Sex differences in the genetic epidemiology and clinical features of psychiatric disorders are well recognized, but the individual genes contributing to these effects have rarely been identified. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which metabolizes catechol compounds, notably dopamine, is a leading candidate. COMT enzyme activity, and the neurochemistry and behavior of COMT null mice, are both markedly sexually dimorphic. Genetic associations between COMT and various psychiatric phenotypes frequently show differences between men and women. Many of these differences are unconfirmed or minor, but some appear to be of reasonable robustness and magnitude; eg the functional Val(158)Met polymorphism in COMT is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men, with anxiety phenotypes in women, and has a greater impact on cognitive function in boys than girls. Sex-specific effects of COMT are usually attributed to transcriptional regulation by estrogens; however, additional mechanisms are likely to be at least as important. Here we review the evidence for a sexually dimorphic influence of COMT upon psychiatric phenotypes, and discuss its potential basis. We conclude that despite the evidence being incomplete, and lacking a unifying explanation, there are accumulating and in places compelling data showing that COMT differentially impacts on brain function and dysfunction in men and women. Since sex differences in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits are the rule not the exception, we anticipate that additional evidence will emerge for sexual dimorphisms, not only in COMT but also in many other autosomal genes.
Testa, Nicholas D; Dworkin, Ian
Much of the morphological diversity in nature-including among sexes within a species-is a direct consequence of variation in size and shape. However, disentangling variation in sexual dimorphism for both shape (SShD), size (SSD), and their relationship with one another remains complex. Understanding how genetic variation influences both size and shape together, and how this in turn influences SSD and SShD, is challenging. In this study, we utilize Drosophila wing size and shape as a model system to investigate how mutations influence size and shape as modulated by sex. Previous work has demonstrated that mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling components can influence both wing size and shape. In this study, we re-analyze this data to specifically address how they impact the relationship between size and shape in a sex-specific manner, in turn altering the pattern of sexual dimorphism. While most mutations influence shape overall, only a subset have a genotypic specific effect that influences SShD. Furthermore, while we observe sex-specific patterns of allometric shape variation, the effects of most mutations on allometry tend to be small. We discuss this within the context of using mutational analysis to understand sexual size and shape dimorphism.
Estlander, S.; Kahilainen, K.K.; Horppila, J.; Olin, M.; Rask, M.; Kubečka, Jan; Peterka, Jiří; Říha, Milan; Huuskonen, H.; Nurminen, L.
Roč. 7, č. 2 (2017), s. 665-673 ISSN 2045-7758 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bergmann's rule * growth * perch * Rensch's rule * sexual maturity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016
Dimorfismo sexual de tamanho no fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Sexual size dimorphism in henna-capped foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae
Luciene P. Faria
Full Text Available O fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris é uma ave endêmica das matas ciliares da região do Cerrado, considerada rara a incomum e prioritária para pesquisa. A ausência de dimorfismo sexual aparente é o padrão disseminado entre os Furnariidae, no entanto, para algumas espécies da família foram encontradas diferenças morfométricas entre os sexos, sugerindo pressões evolutivas e exigências ecológicas distintas entre machos e fêmeas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de dimorfismo sexual de tamanho de uma população de H. rectirostris do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, sugerindo uma hipótese capaz de explicar a diferença observada entre os sexos. Para tanto foram tomadas sete medidas corporais de 21 indivíduos (13 machos e oito fêmeas capturados entre abril de 2004 a novembro de 2005 e sexados por meio de técnicas moleculares. Os machos apresentaram asa e cauda significativamente maiores do que as fêmeas (asa: U = 5,5, p = 0,0008; cauda: U = 8,0, p = 0,0014. Acredita-se que as diferenças estejam relacionadas à defesa territorial, tarefa executada quase que exclusivamente por machos, que mantêm territórios estabelecidos ao longo de todo ano mesmo na ausência de fêmeas. Rêmiges e retrizes mais longas incrementam a capacidade de vôo e devem favorecer os indivíduos com asas e caudas maiores durante a aquisição e defesa de territórios, processos essenciais à conquista de fêmeas e conseqüente sucesso reprodutivo.The henna-capped foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris is an endemic bird of the gallery forests of the Cerrado region of central South America. The species is considered rare to uncommon and a priority for research. The lack of apparent sexual dimorphism is the common pattern Furnariidae family. However, sexual size dimorphism was found for some species of this family, suggesting evolutionary pressures and distinct ecological requirements between males and females. The
Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56–0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3–5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes. PMID:28240232
Tam, Anthony; Bates, Jason H T; Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D
Female smokers have increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with male smokers who have a similar history of cigarette smoke exposure. We have shown previously that chronic smoke exposure for 6 months leads to increased airway wall remodeling in female C57BL/6 mice compared with male C57BL/6 mice. These differences, however, were not evident in female ovariectomized mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Herein, we report on the pulmonary function test results from the flexiVent system, which was used to determine the potential functional consequences of the histologic changes observed in these mice. We found that tissue damping (G) was increased in female compared to male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. At low oscillating frequencies, complex input resistance (Zrs) and impedance (Xrs) of the respiratory system was increased and decreased, respectively, in female but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. Quasistatic pressure-volume curves revealed a reduction in inspiratory capacity in female mice but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. The remaining lung function measurements including quasistatic compliance were similar amongst all groups. This is the first study characterizing a sexual dimorphism in respiratory functional properties in a mouse model of COPD. These findings demonstrate that increased airway remodeling in female mice following chronic smoke exposure is associated with increased tissue resistance in the peripheral airways. These data may explain the importance of female sex hormones and the increased risk of airway disease in female smokers.
Karp, Natasha A; Heller, Ruth; Yaacoby, Shay; White, Jacqueline K; Benjamini, Yoav
Biological research frequently involves the study of phenotyping data. Many of these studies focus on rare event categorical data, and functional genomics studies typically study the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype. With the growing interest in the role of sex, there is a need to assess the phenotype for sexual dimorphism. The identification of abnormal phenotypes for downstream research is challenged by the small sample size, the rare event nature, and the multiple testing problem, as many variables are monitored simultaneously. Here, we develop a statistical pipeline to assess statistical and biological significance while managing the multiple testing problem. We propose a two-step pipeline to initially assess for a treatment effect, in our case example genotype, and then test for an interaction with sex. We compare multiple statistical methods and use simulations to investigate the control of the type-one error rate and power. To maximize the power while addressing the multiple testing issue, we implement filters to remove data sets where the hypotheses to be tested cannot achieve significance. A motivating case study utilizing a large scale high-throughput mouse phenotyping data set from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, where the treatment is a gene ablation, demonstrates the benefits of the new pipeline on the downstream biological calls. Copyright © 2017 Karp et al.
Damian R Michael
Full Text Available Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1 geography (latitude, longitude and elevation, (2 climate (temperature and rainfall, (3 habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes, and (4 management (land use and grazing history. Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function.
Michael, Damian R; Banks, Sam C; Piggott, Maxine P; Cunningham, Ross B; Crane, Mason; MacGregor, Christopher; McBurney, Lachlan; Lindenmayer, David B
Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1) geography (latitude, longitude and elevation), (2) climate (temperature and rainfall), (3) habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes), and (4) management (land use and grazing history). Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function.
Merchenthaler, I; Lennard, D E; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A
The incidence of colocalization of galanin (GAL) in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons is 4- to 5-fold higher in female than male rats. This fact and the finding that the degree of colocalization parallels estradiol levels during the estrous cycle suggest that GAL is an estrogen-inducible product in a subset of LHRH neurons. To analyze further this paradigm we evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and steroid replacement therapy in male and female rats. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the number of cells colocalizing LHRH and GAL, whereas estradiol replacement to such animals restored the incidence of colocalization to that observed in controls. In males, however, estradiol treatment failed to enhance the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH, indicating, therefore, that the colocalization of these peptides is gender-determined. This possibility--i.e., gender-specific determination of LHRH neurons coexpressing GAL--was evaluated by neonatal manipulation of hypothalamic steroid imprinting. As mentioned above, male rats did not respond to estrogen or testosterone by increasing GAL/LHRH colocalization as females did. Neonatally orchidectomized rats, whose hypothalami have not been exposed to testosterone during the critical period, when treated with estrogen in adulthood showed an increase in colocalization of GAL and LHRH similar to that seen in female animals. These observations indicate that the colocalization of LHRH/GAL is neonatally determined by an epigenetic mechanism that involves the testis. In summary, this sex difference in the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH represents a unique aspect of sexual differentiation in that only certain phenotypic characteristics of a certain cellular lineage are dimorphic. The subpopulation of LHRH neurons that also produces GAL represents a portion of the LHRH neuronal system that is sexually differentiated and programed to integrate, under steroidal control, a network of
Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix; Jones, Owen
in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. 2. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size...
Dijkstra, Peter D.; Hekman, Renske; Schulz, Rudiger W.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
The nature of the costs maintaining honesty of sexual signalling in inter- and intrasexual interactions remains a contentious issue. For carotenoid-based colour ornaments, it has been hypothesized that the honesty of the signal is enforced when carotenoid allocation to colour expression is traded
de Francesco, Maria Carla; Loy, Anna
Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations. Landmark configurations were transformed, standardized and superimposed through a Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Size and shape differences between adult males and females were respectively evaluated through ANOVA on centroid size, Procrustes ANOVA on Procrustes distances, and MANOVA on Procrustes coordinates. Ontogenetic allometry was investigated by multivariate regression of shape coordinates on centroid size in the largest homogenous sample from the North Sea. Results evidenced sexual dimorphic asymmetric traits only detected in the adults of the North Sea bottlenose dolphins living in monospecific associations, with females bearing a marked incision of the cavity hosting the left tympanic bulla. These differences were related to a more refined echolocalization system that likely enhances the exploitation of local resources by philopatric females. Distinct shape in immature versus mature stages and asymmetric changes in postnatal allometry of dorsal and occipital traits, suggest that differences between males and females are established early during growth. Allometric growth trajectories differed between males and females for the ventral view of the skull. Allometric trajectories differed among projections of skull and mandible, and were related to dietary
Maria Carla de Francesco
Full Text Available Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations. Landmark configurations were transformed, standardized and superimposed through a Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Size and shape differences between adult males and females were respectively evaluated through ANOVA on centroid size, Procrustes ANOVA on Procrustes distances, and MANOVA on Procrustes coordinates. Ontogenetic allometry was investigated by multivariate regression of shape coordinates on centroid size in the largest homogenous sample from the North Sea. Results evidenced sexual dimorphic asymmetric traits only detected in the adults of the North Sea bottlenose dolphins living in monospecific associations, with females bearing a marked incision of the cavity hosting the left tympanic bulla. These differences were related to a more refined echolocalization system that likely enhances the exploitation of local resources by philopatric females. Distinct shape in immature versus mature stages and asymmetric changes in postnatal allometry of dorsal and occipital traits, suggest that differences between males and females are established early during growth. Allometric growth trajectories differed between males and females for the ventral view of the skull. Allometric trajectories differed among projections of skull and mandible, and were
Full Text Available Differential gene expression in two sexes is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, giving rise to sex-dimorphic gene activities and sex-dependent adaptability to environmental cues, diets, growth and development as well as susceptibility to diseases. Here, we present a study using a toxicogenomic approach to investigate metabolic genes that show sex-dimorphic expression in the zebrafish liver triggered by several chemicals. Our analysis revealed that, besides the known genes for xenobiotic metabolism, many functionally diverse metabolic genes, such as ELOVL fatty acid elongase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, were also sex-dimorphic in their response to chemical treatments. Moreover, sex-dimorphic responses were also observed at the pathway level. Pathways belonging to xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism were enriched with sex-dimorphically expressed genes. We also observed temporal differences of the sex-dimorphic responses, suggesting that both genes and pathways are differently correlated during different periods of chemical perturbation. The ubiquity of sex-dimorphic activities at different biological hierarchies indicate the importance and the need of considering the sex factor in many areas of biological researches, especially in toxicology and pathology.
Oda, Ryo; Shibata, Akinori; Kiyonari, Toko; Takeda, Mia; Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko
Sexual selection may affect human altruistic behaviour. Evolutionary psychology predicts that human mate preference reflects sexual selection. We investigated sex differences in preference for opposite-sex altruism according to recipient because the reasons for altruistic behaviour differ according to the relationship between actor and recipient. We employed the Self-Report Altruism Scale Distinguished by the Recipient, which was newly developed to evaluate altruism among Japanese undergraduates. We asked participants to evaluate preferences for each item based on the recipient of the altruistic behaviour (family members, friends or acquaintances, and strangers). Preference for opposite-sex altruism differed according to recipient, gender of the participant, and relationship type, and several significant interactions were observed among these factors. We suggest that whereas women use a potential partner's altruism towards strangers as a costly signal of their resource-holding potential when choosing a mate, they consider altruism towards family when they are in a long-term relationship to ensure that resources are not allocated to non-relatives. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Linda M Laatikainen
Full Text Available The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT enzyme metabolises catecholamines. COMT inhibitors are licensed for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease and are attractive therapeutic candidates for other neuropsychiatric conditions. COMT regulates dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC but plays a lesser role in the striatum. However, its significance in other brain regions is largely unknown, despite its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes hinting at more widespread effects. Here, we investigated the effect of acute systemic administration of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone on tissue levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA. We examined PFC, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum in the rat. We studied both males and females, given sexual dimorphisms in several aspects of COMT's function. Compared with vehicle, tolcapone significantly increased dopamine levels in the ventral hippocampus, but did not affect dopamine in other regions, nor noradrenaline in any region investigated. Tolcapone increased DOPAC and/or decreased HVA in all brain regions studied. Notably, several of the changes in DOPAC and HVA, particularly those in PFC, were more prominent in females than males. These data demonstrate that COMT alters ventral hippocampal dopamine levels, as well as regulating dopamine metabolism in all brain regions studied. They demonstrate that COMT is of significance beyond the PFC, consistent with its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes. Furthermore, they suggest that the impact of tolcapone may be greater in females than males, a finding which may be of clinical significance in terms of the efficacy and dosing of COMT inhibitors.
Laatikainen, Linda M.; Sharp, Trevor; Harrison, Paul J.; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme metabolises catecholamines. COMT inhibitors are licensed for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease and are attractive therapeutic candidates for other neuropsychiatric conditions. COMT regulates dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) but plays a lesser role in the striatum. However, its significance in other brain regions is largely unknown, despite its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes hinting at more widespread effects. Here, we investigated the effect of acute systemic administration of the brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor tolcapone on tissue levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). We examined PFC, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum in the rat. We studied both males and females, given sexual dimorphisms in several aspects of COMT's function. Compared with vehicle, tolcapone significantly increased dopamine levels in the ventral hippocampus, but did not affect dopamine in other regions, nor noradrenaline in any region investigated. Tolcapone increased DOPAC and/or decreased HVA in all brain regions studied. Notably, several of the changes in DOPAC and HVA, particularly those in PFC, were more prominent in females than males. These data demonstrate that COMT alters ventral hippocampal dopamine levels, as well as regulating dopamine metabolism in all brain regions studied. They demonstrate that COMT is of significance beyond the PFC, consistent with its links with a broad range of behavioural phenotypes. Furthermore, they suggest that the impact of tolcapone may be greater in females than males, a finding which may be of clinical significance in terms of the efficacy and dosing of COMT inhibitors. PMID:23613951
Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially
Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations
Guimarães, S W Ferreira; Lorenzo, C
The study of the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813, considered the first members of the genus Homo, has raised some debates. While some of researchers maintain that there is only one species, another group argues that there are two species. On one hand these two fossils are still taxonomically undetermined, on the other hand they bring up another problem related to the existence of a genus with multiple species since its beginning, according to the last discoveries. In this paper, we have compared the size ratio between these fossils with ratios established in populations of Homo sapiens, in order to know if they fit into the human standard, considering intra-sexual and inter-sexual variation. Results help to establish whether these fossils correspond to different species or their differences could be related to sexual dimorphism within a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Background Birds have a ZZ male: ZW female sex chromosome system and while the Z-linked DMRT1 gene is necessary for testis development, the exact mechanism of sex determination in birds remains unsolved. This is partly due to the poor annotation of the W chromosome, which is speculated to carry a female determinant. Few genes have been mapped to the W and little is known of their expression. Results We used RNA-seq to produce a comprehensive profile of gene expression in chicken blastoderms and embryonic gonads prior to sexual differentiation. We found robust sexually dimorphic gene expression in both tissues pre-dating gonadogenesis, including sex-linked and autosomal genes. This supports the hypothesis that sexual differentiation at the molecular level is at least partly cell autonomous in birds. Different sets of genes were sexually dimorphic in the two tissues, indicating that molecular sexual differentiation is tissue specific. Further analyses allowed the assembly of full-length transcripts for 26 W chromosome genes, providing a view of the W transcriptome in embryonic tissues. This is the first extensive analysis of W-linked genes and their expression profiles in early avian embryos. Conclusion Sexual differentiation at the molecular level is established in chicken early in embryogenesis, before gonadal sex differentiation. We find that the W chromosome is more transcriptionally active than previously thought, expand the number of known genes to 26 and present complete coding sequences for these W genes. This includes two novel W-linked sequences and three small RNAs reassigned to the W from the Un_Random chromosome. PMID:23531366
Poling, Matthew C; Luo, Elena Y; Kauffman, Alexander S
In rodents, the ovulation-inducing luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually dimorphic, occurring only in females, but the reasons for this sex difference are unclear. Two neuropeptides, kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3), are hypothesized to regulate the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/LH surge. In females, both of these systems show circadian changes coincident with the LH surge, but whether males show similar temporal changes under comparable hormonal conditions is unknown. Here, we evaluated circadian time (CT)-dependent changes in gene expression and neuronal activation of Kiss1 and Rfrp neurons of female and male mice given identical LH surge-inducing estrogen regimens. As expected, females, but not males, displayed a late afternoon LH surge and GnRH neuronal activation. Kiss1 expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) was temporally increased in females in the late afternoon, whereas males demonstrated no temporal changes in AVPV Kiss1 expression. Likewise, neuronal activation of AVPV Kiss1 neurons was dramatically elevated in the late afternoon in females but was low at all circadian times in males. Estrogen receptor α levels in AVPV Kiss1 neurons were sexually dimorphic, being higher in females than males. AVPV progesterone receptor levels were also higher in females than males. Hypothalamic Rfrp messenger RNA levels showed no CT-dependent changes in either sex. However, Rfrp neuronal activation was temporally diminished in the afternoon/evening in females but not males. Collectively, the identified sex differences in absolute and CT-dependent AVPV Kiss1 levels, AVPV sex steroid receptor levels, and circadian-timed changes in neuronal activation of both Kiss1 and Rfrp neurons suggest that multiple sexually dimorphic processes in the brain may underlie proper LH surge generation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
Full Text Available Purpose: expose the features of planning of training process of different age acrobats and line of business on the stage of the direct training to the competitions from position of sexual dimorphism. Research tasks was to define methods and criteria of account and control of the training loading in pair-group to acrobatics. Material: in a questionnaire took part 38 trainers of Ukraine on sporting acrobatics aged from 28 to 68 years. Results: it is set that in an incomplete measure registered trainers loading executed sportsmen. The insufficient disinformation of trainers is exposed about knowledge and necessity of account of gender distinctions. Also about the methods of realization of account of the specific loading. There is absence of model of account, planning and control of the trainings loadings taking into account the functional, age, sexual features of sportsmen depending on their line of business. Conclusions: findings testify to the necessity of perfection of existent method of planning of training process. It is necessary to probe the morphofunctional features of organism of sportsmen and sportswomen. Also - to take into account the features of sexual dimorphism depending on the specific of type of sport. It is necessary to develop the trainings programs from position of morphofunctional and adaptation distinctions of masculine and womanish organism.
Vinu, J; Rajeeshkumar, M P; Parmeswaran, U V; Sumod, K S; Akhilesh, K V; Manjebrayakath, H; Sanjeevan, V N
This paper redescribes sexually dimorphic Cruriraja andamanica based on five juvenile (four males, one female) and four adult specimens (three males, one female) collected from Andaman waters. Morphometric comparison of the present specimens with a female specimen collected off the coast of Tanzania reveals considerable dissimilarities between them. These findings, along with the wide geographical distance between collection locations, support a need for revision of the Tanzanian specimen, which, in all probability, represents a new species in the genus. The paper also addresses zoogeography of genus Cruriraja across the world's oceans and provides a revised key to the species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Lei, Yanbao; Chen, Ke; Jiang, Hao; Yu, Lei; Duan, Baoli
An interesting ecological and evolutionary puzzle arises from the observations of male-biased sex ratios in genus Populus, whereas in the taxonomically related Salix, females are generally more dominant. In the present study, we combined results from a field investigation into the sex ratios of the Salicaceous species along an altitudinal gradient on Gongga Mountain, and a pot experiment by monitoring growth and energy utilization properties to elucidate the mechanisms governing sexual dimorphism. At middle altitudes 2000 and 2300 m, the sex ratios were consistent with a 1:1 equilibrium in sympatric Populus purdomii and Salix magnifica. However, at the lower and higher ends of the altitudinal gradient, skewed sex ratios were observed. For example, the male:female ratios were 1.33 and 2.36 in P. purdomii at 1700 and 2600 m respectively; for S. magnifica the ratio was 0.62 at 2600 m. At 2300 m, the pot-grown seedlings of both species exhibited the highest biomass accumulation and total leaf area, simultaneously with the balanced sex ratios in the field. At 3300 m, the specific leaf area in male P. purdomii was 23.9% higher than that of females, which may be the morphological cause for the observed 19.3% higher nitrogen allocation to Rubisco, and 20.6% lower allocation to cell walls. As such, male P. purdomii showed a 32.9% higher foliar photosynthetic capacity, concomitant with a 12.0% lower construction cost. These properties resulted in higher photosynthetic nitrogen- and energy-use efficiencies, and shorter payback time (24.4 vs 40.1 days), the time span that a leaf must photosynthesize to amortize the carbon investment. Our results thus suggested that male P. purdomii evolved a quicker energy-return strategy. Consequently, these superior energy gain-cost related traits and the higher total leaf area contributed to the higher growth rate and tolerance in stress-prone environments, which might, in part, shed new light on the male-biased sex ratios in
Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI at 7-Tesla system was acquired with a high spatial resolution from fixed brains of male and female ferrets at postnatal days (PDs 4 to 90, and their age-related sexual difference and laterality were evaluated by MRI-based ex vivo volumetry. The volume of both left and right sides of cerebellar cortex was larger in males than in females on PD 10 and thereafter. When the cerebellar cortex was divided into four transverse domains, i.e., anterior zone (AZ; lobules I–V, central zone (CZ; lobules VI and VII, posterior zone (PZ; lobules VIII–IXa, and nodular zone (NZ; lobules IXb and X, an age-related significantly greater volume in males than in females was detected on either side of all four domains on PD 42 and of the AZ on PD 90, but only on the left side of the PZ on PD 90. Regarding the volume laterality, significant leftward asymmetry was obtained in the CZ and PZ volumes in males, but not in females on PD 90. From asymmetry quotient (AQ analysis, AQ scores were rightward in the AZ in both sexes already on PD 21, but gradually left-lateralized only in males in the CZ, PZ, and NZ during PDs 42 to 90. The present study suggests that a characteristic counterclockwise torque asymmetry (rostrally right-biased, and caudally left-biased or symmetrical is acquired in both sexes of ferrets during PDs 42 to 90, although the leftward laterality of the posterior half of the cerebellum was more enhanced in males.
Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Stechschulte, Lance A; Czernik, Piotr J; Sherman, Shermel B; Huang, Shilong; Krings, Amrei
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is unique with respect to origin, metabolism, and function. MAT is characterized with high heterogeneity which correlates with skeletal location and bone metabolism. This fat depot is also highly sensitive to various hormonal, environmental, and pharmacologic cues to which it responds with changes in volume and/or metabolic phenotype. We have demonstrated previously that MAT has characteristics of both white (WAT) and brown (BAT)-like or beige adipose tissue, and that beige phenotype is attenuated with aging and in diabetes. Here, we extended our analysis by comparing MAT phenotype in different locations within a tibia bone of mature C57BL/6 mice and with respect to the presence of sex steroids in males and females. We report that MAT juxtaposed to trabecular bone of proximal tibia (pMAT) is characterized by elevated expression of beige fat markers including Ucp1, HoxC9, Prdm16, Tbx1, and Dio2, when compared with MAT located in distal tibia (dMAT). There is also a difference in tissue organization with adipocytes in proximal tibia being dispersed between trabeculae, while adipocytes in distal tibia being densely packed. Higher trabecular bone mass (BV/TV) in males correlates with lower pMAT volume and higher expression of beige markers in the same location, when compared with females. However, there is no sexual divergence in the volume and transcriptional profile of dMAT. A removal of ovaries in females resulted in decreased cortical bone mass and increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, as well as volume of gonadal WAT (gWAT). Increase in pMAT volume was associated with marked increase in Fabp4 and Adiponectin expression and relative decrease in beige fat gene markers. A removal of testes in males resulted in cortical and trabecular bone loss and the tendency to increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, despite a loss of gWAT. Orchiectomy did not affect the expression of white and beige adipocyte gene markers. In conclusion, expression
Full Text Available Marrow adipose tissue (MAT is unique with respect to origin, metabolism, and function. MAT is characterized with high heterogeneity which correlates with skeletal location and bone metabolism. This fat depot is also highly sensitive to various hormonal, environmental, and pharmacologic cues to which it responds with changes in volume and/or metabolic phenotype. We have demonstrated previously that MAT has characteristics of both white (WAT and brown (BAT-like or beige adipose tissue, and that beige phenotype is attenuated with aging and in diabetes. Here, we extended our analysis by comparing MAT phenotype in different locations within a tibia bone of mature C57BL/6 mice and with respect to the presence of sex steroids in males and females. We report that MAT juxtaposed to trabecular bone of proximal tibia (pMAT is characterized by elevated expression of beige fat markers including Ucp1, HoxC9, Prdm16, Tbx1, and Dio2, when compared with MAT located in distal tibia (dMAT. There is also a difference in tissue organization with adipocytes in proximal tibia being dispersed between trabeculae, while adipocytes in distal tibia being densely packed. Higher trabecular bone mass (BV/TV in males correlates with lower pMAT volume and higher expression of beige markers in the same location, when compared with females. However, there is no sexual divergence in the volume and transcriptional profile of dMAT. A removal of ovaries in females resulted in decreased cortical bone mass and increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, as well as volume of gonadal WAT (gWAT. Increase in pMAT volume was associated with marked increase in Fabp4 and Adiponectin expression and relative decrease in beige fat gene markers. A removal of testes in males resulted in cortical and trabecular bone loss and the tendency to increased volume of both pMAT and dMAT, despite a loss of gWAT. Orchiectomy did not affect the expression of white and beige adipocyte gene markers. In conclusion
Accession numbers for microarray datasets used in Oshida et al. Chemical and Hormonal Effects on STAT5b-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 9;11(3):e0150284. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Oshida, K., D. Waxman, and C. Corton. Chemical and Hormonal Effects on STAT5b-Dependent Sexual Dimorphism of the Liver Transcriptome.. PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science, San Francisco, CA, USA, 11(3): NA, (2016).
A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : firstname.lastname@example.org | T&eacu...
Examination of thionin-stained sections through the hypothalamus of the rhesus monkey revealed nuclei that resemble the first, second and third interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH1-3) of the human. Volumetric analysis of these nuclei in a small sample of monkeys suggests that the nucleus that resembles INAH3 is larger in males than in females. INAH1-3 have each been reported to be larger in men than in women and each has been considered as a potential candidate for homology with the much-studied sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of the rat. Positional and cytoarchitectonic criteria suggest that of these nuclei, INAH3 and its potential counterpart in the rhesus monkey are the best candidates for homology with the SDN-POA. While the criteria employed in the present study may be used to suggest homologies, they are not adequate to confirm them. Confirmation of the homologies suggested here must rely on other considerations such as connectivity, neurotransmitter and peptide content, and function. It is hoped that the present report will stimulate interest in further examinations of the rhesus hypothalamus that will test both the suggested homologies and the evidence for sexual dimorphism. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
Joshua C Randall
Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.
Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.
Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : email@example.com | Tél: 022 766 37 38
bone of the human mandible. Arch Oral Biol 43(8): 633-639. Humphray LT, Dean MC and Stringer CB 1999 Morphological variations in great ape and modern human mandible. J Anat 195( 4): 491-. 513. Iscan MY and Steyn M 1999 Craniometric determination of population. afﬁnity in South Africans. Int J Legal Med 112(2): ...
Arambula, Sheryl E; Fuchs, Joelle; Cao, Jinyan; Patisaul, Heather B
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: BPA (2.5, 25, or 2500μg/kgbw/day), a reference estrogen (0.5μg ethinylestradiol (EE2)/kgbw/day), or vehicle. Exposure occurred by gavage to the dam from gestational day 6 until parturition, and then to the offspring from birth through weaning. Unbiased stereology was used to quantify the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN), the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), the posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD), and the locus coeruleus (LC) at postnatal day 28. No appreciable effects of BPA were observed on the volume of the SDN or LC. However, AVPV volume was enlarged in both sexes, even at levels below the FDA NOAEL. Collectively, these data suggest the developing brain is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by BPA at exposure levels below previous estimates by regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dimorfismo sexual de Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae en el sur del Estado de México, México Sexual dimorphism of Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata: Teiidae in the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico
Full Text Available El dimorfismo sexual es una característica extendida en lacertilios y se relaciona con la adecuación de los individuos. En este estudio se analizó si Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata presenta dimorfismo sexual al sur del Estado de México, México, especialmente en relación a su forma corporal altamente conservada dentro de la familia Teiidae. La población estudiada habita a 1500 msnm. Se utilizaron individuos adultos que fueron capturados y liberados durante estudios ecológicos. Para cada individuo se registró la longitud hocico-cloaca, el peso corporal, largo de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, alto de la cabeza, longitud del fémur y distancia interaxilar. Los análisis realizados indicaron que los machos fueron más grandes en longitud hocico-cloaca y peso; además presentaron dimensiones más grandes en cabeza y fémur que hembras de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. La distancia interaxilar fue mayor en hembras que en machos de la misma longitud hocico-cloaca. El dimorfismo sexual de A. costata costata puede explicarse por selección sexual y selección por fecundidad.Sexual dimorphism is a widespread characteristic in lizards, and it has been related to the individual fitness. Sexual dimorphism was investigated in Aspidoscelis costata costata (Squamata to the south of the State of Mexico, Mexico, relating to its body proportions highly similar within the Teiidae. Study area was located at 1500 m. Adult individuals from mark-recapture study were used. Morphometric characteristics were measured in individuals of A. costata costata: snout-vent length, mass, head length, head width, head height, femur length and interlimb length. Males were larger than females for SVL and mass. At the same body, males had longer heads and femur and shorter interlimb length than did conspecific females. The sexual dimorphism of A. costata costata can be explained by selection sexual selection and fecundity selection.
Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.
This article describes Behavioral Risk Management (BRM), a community-based, wrap-around model, that incorporates both internal and external management strategies to meet the unique needs of adolescent and adult males with developmental disabilities who exhibit inappropriate or offensive sexual behaviors. Key components of BRM are discussed, along…
Full Text Available We investigated a causal chain of relationships between habitat specialization and parasite species richness in rodent communities in Southeast Asia, and the consequences for variation in immune investment (using spleen size, the degree of sexual competition (using testes and sexual size dimorphism (SSD. We used data gathered on rodents, their habitat specialization and their parasites (macro- and micro-parasites in Southeast Asian landscapes. The results supported the hypotheses that parasite diversity drives the evolution of host life-traits and sexual selection. Firstly host habitat specialization explained the variation in parasite species richness. Secondly high parasite species richness was linked to host immune investment, using the relative spleen size of rodents. Thirdly according to the potential costs associated with immune investment, the relative spleen size was found to be negatively correlated with the relative size of testes among rodents. Fourthly, a positive relationship between male-biased SSD and parasite species richness was observed supporting the role of parasitism in sexual selection. Finally, the variation in SSD was positively associated with the degree of habitat specialization. Highest values of female-biased SSD were associated with habitat specialization, whereas highest values of male-biased SSD concerned synanthropic or generalist rodent species. These results, also correlative, will help to facilitate selection of the species that should be thoroughly investigated at the population level to better understand the selective effects of parasites on rodent life-history and behavior.
Full Text Available Many hepatic functions including lipid metabolism, drug metabolism, and inflammatory responses are regulated in a sex-specific manner due to distinct patterns of hepatic gene expression between males and females. Regulation for the majority of these genes is under control of Nuclear Receptors (NRs. Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXRα is an obligate partner for multiple NRs and considered a master regulator of hepatic gene expression, yet the full extent of RXRα chromatin binding in male and female livers is unclear. ChIP-Seq analysis of RXRα and RNA Polymerase2 (Pol2 binding was performed livers of both genders and combined with microarray analysis. Mice were gavage-fed with the RXR ligand LG268 for 5 days (30 mg/kg/day and RXRα-binding and RNA levels were determined by ChIP-qPCR and qPCR, respectively. ChIP-Seq revealed 47,845 (male and 46,877 (female RXRα binding sites (BS, associated with ∼12,700 unique genes in livers of both genders, with 91% shared between sexes. RXRα-binding showed significant enrichment for 2227 and 1498 unique genes in male and female livers, respectively. Correlating RXRα binding strength with Pol2-binding revealed 44 genes being male-dominant and 43 female-dominant, many previously unknown to be sexually-dimorphic. Surprisingly, genes fundamental to lipid metabolism, including Scd1, Fasn, Elovl6, and Pnpla3-implicated in Fatty Liver Disease pathogenesis, were predominant in females. RXRα activation using LG268 confirmed RXRα-binding was 2-3 fold increased in female livers at multiple newly identified RXRα BS including for Pnpla3 and Elovl6, with corresponding ∼10-fold and ∼2-fold increases in Pnpla3 and Elovl6 RNA respectively in LG268-treated female livers, supporting a role for RXRα regulation of sexually-dimorphic responses for these genes. RXRα appears to be one of the most widely distributed transcriptional regulators in mouse liver and is engaged in determining sexually-dimorphic expression of key
Winneke, Gerhard; Ranft, Ulrich; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Fürst, Peter; Krämer, Ursula; Seitner, Gabriele; Wilhelm, Michael
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been characterized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Within the Duisburg birth cohort study, we studied associations of prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs with parent-reported sexually dimorphic behavior in children. We measured lipid-based and WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents established in 2005 by the World Health Organization)-standardized PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples and in early breast milk using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. At the child's age of 6-8 years, parents (mostly mothers) reported sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI), which was used to derive feminine, masculine, and difference (feminine - masculine) scores. We estimated exposure-outcome associations using multivariate linear regression. A total of 91-109 children were included in this follow-up. Mean blood levels of summed WHO2005-TEQ-standardized dioxins (ΣPCDD/Fs) were 14.5 ± 6.4 pg/g blood lipids, and ΣPCBs were 6.9 ± 3.8 pg/g blood lipids, with similar values for milk lipids. Regression analyses revealed some highly significant interactions between sex and exposure-such as for ΣPCBs in milk, pronounced positive (boys: β = 3.24; CI = 1.35, 5.14) or negative (girls: β = -3.59; CI = -1.10, -6.08) associations with reported femininity. Less pronounced and mostly insignificant but consistent associations were found for the masculinity score, positive for boys and negative for girls. Given our results and the findings of previous studies, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence that these EDCs modify behavioral sexual dimorphism in children, presumably by interacting with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Winneke G, Ranft U, Wittsiepe J, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Fürst P, Krämer U, Seitner G, Wilhelm M. 2014. Behavioral
Glenda E. Gillies
Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems, which are critical regulators of normal adaptive behaviours, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. Specifically, using a rodent model of GC exposure in late gestation (approximating human brain development at late second/early third trimester, we demonstrated enduring effects on the shape and volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc (origins of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways on the topographical organisation and size of the dopaminergic neuronal populations and astrocytes within these nuclei and on target innervation density and neurochemical markers of dopaminergic transmission (receptors, transporters, basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release at striatal and prefrontal cortical sites that impact on the adult brain. The effects of antenatal GC treatment (AGT were both profound and sexually-dimorphic, not only in terms of quantitative change but also qualitatively, with several parameters affected in the opposite direction in males and females. Although such substantial neurobiological changes might presage marked
-voltage relations elicited in CHO cells transfected with KCNQ1 and KCNE3 or KCNE1 cDNA. E2 (100 nM) reduced the currents mediated by the KCNQ1:KCNE3 potassium channel and had no effect on currents via KCNQ1:KCNE1 or KCNQ1 alone. Currents mediated by the complex formed by KCNQ1 and the mutant KCNE3-S82A beta-subunit (mutation of the site for PKCdelta-promoted phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of KCNE3) showed rapid run-down and insensitivity to E2. Together, these data suggest that oestrogen regulates the expression of the KCNE1 and KCNE3 and with it the gating and pharmacological properties of the K(+) conductance required for Cl(-) secretion. The decreased association of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel complex promoted by oestrogen exposure underlies the molecular mechanism for the sexual dimorphism and oestrous cycle dependence of the anti-secretory actions of oestrogen in the intestine.
Alzamora, Rodrigo; O'Mahony, Fiona; Bustos, Viviana; Rapetti-Mauss, Raphael; Urbach, Valérie; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Harvey, Brian J
elicited in CHO cells transfected with KCNQ1 and KCNE3 or KCNE1 cDNA. E2 (100 nm) reduced the currents mediated by the KCNQ1:KCNE3 potassium channel and had no effect on currents via KCNQ1:KCNE1 or KCNQ1 alone. Currents mediated by the complex formed by KCNQ1 and the mutant KCNE3-S82A β-subunit (mutation of the site for PKCδ-promoted phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of KCNE3) showed rapid run-down and insensitivity to E2. Together, these data suggest that oestrogen regulates the expression of the KCNE1 and KCNE3 and with it the gating and pharmacological properties of the K+ conductance required for Cl− secretion. The decreased association of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel complex promoted by oestrogen exposure underlies the molecular mechanism for the sexual dimorphism and oestrous cycle dependence of the anti-secretory actions of oestrogen in the intestine. PMID:21911611
Inês M. C. G. Pardo
gestational age, birth weight, birth height, and ponderal index, suggesting its participation in the neonatal growth process. In addition, a gender difference with higher levels of leptin in females neonates was observed, suggesting that the sexual dimorphism in relation to body composition already exists in newborns.
Full Text Available Farzaneh Farhadi,1 Kia Vosoughi,1 Gholam Ali Shahidi,2 Ahmad Delbari,3,4 Johan Lökk,3,5 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad3,6,7 1Medical Student Research Committee, 2Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Firoozgar Clinical Research Development Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Introduction: Sex-related differences in clinical manifestations and consequences of Parkinson’s disease (PD have been poorly explored. Better understanding of sexual dimorphism in neurologic diseases such as PD has been announced as a research priority. The aim of our study was to determine independent sex differences in clinical manifestations and subtypes, psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QoL and its domains between male and female individuals with PD.Patients and methods: A comprehensive list of demographics, motor symptoms and subtypes, nonmotor features, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, psychosocial functioning and general aspects of daily life was assessed in 157 individuals (108 males and 49 females with idiopathic PD. In order to control for potential confounding variables, we applied Orthogonal Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA to explore the strength of each feature to discriminate male and female patients with PD.Results: While no sex difference was found in the total Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS score and cumulative daily dose of levodopa, females had significantly more severe
Anand D. Padhye
Full Text Available Raorchestes tuberohumerus (Kuramoto & Joshy, 2003 was described based on three male specimens and was diagnosed mainly based on the presence of tubercle on the humerus. Here we describe the genetically confirmed female of the species and show that tubercle on the humeral bone is a sexually dimorphic character present only in males. Further, based on current collection and literature review we studied the distribution of the species using niche based modelling. Using the distributional range and our observations on the threats to the habitat we propose that Raorchestes tuberohumerus, currently assessed as Data Deficient, can fall under the ‘Vulnerable’ category of IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Mathews, Kristina Wehr; Cavegn, Margrith; Zwicky, Monica
Drosophila females are larger than males. In this article, we describe how X-chromosome dosage drives sexual dimorphism of body size through two means: first, through unbalanced expression of a key X-linked growth-regulating gene, and second, through female-specific activation of the sex-determination pathway. X-chromosome dosage determines phenotypic sex by regulating the genes of the sex-determining pathway. In the presence of two sets of X-chromosome signal elements (XSEs), Sex-lethal (Sxl) is activated in female (XX) but not male (XY) animals. Sxl activates transformer (tra), a gene that encodes a splicing factor essential for female-specific development. It has previously been shown that null mutations in the tra gene result in only a partial reduction of body size of XX animals, which shows that other factors must contribute to size determination. We tested whether X dosage directly affects animal size by analyzing males with duplications of X-chromosomal segments. Upon tiling across the X chromosome, we found four duplications that increase male size by >9%. Within these, we identified several genes that promote growth as a result of duplication. Only one of these, Myc, was found not to be dosage compensated. Together, our results indicate that both Myc dosage and tra expression play crucial roles in determining sex-specific size in Drosophila larvae and adult tissue. Since Myc also acts as an XSE that contributes to tra activation in early development, a double dose of Myc in females serves at least twice in development to promote sexual size dimorphism. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Kubička, Lukáš; Starostová, Zuzana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Changes in the effect of gonadal androgens on male growth are considered as a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates, particularly squamate reptiles. Positive effects of gonadal androgens on male growth were found in several male-larger species of lizards. Contrastingly, we document that in the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) gonadal androgens do not affect male growth under constant thermal conditions. However, the absence of a thermal gradient might prevent the potential indirect effect of gonadal androgens on growth via the influence of circulating hormones on an individual's thermoregulation and hence metabolic rate. In order to study this, we monitored the growth and body temperature of socially isolated sham-operated and castrated males of the same species in a thermal gradient. We also compared the oxygen consumption and activity between the treatment groups in the open field to test the effect of gonadal hormones on these traits potentially affecting growth. Even under a thermal gradient we found no effect of gonadal androgens on growth rate or final body dimensions. Castration also did not significantly affect oxygen consumption or activity in the open field test. Together with our previous findings, we can exclude both the direct effect of male gonadal androgens on the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism via the influence on the growth axis, and the indirect influence of gonadal androgens acting on the ontogeny of SSD through the effect on thermoregulation, metabolic rate and activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.
Pérez-Camacho, L; García-Salgado, G; Rebollo, S; Martínez-Hesterkamp, S; Fernández-Pereira, J M
Reversed sexual dimorphism (RSD), which occurs when the female of a species is larger than the male, is the rule for most birds of prey but the exception among other bird and mammal species. The selective pressures that favour RSD are an intriguing issue in animal ecology. Despite the large number of hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of RSD, there is still no consensus about the mechanisms involved and whether they act on one or both sexes, mainly because few intrapopulation studies have been undertaken and few raptor species have been investigated. Using the strongly size-dimorphic northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis L.) as a model, we studied a population with one of the highest densities of breeding pairs reported in the literature in order to understand selective pressures that may favour RSD. We evaluated life-history processes, including recruitment of adult breeders and reproductive success, and we explored the mechanisms thought to act on each sex, including hunting efficiency, diet, body condition and mate choice. We found that smaller males produced more fledglings than larger ones, but there was no relationship between size and reproductive success for females. The mean body size of female breeders was larger than that of female fledglings, but male fledglings and breeders did not differ in size. Male body size was related to the type but not to the amount of prey captured during the nestling stage. We conclude that RSD may be favoured in this goshawk population because small males tend to enjoy higher reproductive success and large females greater recruitment. Our results do not support the hypotheses that evolutionary reduction in male size is driven by hunting efficiency, at least during the nestling stage, or the hypotheses that it is driven by greater recruitment. Our findings also suggest that increase in female size is driven by recruitment, rather than by reproductive success as previously postulated.
Full Text Available The major determinants of the variability in pubertal maturation are reported to be genetic and inherited. Nonetheless, nutritional status contributes significantly to this variability. Malnutrition delays puberty whereas obesity has been associated to a rise in Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty (ICPP in girls. However, epidemiology data indicate that contribution of obesity to early puberty varies significantly among ethnic groups, and that obesity-independent inheritable genetic factors are the strongest predictors of early puberty in any ethnic group. In fact, the two human mutations with confirmed association to ICPP reported to date were identified in children with no history of obesity. These mutations are in kisspeptin and kisspeptin receptor, a ligand/ receptor pair with a major role on the onset of puberty and female cyclicity after puberty. Hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin is reported to be sexually dimorphic in many species, which include humans. The hypothalamus of females is programmed to express significantly higher levels of kisspeptin than their male counterparts; and progressive increases in kisspeptin expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate reproductive function have been associated to the onset of puberty. Interestingly, the incidence of ICPP and delayed puberty in children is markedly sexually dimorphic, such that ICPP is at least 10-fold more frequent in girls, whereas prevalence of delayed puberty is about 5-fold higher in boys. These observations are consistent with a possible involvement of sexually dimorphic kisspeptin signaling in the sexual dimorphism of pubertal disorders in children of all ethnicities. This review discusses the likelihood of such associations, as well as a potential role of kisspeptin as the converging target of environmental, metabolic and hormonal signals that are integrated in order to optimize reproductive function.
A potential mechanism for the sexual dimorphism in the onset of puberty and incidence of idiopathic central precocious puberty in children: sex-specific kisspeptin as an integrator of puberty signals.
Bianco, Suzy D C
The major determinants of the variability in pubertal maturation are reported to be genetic and inherited. Nonetheless, nutritional status contributes significantly to this variability. Malnutrition delays puberty whereas obesity has been associated to a rise in Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty (ICPP) in girls. However, epidemiology data indicate that contribution of obesity to early puberty varies significantly among ethnic groups, and that obesity-independent inheritable genetic factors are the strongest predictors of early puberty in any ethnic group. In fact, two human mutations with confirmed association to ICPP have been identified in children with no history of obesity. These mutations are in kisspeptin and kisspeptin receptor, a ligand/receptor pair with a major role on the onset of puberty and female cyclicity after puberty. Progressive increases in kisspeptin expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate reproductive function has been associated to the onset of puberty, and hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin is reported to be sexually dimorphic in many species, which include humans. The hypothalamus of females is programmed to express significantly higher levels of kisspeptin than their male counterparts. Interestingly, incidence of ICPP and delayed puberty in children is markedly sexually dimorphic, such that ICPP is at least 10-fold more frequent in females, whereas prevalence of delayed puberty is about 5-fold higher in males. These observations are consistent with a possible involvement of sexually dimorphic kisspeptin signaling in the sexual dimorphism of normal puberty and of pubertal disorders in children of all ethnicities. This review discusses the likelihood of such associations, as well as a potential role of kisspeptin as the converging target of environmental, metabolic, and hormonal signals, which would be integrated in order to optimize reproductive function.
Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC surface-spreading technique was used to visualize the process of chromosome synapsis in spermatocytes and oocytes of E. talpinus Pallas, 1770, a species with the XX sex chromosome system in both males and females. We used electron microscopy and immunofluorescent localization of synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3 and centromeric proteins to analyze the structure and behaviour of synaptonemal complexes in prophase I of meiosis, aiming to reveal signs of meiotic sexual dimorphism in this species. We present evidence of considerable differences in the structure and behaviour of the axial structures of sex bivalents in male and female meiosis, despite the isomorphic G- and C-banding patterns of mitotic sex chromosomes. During meiotic prophase I, the sex bivalent in females behaved as autosomal bivalents, but it was not involved in the formation of the bouquet configuration or it was the first to leave it. The XX chromosomes of males formed closed sex bivalents. Only short tracts of SC were formed at both ends of the sex bivalent, while large middle segments of the lateral elements remained unpaired. The male sex chromosomes also formed characteristic “sex bodies”. In fact, electron microscopy revealed dense nucleolus-like bodies associated with unpaired parts of the axial elements. These regions of the sex chromosomes were poorly immunostained, because the distribution of SCP3 had a peculiar powder-like pattern, but SCP3 was not associated with the nucleolus-like bodies. We also revealed signs of sexual dimorphism in the dynamics of formation and destruction of autosomal SCs. In males, the total SC length was shorter than in females. The chromosome bouquet configuration was preserved up to the stage of early pachytene in females. The bouquet configuration in males was not expressed. At late pachytene, gaps were revealed in the structure of autosomal SCs in spermatocytes immunostained with antibodies to SCP3. The
Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva
Full Text Available In this paper we review functional and evolutionary relationships among mating systems of caridean shrimp and specific traits such as general biology/ecology, sexual systems, behavior and morphology. Four mating systems are described based on reports from available literature, and a fifth system is recognized but published information is insufficient to describe it in detail. `Monogamy' occurs in many species inhabiting monopolizable refuges or hosts, especially when environmental conditions restrict the probability of intraspecific interactions. In contrast, free-living species experience higher encounter rates and males can dominate or search. In `neighborhoods of dominance' mating systems, large males have higher reproductive success since they perform better in fights for receptive females. In `pure searching' mating systems, small and agile males do better because they search more efficiently for mates within the population. The fourth mating system is `search & attend' occurring in solitary symbionts, which experience variable ecological and demographic environments: depending on environmental conditions and ontogenetic stages it may either be profitable for males to search or to attend hosts with sexually attractive females. Sexual systems of caridean shrimp are characterized by their high diversity and intraspecific plasticity, including gonochorism and different forms of protandric or simultaneous hermaphroditism. The identified mating systems partially explained this diversity: In monogamous species, low encounter rates and lack of sexual dimorphism favors simultaneous hermaphroditism but gonochory usually occurs among these species probably because mates are not strictly faithful. Species with neighborhoods of dominance mating are gonochoristic because both sexes benefit from being large. Pure searching species have a wide opportunity for the evolution of protandry since small males benefit while the opposite is true for females. In
Denmark hosted a number of exhibitions of “exotic” people between the 1880s and the 1910s, in which people of colour were exhibited as mass entertainment in amusement parks and zoological gardens. This article illustrates how the categories of race, gender, and sexuality were co-constructed in th......Denmark hosted a number of exhibitions of “exotic” people between the 1880s and the 1910s, in which people of colour were exhibited as mass entertainment in amusement parks and zoological gardens. This article illustrates how the categories of race, gender, and sexuality were co......-constructed in the representations of these exhibitions; it reveals how not only the women but also the men on display were sexualized and constructed as erotic figures. The exhibitions played a role in maintaining contemporary scientific racial hierarchies, but simultaneously they challenged those same hierarchies...
Leopoldino Capelozza Filho
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo avaliou a hipótese de variação das características cefalométricas de acordo com o gênero para portadores de Padrão Face Longa. METODOLOGIA: foi analisado um total de 73 telerradiografias em norma lateral, sendo 34 Padrão Face Longa e 39 Padrão I (grupo controle, selecionadas com base na morfologia facial, sem considerar as relações oclusais. Foram avaliados: padrão de crescimento facial, alturas faciais anteriores e posterior, relação maxilomandibular, além das relações dentárias com suas bases apicais. RESULTADOS: o grupo controle (Padrão I apresentou dimorfismo (p0,05, exceto os comprimentos efetivos da maxila e da mandíbula, além da altura facial anterior inferior e posterior (pAIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different cephalometric characteristics between genders with Long Face Pattern. METHODS: a total of 73 lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated, with 34 Long Face Pattern and 39 Class I Pattern (control subjects, sampled with basis on the facial morphology, regardless the sagital occlusal relationships. Facial growth pattern, anterior and posterior facial heights, inter-jaw relationship and dentoskeletal relationship were evaluated. RESULTS: It was observed sexual dimorphism in Class I Pattern subjects (p0.05, except the effective length of maxilla and mandible, lower anterior and posterior facial heights (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that sexual dimorphism was evident in Class I Pattern subjects due to the skeletal size differences. However, in Long Face Pattern subjects, similarity was observed between genders, showing that the skeletal deformity was more severe in female subjects, enough to achieve skeletal size comparable to those of male subjects.
Anderson, D K; Rhees, R W; Fleming, D E
The present study was designed to determine the effects of prenatal malnutrition or environmental stress on the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Pregnant rats were divided into a control group and two treatment groups (immobilization-illumination-heat or environmental stress, and nutritional stress). The two forms of stress were administered during the third trimester of gestation (days 14-20). Male and female offspring were sacrificed at birth, 20, and 60 days postnatally. The cross-sectional area of the SDN-POA was identified under light microscopy and was measured. The data confirm previous studies by showing a significant sex difference in the SDN-POA between control male and female rats. Prenatally stressed males sacrificed 20 and 60 days after birth showed SDN-POA areas 50% smaller than the nuclear areas of control males. The size of the SDN-POA of female offspring, however, was not significantly altered by prenatal treatments.
Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W; Mountain, Jenny A; Mackey, David A
Twin studies are extremely useful for investigating hypotheses of genetic influence on a range of behavioral and physical traits in humans. Studies of physical traits, however, are usually limited to size-related biological characteristics because it is inherently difficult to quantify the morphological counterpart - shape. In recent years, the development of geometry-preserving analytical techniques built upon multivariate statistical methodologies has produced a new discipline in biological shape analysis known as geometric morphometrics. In this study of hand shape analysis, we introduce the reader already familiar with the field of twin research to the potential utility of geometric morphometrics and demonstrate the cross-discipline applicability of methods. We also investigate and compare the efficacy of the 2D:4D ratio, a commonly used marker of sexual dimorphism, to the fully multivariate approach of shape analysis in discriminating between male and female sex. Studies of biological shape variation utilizing geometric morphometric techniques may be completed with software freely available on the Internet and time invested to master the small learning curve in concepts and theory.
Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Yang; Gui, Jian-Fang
Dead end (dnd), vertebrate-specific germ cell marker, had been demonstrated to be essential for primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival, and the link between PGC number and sex change had been revealed in some teleost species, but little is known about dnd in hermaphroditic vertebrates. In the present study, a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) dnd homologue (Ecdnd) was identified and characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis revealed a dynamic and sexually dimorphic expression pattern in PGCs and germ cells of gonads. During sex changing, the Ecdnd transcript sharply increased in early transitional gonad, reached the highest level at late transitional gonad stage, and decreased after testis maturation. Visualization of zebrafish PGCs by injecting with RFP-Ecdnd-3'UTR RNA and GFP-zfnanos3-3'UTR RNA confirmed importance of Ecdnd 3'UTR for the PGC distribution. In addition, knockdown of EcDnd by using antisense morpholinos (MO) caused the ablation of PGCs in orange-spotted grouper. Therefore, the current data indicate that Ecdnd is essential for PGCs survival and may serve as a useful germ cell marker during gametogenesis in hermaphroditic grouper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Gibson, Charlisa D; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Astbury, Nerys M; Geliebter, Allan
Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Estill, Charles T; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Montilla, Hernán J
The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) is 2 times larger in rams than in ewes. Sexual differentiation of the oSDN is produced by testosterone exposure during the critical period occurring between gestational day (GD)60 and GD90 (term, 147 d). We tested the hypothesis that testosterone acts through the androgen receptor to control development of the male-typical oSDN. In experiment 1, pregnant ewes received injections of vehicle, androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, or nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) propionate during the critical period. Fetuses were delivered at GD135. Both antagonist and agonist treatments significantly reduced mean oSDN volume in males but had no effects in females. Experiment 2, we analyzed the effect of treatments on the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to determine whether compensatory changes in hormone secretion occurred that could explain the effect of DHT. Pregnant ewes were injected with vehicle, flutamide, or DHT propionate from GD60 to GD84, and fetuses were delivered on GD85. Flutamide significantly increased LH and testosterone in males, whereas DHT significantly decreased both hormones. In females, LH was unaffected by flutamide but significantly reduced by DHT exposure. DHT significantly decreased pituitary gonadotropin and hypothalamic kisspeptin mRNA expression in males and females. These results suggest that androgen receptor mediates the effect of testosterone on oSDN masculinization, because this process was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in eugonadal males. In contrast, the reduction of oSDN volume observed after DHT exposure appears to be mediated by a negative feedback mechanism exerted on the hypothalamus to reduce LH and testosterone secretion. The reduced androgen exposure most likely accounted for the decreased oSDN volume. We conclude that, during the critical period, the male reproductive axis in long gestation species, such as sheep, is sufficiently developed
Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Bernard, Gary D; Lampel, Jochen; Briscoe, Adriana D
Although previous investigations have shown that wing coloration is an important component of social signaling in butterflies, the contribution of opsin evolution to sexual wing color dichromatism and interspecific divergence remains largely unexplored. Here we report that the butterfly Lycaena rubidus has evolved sexually dimorphic eyes due to changes in the regulation of opsin expression patterns to match the contrasting life histories of males and females. The L. rubidus eye contains four visual pigments with peak sensitivities in the ultraviolet (UV; lambdamax=360 nm), blue (B; lambdamax=437 nm and 500 nm, respectively) and long (LW; lambdamax=568 nm) wavelength range. By combining in situ hybridization of cloned opsin-encoding cDNAs with epi-microspectrophotometry, we found that all four opsin mRNAs and visual pigments are expressed in the eyes in a sex-specific manner. The male dorsal eye, which contains only UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, indeed expresses two short wavelength opsin mRNAs, UVRh and BRh1. The female dorsal eye, which also has the UV and B (lambdamax=437 nm) visual pigments, also contains the LW visual pigment, and likewise expresses UVRh, BRh1 and LWRh mRNAs. Unexpectedly, in the female dorsal eye, we also found BRh1 co-expressed with LWRh in the R3-8 photoreceptor cells. The ventral eye of both sexes, on the other hand, contains all four visual pigments and expresses all four opsin mRNAs in a non-overlapping fashion. Surprisingly, we found that the 500 nm visual pigment is encoded by a duplicate blue opsin gene, BRh2. Further, using molecular phylogenetic methods we trace this novel blue opsin gene to a duplication event at the base of the Polyommatine+Thecline+Lycaenine radiation. The blue opsin gene duplication may help explain the blueness of blue lycaenid butterflies.
Sexual dimorphism of sonic apparatus and extreme intersexual variation of sounds in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae: first evidence of a tight relationship between morphology and sound characteristics in Ophidiidae
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Ophidiidae are active in dark environments and display complex sonic apparatus morphologies. However, sound recordings are scarce and little is known about acoustic communication in this family. This paper focuses on Ophidion rochei which is known to display an important sexual dimorphism in swimbladder and anterior skeleton. The aims of this study were to compare the sound producing morphology, and the resulting sounds in juveniles, females and males of O. rochei. Results Males, females, and juveniles possessed different morphotypes. Females and juveniles contrasted with males because they possessed dramatic differences in morphology of their sonic muscles, swimbladder, supraoccipital crest, and first vertebrae and associated ribs. Further, they lacked the ‘rocker bone’ typically found in males. Sounds from each morphotype were highly divergent. Males generally produced non harmonic, multiple-pulsed sounds that lasted for several seconds (3.5 ± 1.3 s with a pulse period of ca. 100 ms. Juvenile and female sounds were recorded for the first time in ophidiids. Female sounds were harmonic, had shorter pulse period (±3.7 ms, and never exceeded a few dozen milliseconds (18 ± 11 ms. Moreover, unlike male sounds, female sounds did not have alternating long and short pulse periods. Juvenile sounds were weaker but appear to be similar to female sounds. Conclusions Although it is not possible to distinguish externally male from female in O. rochei, they show a sonic apparatus and sounds that are dramatically different. This difference is likely due to their nocturnal habits that may have favored the evolution of internal secondary sexual characters that help to distinguish males from females and that could facilitate mate choice by females. Moreover, the comparison of different morphotypes in this study shows that these morphological differences result from a peramorphosis that takes place during the development of
Sexual dimorphism in the mandible of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 (Dasypodidae from northern Patagonia, Argentina Dimorfismo sexual da mandíbula do tatu Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 (Dasypodidae do norte da Patagônia Argentina
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the sexual dimorphism in adult Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Eight mandibular traits were measured in 37 males and 34 females. Univariate and multivariate morphometric analysis were applied to the data set. Results showed that C. villosus was sexually dimorphic, with higher absolute values corresponding to females. The total length of the mandible was the most important variable to discriminate sexes, followed by the height at the level of the last tooth and body length. The percentages of sex discrimination were high, as they were when a new sample (17 males, 13 females was tested. Females have larger mandibles than males independently of their larger cranial size. They also showed a higher degree of correlation between variables, suggesting a more stable shape for the mandible than in males.O presente estudo examinou o dimorfismo sexual dos adultos de Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 do norte da Patagônia Argentina. Oito parâmetros mandibulares foram medidos em 37 machos e 34 fêmeas. Análises morfométricas univariada e multivariada foram aplicadas à série de dados. Os resultados mostraram que C. villosus apresenta dimorfismo sexual, com todos os valores absolutos mais elevados nas fêmeas. O comprimento total da mandíbula foi a variável mais importante para discriminar os sexos, seguidos pela altura no nível dos últimos dentes e pelo comprimento do corpo da mandíbula. As porcentagens de discriminação dos sexos foram elevadas, quando uma amostra nova (17 machos, 13 fêmeas foi testada. As fêmeas têm as mandíbulas maiores que os machos, independentemente de seu tamanho cranial maior. Mostraram também um grau mais elevado de correlação entre variáveis, sugerindo uma forma mais estável para a mandíbula que nos machos.
EL DIMORFISMO SEXUAL EN GUANACOS (LAMA GUANICOE. UNA EVALUACIÓN OSTEOMÉTRICA DE ELEMENTOS POSCRANEALES / Sexual dimorphism in guanacos (Lama guanicoe. An osteometric evaluation of postcranial elements
Cristian Ariel Kaufmann
Full Text Available En poblaciones vivas, los camélidos silvestres sudamericanos son sexados a partir de la observación de su conducta social y reproductiva. Por lo general, tanto biólogos como arqueólogos asumen la ausencia de caracteres morfológicos que evidencien un dimorfismo sexual marcado entre individuos adultos de guanaco (Lama guanicoe. Los principales estudios que evalúan las diferencias osteológicas entre machos y hembras en esta especie están basados en análisis de variables morfométricas craneanas y en caracteres morfológicos de la pelvis. En este trabajo se evalúa la existencia y magnitud de variables osteométricas poscraneales de diferenciación sexual en una población moderna de guanacos procedente de la localidad Cinco Chañares, Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Se estudiaron 32 individuos (8 machos y 24 hembras de más de 30 meses en los que se midieron 51 hemipelvis, 40 húmeros, 39 radioulnas, 40 fémures y 41 tibias. Los resultados mostraron que las principales diferencias osteológicas, vinculadas con el dimorfismo sexual, se relacionan con variaciones en el tamaño y la forma de la pelvis. En los huesos largos, las diferencias osteométricas significativas se registraron sólo en variables aisladas y no se pudieron definir diferencias osteométricas asociadas con el dimorfismo sexual. Igualmente se considera que esto deberá ser reevaluado con mayor profundidad considerando una muestra mayor de individuos machos.Palabras clave: guanaco, dimorfismo sexual, morfometría, pelvis, huesos largosAbstractIn wild-living populations adult camelids are mainly sexed by observing their social and reproductive behavior, and on occasion, their genitalia. Both biologists and archaeologists usually assume the absence of clearly identifiable sexually dimorphic somatic and postcranial traits among adult guanaco (Lama guanicoe specimens. The principal studies that evaluate the osteological differences between sexes in this species, had been
Sagrillo, C A; Selmanoff, M
Using quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH), we determined the effect of castration on single cell levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in discrete hypothalamic regions of the male rat brain associated with the control of gonadotropin secretion. A 48-base oligodeoxynucleotide probe was used to detect with equal affinity the two isoforms of GAD message, GAD65 and GAD67. GAD message also was quantitated in a number of selected areas of the brain to contrast GAD gene expression amongst several populations of GABAergic neurons. Comparison of 11 brain regions demonstrated a 9.3-fold range in the quantity of single cell GAD mRNA with levels being highest in the amygdala and the diagonal band of Broca, moderate in the piriform cortex, caudate nucleus, substantia innominata, globus pallidus, cingulate cortex and medial septal nucleus, and lowest in the lateral septal nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). Castration markedly reduced single cell GAD mRNA levels in the DBB and the MPN, two discrete hypothalamic structures known to contain dendritic fields, cell bodies, and axons of GnRH neurons projecting to the median eminence. A striking finding was a dense core of steroid-sensitive GABAergic neurons within the MPN comprising the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Similar to the MPN as a whole, the amount of GAD mRNA expressed by cells in the SDN-POA of sham operated control rats was greater than in castrated animals. GAD mRNA levels were inversely related to serum LH titers, suggesting a role for these neurons in the mechanism controlling gonadal steroid negative feedback on LH secretion. This report provides the basis for future work to determine if GAD65, GAD67 or whether both isoforms are affected by gonadal steroid input.
Lund, T D; Rhees, R W; Setchell, K D; Lephart, E D
Naturally occurring estrogen-like molecules in plants (phytoestrogens), present via soy, in animal diets can alter morphology and physiology in rodents. Phytoestrogens have the ability to bind estrogen receptors and exert many of the biological responses evoked by physiological estrogens. This study characterized the effects of dietary phytoestrogens on the expression of body and prostate weight, circulating testosterone and estradiol levels, puberty onset, vaginal cyclicity, and volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in Long-Evans rats. Using different experimental protocols, animals were fed either a phytoestrogen-rich (Phyto-600) or a phytoestrogen-free (Phyto-free) diet. Animals fed the Phyto-600 diet displayed significantly decreased body weights (in males and females), prostate weights and delayed puberty in females compared to that of animals fed the Phyto-free diet. Circulating testosterone or estradiol levels in males or estrous cyclicity were not altered by the diets. The volume of the SDN-POA was significantly altered by a change in diet at 80 days of age where one-half of the males or females fed the Phyto-600 diet (from birth) were switched to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days of age. Males initially fed a Phyto-600 diet but changed to a Phyto-free diet had significantly smaller SDN-POA volumes compared to males fed the Phyto-600 diet (long-term). These data suggest that consumption of phytoestrogens via a soy diet, significantly: (1) decreases body and prostate weight, (2) delays puberty onset, and (3) alters SDN-POA volumes during adulthood.
Full Text Available Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has revealed abnormalities in brain volumes, cortical thickness and white matter microstructure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD; however, no study has reported all three measures within the same cohort to assess the relative magnitude of deficits, and few studies have examined sex differences. Participants with FASD (n = 70; 30 females; 5–32 years and healthy controls (n = 74; 35 females; 5–32 years underwent cognitive testing and MRI to assess cortical thickness, regional brain volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA/mean diffusivity (MD of white matter tracts. A significant effect of group, age-by-group, or sex-by-group was found for 9/9 volumes, 7/39 cortical thickness regions, 3/9 white matter tracts, and 9/10 cognitive tests, indicating group differences that in some cases differ by age or sex. Volume reductions for several structures were larger in males than females, despite similar deficits of cognition in both sexes. Correlations between brain structure and cognitive scores were found in females of both groups, but were notably absent in males. Correlations within a given MRI modality (e.g. total brain volume and caudate volume were prevalent in both the control and FASD groups, and were more numerous than correlations between measurement types (e.g. volumes and diffusion tensor imaging in either cohort. This multi-modal MRI study finds widespread differences of brain structure in participants with prenatal alcohol exposure, and to a greater extent in males than females which may suggest attenuation of the expected process of sexual dimorphism of brain structure during typical development.
Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Giménez-Llort, L; Fernández-Teruel, A
Alzheimer disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and cause of senile dementia. It is characterized by an accelerated memory loss, and alterations of mood, reason, judgment and language. The main neuropathological hallmarks of the disorder are β-amyloid (βA) plaques and neurofibrillary Tau tangles. The triple transgenic 3xTgAD mouse model develops βA and Tau pathologies in a progressive manner which mimicks the pattern that takes place in the human brain with AD, and showing cognitive alterations characteristic of the disease. The present study intended to examine whether 3xTgAD mice of both sexes present cognitive, emotional and other behavioral alterations at the early age of 4 months, an age in which only some intraneuronal amyloid accumulation is found. Neonatal handling (H) is an early-life treatment known to produce profound and long-lasting behavioral and neurobiological effects in rodents, as well as improvements in cognitive functions. Therefore, we also aimed at evaluating the effects of H on the behavioral/cognitive profile of 4-month-old male and female 3xTgAD mice. The results indicate that, (1) 3xTgAD mice present spatial learning/memory deficits and emotional alterations already at the early age of 4 months, (2) there exists sexual dimorphism effects on several behavioral variables at this age, (3) neonatal handling exerts a preventive effect on some cognitive (spatial learning) and emotional alterations appearing in 3xTgAD mice already at early ages, and 4) H treatment appears to produce stronger positive effects in females than in males in several spatial learning measures and in the open field test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Myatt, Leslie; Maloyan, Alina
The incidence of maternal obesity and its co-morbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease) continues to increase at an alarming rate, with major public health implications. In utero exposure to maternal obesity has been associated with development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the offspring as a result of developmental programming. The placenta regulates maternal-fetal metabolism and shows significant changes in its function with maternal obesity. Autophagy is a cell-survival process, which is responsible for the degradation of damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. Here we show an activation of autophagosomal formation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion in placentas of males but not females from overweight (OW) and obese (OB) women vs. normal weight (NW) women. However, total autophagic activity in these placentas appeared to be decreased as it showed an increase in SQSTM1/p62 and a decrease in lysosomal biogenesis. A mouse model with a targeted deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in placental tissue showed significant placental abnormalities comparable to those seen in human placenta with maternal obesity. These included a decrease in expression of mitochondrial genes and antioxidants, and decreased lysosomal biogenesis. Strikingly, the knockout mice were developmentally programmed as they showed an increased sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased adiposity, and cardiac remodeling. In summary, our results indicate a sexual dimorphism in placental autophagy in response to maternal obesity. We also show that autophagy plays an important role in placental function and that inhibition of placental autophagy programs the offspring to obesity, and to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
Claudio J. Bidau
Full Text Available El dimorfismo sexual de tamaño (SSD por sus siglas en inglés es un fenómeno ampliamente distribuido en los animales y sin embargo, enigmático en cuanto a sus causas últimas y próximas y a las relaciones alométricas entre el SSD y el tamaño corporal (regla de Rensch. Analizamos el SSD a niveles intra- e interes - pecíficos en un número de especies y géneros representativos de los órdenes or - topteroides mayores: Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Mantodea, Blattodea, Dermaptera, Isoptera, y Mantophasmatodea. La vasta mayoría de las especies mostraron SSD sesgado hacia las hembras, pero numerosas excepciones ocurren en cucarachas y dermápteros. La regla de Rensch y su inversa no constituyeron patrones comunes, tanto a nivel intraespecífico como interespecífico, con la mayoría de las especies y géneros mostrando una relación isométrica entre los tamaños de macho y hembra. En algunos casos, los patrones alométricos hallados podrían relacionarse con la va - riación geográfica del tamaño corporal. También demostramos que no todos los es - timadores de tamaño corporal producen el mismo grado de SSD y que el dimorfismo puede estar influenciado por un gran número de condiciones de vida y patrones de desarrollo ninfal. Finalmente, discutimos nuestros resultados en relación a modelos actuales de la evolución del dimorfismo sexual de tamaño en animales.
Vedder, O; Dekker, AL; Visser, GH; Dijkstra, C
Allocation of parental investment is predicted to be equal at the population level between both sexes of offspring, and should lead to sex ratio biases in species that exhibit a sex-difference in parental care. Sex-differences in parental care are rarely quantified. We measured daily energy
Quinn, Thomas P.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.
Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.
Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver
The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect...... to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E...... area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact...
Perinatal testosterone exposure is critical for the development of the male-specific sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that mediates erection and ejaculation.
Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Katayama, Nao; Edey, Tomoca; Satoh, Keita; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka
In rats, a sexually dimorphic spinal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord projects to spinal centers that control erection and ejaculation. This system controls the sexual function of adult males in an androgen-dependent manner. In the present study, we assessed the influence of androgen exposure on the spinal GRP system during a critical period of the development of sexual dimorphism. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine if the development of the spinal GRP system is regulated by the perinatal androgen surge. We first analyzed the responses of neonates administered with anti-androgen flutamide. To remove endogenous androgens, rats were castrated at birth. Further, neonatal females were administered androgens during a critical period to evaluate the development of the male-specific spinal GRP system. Treatment of neonates with flutamide on postnatal days 0 and 1 attenuated the spinal GRP system during adulthood. Castrating male rats at birth resulted in a decrease in the number of GRP neurons and the intensity of neuronal GRP in the spinal cord during adulthood despite testosterone supplementation during puberty. This effect was prevented if the rats were treated with testosterone propionate immediately after castration. Moreover, treating female rats with androgens on the day of birth and the next day, masculinized the spinal GRP system during adulthood, which resembled the masculinized phenotype of adult males and induced a hypermasculine appearance. The perinatal androgen surge plays a key role in masculinization of the spinal GRP system that controls male sexual behavior. Further, the present study provides potentially new approaches to treat sexual disorders of males.
Mitchell Murray D
Full Text Available Abstract The detrimental effects of maternal under-nutrition during gestation on fetal development are well known with an increased propensity of metabolic disorders identified in the adult offspring. Understanding exactly how and by which molecular pathways inadequate nutrition can impact upon offspring phenotype is critical and necessary for the development of treatment methods and ultimately prevention of any negative health effects. Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle development, has recently been shown to effect glucose homeostasis and fat deposition. The involvement of myostatin in glucose metabolism and adipogenesis thus supports its ability to act in the continued alterations to the postnatal phenotype of the offspring. This hypothesis was examined in the current study using a trans-generational gestationally under-nourished rat model exposed to a high-fat (HF diet post-weaning. The body weight, body fat, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of the offspring, both male and female, were investigated in relation to the protein expression of myostatin and its main inhibitor; follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3, in skeletal muscle of mature offspring. Sexual dimorphism was clearly evident in the majority of these measures, including myostatin and FSTL-3 expression. Generally males displayed higher (P myostatin precursor and dimer expression than females, which was especially apparent (P in both chow and HF trans-generationally undernourished (UNAD groups. In females only, myostatin precursor and dimer expression was altered by both trans-generational under-nutrition and postnatal diet. Overall FSTL-3 expression did not differ between sexes, although difference between sexes within certain treatments and diets were evident. Most notably, HF fed UNAD females had higher (P FSTL-3 expression than HF fed UNAD males. The former group also displayed higher (P FSTL-3 expression compared to all other female groups. In summary, myostatin may prove
A comparison, later on in this paper, to other studies gives good agreement between predictions under .... The advantage in herd efficiency due to sexual dimorphism, in comparison to monomorphism, is given in ... growth hormone into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs by. Palmiter et ai. (1982). An important feature of ...
Bill shape and size are often viewed as species-specific adaptations for feeding, but they sometimes vary between sexes, suggesting that sexual selection or inter-sexual competition may also be important. Hypotheses to explain sexual bill size dimorphism in birds avian bill size...
Mueller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Dijkstra, Cor
Biased mortality of the larger sex during the early developmental period has been reported for a number of size-dimorphic bird species. This can partly be explained by the fact that growing to larger size renders the larger sex more vulnerable to food shortage. However, since sibling rivalry is
Claude Moreteau, Helene Legout and Brigitte Moreteau. J. Genet. 90, 295–302. Table 1. Correlations between wing and thorax length at the within (n = 420) and between line level (n = 30). Temperature. Within line. Between line. ◦. C. Female.
Yuwanati, Madhavi; Karia, Ashok; Yuwanati, Monal
Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine's measurements. 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies. The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students "t" test (paired). It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population.
Sexual dimorphism in size is common in birds. Males are usually larger than females, although in some taxa reversed size dimorphism (RSD) predominates. Whilst direct dimorphism is attributed to sexual selection in males giving greater reproductive access to females, the evolutionary causes of RSD are still unclear. Four different hypotheses could explain the evolution of RSD in monogamous birds: (1) The ‘energy storing’ hypothesis suggests that larger females could accumulate more reserves at...
Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas
Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background A paucity of information on biological sex-specific differences in cardiac gene expression in response to diet has prompted this present nutrigenomics investigation. Sexual dimorphism exists in the physiological and transcriptional response to diet, particularly in response to high-fat feeding. Consumption of Trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to substantially increased risk of heart disease, in which sexual dimorphism is apparent, with males suffering a higher disease rate. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has been noted in animals exposed to Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) during the neonatal period, and sexual dimorphism in the growth axis of MSG-treated animals has previously been noted. Processed foods may contain both TFA and MSG. Methods We examined physiological differences and changes in gene expression in response to TFA and/or MSG consumption compared to a control diet, in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Results Heart and % body weight increases were greater in TFA-fed mice, who also exhibited dyslipidemia (P < 0.05). Hearts from MSG-fed females weighed less than males (P < 0.05). 2-factor ANOVA indicated that the TFA diet induced over twice as many cardiac differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in males compared to females (P < 0.001); and 4 times as many male DEGs were downregulated including Gata4, Mef2d and Srebf2. Enrichment of functional Gene Ontology (GO) categories were related to transcription, phosphorylation and anatomic structure (P < 0.01). A number of genes were upregulated in males and downregulated in females, including pro-apoptotic histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2). Sexual dimorphism was also observed in cardiac transcription from MSG-fed animals, with both sexes upregulating approximately 100 DEGs exhibiting sex-specific differences in GO categories. A comparison of cardiac gene expression between all diet combinations together identified a subset of 111 DEGs significant only in males, 64 DEGs significant in females only
Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Maqbool, Zakia; Saleh, Soad M; Inglis, Angela; Makhoul, Nadine J; Bakheet, Razan; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A
A paucity of information on biological sex-specific differences in cardiac gene expression in response to diet has prompted this present nutrigenomics investigation. Sexual dimorphism exists in the physiological and transcriptional response to diet, particularly in response to high-fat feeding. Consumption of Trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to substantially increased risk of heart disease, in which sexual dimorphism is apparent, with males suffering a higher disease rate. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has been noted in animals exposed to Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) during the neonatal period, and sexual dimorphism in the growth axis of MSG-treated animals has previously been noted. Processed foods may contain both TFA and MSG. We examined physiological differences and changes in gene expression in response to TFA and/or MSG consumption compared to a control diet, in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Heart and % body weight increases were greater in TFA-fed mice, who also exhibited dyslipidemia (P < 0.05). Hearts from MSG-fed females weighed less than males (P < 0.05). 2-factor ANOVA indicated that the TFA diet induced over twice as many cardiac differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in males compared to females (P < 0.001); and 4 times as many male DEGs were downregulated including Gata4, Mef2d and Srebf2. Enrichment of functional Gene Ontology (GO) categories were related to transcription, phosphorylation and anatomic structure (P < 0.01). A number of genes were upregulated in males and downregulated in females, including pro-apoptotic histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2). Sexual dimorphism was also observed in cardiac transcription from MSG-fed animals, with both sexes upregulating approximately 100 DEGs exhibiting sex-specific differences in GO categories. A comparison of cardiac gene expression between all diet combinations together identified a subset of 111 DEGs significant only in males, 64 DEGs significant in females only, and 74 transcripts
Identification of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that controls male reproductive function in the mouse and Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).
Tamura, Kei; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Hirooka, Asuka; Takanami, Keiko; Oti, Takumi; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka
Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model. Mice are also used for a representative model of small laboratory animals. We first isolated complementary DNA encoding GRP in suncus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that suncus preproGRP was clustered to an independent branch. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that GRP and its receptor mRNAs were both expressed in the lumbar spinal cord of suncus and mice. Immunohistochemistry for GRP demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic GRP system and male-specific expression/distribution patterns of GRP in the lumbosacral spinal cord in suncus are similar to those of mice. In suncus, we further found that most GRP-expressing neurons in males also express androgen receptors, suggesting that this male-dominant system in suncus is also androgen-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP system exists not only in mice but also in suncus, suggesting that this system is a conserved property in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1586-1598, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Villarroel, Claudio; Salinas, Abril; López, Patricia; Kohen, Paulina; Rencoret, Gustavo; Devoto, Luigi; Codner, Ethel
Higher androgen levels are observed in non-pregnant women with diabetes. Whether this hormonal profile is found during pregnancy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual steroids levels in pregnant women with pregestational type 2 (T2D) and gestational diabetes (GD) compared to healthy control (C) pregnant women during the second half of pregnancy. A prospective study of 69 pregnant women with T2D (n = 21), GD (n = 24) and control (C, n = 24) was followed up during the second half of gestation. Clinical assessments and blood samples were collected at 26.7 (25-27.8); 34 (32-34.9) and 37.5 (37-40) weeks of gestation. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estrogens, estradiol/testosterone (E/T) ratio, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, were measured. Testosterone, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were higher in T2D compared with C at each sampling point during pregnancy, even after adjusting for BMI and age. Estrogens levels and estradiol/testosterone ratio were lower in T2D and GD compared with C. Hyperandrogenemia, and higher insulin resistance is observed in T2D, but not in GD during pregnancy. Decreased estrogen and E/T ratio found in T2D and GD suggests a diminished aromatase activity during gestation. T2D and GD are associated with specific changes in sexual steroids and insulin resistance levels during pregnancy.
Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil Hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae em restinga reflorestada no nordeste do Brasil
Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.O hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto forrageador ativo Cnemidophorus ocellifer foram analisados em um habitat de restinga reflorestada, situado no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinados 75 espécimes de C. ocellifer, sendo 46 machos e 29 f
Morfometría y dimorfismo sexual de Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann (Orthoptera: Tristiridae en dos eventos de irrupción poblacional Morphometry and sexual dimorphism of Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann (Orthoptera: Tristiridae in two population outbreaks
both sexes (male: 0.28; female: 0.29. The morphometric comparisons from different outbreaks showed 10 significant differences in males and eight significant differences in females. Besides body size (e.g., total length, the sexual dimorphism showed up in 12 morphometric comparisons. In all of them, the difference was favorable to the female. The highest indices of morphometric variable / were dry weight (2.83, total length (1.56, mesonotal width (1.55, and pronotal length (1.52; all of them related to body size. The condition index was higher in the female (beta1: 1.42 as compared to that of the male (beta1: 1.25. Although this difference was not statistically significant, a higher value would suggest a better fitness of the female. This fact might explain the ability of this species to demographically outburst in the Chilean semidesert, once the right environmental conditions have been triggered.
This presentation provides an overview of research on the effects of hormonally active chemicals on sexual differentiation of the brain including (a) research on the role of androgens and estrogens in the development of the brain and peripheral nervous system, (b) approaches to d...
Dimorfismo sexual en el acebo, Ilex aquifolium: ¿coste de la reproducción, selección sexual o diferenciación fisiológica? Sexual dimorphism in holly Ilex aquifolium: cost of reproduction, sexual selection or phys