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  1. Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.

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    Liu, Bo; Gulati, Ajay S; Cantillana, Viviana; Henry, Stanley C; Schmidt, Elyse A; Daniell, Xiaoju; Grossniklaus, Emily; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A

    2013-10-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome processing, cell motility, and autophagy. However, despite its association with CD, the role of IRGM and other IRGs in regulating intestinal inflammation is unclear. We investigated the involvement of Irgm1, an ortholog of IRGM, in the genesis of murine intestinal inflammation. After dextran sodium sulfate exposure, Irgm1-deficient [Irgm1 knockout (KO)] mice showed increased acute inflammation in the colon and ileum, with worsened clinical responses. Marked alterations of Paneth cell location and granule morphology were present in Irgm1 KO mice, even without dextran sodium sulfate exposure, and were associated with impaired mitophagy and autophagy in Irgm1 KO intestinal cells (including Paneth cells). This was manifested by frequent tubular and swollen mitochondria and increased LC3-positive autophagic structures. Interestingly, these LC3-positive structures often contained Paneth cell granules. These results suggest that Irgm1 modulates acute inflammatory responses in the mouse intestine, putatively through the regulation of gut autophagic processes, that may be pivotal for proper Paneth cell functioning.

  2. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

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    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair. PMID:25257519

  3. Increased susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease is associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling and elevated BCAA levels.

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    Ruiz, Henry H; Chi, Tiffany; Shin, Andrew C; Lindtner, Claudia; Hsieh, Wilson; Ehrlich, Michelle; Gandy, Sam; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between diabetes and dementia. Insulin signaling within the brain, in particular within the hypothalamus regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in peripheral organs such as the liver and adipose tissue. We hypothesized that cerebral amyloidosis impairs central nervous system control of metabolism through disruption of insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, which dysregulates glucose and BCAA homeostasis resulting in increased susceptibility to diabetes. We examined whether APP/PS1 mice exhibit increased susceptibility to aging or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic impairment using metabolic phenotyping and insulin-signaling studies. APP/PS1 mice were more susceptible to high-fat feeding and aging-induced metabolic dysregulation including disrupted BCAA homeostasis and exhibited impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling. Our data suggest that AD pathology increases susceptibility to diabetes due to impaired hypothalamic insulin signaling, and that plasma BCAA levels could serve as a biomarker of hypothalamic insulin action in patients with AD. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

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    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  5. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

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    Sun Mianmian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2 vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo", or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8. For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility.

  6. Susceptibility to hippocampal kindling seizures is increased in aging C57 black mice

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    Kurt R. Stover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of seizures increases with old age. Stroke, dementia and brain tumors are recognized risk factors for new-onset seizures in the aging populations and the incidence of these conditions also increased with age. Whether aging is associated with higher seizure susceptibility in the absence of the above pathologies remains unclear. We used classic kindling to explore this issue as the kindling model is highly reproducible and allows close monitoring of electrographic and motor seizure activities in individual animals. We kindled male young and aging mice (C57BL/6 strain, 2–3 and 18–22 months of age via daily hippocampal CA3 stimulation and monitored seizure activity via video and electroencephalographic recordings. The aging mice needed fewer stimuli to evoke stage-5 motor seizures and exhibited longer hippocampal afterdischarges and more frequent hippocampal spikes relative to the young mice, but afterdischarge thresholds and cumulative afterdischarge durations to stage 5 motor seizures were not different between the two age groups. While hippocampal injury and structural alterations at cellular and micro-circuitry levels remain to be examined in the kindled mice, our present observations suggest that susceptibility to hippocampal CA3 kindling seizures is increased with aging in male C57 black mice.

  7. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

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    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  8. [Emotional stress-induced Shanghuo syndrome increases disease susceptibility].

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    Zhu, Si-Rui; Luo, Xiang; Li, Yi-Fang; Hiroshi, Kurihara; He, Rong-Rong

    2018-04-01

    Shanghuo(excessive internal heat) is a special organic state based on the concept of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), commonly known as the abnormal heating syndrome of body in folks. With the acceleration of modern life rhythm and the increase of the social competition pressure, emotional stress has become an important cause for the spread of Shanghuo symptoms. What's more, Shanghuo can impact the body physiological functions to cause the onset, recurrence and progression of common diseases, harming the health of the body. According to the long-term research findings, the author found that Shanghuo referred to the imbalance of multiple physiological functions, such as nerve, immunity and metabolism, caused by emotional stress. "Shanghuo" is not a disease itself, but it can increase the susceptibility to a variety of diseases. This study reviewed the traditional medicine theory and the modern medical studies, and explored the relevance and correlation mechanisms between the Shanghuo symptoms and disease susceptibility, so as to provide a reference to improve the state of sub-health and prevent or treat modern diseases. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

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    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  10. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

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    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  11. Increased susceptibility to structural acute kidney injury in a mouse model of presymptomatic cardiomyopathy.

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    Pleasant, LaTawnya; Ma, Qing; Devarajan, Mahima; Parameswaran, Priyanka; Drake, Keri; Siroky, Brian; Shay-Winkler, Kritton; Robbins, Jeffrey; Devarajan, Prasad

    2017-09-01

    The early events that signal renal dysfunction in presymptomatic heart failure are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that functional and mechanistic changes occur in the kidney that precede the development of symptomatic heart failure. We employed a transgenic mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of mutant α-B-crystallin that develops slowly progressive cardiomyopathy. Presymptomatic transgenic mice displayed an increase in serum creatinine (1.17 ± 0.34 vs. wild type 0.65 ± 0.16 mg/dl, P kidneys exhibited a twofold upregulation of the Ren1 gene, marked overexpression of renin protein in the tubules, and a worsened response to ischemia-reperfusion injury based on serum creatinine (2.77 ± 0.66 in transgenic mice vs. 2.01 ± 0.58 mg/dl in wild type, P kidney that occur in early presymptomatic heart failure, which increase the susceptibility to subsequent acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

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    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

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    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  14. Implementing Mobile Virtual Exhibition to Increase Cultural Heritage Visibility

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    Cristian CIUREA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an implementation of iOS mobile application designed as a virtual exhibition, which aims to increase the accessibility and visibility of physical objects that composite cultural heritage elements. Mobile technologies have seen a huge evolution in the last years and people are very attracted by smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices. Taking into consideration the impact of mobile technologies in all the activity fields, an important research objective is to analyze the influence of mobile applications designed as virtual exhibitions on cultural heritage promotion and on people cultural needs.

  15. Deficiency of the Angiotensinase Aminopeptidase A Increases Susceptibility to Glomerular Injury.

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    Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Arif, Ehtesham; Rodgers, Jessalyn; Hicks, Megan P; Arthur, John M; Nihalani, Deepak; Bruner, Evelyn T; Budisavljevic, Milos N; Atkinson, Carl; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Janech, Michael G

    2017-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is expressed in glomerular podocytes and tubular epithelia and metabolizes angiotensin II (AngII), a peptide known to promote glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we tested whether APA expression changes in response to progressive nephron loss or whether APA exerts a protective role against glomerular damage and during AngII-mediated hypertensive kidney injury. At advanced stages of FSGS, fawn-hooded hypertensive rat kidneys exhibited distinctly increased APA staining in areas of intact glomerular capillary loops. Moreover, BALB/c APA-knockout (KO) mice injected with a nephrotoxic serum showed persistent glomerular hyalinosis and albuminuria 96 hours after injection, whereas wild-type controls achieved virtually full recovery. We then tested the effect of 4-week infusion of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute) in APA-KO and wild-type mice. Although we observed no significant difference in achieved systolic BP, AngII-treated APA-KO mice developed a significant rise in albuminuria not observed in AngII-treated wild-type mice along with increased segmental and global sclerosis and/or collapse of juxtamedullary glomeruli, microcystic tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In parallel, AngII treatment significantly increased the kidney AngII content and attenuated the expression of podocyte nephrin in APA-KO mice but not in wild-type controls. These data show that deficiency of APA increases susceptibility to glomerular injury in BALB/c mice. The augmented AngII-mediated kidney injury observed in association with increased intrarenal AngII accumulation in the absence of APA suggests a protective metabolizing role of APA in AngII-mediated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility: a proxy method of estimating increased pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluciarova, D.; Gregorova, D.; Tunyi, I.

    2004-01-01

    A need for rapid and inexpensive (proxy) methods of outlining areas exposed to increased pollution by atmospheric particulates of industrial origin caused scientists in various fields to use and validate different non-traditional (or non-chemical) techniques. Among them, soil magnetometry seems to be a suitable tool. This method is based on the knowledge that ferrimagnetic particles, namely magnetite, are produced from pyrite during combustion of fossil fuel. Besides the combustion processes, magnetic particles can also originate from road traffic, for example, or can be included in various waste-water outlets. In our study we examine the magnetic susceptibility as a convenient measure of determining the concentration of (ferri) magnetic minerals by rapid and non-destructive means. We used for measure KLY-2 Kappabridge. Concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in different soils is linked to pollution sources. Higher χ values were observed in soils on the territory in Istebne (47383x10 -6 SI ). The susceptibility anomaly may be caused by particular geological circumstances and can be related to high content of ferromagnetic minerals in the host rocks. Positive correlation of magnetic susceptibility are conditioned by industrial contamination mainly by metal working factories and by traffic. The proposed method can be successfully applied in determining heavy metal pollution of soils on the city territories. (authors)

  17. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

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    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. AGING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLUENE IN RATS: A PHARMACOKINETIC, BIOMARKER, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH.

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    Aging adults are a growing segment of the U.S. population and are likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to many environmental toxicants. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of the aged to toxicants. The toxicity of toluene has been well characterized i...

  19. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

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    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  20. Lack of a Functioning P2X7 Receptor Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Ileitis.

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    Catherine M Miller

    Full Text Available Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a lethal inflammatory ileitis.Mice lacking the purinergic receptor P2X7R are acutely susceptible to toxoplasmic ileitis, losing significantly more weight than C57BL/6J mice and exhibiting much greater intestinal inflammatory pathology in response to infection with only 10 cysts of T. gondii. This susceptibility is not dependent on the ability of P2X7R-deficient mice to control the parasite, which they accomplish just as efficiently as C57BL/6J mice. Rather, susceptibility is associated with elevated ileal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen intermediates and altered regulation of elements of NFκB activation in P2X7R-deficient mice.Our data support the thesis that P2X7R, a well-documented activator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, also plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.

  1. The BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism increases granulomatous disease susceptibility

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    Tong, Xiang; Ma, Yao; Niu, Xundong; Yan, Zhipeng; Liu, Sitong; Peng, Bo; Peng, Shifeng; Fan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) G16071A gene polymorphism has been implicated in the susceptibility to granulomatous diseases, but the results were inconclusive. The objective of the current study was to precisely explore the relationship between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility by the meta-analysis including false-positive report probability (FPRP) test. Methods: A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases, China National Knowledge Internet, and commercial Internet search engines was conducted to identify studies published up to April 1, 2016. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the effect size. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software and FPRP test sheet. Results: In total, all 4324 cases and 4386 controls from 14 eligible studies were included in the current meta-analysis. By the overall meta-analysis, we found a significant association between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07–1.45, P = 0.005). The meta-regression analyses showed that a large proportion of the between-study heterogeneity was significantly attributed to the ethnicity (A vs G, P = 0.013) and the types of granulomatous diseases (A vs G, P = 0.002). By the subgroup meta-analysis, the BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism was associated with granulomatous disease susceptibility in Caucasians (A vs G: OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18–1.58, P susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.39–1.66, P susceptibility (A vs G, FPRP susceptibility among Caucasians (A vs G, FPRP susceptibility, especially increasing the sarcoidosis susceptibility. In addition, the polymorphism may be greatly associated with likelihood of granulomatous diseases among Caucasians. PMID:27472712

  2. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

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    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  3. Persistent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection Increases the Susceptibility of Mice to Develop Intestinal Inflammation

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    Bárbara M. Schultz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammations are triggered by genetic and environmental components. However, it remains unclear how specific changes in the microbiota, host immunity, or pathogen exposure could promote the onset and exacerbation of these diseases. Here, we evaluated whether Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection increases the susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation in mice. Two mouse models were used to evaluate the impact of S. Typhimurium infection: the chemical induction of colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and interleukin (IL-10−/− mice, which develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. We observed that S. Typhimurium infection makes DSS-treated and IL-10−/− mice more susceptible to develop intestinal inflammation. Importantly, this increased susceptibility is associated to the ability of S. Typhimurium to persist in liver and spleen of infected mice, which depends on the virulence proteins secreted by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. Although immunization with a live attenuated vaccine resulted in a moderate reduction of the IL-10−/− mice susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation due to previous S. Typhimurium infection, it did not prevent bacterial persistence. Our results suggest that persistent S. Typhimurium infection may increase the susceptibility of mice to develop inflammation in the intestine, which could be associated with virulence proteins secreted by TTSS-2.

  4. An interaction between NDE1 and high birth weight increases schizophrenia susceptibility.

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    Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William

    2015-12-15

    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISC1 pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b=1.26, SE=0.5, p=0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b=1.33, SE=0.51, p=0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (>4000g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic control of susceptibility to apoptosis of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, N.; Okumoto, M.; Morimoto, J.; Imai, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Genetic control of the susceptibility of thymocytes to radiation-induced apoptosis in mice was investigated by counting dead cells in a selected area of thymic cortex on histological specimens after whole-body X-irradiation. The number of dead cells increased almost linearly with doses in BALB/cHeA and STS/A mice. However, dead cell counts in BALB/cHeA mice were more than twice those in STS/A mice at each dose. C57BL/6N and B10.BR mice exhibited a sensitive phenotype similar to BALB/cHeA mice, while C3H/HeMsNrs and NFS/N mice showed a resistant phenotype similar to STS/A mice. Sex difference in the susceptibility of thymocytes to cell death was not recognized in BALB/cHeA and STS/A mice. Resistance was dominant over susceptibility in the progenies of reciprocal crosses between the two strains, indicating an autosomal inheritance. The segregation ratio of susceptible to resistant phenotype in the backcrosses of (BALB/cHeA X STS/A)F 1 with BALB/cHeA was not significantly different from 1 : 1 and all backcrosses of (BALB/cHeA X STS/A)F 1 with STS/A exhibited a resistant phenotype. The results demonstrated that the difference in the susceptibility of thymocytes to radiation-induced apoptosis in the two strains of mice is due to one major autosomal allele. (author)

  6. Air pollution increases forest susceptibility to wildfires: a case study for the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.E. Grulke; R.A. Minnich; T. Paine; P. Riggan

    2010-01-01

    Many factors increase susceptibility of forests to wildfire. Among them are increases in human population, changes in land use, fire suppression, and frequent droughts. These factors have been exacerbating forest susceptibility to wildfires over the last century in southern California. Here we report on the significant role that air pollution has on increasing forest...

  7. Protein energy malnutrition decreases immunity and increases susceptibility to influenza infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew K; Cao, Weiping; Vora, Keyur P; De La Cruz, Juan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2013-02-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), a common cause of secondary immune deficiency in children, is associated with an increased risk of infections. Very few studies have addressed the relevance of PEM as a risk factor for influenza. We investigated the influence of PEM on susceptibility to, and immune responses following, influenza virus infection using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18%) or very low protein (VLP; 2%) in a mouse model. We found that mice maintained on the VLP diet, when compared to mice fed with the AP diet, exhibited more severe disease following influenza infection based on virus persistence, trafficking of inflammatory cell types to the lung tissue, and virus-induced mortality. Furthermore, groups of mice maintained on the VLP diet showed significantly lower virus-specific antibody response and a reduction in influenza nuclear protein-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with mice fed on the AP diet. Importantly, switching diets for the group maintained on the VLP diet to the AP diet improved virus clearance, as well as protective immunity to viral challenge. Our results highlight the impact of protein energy on immunity to influenza infection and suggest that balanced protein energy replenishment may be one strategy to boost immunity against influenza viral infections.

  8. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, I. K.; Rokstad, A. M.; Strand, B. L.; Oberholzer, J.; Grill, V.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation) on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8 ± 3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9 ± 5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation. PMID:24364039

  9. HSV-2-Driven Increase in the Expression of α4β7 Correlates with Increased Susceptibility to Vaginal SHIVSF162P3 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Guerra-Perez, Natalia; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Blanchard, James; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM) model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission. PMID:25521298

  10. Field-impressed anisotropy of susceptibility in iron-terbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, A.; Booth, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    Two thin films of Fe 1-x Tb x where x=0.17 and 0.23 are shown to exhibit the effect of field-impressed anisotropy. After application of a direct field of 80 mT, which gives them an isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) in their plane, the anisotropy of initial susceptibility differs from that measured after the films have been tumble-demagnetized. By subtracting the susceptibility results of the tumble-demagnetized state from those obtained after the application of the 80 mT direct field, it is shown that the effect of this field is to decrease the susceptibility measured along the former applied field direction and to increase the susceptibility at right angles to this. The effect is almost certainly due to changes in domain alignment. Even though these films contain many domains, the above results are similar to those previously obtained for single-domain γFe 2 O 3 and magnetite particles. The sense of the effect is opposite to that for multi-domain magnetite particles where the susceptibility has been found to increase along the previously applied field direction. ((orig.))

  11. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  12. RNA interference of acetylcholinesterase in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, increases its susceptibility to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishk, Abdelaziz; Hijaz, Faraj; Anber, Helmy A I; AbdEl-Raof, Tsamoh K; El-Sherbeni, AbdEl-Hakeem D; Hamed, Sobhy; Killiny, Nabil

    2017-11-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Lividae) transmits the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which causes citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing, (HLB). To date, there is no efficient cure for HLB disease and the control of D. citri using insecticides became the most important tools for the management of HLB. However, the extensive use of insecticides could increase D. citri resistance to these insecticides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RNA interference of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the mortality and susceptibility of D. citri to the four major insecticides used in Florida. In this study, we used a consensus sequence derived from the two AChE genes and cholinesterase 2-like (ChE-2-like) gene to target all of the three genes. Treatment with dsRNA-AChE increased the mortality percentages of both nymphs and adults of D. citri. The mortality percentage increased with the increase in the concentration of applied dsRNA-AChE, and the highest mortality (> 60%) was observed at the highest applied concentration (125ng/μl). Treatments of nymphs or adults with dsRNA-AChE down-regulated the expression of the three targeted genes of D. citri. Silencing of AChE and ChE in D. citri nymphs increased the susceptibility of emerged adults to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, which act as AChE inhibitors. However, treatment with dsRNA-AChE did not increase the susceptibility of emerged adults to imidacloprid, which acts as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the same manner, treatment of adults with dsRNA-AChE increased their susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, but did not affect their susceptibility to imidacloprid. The ANOVA did not show any significant increase in susceptibility of D. citri adults to fenpropathrin after treatment with dsRNA-AChE, either as nymphs or as adults. However, simple linear regression showed that treatment with dsRNA-AChE increased D. citri susceptibility to fenpropathrin

  13. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Hals

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8±3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9±5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P<0.2. Nonencapsulated islets released 37.7% (median more HMGB1 compared to encapsulated islets after hypoxic culture conditions (P<0.001. Glucose-induced insulin release was marginally affected by hypoxia. Basal oxygen consumption was equally reduced in encapsulated and nonencapsulated islets, by 22.0±6.1% versus 24.8±5.7%. Among 27 tested cytokines/chemokines, hypoxia increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 in both groups of islets, whereas an increase of MCP-1/CCL2 was seen only with nonencapsulated islets. Conclusion. Alginate microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation.

  14. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the extern...

  15. Increasing rate of daptomycin non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus , including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted. Aim : To evaluate the susceptibility profile to daptomycin among S. aureus strains isloted from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Another point was to correlate the results obtained by broth microdilution method and Etest, which is commonly applied in clinical setting. Material and methods : One hundred patients with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using broth-microdilution (BMD and Etests for daptomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (73% or the anterior nares (75%. Six of the 100 nasal swabs (6% and 5 of the 100 skin swabs (5% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A total of 81 of 148 (54.7% daptomycin non-susceptible isolates of S. aureus were identified by BMD. Only 19 of 81 were also classified as non-susceptible by Etest. Conclusions : Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the possibility of the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility (or increase in minimal inhibitory concentration during prolonged therapy and closely monitor the susceptibility of persisting isolates that might be recovered during therapy.

  16. HSV-2-driven increase in the expression of α4β7 correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV(SF162P3) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Guerra-Perez, Natalia; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Blanchard, James; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM) model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission.

  17. HSV-2-driven increase in the expression of α4β7 correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV(SF162P3 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Goode

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission.

  18. An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, You-Jin; Kim, A-Reum; Kim, Joo Ae; Jung, Hee-Dong; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Ok; Kim, Sung Soon

    2017-07-24

    In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants measles infection. Age-specific measles seroprevalence was evaluated by performing enzyme immunoassays and plaque reduction-neutralization tests on 3050 subjects aged 0-50years (birth cohort 1964-2014) and 480 subjects aged 2-30years (birth cohort 1984-2012). The overall seropositivity and measles antibody concentrations were 71.5% and 1366mIU/mL, respectively. Progressive decline in antibody levels and seropositivity were observed over time after vaccination in infants, adolescents, and young adults. The accumulation of potentially susceptible individuals in the population was confirmed by comparing data from 2010 and 2014 seroprevalence surveys. The statistical correlation between measles incidence and measles seronegativity was determined. Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea. This trend may be related to limitations of vaccine-induced immunity in the absence of natural boosting by the wild virus, compared to naturally acquired immunity triggered by measles infection. This study provides an important view into the current measles herd immunity in Korea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-E-I-62: Reduction of Susceptibility Artifacts by Increasing the Bandwidth (BW) and Echo Train Length (ETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroidis, P; Boci, N; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Glotsos, D; Oikonomou, G; Bakas, A; Roka, V; Cavouras, D; Lavdas, E; Sakkas, G; Tsagkalis, A; Chatzivasileiou, V; Batsikas, G; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this present study is to increase bandwidth (BW) and echo train length (ETL) in Proton Density Turbo Spin Echo (PD TSE) sequences with and without fat saturation (FS) as well as in Turbo Inversion Recovery Magnitude sequences (TIRM) in order to assess whether these sequences are capable of reducing susceptibility artifacts. Methods: We compared 1) TIRM coronal (COR) with the same sequence with increased both BW and ETL 2) Conventional PD TSE sagittal (SAG) with FS with an increased BW 3) Conventional PD TSE SAG without FS with an increased BW 4) Conventional PD TSE SAG without FS with increased both BW and ETL. A quantitative analysis was performed to measure the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis was performed by two radiologists in order to evaluate the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and fat suppression. The depiction of cartilage, menisci, muscles, tendons and bone marrow were also qualitatively analyzed. Results: The quantitative analysis found that the modified TIRM sequence is significantly superior to the conventional one regarding the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. In the qualitative analysis, the modified TIRM sequence was superior to the corresponding conventional one in eight characteristics out of ten that were analyzed. The modified PD TSE with FS was superior to the corresponding conventional one regarding the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and depiction of bone marrow and cartilage while achieving effective fat saturation. The modified PD TSE sequence without FS with a high (H) BW was found to be superior corresponding to the conventional one in the case of cartilage. Conclusion: Consequently, TIRM sequence with an increased BW and ETL is proposed for producing images of high quality and modified PD TSE with H BW for smaller metals, especially when FS is used

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of laser-hardened 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, L.W.; Lin, Z.W. [Nat. Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan). Inst. of Mater. Eng.; Shiue, R.K. [Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chen, C. [Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2000-10-15

    Slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were performed to investigate the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of laser-hardened AISI 4140 specimens in air, gaseous hydrogen and saturated H{sub 2}S solution. Experimental results indicated that round bar specimens with two parallel hardened bands on opposite sides along the loading axis (i.e. the PH specimens), exhibited a huge reduction in tensile ductility for all test environments. While circular-hardened (CH) specimens with 1 mm hardened depth and 6 mm wide within the gauge length were resistant to gaseous hydrogen embrittlement. However, fully hardened CH specimens became susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement for testing in air at a lower strain rate. The strength of CH specimens increased with decreasing the depth of hardened zones in a saturated H{sub 2}S solution. The premature failure of hardened zones in a susceptible environment caused the formation of brittle intergranular fracture and the decrease in tensile ductility. (orig.)

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  2. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  4. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  5. Efficacy of Ceftaroline against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Exhibiting the Cefazolin High-Inoculum Effect in a Rat Model of Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Truc T.; Nannini, Esteban C.; Tam, Vincent H.; Arias, Cesar A.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibit an inoculum effect (InE) with cefazolin (CFZ) that has been associated with therapeutic failures in high-inoculum infections. We assessed the in vitro activities of ceftaroline (CPT), CFZ, and nafcillin (NAF) against 17 type A β-lactamase (βla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including the previously reported TX0117, which exhibits the CFZ InE, and its βla-cured derivative, TX0117c. Additionally, we determined the pharmacokinetics of CPT in rats after single intramuscular doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight and evaluated the activities of CPT (40 mg/kg every 8 h [q8h]), CFZ, and NAF against TX0117 and TX0117c in a rat model of infective endocarditis. No InE was observed for CPT or NAF, whereas a marked InE was detected for CFZ (MIC, 8 to ≥128 μg/ml). CPT and NAF treatment against TX0117 resulted in mean bacterial counts of 2.3 and 2.1 log10 CFU/g in vegetations, respectively, compared to a mean of 5.9 log10 CFU/g in the CFZ-treated group (CPT and NAF versus CFZ, P = 0.001; CPT versus NAF, P = 0.9830). Both CFZ and CPT were efficacious against the βla-cured derivative, TX0117c, compared to time zero (t0) (P = <0.0001 and 0.0015, respectively). Our data reiterate the in vivo consequences of the CFZ InE and show that CPT is not affected by this phenomenon. CPT might be considered for high-inoculum infections caused by MSSA exhibiting the CFZ InE. PMID:28483961

  6. Efficacy of Ceftaroline against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Exhibiting the Cefazolin High-Inoculum Effect in a Rat Model of Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavindra V; Tran, Truc T; Nannini, Esteban C; Tam, Vincent H; Arias, Cesar A; Murray, Barbara E

    2017-07-01

    Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibit an inoculum effect (InE) with cefazolin (CFZ) that has been associated with therapeutic failures in high-inoculum infections. We assessed the i n vitro activities of ceftaroline (CPT), CFZ, and nafcillin (NAF) against 17 type A β-lactamase (βla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including the previously reported TX0117, which exhibits the CFZ InE, and its βla-cured derivative, TX0117c. Additionally, we determined the pharmacokinetics of CPT in rats after single intramuscular doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight and evaluated the activities of CPT (40 mg/kg every 8 h [q8h]), CFZ, and NAF against TX0117 and TX0117c in a rat model of infective endocarditis. No InE was observed for CPT or NAF, whereas a marked InE was detected for CFZ (MIC, 8 to ≥128 μg/ml). CPT and NAF treatment against TX0117 resulted in mean bacterial counts of 2.3 and 2.1 log 10 CFU/g in vegetations, respectively, compared to a mean of 5.9 log 10 CFU/g in the CFZ-treated group (CPT and NAF versus CFZ, P = 0.001; CPT versus NAF, P = 0.9830). Both CFZ and CPT were efficacious against the βla-cured derivative, TX0117c, compared to time zero ( t 0 ) ( P = InE and show that CPT is not affected by this phenomenon. CPT might be considered for high-inoculum infections caused by MSSA exhibiting the CFZ InE. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Deng, Shuwen; Machouart, Marie; Voigt, Kerstin; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.

  8. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushen eSivakumaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  9. Complementation of a pKM101 derivative that decreases resistance to UV killing but increases susceptibility to mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, P.J.; Perry, K.L.; Walker, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The drug resistance plasmid pKM101 makes Escherichia coli resistant to the lethal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and more susceptible to mutagenesis by a variety of agents. The plasmid operon responsible for increasing mutagenesis has been termed mucAB (Mutagenesis, UV and chemical). The authors have isolated a derivative of pKM101 called pGW1975 which makes cells more sensitive to killing by UV but which retains the ability of pKM101 to increase susceptibility to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) mutagenesis. pGW1975 increases UV mutagenesis less than pKM101 in a uvrA + strain but more than pKM101 in a uvrA - strain. muc - point and insertion mutants of pKM101 and pGW1975 complement to restore the plasmid-mediated: (i) ability to reactivate UV-irradiated phage, (ii) resistance to killing by UV, and (iii) level of susceptibility to UV mutagenesis. They have identified a 2.0 kb region of pKM101 which is responsible for the complementation and which maps counterclockwise of mucAB. (Auth)

  10. MicroRNA gene polymorphisms and environmental factors increase patient susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs are small RNA fragments that naturally exist in the human body. Through various physiological mechanisms, miRNAs can generate different functions for regulating RNA protein levels and balancing abnormalities. Abnormal miRNA expression has been reported to be highly related to several diseases and cancers. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs have been reported to increase patient susceptibility and affect patient prognosis and survival. We adopted a case-control research design to verify the relationship between miRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 525 subjects, including 377 controls and 188 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a (rs2910164, miRNA149 (rs2292832, miRNA196 (rs11614913, and miRNA499 (rs3746444 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. The results indicate that people who carry the rs3746444 CT or CC genotypes may have a significantly increased susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-4.30. In addition, when combined with environmental risk factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, interaction effects were observed between gene polymorphisms and environmental factors (odds ratio [OR] = 4.69, 95% CI = 2.52-8.70; AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.68-6.80. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a significant association exists between miRNA499 SNPs and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene-environment interactions of miRNA499 polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption might alter hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility.

  11. Placing Antismoking Graphic Warning Posters at Retail Point-of-Sale Locations Increases Some Adolescents' Susceptibility to Future Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Dunbar, Michael; Kusuke, Daniela; Lanna, Serafina; Meyer, Amanda

    2017-12-13

    This experiment tested whether introducing graphic antitobacco posters at point-of-sale (POS) had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking and whether these effects were moderated by adolescents' baseline risk of cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. In this study, 441 adolescents were randomized to one of the four conditions in a 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the tobacco power wall: no, yes) × 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the cash register: no, yes) experimental design. The outcome of interest was susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The addition of antismoking posters at POS led to a significant increase in future smoking susceptibility among those adolescents who already were at high risk for smoking in the future (p posters had no impact on committed never smokers, regardless of poster location; never smokers' susceptibility to future smoking was uniformly low across experimental conditions. Introducing graphic antismoking posters at POS may have the unintended effect of further increasing cigarette smoking susceptibility among adolescents already at risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Changing attitudes toward smoking and smoking susceptibility through peer crowd targeting: more evidence from a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.

  13. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easton, Douglas F.; Pooley, Karen A.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Thompson, Deborah; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Morrison, Jonathan; Field, Helen; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Bowman, Richard; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Seal, Sheila; Stratton, Michael R.; Rahman, Nazneen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Axelsson, Christen K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Eerola, Hannaleena; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Cox, David G.; Hall, Per; Wedren, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Low, Yen-Ling; Bogdanova, Natalia; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Devilee, Peter; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Zhang, Jinghui; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; MacPherson, Gordon; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Olson, Janet E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van den Ouweland, Ans; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Milne, Roger L.; Ribas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L.; McCredie, Margaret; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Schroen, Chris; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana; Day, Nicholas E.; Cox, David R.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate

  15. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    2014-01-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off...... greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age......-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice....

  16. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-08-15

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600-4,100 m) residents aged 18-25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy.

  18. The Theory of the Reentrant Effect in Susceptibility of Cylindrical Mesoscopic Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogadze, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A theory has been developed to explain the anomalous behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of a normal metal-superconductor (NS) structure in weak magnetic fields at milli kelvin temperatures. The effect was discovered experimentally [A. C. Mota et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1514 (1990)]. In cylindrical superconducting samples covered with a thin normal pure metal layer, the susceptibility exhibited a reentrant effect: it started to increase unexpectedly when the temperature was lowered below 100 mK. The effect was observed in mesoscopic NS structures when the N and S metals were in good electric contact. The theory proposed is essentially based on the properties of the Andreev levels in the normal metal. When the magnetic field (or temperature) changes, each of the Andreev levels coincides from time to time with the chemical potential of the metal. As a result, the state of the NS structure experiences strong degeneracy, and the quasiparticle density of states exhibits resonance spikes. This generates a large paramagnetic contribution to the susceptibility, which adds to the diamagnetic contribution, thus leading to the reentrant effect. The explanation proposed was obtained within the model of free electrons. The theory provides a good description of the experimental results

  19. Intersite interactions and susceptibility in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoqian Wang; Gao Lin; Bingjian Ni; Fusui Liu.

    1985-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of intersite processes on the susceptibility in mixed valence system. The method of thermodynamical perturbation used in this paper can also be generalized to study other properties of mixed valence system. The general formula of partition function of two-site interactions for the mixed valence system is given. The numerical calculations show that the intersite interaction is large enough to explain the minimum of susceptibility discovered in experiments. The different types of our theoretical curves predict that the susceptibility should exhibit a rich variety of behaviour at low temperature for various materials. (author)

  20. Lysosomal Disorders Drive Susceptibility to Tuberculosis by Compromising Macrophage Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Russell D.; Levitte, Steven; O’Sullivan, Mary P.; O’Leary, Seónadh M.; Cambier, C.J.; Cameron, James; Takaki, Kevin K.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Tobin, David M.; Keane, Joseph; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Summary A zebrafish genetic screen for determinants of susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum identified a hypersusceptible mutant deficient in lysosomal cysteine cathepsins that manifests hallmarks of human lysosomal storage diseases. Under homeostatic conditions, mutant macrophages accumulate undigested lysosomal material, which disrupts endocytic recycling and impairs their migration to, and thus engulfment of, dying cells. This causes a buildup of unengulfed cell debris. During mycobacterial infection, macrophages with lysosomal storage cannot migrate toward infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis in the tuberculous granuloma. The unengulfed apoptotic macrophages undergo secondary necrosis, causing granuloma breakdown and increased mycobacterial growth. Macrophage lysosomal storage similarly impairs migration to newly infecting mycobacteria. This phenotype is recapitulated in human smokers, who are at increased risk for tuberculosis. A majority of their alveolar macrophages exhibit lysosomal accumulations of tobacco smoke particulates and do not migrate to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The incapacitation of highly microbicidal first-responding macrophages may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27015311

  1. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Silva-Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4.Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain´s site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion.Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  2. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Dias, Ana; Miranda, Isabel M; Branco, Joana; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4. Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However, the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain's site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion. Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  3. Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Strain Exhibiting Primary Resistance to Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Leidich, Steven D.; Isham, Nancy; Leitner, Ingrid; Ryder, Neil S.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of six clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates obtained sequentially from a single onychomycosis patient who failed oral terbinafine therapy (250 mg/day for 24 weeks) were determined by broth microdilution and macrodilution methodologies. Strain relatedness was examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine. The MICs of terbinafine for these strains were >4 μg/ml, whereas they were terbinafine for all six strains were >128 μg/ml, whereas they were 0.0002 μg/ml for the reference strain. The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain (cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started) was already 4,000-fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy. RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin. However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:12499173

  4. Analysis of triclosan-selected Salmonella enterica mutants of eight serovars revealed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility and reduced growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rensch

    Full Text Available The biocide triclosan (TRC is used in a wide range of household, personal care, veterinary, industrial and medical products to control microbial growth. This extended use raises concerns about a possible association between the application of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance. In the present study we determined triclosan mutant prevention concentrations (MPC for Salmonella enterica isolates of eight serovars and investigated selected mutants for their mechanisms mediating decreased susceptibility to triclosan. MPCTRC values were 8-64-fold higher than MIC values and ranged between 1-16 µg/ml. The frequencies at which mutants were selected varied between 1.3 x 10(-10-9.9 x 10(-11. Even if MIC values of mutants decreased by 3-7 dilution steps in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide, only minor changes were observed in the expression of genes encoding efflux components or regulators, indicating that neither the major multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC nor AcrEF are up-regulated in triclosan-selected mutants. Nucleotide sequence comparisons confirmed the absence of alterations in the regulatory regions acrRA, soxRS, marORAB, acrSE and ramRA of selected mutants. Single bp and deduced Gly93→Val amino acid exchanges were present in fabI, the target gene of triclosan, starting from a concentration of 1 µg/ml TRC used for MPC determinations. The fabI genes were up to 12.4-fold up-regulated. Complementation experiments confirmed the contribution of Gly93→Val exchanges and fabI overexpression to decreased triclosan susceptibility. MIC values of mutants compared to parent strains were even equal or resulted in a more susceptible phenotype (1-2 dilution steps for the aminoglycoside antibiotics kanamycin and gentamicin as well as for the biocide chlorhexidine. Growth rates of selected mutants were significantly lower and hence, might partly explain the rare occurrence of Salmonella field isolates exhibiting

  5. Immunological changes at point-of-lay increase susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar enteritidis infection in vaccinated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Johnston

    Full Text Available Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with γδ-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in γδ-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone

  6. Influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on susceptibility of rats to inhaled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibilities of normal rats and rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust were compared. Rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 months to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as controls. Emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of elastase 6 wk before exhaust exposure. Measurements included lung burdens of diesel soot, respiratory function, bronchoalveolar lavage, clearance of radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses, lung collagen, excised lung weight and volume, histopathology, and mean linear intercept of terminal air spaces. Parameters indicated by analysis of variance to exhibit significant interactions between the influences of emphysema and exhaust were examined to determine if the effects were more than additive (indicating increased susceptibility). Although 14 of 63 parameters demonstrated emphysema-exhaust interactions, none indicated increased susceptibility. Less soot accumulated in lungs of emphysematous rats than in those of nonemphysematous rats, and the reduced accumulation had a sparing effect in the emphysematous rats. The results did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs are more susceptible than are normal lungs to chronic exposure to high levels of diesel exhaust. The superimposition of effects of emphysema and exhaust, however, might still warrant special concern for heavy exposures of emphysematous subjects

  7. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  8. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  9. Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260. From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331. Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Bi - Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaffa bin Haji Abdullah

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements on eight samples of tin-rich and three samples of bismuth-rich Bi-Sn alloys were made from 85K to 300K by Faraday's method. The susceptibilities of the eight tin-rich samples are positive and greater than the susceptibility of pure tin. The values are approximately constant at low temperatures but decreasing a little bit with increasing temperature. This result is interpreted as due to the predominant contribution of the Pauli spin paramagnetic susceptibility. A small decrease in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to the effect of the second order term in the expression for spin paramagnetic susceptibility. The fluctuation of the susceptibility for alloys of different composition is interpreted as due to the effect of the density of states at the Fermi levels. The three samples of bismuth-rich alloys show a transition to diamagnetic property, where the diamagnetism is increased with temperature. This result is predominant and due to the diamagnetic contribution from the ions. The increase in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to an increase in the effective radii of the ions due to thermal expansion. (author)

  11. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL"−"1, 10ngL"−"1, 2μgL"−"1, 20μgL"−"1) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. - Highlights:

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Douglas F.; Pooley, Karen A.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Thompson, Deborah; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Morrison, Jonathan; Field, Helen; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Bowman, Richard; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Seal, Sheila; Stratton, Michael R.; Rahman, Nazneen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Axelsson, Christen K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Eerola, Hannaleena; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Cox, David G.; Hall, Per; Wedren, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Low, Yen-Ling; Bogdanova, Natalia; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Devilee, Peter; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Zhang, Jinghui; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; MacPherson, Gordon; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Olson, Janet E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van den Ouweland, Ans; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Milne, Roger L.; Ribas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L.; McCredie, Margaret; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Schroen, Chris; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana; Day, Nicholas E.; Cox, David R.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah; Jordan, Clare; Perkins, Barbara; West, Judy; Redman, Karen; Driver, Kristy; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armes, Jane; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Begley, Glenn; Beilby, John; Bennett, Ian; Bennett, Barbara; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Cui, Jisheng; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Fleming, Jean; Forbes, John; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kirk, Judy; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Sergey; Lakhani, Sunil; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Maclurcan, Mariette; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McCredie, Margaret; McKay, Michael; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Reeve, Jeanne; Reeve, Tony; Richards, Robert; Rinehart, Gina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Seshadri, Ram; Shelling, Andrew; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Taylor, Donna; Tennant, Christopher; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Venter, Deon; Visvader, Jane; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Watson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, David; Green, Adele; deFazio, Anna; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gertig, Dorota; Webb, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r2>0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P<10−7). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P<0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach. PMID:17529967

  13. Knockout of a P-glycoprotein gene increases susceptibility to abamectin and emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Y-Y; Huang, J-L; Wang, J; Feng, Y; Han, T-T; Wu, Y-D; Yang, Y-H

    2018-02-01

    P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S. exigua P-gp protein (SeP-gp) predicted to display structural characteristics common to P-gp and other insect ABCB1 transporters. A knockout line with a frame shift deletion of four nucleotides in the SeP-gp ORF was established using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system to test its potential role in determining susceptibility to chemical insecticides or insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Results from comparative bioassays demonstrate that knockout of SeP-gp significantly increases susceptibility of S. exigua by around threefold to abamectin and emamectin benzoate (EB), but not to spinosad, chlorfenapyr, beta-cypermethrin, carbosulfan indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, diafenthiuron, chlorfluazuron, chlorantraniliprole or two Bt toxins (Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa). Our data support an important role for SeP-gp in susceptibility of S. exigua to abamectin and EB and imply that overexpression of SeP-gp may contribute to abamectin and EB resistance in S. exigua. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Pulmonary exposure to particles during pregnancy causes increased neonatal asthma susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedulov, Alexey V; Leme, Adriana; Yang, Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles...... inflammatory responses were evaluated 48 hours after exposure. Offspring of particle- or buffer-treated mothers were sensitized and aerosolized with OVA, followed by assays of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic inflammation (AI). Nonpregnant females had the expected minimal response to "inert" TiO(2......). In contrast, pregnant mice showed robust and persistent acute inflammation after both TiO(2) and DEP. Genomic profiling identified genes differentially expressed in pregnant lungs exposed to TiO(2). Neonates of mothers exposed to TiO(2) (and DEP, but not PBS) developed AHR and AI, indicating that pregnancy...

  15. Assessment of oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells in various species based on cell deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael J; Meiselman, Herbert J; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M; Pyne, Michael; Kakanis, Michael; Keane, James; Brenu, Ekua; Christy, Rhys; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells (RBC) from four species (echidna, human, koala, Tasmanian devil) based on changes in cellular deformability. These species were specifically chosen based on differences in lifestyle and/or biology associated with varied levels of oxidative stress. The major focus was the influence of superoxide radicals generated within the cell (phenazine methosulfate, PMS, 50 μM) or in the extracellular medium (xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine, XO-HX, 0.1 U/ml XO) on RBC deformability at various shear stresses (SS). RBC deformability was assessed by laser-diffraction analysis using a "slit-flow ektacytometer". Both superoxide-generating treatments resulted in significant increases of methemoglobin for all species (p koala cells exhibited a similar sigmoid-like response to SS, short-beaked echidna values were markedly lower and only increased slightly with SS, while Tasmanian devil RBC were extremely rigid. The effect of XO-HX on RBC deformability was less when compared with PMS (i.e., smaller increase in rigidity) with the exception of Tasmanian devil RBC which exhibited essentially no deformation even at the highest SS; Tasmanian devil RBC response to XO-HX was thus comparable to that observed with PMS. Our findings indicate that ektacytometry can be used to determine the oxidant susceptibility of RBC from different species which varies significantly among mammals representing diverse lifestyles and evolutionary histories. These differences in susceptibility are consistent with species-specific discrepancies between observed and allometrically-predicted life spans and are compatible with the oxidant theory of aging.

  16. MDMA Decreases Gluatamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) 67-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Hippocampus and Increases Seizure Susceptibility: Role for Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Courtney L.; Morano, Rachel L.; Herman, James P.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Gudelsky, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37–58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30 days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. PMID:27773601

  17. MDMA decreases glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility: Role for glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Courtney L; Morano, Rachel L; Herman, James P; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37-58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, John; Setti, Annalisa; Doheny, Emer P; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has provided evidence suggesting a link between inefficient processing of multisensory information and incidence of falling in older adults. Specifically, Setti et al. (Exp Brain Res 209:375-384, 2011) reported that older adults with a history of falling were more susceptible than their healthy, age-matched counterparts to the sound-induced flash illusion. Here, we investigated whether balance control in fall-prone older adults was directly associated with multisensory integration by testing susceptibility to the illusion under two postural conditions: sitting and standing. Whilst standing, fall-prone older adults had a greater body sway than the age-matched healthy older adults and their body sway increased when presented with the audio-visual illusory but not the audio-visual congruent conditions. We also found an increase in susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion during standing relative to sitting for fall-prone older adults only. Importantly, no performance differences were found across groups in either the unisensory or non-illusory multisensory conditions across the two postures. These results suggest an important link between multisensory integration and balance control in older adults and have important implications for understanding why some older adults are prone to falling.

  19. Association of STAT4 gene polymorphism with increased susceptibility of rheumatoid arthritis in a northern Chinese Han subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xia; Su, Yin; Li, Yanmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Shiyao; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Quan; Liu, Xiangyuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Huang, Cibo; Jia, Rulin; Lu, Xiaolan; Guo, Jianping; Li, Zhanguo

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have reported STAT4 polymorphism is strongly associated with increased susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a study from China showed no association between STAT4 and RA susceptibility in a Chinese Han subpopulation. Since the northern Hans are known to be genetically different from the southern Hans, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of STAT4 polymorphism with RA in a large cohort of a northern Chinese Han subpopulation. 640 RA patients and 662 healthy controls were enrolled. DNA samples were genotyped for STAT4 rs7574865 by direct sequencing. The association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7574865 with RA susceptibility was calculated and the relationship between rs7574865 polymorphism and RA subgroups stratified by clinical features was estimated. We confirmed a significant association of STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism with RA susceptibility in northern Chinese Han population. The frequency of the minor T allele in RA was significantly higher than in healthy controls (35.2% vs. 31.1%; P = 0.029, OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.02-1.41]). There was also a significant difference in the distribution of the genotypes of SNP rs7574865 between RA patients and healthy controls (P = 0.02). Stratification analyses showed no associations between the genetic risk and clinical/serologic features, but a potential high frequency of TT genotype in a rheumatoid factor-negative subgroup, although it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.084, OR 2.01 [95% CI 0.91-4.45]). STAT4 rs7574865 is significantly associated with RA susceptibility in northern Chinese Han subpopulations. The genetic differences of Han subpopulations should be considered when genetic susceptibility for diseases is studied. © 2013 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  1. Pauli Paramagnetic Susceptibility of an Ideal Anyon Gas within Haldane Fractional Exclusion Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2012-01-01

    The finite-temperature Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility of a three-dimensional ideal anyon gas obeying Haldane fractional exclusion statistics is studied analytically. Different from the result of an ideal Fermi gas, the susceptibility of an ideal anyon gas depends on a statistical factor g in Haldane statistics model. The low-temperature and high-temperature behaviors of the susceptibility are investigated in detail. The Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility of the two-dimensional ideal anyons is also derived. It is found that the reciprocal of the susceptibility has the similar factorizable property which is exhibited in some thermodynamic quantities in two dimensions.

  2. SCC susceptibility evaluation of plastic deformed austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshima, Yoshiari; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Slow strain rate temperature (SSRT) tests were carried out to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of deformed SUS316 stainless steel in simulated primary water of pressurized water reactor (PWR). The influence of material hardness and temperature on SCC susceptibility was studied. From these tests following results were obtained. (1) Both of the total SCC and IGSCC susceptibilities increased as the hardness of deformed specimens increased. Especially over 250{approx}300HV area, this tendency remarkably increased. (2) The reduction ratio showed a plateau under 300HV area. However, over 300HV area, it decreased remarkably as the hardness increased, that is, the SCC susceptibility remarkably increased. (3) Based on the SSRT test results conducted at 320, 340 and 360degC, the total SCC susceptibility dependence on temperature was small and the IGSCC susceptibility was dependent on the temperature. From these results, the TGSCC susceptibility dependence on temperature was also small. The activation energy of total SCC and IGSCC susceptibility were calculated. (author)

  3. Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)

  4. Ductility dip cracking susceptibility of Inconel Filler Metal 52 and Inconel Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikel, J.M.; Parker, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 have become the materials of choice for commercial nuclear steam generator applications in recent years. Filler Metal 52 exhibits improved resistance to weld solidification and weld-metal liquation cracking as compared to other nickel-based filler metals. However, recently published work indicates that Filler Metal 52 is susceptible to ductility dip cracking (DDC) in highly restrained applications. Susceptibility to fusion zone DDC was evaluated using the transverse varestraint test method, while heat affected zone (HAZ) DDC susceptibility was evaluated using a newly developed spot-on-spot varestraint test method. Alloy 690 and Filler Metal 52 cracking susceptibility was compared to the DDC susceptibility of Alloy 600, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625. In addition, the effect of grain size and orientation on cracking susceptibility was also included in this study. Alloy 690, Filler Metal 82, Filler Metal 52, and Filler Metal 625 were found more susceptible to fusion zone DDC than Alloy 600. Filler Metal 52 and Alloy 690 were found more susceptible to HAZ DDC when compared to wrought Alloy 600, Filler Metal 82 and Filler Metal 625. Filler Metal 52 exhibited the greatest susceptibility to HAZ DDC of all the weld metals evaluated. The base materials were found much more resistant to HAZ DDC in the wrought condition than when autogenously welded. A smaller grain size was found to offer greater resistance to DDC. For weld metal where grain size is difficult to control, a change in grain orientation was found to improve resistance to DDC

  5. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Blakeslee, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215 0 C or below 70 0 C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215 0 C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work

  6. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase increases caffeine- and halothane-induced contractures in muscle bundles of malignant hyperthermia susceptible and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roewer Norbert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant hyperthermia (MH is triggered by halogenated anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants, leading to an uncontrolled hypermetabolic state of skeletal muscle. An uncontrolled sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release is mediated via the ryanodine receptor. A compensatory mechanism of increased sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase activity was described in pigs and in transfected cell lines. We hypothesized that inhibition of Ca2+ reuptake via the sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced muscle contractures in MH susceptible more than in non-susceptible skeletal muscle. Methods With informed consent, surplus muscle bundles of 7 MHS (susceptible, 7 MHE (equivocal and 16 MHN (non-susceptible classified patients were mounted to an isometric force transducer, electrically stimulated, preloaded and equilibrated. Following 15 min incubation with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA 25 μM, the European MH standard in-vitro-contracture test protocol with caffeine (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 mM and halothane (0.11; 0.22; 0.44; 0.66 mM was performed. Data as median and quartiles; Friedman- and Wilcoxon-test for differences with and without CPA; p Results Initial length, weight, maximum twitch height, predrug resting tension and predrug twitch height of muscle bundles did not differ between groups. CPA increased halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures significantly. This increase was more pronounced in MHS and MHE than in MHN muscle bundles. Conclusion Inhibition of the SERCA activity by CPA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures especially in MHS and MHE skeletal muscle and may help for the diagnostic assignment of MH susceptibility. The status of SERCA activity may play a significant but so far unknown role in the genesis of malignant hyperthermia.

  7. Cancer cells recovering from damage exhibit mitochondrial restructuring and increased aerobic glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akakura, Shin; Ostrakhovitch, Elena; Sanokawa-Akakura, Reiko [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tabibzadeh, Siamak, E-mail: fbs@bioscience.org [Frontiers in Bioscience Research Institute in Aging and Cancer, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Dept of Oncologic Radiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • Some cancer cells recover from severe damage that causes cell death in majority of cells. • Damage-Recovered (DR) cancer cells show reduced mitochondria, mDNA and mitochondrial enzymes. • DR cells show increased aerobic glycolysis, ATP, cell proliferation, and resistance to damage. • DR cells recovered from in vivo damage also show increased glycolysis and proliferation rate. - Abstract: Instead of relying on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells rely heavily on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed as “the Warburg effect”. We considered that this effect is a direct consequence of damage which persists in cancer cells that recover from damage. To this end, we studied glycolysis and rate of cell proliferation in cancer cells that recovered from severe damage. We show that in vitro Damage-Recovered (DR) cells exhibit mitochondrial structural remodeling, display Warburg effect, and show increased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and tolerance to damage. To test whether cancer cells derived from tumor microenvironment can show similar properties, we isolated Damage-Recovered (T{sup DR}) cells from tumors. We demonstrate that T{sup DR} cells also show increased aerobic glycolysis and a high proliferation rate. These findings show that Warburg effect and its consequences are induced in cancer cells that survive severe damage.

  8. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  9. Immunological bases of increased susceptibility to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infection in children with malaria and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Tonney S; Mandala, Wilson L; Gordon, Melita A; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2017-12-15

    Malaria and anaemia are key underlying factors for iNTS disease in African children. Knowledge of clinical and epidemiological risk-factors for iNTS disease has not been paralleled by an in-depth knowledge of the immunobiology of the disease. Herein, we review human and animal studies on mechanisms of increased susceptibility to iNTS in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. c-axis ac susceptibility in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, O.; Lichtschlag, G.; Talalaevskii, A.; Kleiner, R.; Mueller, P.; Steinmeyer, F.; Gerhaeuser, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the angle and magnetic field dependence of the ac susceptibility in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals at low external fields. The ac field was applied perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes. The first and third harmonics of the ac susceptibility exhibit remarkably sharp features when the dc field component perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes passes a threshold field H th . H th is strongly temperature dependent, but is independent of the parallel field component. We propose a simple model which excellently explains the data. Within this model the peak structures are related to the irreversibility line. We discuss the implications of the model for the interpretation of the ac susceptibility. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor B (TNFB) Genetic Variants and Its Increased Expression Are Associated with Vitiligo Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Gani, Amina R.; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2013-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in TNFB are involved in the regulation of its expression and are found to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TNFB +252A/G (rs909253) and exon 3 C/A (rs1041981) polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo susceptibility, and expression of TNFB and ICAM1 affects the disease onset and progression. We have earlier reported the role of TNFA in autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo, and we now show the involvement of TNFB in vitiligo pathogenesis. The two polymorphisms investigated in the TNFB were in strong linkage disequilibrium and significantly associated with vitiligo. TNFB and ICAM1 transcripts were significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Active vitiligo patients showed significant increase in TNFB transcripts compared to stable vitiligo. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that TNFB expression levels were higher in patients with GG and AA genotypes as compared to controls. Patients with the early age of onset and female patients showed higher TNFB and ICAM1 expression. Overall, our findings suggest that the increased TNFB transcript levels in vitiligo patients could result, at least in part, from variations at the genetic level which in turn leads to increased ICAM1 expression. For the first time, we show that TNFB +252A/G and exon 3 C/A polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo susceptibility and influence the TNFB and ICAM1 expression. Moreover, the study also emphasizes influence of TNFB and ICAM1 on the disease progression, onset and gender bias for developing vitiligo. PMID:24312346

  12. Entitlement Can Both Decrease and Increase Consumer Susceptibility to Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Martine; Fennis, Bob; van Ittersum, Koert; Trampe, Debra; Diehl, Kristin; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Two studies indicate that entitlement—a sense that one deserves special treatment and is exempt from normal social demands—can both buffer and boost consumers’ proneness to social influence. Specifically, Study 1 shows that entitlement reduces susceptibility to consistency appeals. Study 2, however,

  13. High temperature magnetic susceptibility of the Nb-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter, J.-M.

    1983-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility chi(T,x) of various NbHsub(x) specimens with 0 - 5 to 1.25 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 in this hydrogen concentration range and exhibits a marked break at x approximately 0.6. An estimate of the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility chisub(P) for the two limiting concentrations allowed the evaluation of the orbital paramagnetic susceptibility chisub(O). For x = 0 and x approximately 0.8 the values of chisub(P) are 1.05 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 0.39 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively and the values of chisub(O) are 1.73 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 1.08 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively. The magnetic susceptibility decreases by approximately 10% on going from the concentrated solid solution to the monohydride. (Auth.)

  14. Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Weissmann, Gary S; Fogg, Graham E; Lu, Bingqing; Sun, HongGuang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-05

    Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3- d ), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3- d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3- d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

  15. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris Mumbi Munyaka

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota.Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted.ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels.The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers.

  16. Antepartum Antibiotic Treatment Increases Offspring Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: A Role of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Peris Mumbi; Eissa, N; Bernstein, Charles Noah; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal maturation of the immune system is largely driven by exposure to microbes, and thus the nature of intestinal colonization may be associated with development of childhood diseases that may persist into adulthood. We investigated whether antepartum antibiotic (ATB) therapy can increase offspring susceptibility to experimental colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were treated with cefazolin at 160 mg/kg body weight or with saline starting six days before due date. At 7 weeks, fecal samples were collected from male offspring after which they received 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. Disease activity index, histology, colonic IL-6, IL-1β and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. The V3-V4 region of colonic and fecal bacterial 16S rRNA was sequenced. Alpha-, beta-diversity and differences at the phylum and genus levels were determined, while functional pathways of classified bacteria were predicted. ATB influenced fecal bacterial composition and hence bacterial functional pathways before induction of colitis. After induction of colitis, ATB increased onset of clinical disease, histologic score, and colonic IL-6. In addition, ATB decreased fecal microbial richness, changed fecal and colon microbial composition, which was accompanied by a modification of microbial functional pathways. Also, several taxa were associated with ATB at lower taxonomical levels. The results support the hypothesis that antepartum antibiotics modulate offspring intestinal bacterial colonization and increase susceptibility to develop colonic inflammation in a murine model of colitis, and may guide future interventions to restore physiologic intestinal colonization in offspring born by antibiotic-exposed mothers.

  17. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczorowski, D.; Muenster Univ.; Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W.; Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T N =100±2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author)

  18. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczorowski, D. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research)

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T[sub N]=100[+-]2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author).

  19. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere shortening owing to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, whereas overexpression leads to telomere elongation, extended life span, and enhanced bone formation. To study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we...... studied the phenotype of telomerase-deficient mice (Terc(-/-)).Terc(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months of follow-up revealed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanning and by micro-computed tomography (mu CT). Bone...... histomorphometry revealed decreased mineralized surface and bone-formation rate as well as increased osteoclast number and size in Terc(-/-) mice. Also, serum total deoxypyridinoline (tDPD) was increased in Terc(-/-) mice. MSCs and osteoprogenitors isolated from Terc(-l-) mice exhibited intrinsic defects...

  20. The increased susceptibility of hematopoietic stem cells to Friend leukemia virus in the repopulating period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake; Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1977-01-01

    The present study considers two fundamental problems of leukemia and stem cells: (1) whether the target cells for malignant transformation of Friend leukemia virus (FV) are the pluripotential stem cells; (2) whether the susceptibility of the target cell is changeable depending on the proliferating state of the cell. In the experiments, inbred 8- to 12-week-old C3H/He and BC3Fl hybrid mice were used. As target cells for FV, two candidate cell populations should be considered. These are the pluripotential stem cells expressed as CFUs and the committed stem cells expressed as erythropoietin-responsive cells (ERC). According to our preliminary experiments on the recovery patterns of CFUs or ERC, after a single 150 rads X-irradiation (X) or administration of 215 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY), it was clear that the repopulation of CFUs was quite different from that of ERC. The target cells for FV-induced transformation are the stem cells expressed as CFUs and the susceptibility of these increases under conditions of active repopulation after X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide administration. After the irradiation especially, this effect is dose-dependent for doses over 25 rads at 2 weeks after irradiation. (Auth.)

  1. Acidosis increases the susceptibility of respiratory epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Iviana M; Demirdjian, Sally; Vargas, Jennifer; Goodale, Britton C; Berwin, Brent

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment, which is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Our findings support the idea that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication. Importantly, enforced maintenance of neutral pH during P. aeruginosa infection demonstrates that cytotoxicity is dependent on the acidosis. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that host cell cytotoxicity correlated with increased bacterial survival during an acidic infection that was due to reduced bactericidal activity of host-derived antimicrobial peptides. These findings extend previous reports that the activities of antimicrobial peptides are pH-dependent and provide novel insights into the consequences of acidosis on infection-derived pathology. Therefore, this report provides the first evidence that physiological levels of acidosis increase the susceptibility of epithelial cells to acute Pseudomonas infection and demonstrates the benefit of maintaining pH homeostasis during a bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Differential GR Expression and Translocation in the Hippocampus Mediates Susceptibility vs. Resilience to Chronic Social Defeat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Qin Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While social stress exposure is a common risk factor for affective disorders, most individuals exposed to it can maintain normal physical and psychological functioning. However, factors that determine susceptibility vs. resilience to social stress remain unclear. Here, the resident-intruder model of social defeat was used as a social stressor in male C57BL/6J mice to investigate the difference between susceptibility and resilience. As depression is often characterized by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, we conducted the present study to further investigate the individual differences in the HPA axis response and glucocorticoid receptor (GR protein expression and translocation between susceptible mice and resilient mice. We found that hypercortisolemia, induced by social defeat stress occurred in susceptible mice, but not in resilient mice. Moreover, susceptible mice exhibited significantly less GR protein expression and nuclear translocation in the hippocampus than resilient mice. Treatment with escitalopram could decrease the serum corticosterone (CORT, increase GR protein expression as well as nuclear translocation in the hippocampus and ultimately reverse social withdrawal behaviors in susceptible mice. These results indicate that the up-regulation of GR and the enhancement of GR nuclear translocation in the hippocampus play an important role in resilience to chronic social defeat stress.

  3. Impact of Maspin Polymorphism rs2289520 G/C and Its Interaction with Gene to Gene, Alcohol Consumption Increase Susceptibility to Oral Cancer Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chou, Ying-Erh; Yang, Shun-Fa; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gene polymorphisms of mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) specific to patients with oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathological status. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Maspin gene from 741 patients with oral cancer and 601 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time PCR. The participants with G/G homozygotes or with G/C heterozygotes of Maspin rs2289520 polymorphism had a 2.07-fold (p = 0.01) and a 2.01-fold (p = 0.02) risk of developing oral cancer compared to those with C/C homozygotes. Moreover, gene-gene interaction increased the risk of oral cancer susceptibility among subjects expose to oral cancer related risk factors, including areca, alcohol, and tobacco consumption. G allele of Maspin rs2289520 polymorphism may be a factor that increases the susceptibility to oral cancer. The interactions of gene to oral cancer-related environmental risk factors have a synergetic effect that can further enhance oral cancer development.

  4. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure-specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed with regard to disease etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TGF-b2 induction regulates invasiveness of Theileria-transformed leukocytes and disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chaussepied

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parasites invade and transform bovine leukocytes causing either East Coast fever (T. parva, or tropical theileriosis (T. annulata. Susceptible animals usually die within weeks of infection, but indigenous infected cattle show markedly reduced pathology, suggesting that host genetic factors may cause disease susceptibility. Attenuated live vaccines are widely used to control tropical theileriosis and attenuation is associated with reduced invasiveness of infected macrophages in vitro. Disease pathogenesis is therefore linked to aggressive invasiveness, rather than uncontrolled proliferation of Theileria-infected leukocytes. We show that the invasive potential of Theileria-transformed leukocytes involves TGF-b signalling. Attenuated live vaccine lines express reduced TGF-b2 and their invasiveness can be rescued with exogenous TGF-b. Importantly, infected macrophages from disease susceptible Holstein-Friesian (HF cows express more TGF-b2 and traverse Matrigel with great efficiency compared to those from disease-resistant Sahiwal cattle. Thus, TGF-b2 levels correlate with disease susceptibility. Using fluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy we show that Theileria-infected, disease-susceptible HF macrophages exhibit increased actin dynamics in their lamellipodia and podosomal adhesion structures and develop more membrane blebs. TGF-b2-associated invasiveness in HF macrophages has a transcription-independent element that relies on cytoskeleton remodelling via activation of Rho kinase (ROCK. We propose that a TGF-b autocrine loop confers an amoeboid-like motility on Theileria-infected leukocytes, which combines with MMP-dependent motility to drive invasiveness and virulence.

  6. Dynamics of nonlinear dielectric susceptibility of ferroelectrics near the morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdel-Baset M A; Osman, Junaidah

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the nonlinear (NL) dielectric susceptibility of ferroelectrics (FE) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is theoretically investigated based on the Landau–Devonshire free energy approach and the concept of FE soft modes. To do so, the NL dielectric susceptibility elements of FE material in the tetragonal phase are expressed as functions of optical phonon modes. These are the E modes with normal characteristic frequency ω E 2 and the A modes with ω A 2 . On the one hand, the tetragonal E modes appear to exhibit a double soft-mode character, i.e. the mode softens either when the thermodynamic temperature T approaches the transition temperature T c or when the free energy parameter β 1 approaches β 2 . On the other hand, the A modes exhibit single soft-mode character when T approaches T c . Within this formulation, the dynamics of first-, second- and third-order NL susceptibility elements are investigated. The origin of the anomalous behavior of certain NL elements at the MPB appears to be a manifestation of FE mode-softening. This approach provides a simple yet powerful technique to understand the dynamics of the NL dielectric susceptibility elements of FE material near the MPB. (paper)

  7. Magnetic susceptibility of Inconel alloys 718, 625, and 600 at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; Mitchell, Michael R.; Murphy, Allan R.; Goldfarb, Ronald B.; Loughran, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    After a hydrogen fuel bleed valve problem on the Discovery Space Shuttle was traced to the strong magnetization of Inconel 718 in the armature of the linear variable differential transformer near liquid hydrogen temperatures, the ac magnetic susceptibility of three samples of Inconel 718 of slightly different compositions, one sample of Inconel 625, and on sample of Inconel 600 were measured as a function of temperature. Inconel 718 alloys are found to exhibit a spin glass state below 16 K. Inconel 600 exhibits three different magnetic phases, the lowest-temperature state (below 6 K) being somewhat similar to that of Inconel 718. The magnetic states of the Inconel alloys and their magnetic susceptibilities appear to be strongly dependent on the exact composition of the alloy.

  8. The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) increases the susceptibility of uninfected CD4+ T cells to HIV by increasing the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Mark B; Tilton, Carisa A; Mao, Hongxia; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Tabler, Caroline O; Haqqani, Aiman A; Karn, Jonathan; Tilton, John C

    2014-09-01

    Latently infected cells remain a primary barrier to eradication of HIV-1. Over the past decade, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which latency is established and maintained has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that selectively reactivate latent proviruses without inducing polyclonal T cell activation. Recently, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has been demonstrated to induce HIV transcription from latently infected cells when administered to patients. While vorinostat will be given in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART), infection of new cells by induced virus remains a clinical concern. Here, we demonstrate that vorinostat significantly increases the susceptibility of CD4(+) T cells to infection by HIV in a dose- and time-dependent manner that is independent of receptor and coreceptor usage. Vorinostat does not enhance viral fusion with cells but rather enhances the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events, including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration, and enhances viral production in a spreading-infection assay. Selective inhibition of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 with tubacin recapitulated the effect of vorinostat. These findings reveal a previously unknown cytoplasmic effect of HDAC inhibitors promoting productive infection of CD4(+) T cells that is distinct from their well-characterized effects on nuclear histone acetylation and long-terminal-repeat (LTR) transcription. Our results indicate that careful monitoring of patients and ART intensification are warranted during vorinostat treatment and indicate that HDAC inhibitors that selectively target nuclear class I HDACs could reactivate latent HIV without increasing the susceptibility of uninfected cells to HIV. HDAC inhibitors, particularly vorinostat, are currently being investigated clinically as part of a "shock-and-kill" strategy to purge latent reservoirs of HIV. We demonstrate here that vorinostat increases the

  9. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  10. Manipulation of the Xanthophyll Cycle Increases Plant Susceptibility to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle is involved in dissipating excess light energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus in a process commonly assessed from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, it is shown that the xanthophyll cycle is modulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at the early stage of infection. Incubation of Sclerotinia led to a localized increase in NPQ even at low light intensity. Further studies showed that this abnormal change in NPQ was closely correlated with a decreased pH caused by Sclerotinia-secreted oxalate, which might decrease the ATP synthase activity and lead to a deepening of thylakoid lumen acidification under continuous illumination. Furthermore, suppression (with dithiothreitol or a defect (in the npq1-2 mutant of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE abolished the Sclerotinia-induced NPQ increase. HPLC analysis showed that the Sclerotinia-inoculated tissue accumulated substantial quantities of zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin, with a corresponding decrease in neoxanthin content. Immunoassays revealed that the decrease in these xanthophyll precursors reduced de novo abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and apparently weakened tissue defense responses, including ROS induction and callose deposition, resulting in enhanced plant susceptibility to Sclerotinia. We thus propose that Sclerotinia antagonizes ABA biosynthesis to suppress host defense by manipulating the xanthophyll cycle in early pathogenesis. These findings provide a model of how photoprotective metabolites integrate into the defense responses, and expand the current knowledge of early plant-Sclerotinia interactions at infection sites.

  11. Scalar and pseudoscalar susceptibilities in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, Magda; Chanfray, Guy; Chanfray, Guy

    2003-01-01

    We study the two QCD susceptibilities of the nuclear medium in the linear σ model. The magnitude of the scalar one increases due to the mixing with the softer modes of the nucleon-hole excitations. The pseudoscalar susceptibility, follows the density evolution of the quark condensate and thus decreases in magnitude. At normal nuclear matter density the two susceptibilities become much close than in the vacuum, a consequence of the partial chiral symmetry restoration. (author)

  12. 10′(Z),13′(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10′(Z), 13′(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  13. Maternal geohelminth infections are associated with an increased susceptibility to geohelminth infection in children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj S Mehta

    Full Text Available Children of mothers infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH may have an increased susceptibility to STH infection.We did a case-control study nested in a birth cohort in Ecuador. Data from 1,004 children aged 7 months to 3 years were analyzed. Cases were defined as children with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura, controls without. Exposure was defined as maternal infection with A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura, detected during the third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to households with a documented infection to control for infection risk. Children of mothers with STH infections had a greater risk of infection compared to children of uninfected mothers (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.63, p<0.001. This effect was particularly strong in children of mothers with both STH infections (adjusted OR: 5.91, 95% CI: 3.55-9.81, p<0.001. Newborns of infected mothers had greater levels of plasma IL-10 than those of uninfected mothers (p=0.033, and there was evidence that cord blood IL-10 was increased among newborns who became infected later in childhood (p=0.060.Our data suggest that maternal STH infections increase susceptibility to infection during early childhood, an effect that was associated with elevated IL-10 in cord plasma.

  14. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  15. Measurement of complex RF susceptibility using a series Q-meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, Yu.F.; Dulya, C.M.; Niinikoski, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we have for the first time derived closed form expressions for the nuclear magnetic susceptibility in terms of the series Q-meter output voltage. We discuss the corrections involved in determining nuclear polarization from NMR signals by using the deuteron and proton spin systems as examples. Deuteron signals are shown to exhibit a false asymmetry, while proton signals have substantial shape distortions. Moreover, for the first time the importance of making a phase correction is demonstrated. We conclude that the series Q-meter with real part detection is not sufficient to produce an output voltage from which the nuclear susceptibility can be determined. An additional phase-sensitive detector is proposed for obtaining the imaginary part of the signal required for unambiguous extraction of the complex RF susceptibility. ((orig.))

  16. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  17. The Leukotriene B4/BLT1 Axis Is a Key Determinant in Susceptibility and Resistance to Histoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secatto, Adriana; Soares, Elyara Maria; Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Assis, Patricia Aparecida; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderlei Garcia; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; de Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) greatly enhances phagocyte antimicrobial functions against a myriad of pathogens. In murine histoplasmosis, inhibition of the LT-generating enzyme 5-lypoxigenase (5-LO) increases the susceptibility of the host to infection. In this study, we investigated whether murine resistance or susceptibility to Histoplasma capsulatum infection is associated with leukotriene production and an enhancement of in vivo and/or in vitro antimicrobial effector function. We show that susceptible C57BL/6 mice exhibit a higher fungal burden in the lung and spleen, increased mortality, lower expression levels of 5-LO and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1) and decreased LTB4 production compared to the resistant 129/Sv mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous LTs are required for the optimal phagocytosis of H. capsulatum by macrophages from both murine strains, although C57BL/6 macrophages are more sensitive to the effects of LTB4 than 129/Sv macrophages. Therefore, our results provide novel evidence that LTB4 production and BLT1 signaling are required for a histoplasmosis-resistant phenotype. PMID:24465479

  18. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  19. Future warmer seas: increased stress and susceptibility to grazing in seedlings of a marine habitat-forming species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán, Gema; Ortega, María J; Gándara, Alberto M; Castejón, Inés; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Increases in seawater temperature are expected to have negative consequences for marine organisms. Beyond individual effects, species-specific differences in thermal tolerance are predicted to modify species interactions and increase the strength of top-down effects, particularly in plant-herbivore interactions. Shifts in trophic interactions will be especially important when affecting habitat-forming species such as seagrasses, as the consequences on their abundance will cascade throughout the food web. Seagrasses are a major component of coastal ecosystems offering important ecosystem services, but are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, including warming. The mechanistic understanding of seagrass responses to warming at multiple scales of organization remains largely unexplored, especially in early-life stages such as seedlings. Yet, these early-life stages are critical for seagrass expansion processes and adaptation to climate change. In this study, we determined the effects of a 3 month experimental exposure to present and predicted mean summer SST of the Mediterranean Sea (25°C, 27°C, and 29°C) on the photophysiology, size, and ecology (i.e., plant-herbivore interactions) of seedlings of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Warming resulted in increased mortality, leaf necrosis, and respiration as well as lower carbohydrate reserves in the seed, the main storage organ in seedlings. Aboveground biomass and root growth were also limited with warming, which could hamper seedling establishment success. Furthermore, warming increased the susceptibility to consumption by grazers, likely due to lower leaf fiber content and thickness. Our results indicate that warming will negatively affect seagrass seedlings through multiple direct and indirect pathways: increased stress, reduced establishment potential, lower storage of carbohydrate reserves, and increased susceptibly to consumption. This work provides a significant step forward in understanding the

  20. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of transition metal alloys with a hcp structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenshtejn, N.V.; Galoshina, Eh.V.; Gorina, N.B.; Korenovskij, N.L.; Polyakova, V.P.; Savitskij, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals of Ru-Nb, Re-W and Os-Re alloys is investigated in the region of the hexagonal closely packed structure. The spin susceptibility is estimated on the basis of available data on the electron specific heat. The principal values of the orbital component of the susceptibility are determined under the assumption of isotopy of the spin contribution to the susceptibility. In Ru-Nb alloys the magnitudes of the orbital contributions and the susceptibility anisotropy are found to increase; in Re-W the spin contribution is noticeably greater whereas the orbital susceptibility is smaller, as is the anistropy. In the Os-Re alloy the orbital contributions increase and the susceptibility anisotropy is constant. It is suggested that the addition of the second component changes the overlapping of the d-electron wave functions

  2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  3. Drought increases cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) susceptibility to cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) at early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodolpho G G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Martins, Thiago F; Varela, Anna L N; Souza, Pedro F N; Lobo, Ana K M; Silva, Fredy D A; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2016-12-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of a drought tolerant, virus-susceptible cowpea genotype exposed to drought stress (D), infected by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) (V), and to these two combined stresses (DV), at 2 and 6 days post viral inoculation (DPI), were evaluated. Gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 partial pressure) were reduced in D and DV at 2 and 6 DPI compared to control plants (C). Photosynthesis was reduced by stomatal and biochemical limitations. Water use efficiency increased at 2 DPI in D, DV, and V, but at 6 DPI only in D and DV compared to C. Photochemical parameters (effective quantum efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport rate) decreased in D and DV compared to C, especially at 6 DPI. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II did not change, indicating reversible photoinhibition of photosystem II. In DV, catalase decreased at 2 and 6 DPI, ascorbate peroxidase increased at 2 DPI, but decreased at 6 DPI. Hydrogen peroxide increased at 2 and 6 DPI. Peroxidase increased at 6 DPI and chitinase at 2 and 6 DPI. β-1,3-glucanase decreased in DV at 6 DPI compared to V. Drought increased cowpea susceptibility to CPSMV at 2 DPI, as verified by RT-PCR. However, at 6 DPI, the cowpea plants overcome this effect. Likewise, CPSMV increased the negative effects of drought at 2 DPI, but not at 6 DPI. It was concluded that the responses to combined stresses are not additive and cannot be extrapolated from the study of individual stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin 1 alpha increases the susceptibility of rabbits to experimental viridans streptococcal endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert, J; Joldersma, W; Zaat, SAJ; van der Werff, J.

    Major predisposing conditions for infective endocarditis (IE) are the presence of a cardiac platelet-fibrin vegetation and of circulating bacteria with relatively low susceptibility to microbicidal activity of blood platelets. The influence of proinflammatory conditions on development of IE is

  5. Ankyrin-1 Gene Exhibits Allelic Heterogeneity in Conferring Protection Against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ming Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelic heterogeneity is a common phenomenon where a gene exhibits a different phenotype depending on the nature of its genetic mutations. In the context of genes affecting malaria susceptibility, it allowed us to explore and understand the intricate host–parasite interactions during malaria infections. In this study, we described a gene encoding erythrocytic ankyrin-1 (Ank-1 which exhibits allelic-dependent heterogeneous phenotypes during malaria infections. We conducted an ENU mutagenesis screen on mice and identified two Ank-1 mutations, one resulting in an amino acid substitution (MRI95845, and the other a truncated Ank-1 protein (MRI96570. Both mutations caused hereditary spherocytosis-like phenotypes and confer differing protection against Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Upon further examination, the Ank-1(MRI96570 mutation was found to inhibit intraerythrocytic parasite maturation, whereas Ank-1(MRI95845 caused increased bystander erythrocyte clearance during infection. This is the first description of allelic heterogeneity in ankyrin-1 from the direct comparison between two Ank-1 mutations. Despite the lack of direct evidence from population studies, this data further supported the protective roles of ankyrin-1 mutations in conferring malaria protection. This study also emphasized the importance of such phenomena in achieving a better understanding of host–parasite interactions, which could be the basis of future studies.

  6. Assessing the antibiotic susceptibility of freshwater cyanobacteria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa eDias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater is a vehicle for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in freshwater, where they are exposed to antibiotics and resistant organisms, but their role on water resistome was never evaluated. Data concerning the effects of antibiotics on cyanobacteria, obtained by distinct methodologies, is often contradictory. This emphasizes the importance of developing procedures to understand the trends of antibiotic susceptibility in cyanobacteria. In this study we aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of four cyanobacterial isolates from different genera (Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon gracile, Chrisosporum bergii, Planktothix agradhii, and among them nine isolates from the same specie (M. aeruginosa to distinct antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, kanamycine, gentamicine, tetracycline, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin. We used a method adapted from the bacteria standard broth microdilution. Cyanobacteria were exposed to serial dilution of each antibiotic (0.0015-1.6 mg/L in Z8 medium (20 ± 1 ºC; 14/10 h L/D cycle; light intensity 16 ± 4 µEm-2 s-1. Cell growth was followed overtime (OD450nm/microscopic examination and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were calculated for each antibiotic/isolate. We found that -lactams exhibited the lower MICs, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and norfloxacine presented intermediate MICs; none of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim and nalidixic acid. The reduced susceptibility of all tested cyanobacteria to some antibiotics suggests that they might be naturally non-susceptible to these compounds, or that that they might became non-susceptible due to antibiotic contamination pressure, or to the transfer of genes from resistant bacteria present in the environment.

  7. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

  8. The cytokine polymorphisms affecting Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Gotoh, Nanami; Nitta, Yasuhiro; Alkebsi, Lobna; Kasamatsu, Tetsuhiro; Minato, Yusuke; Yokohama, Akihiko; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2017-05-16

    T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional polymorphisms on both susceptibility to, and severity of, cITP. We analysed IFN-γ + 874 T/A, IFN-γR -611G/A, IL-4 -590C/T, and IL-4Rα Q576R polymorphisms in 126 cITP patients (male/female: 34/92; median age: 47.7 years) and 202 healthy control donors. Genotyping was determined by PCR and direct sequencing. The Th1/Th2 ratio was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells via flow cytometry. cITP patients had a higher frequency of the IL-4Rα 576 non-QQ genotype compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.04). cITP patients with the IFN-γ +874 non-AA genotype (high expression type) showed more severe thrombocytopenia than those with the AA genotype (P Th1/Th2 ratio than control patients (P Th1/Th2 ratio (P Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

  9. Interleukin-15 promotes intestinal dysbiosis with butyrate deficiency associated with increased susceptibility to colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Marlies; Mayassi, Toufic; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Koval, Jason C.; O' Brien, Sarah L.; Hinterleitner, Reinhard; Lesko, Kathryn; Kim, Sangman; Bouziat, Romain; Chen, Li; Weber, Christopher R.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.

    2016-09-20

    Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and play a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored. Analysis of 16S rRNA-based inventories of bacterial communities in mice overexpressing IL-15 in the intestinal epithelium (v-IL-15tg mice) shows distinct changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria. While some alterations are specific to individual intestinal compartments, others are found across the ileum, cecum, and feces. In particular, IL-15 overexpression restructures the composition of the microbiota with a decrease in butyrate producing bacteria that is associated with a reduction in luminal butyrate levels across all intestinal compartments. Fecal microbiota transplant experiments of wild-type and v-IL-15tg microbiota into germ-free mice further indicate that diminishing butyrate concentration observed in the intestinal lumen of v-IL-15tg mice is the result of intrinsic alterations in the microbiota induced by IL-15. This reconfiguration of the microbiota is associated with increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Altogether, this study reveals that IL-15 impacts butyrate-producing bacteria and lowers butyrate levels in the absence of overt pathology, which represent events that precede and promote intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  10. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  11. Hypoxia increases susceptibility of Pacific white shrimp to whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS and total hemocyte counts (THC of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g were distributed in 24 tanks (60L, divided in two groups (infected and non-infected, which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate. During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05 after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05, regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.

  12. Mtf-1 lymphoma-susceptibility locus affects retention of large thymocytes with high ROS levels in mice after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kohara, Yuki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Mishima, Yukio; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Kominami, Ryo

    2007-01-01

    Mouse strains exhibit different susceptibilities to γ-ray-induced thymic lymphomas. Our previous study identified Mtf-1 (metal responsive transcription factor-1) as a candidate susceptibility gene, which is involved in the radiation-induced signaling pathway that regulates the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reveal the mechanism for the increased susceptibility conferred by Mtf-1 locus, we examined early effects of γ-ray on ROS levels in vivo and its difference between Mtf-1 susceptible and resistant congenic mice. Here, we show the detection of clonally growing thymocytes at 4 weeks after irradiation, indicating the start of clonal expansion at a very early stage. We also show that large thymocytes with higher ROS levels and a proliferation capacity were more numerous in the Mtf-1 susceptible mice than the resistant mice when examined at 7 days after irradiation, although such tendency was not found in mice lacking one allele of Bcl11b tumor suppressor gene. This high retention of the large thymocytes, at a high risk for ROS-induced mutation, is a compensatory proliferation and regeneration response to depletion of the thymocytes after irradiation and the response is likely to augment the development of prelymphoma cells leading to thymic lymphomas

  13. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  14. The Role of Hydrogen-Enhanced Strain-Induced Lattice Defects on Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of X80 Pipeline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, M.; Suzuki, H.; Seko, Y.; Takai, K.

    2017-08-01

    Studies to date have not completely determined the factors influencing hydrogen embrittlement of ferrite/bainite X80 pipeline steel. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility was evaluated based on fracture strain in tensile testing. We conducted a thermal desorption analysis to measure the amount of tracer hydrogen corresponding to that of lattice defects. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility and the amount of tracer hydrogen significantly increased with decreasing crosshead speed. Additionally, a significant increase in the formation of hydrogen-enhanced strain-induced lattice defects was observed immediately before the final fracture. In contrast to hydrogen-free specimens, the fracture surface of the hydrogen-charged specimens exhibited shallower dimples without nuclei, such as secondary phase particles. These findings indicate that the presence of hydrogen enhanced the formation of lattice defects, particularly just prior to the occurrence of final fracture. This in turn enhanced the formation of shallower dimples, thereby potentially causing premature fracture of X80 pipeline steel at lower crosshead speeds.

  15. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  16. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  17. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal O'Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m(2 and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008. NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/- 13% vs 42% +/-12%, p = 0.04. Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001. NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01. Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002 and lean controls (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  18. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  19. Effects of disruption of heat shock genes on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones

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    Morioka Mizue

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that expression of certain bacterial genes responds rapidly to such stimuli as exposure to toxic chemicals and physical agents. It is generally believed that the proteins encoded in these genes are important for successful survival of the organism under the hostile conditions. Analogously, the proteins induced in bacterial cells exposed to antibiotics are believed to affect the organisms' susceptibility to these agents. Results We demonstrated that Escherichia coli cells exposed to levofloxacin (LVFX, a fluoroquinolone (FQ, induce the syntheses of heat shock proteins and RecA. To examine whether the heat shock proteins affect the bactericidal action of FQs, we constructed E. coli strains with mutations in various heat shock genes and tested their susceptibility to FQs. Mutations in dnaK, groEL, and lon increased this susceptibility; the lon mutant exhibited the greatest effects. The increased susceptibility of the lon mutant was corroborated by experiments in which the gene encoding the cell division inhibitor, SulA, was subsequently disrupted. SulA is induced by the SOS response and degraded by the Lon protease. The findings suggest that the hypersusceptibility of the lon mutant to FQs could be due to abnormally high levels of SulA protein resulting from the depletion of Lon and the continuous induction of the SOS response in the presence of FQs. Conclusion The present results show that the bactericidal action of FQs is moderately affected by the DnaK and GroEL chaperones and strongly affected by the Lon protease. FQs have contributed successfully to the treatment of various bacterial infections, but their widespread use and often misuse, coupled with emerging resistance, have gradually compromised their utility. Our results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting the Lon protease have potential for combination therapy with FQs.

  20. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  1. Age-Associated Changes in Estrogen Receptor Ratios Correlate with Increased Female Susceptibility to Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koenig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual bias is a hallmark in various diseases. This review evaluates sexual dimorphism in clinical and experimental coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 myocarditis, and how sex bias in the experimental disease changes with increased age. Coxsackieviruses are major causes of viral myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle, which is more frequent and severe in men than women. Young male mice infected with CVB3 develop heart-specific autoimmunity and severe myocarditis. Females infected during estrus (high estradiol develop T-regulatory cells and when infected during diestrus (low estradiol develop autoimmunity similar to males. During estrus, protection depends on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, which promotes type I interferon, activation of natural killer/natural killer T cells and suppressor cell responses. Estrogen receptor beta has opposing effects to ERα and supports pro-inflammatory immunity. However, the sexual dimorphism of the disease is significantly ameliorated in aged animals when old females become as susceptible as males. This correlates to a selective loss of the ERα that is required for immunosuppression. Therefore, sex-associated hormones control susceptibility in the virus-mediated disease, but their impact can alter with the age and physiological stage of the individual.

  2. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle During Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH during postnatal development (pCIH causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 hours of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 hrs per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH, where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  3. Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  4. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  5. Third-order susceptibility of gold for ultrathin layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This Letter presents an experimental study of nonlinear plasmonic effects in gold-stripe waveguides. The optical characterization is performed by a picosecond laser and reveals two nonlinear effects related to propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons: nonlinear power transmission...... of plasmonic modes and spectral broadening of plasmonic modes. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are extracted. They exhibit a clear dependence on layer thickness. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  6. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  7. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  9. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Pirpamer, Lukas; Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.

  10. Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens display different susceptibility responses to Cry1A insecticidal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xu, Yangyang; Han, Cao; Han, Lanzhi; Hou, Maolin; Peng, Yufa

    2015-10-01

    Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens are important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently in rice-growing areas of China. The development of transgenic rice expressing Cry1A insecticidal proteins has provided a useful strategy for controlling these pests. This study evaluated the baseline susceptibilities of C. suppressalis and S. inferens to Cry1A, as well as their responses to selection with Cry1A. Wide geographic variation in susceptibility was observed across all field populations. Within a given population, the LC50 of both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac against S. inferens was drastically higher than that of C. suppressalis. Large LC50 differences (74.6-fold) were detected between the two species for Cry1Ab in the Poyang population, while small differences (3.6-fold) were detected for Cry1Ac in the Changsha population. The Cry1Ac LC50 of C. suppressalis and S. inferens increased 8.4- and 4.4-fold after 21 and eight selection generations respectively. Additionally, the estimated realised heritabilities (h(2) ) of Cry1Ac tolerance were 0.11 in C. suppressalis and 0.292 in S. inferens. S. inferens exhibited a significantly lower susceptibility and more rapidly evolved resistance to Cry1A compared with C. suppressalis. Therefore, S. inferens is more likely to evolve increased resistance, which threatens the sustainability of rice expressing Cry1A protein. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  12. The influence of molecular order and microstructure on the R2* and the magnetic susceptibility tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that in the presence of ordered sub-voxel structure such as tubular organization, biomaterials with molecular isotropy exhibits only apparent R2* anisotropy, while biomaterials with molecular anisotropy exhibit both apparent R2* and susceptibility anisotropy by means of susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). To this end, R2* and STI from gradient echo magnitude and phase data were examined in phantoms made from carbon fiber and Gadolinium (Gd) solutions with and without intrinsic molecular order and sub-voxel structure as well as in the in vivo brain. Confidence in the tensor reconstructions was evaluated with a wild bootstrap analysis. Carbon fiber showed both apparent anisotropy in R2* and anisotropy in STI, while the Gd filled capillary tubes only showed apparent anisotropy on R2*. Similarly, white matter showed anisotropic R2* and magnetic susceptibility with higher confidence, while the cerebral veins displayed only strong apparent R2* tensor anisotropy. Ordered sub-voxel tissue microstructure leads to apparent R2* anisotropy, which can be found in both white matter tracts and cerebral veins. However, additional molecular anisotropy is required for magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, which can be found in white matter tracts but not in cerebral veins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous and Exogenous KdpF Peptide Increases Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis BCG to Nitrosative Stress and Reduces Intramacrophage Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Olvera, Mariana; Vivès, Eric; Molle, Virginie; Blanc-Potard, Anne-Béatrice; Gannoun-Zaki, Laila

    2017-01-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria like Mycobacterium sp., poses a threat to human health and therefore calls for the development of novel antibacterial strategies. We have recently discovered that bacterial membrane peptides, such as KdpF, possess anti-virulence properties when overproduced in pathogenic bacterial species. Overproduction of the KdpF peptide in Mycobacterium bovis BCG decreased bacterial replication within macrophages, without presenting antibacterial activity. We propose that KdpF functions as a regulatory molecule and interferes with bacterial virulence, potentially through interaction with the PDIM transporter MmpL7. We demonstrate here that KdpF overproduction in M. bovis BCG, increased bacterial susceptibility to nitrosative stress and thereby was responsible for lower replication rate within macrophages. Moreover, in a bacterial two-hybrid system, KdpF was able to interact not only with MmpL7 but also with two membrane proteins involved in nitrosative stress detoxification (NarI and NarK2), and a membrane protein of unknown function that is highly induced upon nitrosative stress (Rv2617c). Interestingly, we showed that the exogenous addition of KdpF synthetic peptide could affect the stability of proteins that interact with this peptide. Finally, the exogenous KdpF peptide presented similar biological effects as the endogenously expressed peptide including nitrosative stress susceptibility and reduced intramacrophage replication rate for M. bovis BCG. Taken together, our results establish a link between high levels of KdpF and nitrosative stress susceptibility to further highlight KdpF as a potent molecule with anti-virulence properties. PMID:28428950

  14. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of semiconductor melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutvitskij, V.A.; Shurygin, P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature dependences chi of various alloys confirm the existence of cluster formations in molten semiconductors, the stability of these formations in melts being considerably affected by the anion nature. The concentrational dependences of the magnetic susceptibility for all the investigated systems exhibit the diamagnetism maxima corresponding to the compound compositions. Heating the melt causes ''smearing'' the maxima, which is related with the cluster structure dissociation. The existence of the maxima concentrational dependence chi corresponding to BiTe and BiSe is found in the isotherms. The non-linear dependence of chi on the composition shows the absence of a single-valued relation between the phase diagram and the chi-diagram for melts

  16. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Susceptibility of Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to Six Insecticides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Shun-Fan; Ban, Lan-Feng; Su, Jian-Ya; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2014-10-01

    The whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), and small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), both are important crop pests throughout China, especially in rice. Application of chemical insecticides is the major control practice. Consequently, insecticide resistance has become an urgent issue. In this study, resistance levels to six conventional insecticides were evaluated for these two species collected from major occurring areas of China. Additionally, imidacloprid- (resistance ratio [RR] = 10.4-fold) and buprofezin (RR = 15.1-fold)-resistant strains of whitebacked planthopper were obtained through laboratory selections for cross-resistance profiling and synergism assessment to understand resistance mechanisms. The results showed that all tested populations of both species exhibited low to high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, while remaining susceptible to thiamethoxam. Three of the 14 whitebacked planthopper populations showed low to moderate resistance to imidacloprid, while all small brown planthopper populations reminded susceptible. All small brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper (except one) populations showed at least moderate resistance (RR = 10.1-271.1) to buprofezin. All small brown planthopper populations remained susceptible to pymetrozine and nitenpyram, and all whitebacked planthopper populations remained susceptible to isoprocarb. The imidacloprid-resistant whitebacked planthopper strain showed no significant cross-resistance to other tested insecticides. However, the buprofezin-resistant strain exhibited a low-level cross-resistance (CR = 3.1) to imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide, triphenyl phosphate, and diethylmaleate displayed no synergism effect on the resistant whitebacked planthopper strains. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  18. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with 3 H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with 125 I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae

  19. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  20. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples 〈 χ 〉 with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility 〈 χ 〉 of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = 〈 χ 〉 /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  1. Effects of thermal aging and stress triaxiality on PWSCC initiation susceptibility of nickel-based Alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Ji Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In present study, effects of thermal aging and triaxial stress were investigated in terms of primary water stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The thermal aging was applied via heat treatment at 400°C and triaxial stress was applied via notched tensile test specimen. The crack initiation time of each specimen were then measured by direct current potential drop method during slow strain rate test at primary water environment. Alloys with 10 years thermal aging exhibited the highest susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking and asreceived specimen shows lowest susceptibility. The trend was different with triaxial stress applied; 20 years thermal aging specimen shows highest susceptibility and as-received specimen shows lowest. It would be owing to change of precipitate morphology during thermal aging and different activated slip system in triaxial stress state.

  2. Investigation of potential non-HLA rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in a European cohort increases the evidence for nine markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plant, Darren; Flynn, Edward; Mbarek, Hamdi; Dieudé, Philippe; Cornelis, François; Arlestig, Lisbeth; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapää; Goulielmos, George; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos; Johansen, Julia S; Ørnbjerg, Lykke M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Klareskog, Lars; Filer, Andrew; Buckley, Christopher D; Raza, Karim; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Worthington, Jane

    BACKGROUND: Genetic factors have a substantial role in determining development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and are likely to account for 50-60% of disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies have identified non-human leucocyte antigen RA susceptibility loci which associate with RA with

  3. Mitochondrial vulnerability and increased susceptibility to nutrient-induced cytotoxicity in fibroblasts from leigh syndrome French canadian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Burelle

    Full Text Available Mutations in LRPPRC are responsible for the French Canadian variant of Leigh Syndrome (LSFC, a severe disorder characterized biochemically by a tissue-specific deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX and clinically by the occurrence of severe and deadly acidotic crises. Factors that precipitate these crises remain unclear. To better understand the physiopathology and identify potential treatments, we performed a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial function in LSFC and control fibroblasts. Furthermore, we have used this cell-based model to screen for conditions that promote premature cell death in LSFC cells and test the protective effect of ten interventions targeting well-defined aspects of mitochondrial function. We show that, despite maintaining normal ATP levels, LSFC fibroblasts present several mitochondrial functional abnormalities under normal baseline conditions, which likely impair their capacity to respond to stress. This includes mitochondrial network fragmentation, impaired oxidative phosphorylation capacity, lower membrane potential, increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, but no changes in reactive oxygen species production. We also show that LSFC fibroblasts display enhanced susceptibility to cell death when exposed to palmitate, an effect that is potentiated by high lactate, while high glucose or acidosis alone or in combination were neutral. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compounds that are known to promote flux through the electron transport chain independent of phosphorylation (methylene blue, dinitrophenol, or modulate fatty acid (L-carnitine or Krebs cycle metabolism (propionate are protective, while antioxidants (idebenone, N-acetyl cysteine, resveratrol exacerbate palmitate plus lactate-induced cell death. Collectively, beyond highlighting multiple alterations in mitochondrial function and increased susceptibility to nutrient-induced cytotoxicity in LSFC fibroblasts, these results raise

  4. Mean magnetic susceptibility regularized susceptibility tensor imaging (MMSR-STI) for estimating orientations of white matter fibers in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-09-01

    An increasing number of studies show that magnetic susceptibility in white matter fibers is anisotropic and may be described by a tensor. However, the limited head rotation possible for in vivo human studies leads to an ill-conditioned inverse problem in susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Here we suggest the combined use of limiting the susceptibility anisotropy to white matter and imposing morphology constraints on the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) for regularizing the STI inverse problem. The proposed MMS regularized STI (MMSR-STI) method was tested using computer simulations and in vivo human data collected at 3T. The fiber orientation estimated from both the STI and MMSR-STI methods was compared to that from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Computer simulations show that the MMSR-STI method provides a more accurate estimation of the susceptibility tensor than the conventional STI approach. Similarly, in vivo data show that use of the MMSR-STI method leads to a smaller difference between the fiber orientation estimated from STI and DTI for most selected white matter fibers. The proposed regularization strategy for STI can improve estimation of the susceptibility tensor in white matter. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  6. Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany F Sears

    Full Text Available Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus ( = Bufo terrestris (southern toad, Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog, Lithobates ( = Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog. These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random.

  7. Dielectric and diamagnetic susceptibilities near percolative superconductor-insulator transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yen Lee; Karki, Pragalv

    2017-10-25

    Coarse-grained superconductor-insulator composites exhibit a superconductor-insulator transition governed by classical percolation, which should be describable by networks of inductors and capacitors. We study several classes of random inductor-capacitor networks on square lattices. We present a unifying framework for defining electric and magnetic response functions, and we extend the Frank-Lobb bond-propagation algorithm to compute these quantities by network reduction. We confirm that the superfluid stiffness scales approximately as [Formula: see text] as the superconducting bond fraction p approaches the percolation threshold p c . We find that the diamagnetic susceptibility scales as [Formula: see text] below percolation, and as [Formula: see text] above percolation. For models lacking self-capacitances, the electric susceptibility scales as [Formula: see text]. Including a self-capacitance on each node changes the critical behavior to approximately [Formula: see text].

  8. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  9. Epstein–Barr Virus Susceptibility in Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Carpier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated PI3Kδ Syndrome (APDS is an inherited immune disorder caused by heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ subunits p110δ or p85δ. This recently described primary immunodeficiency disease (PID is characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphoproliferation, and susceptibility to herpesviruses, with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV infection being most notable. A broad range of PIDs having disparate, molecularly defined genetic etiology can cause susceptibility to EBV, lymphoproliferative disease, and lymphoma. Historically, PID patients with loss-of-function mutations causing defective cell-mediated cytotoxicity or antigen receptor signaling were found to be highly susceptible to pathological EBV infection. By contrast, the gain of function in PI3K signaling observed in APDS patients paradoxically renders these patients susceptible to EBV, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. At a cellular level, APDS patients exhibit deranged B lymphocyte development and defects in class switch recombination, which generally lead to defective immunoglobulin production. Moreover, APDS patients also demonstrate an abnormal skewing of T cells toward terminal effectors with short telomeres and senescence markers. Here, we review APDS with a particular focus on how the altered lymphocyte biology in these patients may confer EBV susceptibility.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility in the edged topological disordered nanoscopic cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizabadi, Edris; Omidi, Mahboubeh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of edged topological disorder on magnetic susceptibility are investigated in a nanoscopic cylinder threaded by a magnetic flux. Persistent current versus even or odd number of electrons shows different signs in ordered and disordered cylinders and also in short or long ones. In addition, temperature-averaged susceptibility has only diamagnetic signs in strong regimes and it is associated with paramagnetic signs in ordered and weak disordered ones. Besides, in an edged topological disordered cylinder, the temperature-averaged susceptibility decreases by raising the temperature somewhat and then increasing initiates and finally at high temperature tends to zero as the ordered one. - Research highlights: → Magnetic susceptibility in one-dimensional topological disordered quantum ring. → Edged topological disorder effect on magnetic susceptibility in nanoscopic cylinder. → Edged topological disorder effect on temperature-averaged susceptibility in cylinder.

  11. Changes in human dendritic cell number and function in severe obesity may contribute to increased susceptibility to viral infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, D

    2013-02-26

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune sentinels linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs recognise danger signals and initiate T-cell tolerance, memory and polarisation. They are critical cells in responding to a viral illness. Obese individuals have been shown to have an impaired response to vaccinations against virally mediated conditions and to have an increased susceptibility to multi-organ failure in response to viral illness. We investigated if DCs are altered in an obese cohort (mean body mass index 51.7±7.3 kg m(-2)), ultimately resulting in differential T-cell responses. Circulating DCs were found to be significantly decreased in the obese compared with the lean cohort (0.82% vs 2.53%). Following Toll-like receptor stimulation, compared with lean controls, DCs generated from the obese cohort upregulated significantly less CD83 (40% vs 17% mean fluorescence intensity), a molecule implicated in the elicitation of T-cell responses, particularly viral responses. Obese DCs produced twofold more of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 than lean controls, and in turn stimulated fourfold more IL-4-production from allogenic naive T cells. We conclude that obesity negatively impacts the ability of DCs to mature and elicit appropriate T-cell responses to a general stimulus. This may contribute to the increased susceptibility to viral infection observed in severe obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 February 2013; doi:10.1038\\/ijo.2013.16.

  12. Detection and impact on cancer causation of persons exhibiting abnormal susceptibility to carcinogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The so-called 'late biological effects', like cancer and genetic consequences and cytotoxic effects (cell killing, at higher doses), were once thought to be an inevitable consequence of a given level of exposure, whether to background radiation, to chemicals in our biosphere, or form spontaneous damage, the 'wear and tear' of living. The measurement of exposure, which results in living organisms in the formation of a related amount of DNA damage, became a surrogate for the end-effects that constitute risk. This may not be entirely appropriate. The concept of 'equal exposure -- equal risk' assumes a homogeneous response of individuals. However, there are subgroups within the human population of persons whose cultured cells exhibit abnormal sensitivity to specific carcinogenic agents and who may be at increased risk of cancer induced by these of similar agents. Modern molecular biology has shown that the majority of the damage in DNA is repaired by enzymatic DNA repair processes that restitute or ameliorate the lesions and restore normal DNA structure and function. In this view, it is not the initial damage that is of consequence but rather the residual damage left after the repair processes have acted. Since the vast majority of the initial DNA damage undergoes repair normally, variation in the efficiency of these processes in different persons may affect the actual risk of exposure. The human side of the cancer causation formula, that is, considerable importance. To understand how human DNA repair processes function, our laboratories at Chalk River have studied 'mutant' human cell strains in tissue culture. Generally, these DNA repair-defective cell strains are derived from individual donors with heritable disorders that are associated with carcinogen-hypersensitivity and cancer-proneness. Such studies, together with related epidemiological research, have highlighted the importance of this new 'human' factor in carcinogenesis

  13. Effects of phase constitution of Zr-Nb alloys on their magnetic susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Suyalatu; Kondo, Ryota; Doi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities and microstructures of Zr-Nb binary alloys were investigated to develop a new metallic biomaterial with a low magnetic susceptibility for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic susceptibility was measured with a magnetic susceptibility balance, and the microstructure was evaluated with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), an optical microscope (OM), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Zr-Nb alloys as-cast showed a minimum value of magnetic susceptibility between 3 and 9 mass% Nb, and the value abruptly increased up to 20 mass% Nb, followed by a gradual increase with the increase of the Nb content. XRD, OM, and TEM revealed that the minimum value of the susceptibility was closely related to the appearance of the athermal ω phase in the β phase. Since the magnetic susceptibility of Zr-3Nb alloy consisting of an α' phase was as low as that of Zr-9Nb alloy consisting of the β and ω phases, that of the ω phase was lower than that of the α' and β phases. When Zr-16Nb alloy was heat-treated, the isothermal ω phase appeared, and, simultaneously, the magnetic susceptibility decreased. Therefore, the ω phase contributes to the decrease of the magnetic susceptibility, independently of the formation process of the ω phase. The magnetic susceptibility of the Zr-3Nb alloy as-cast was almost one-third that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which is commonly used for medical implant devices. Zr-Nb alloys are useful for medical devices used under MRI. (author)

  14. Nanotoxicity overview: nano-threat to susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Bing

    2014-02-28

    Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations) have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  15. Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  16. In Vitro Resistance Studies with Bacteria That Exhibit Low Mutation Frequencies: Prediction of “Antimutant” Linezolid Concentrations Using a Mixed Inoculum Containing both Susceptible and Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikova, Maria V.; Strukova, Elena N.; Portnoy, Yury A.; Romanov, Andrey V.; Edelstein, Mikhail V.; Zinner, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial resistance studies using in vitro dynamic models are highly dependent on the starting inoculum that might or might not contain spontaneously resistant mutants (RMs). To delineate concentration-resistance relationships with linezolid-exposed Staphylococcus aureus, a mixed inoculum containing both susceptible cells and RMs was used. An RM selected after the 9th passage of the parent strain (MIC, 2 μg/ml) on antibiotic-containing media (RM9; MIC, 8 μg/ml) was chosen for the pharmacodynamic studies, because the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of linezolid against the parent strain in the presence of RM9 at 102 (but not at 104) CFU/ml did not differ from the MPC value determined in the absence of the RMs. Five-day treatments with twice-daily linezolid doses were simulated at concentrations either between the MIC and MPC or above the MPC. S. aureus RMs (resistant to 2× and 4× MIC but not 8× and 16× MIC) were enriched at ratios of the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the MIC that provide linezolid concentrations between the MIC and MPC for 100% (AUC24/MIC, 60 h) and 86% (AUC24/MIC, 120 h) of the dosing interval. No such enrichment occurred when linezolid concentrations were above the MIC and below the MPC for a shorter time (37% of the dosing interval; AUC24/MIC, 240 h) or when concentrations were consistently above the MPC (AUC24/MIC, 480 h). These findings obtained using linezolid-susceptible staphylococci supplemented with RMs support the mutant selection window hypothesis. This method provides an option to delineate antibiotic concentration-resistance relationships with bacteria that exhibit low mutation frequencies. PMID:25451050

  17. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  18. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  19. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible

  20. Subtype Specific Differences in NS5A Domain II Reveals Involvement of Proline at Position 310 in Cyclosporine Susceptibility of Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr-ul H. Ansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is susceptible to cyclosporine (CsA and other cyclophilin (CypA inhibitors, but the genetic basis of susceptibility is controversial. Whether genetic variation in NS5A alters cell culture susceptibility of HCV to CypA inhibition is unclear. We constructed replicons containing NS5A chimeras from genotypes 1a, 2a and 4a to test how variation in carboxy terminal regions of NS5A altered the genotype 1b CsA susceptibility. All chimeric replicons including genotype 1b Con1LN-wt replicon exhibited some cell culture sensitivity to CsA with genotype 4a being most sensitive and 1a the least. The CypA binding pattern of truncated NS5A genotypes correlated with the susceptibility of these replicons to CsA. The Con1LN-wt replicon showed increased susceptibility towards CsA when proline at position 310P was mutated to either threonine or alanine. Furthermore, a 15 amino acid long peptide fused N terminally to GFP coding sequences confirmed involvement of proline at 310 in CypA binding. Our findings are consistent with CypA acting on multiple prolines outside of the previously identified CypA binding sites. These results suggest multiple specific genetic variants between genotype 1a and 1b in the C-terminus of NS5A alter the CsA susceptibility of replicons, and some variants may oppose the effects of others.

  1. High-risk human papillomavirus E7 expression reduces cell-surface MHC class I molecules and increases susceptibility to natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottley, G; Watherston, O G; Hiew, Y-L

    2007-01-01

    a role for E7 in tumour immune evasion. We show that knockdown of E7 expression in HPV16- and HPV18-transformed cervical carcinoma cells by RNA interference increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I at the cell surface and reduced susceptibility of these cells to natural...... killer (NK) cells. Tetracycline-regulated induction of HPV16 E7 resulted in reduced expression of cell surface MHC class I molecules and increased NK cell killing. Our results suggest that, for HPV-associated malignancies, reduced MHC class I expression is the result of an active immune evasion strategy...

  2. Susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry and fear for contracting Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Chawla, Gurasees S

    Risk perception and psychological concerns are relevant for understanding how people view Lyme disease. This study investigates the four separate outcomes of susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear for contracting Lyme disease. University students (n=713) were surveyed about demographics, perceived health, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, Lyme disease history, and Lyme disease miscellaneous variables. We found that women were associated with increased susceptibility and fear. Asian/Asian-American race/ethnicity was associated with increased worry and fear. Perceived good health was associated with increased likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear. Correct knowledge was associated with increased susceptibility and likelihood to be diagnosed. Those who typically spend a lot of time outdoors were associated with increased susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear. In conclusion, healthcare providers and public health campaigns should address susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear about Lyme disease, and should particularly target women and Asians/Asian-Americans to address any possible misconceptions and/or offer effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mice lacking the kf-1 gene exhibit increased anxiety- but not despair-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tsujimura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available KF-1 was originally identified as a protein encoded by human gene with increased expression in the cerebral cortex of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. In mouse brain, kf-1 mRNA is detected predominantly in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and kf-1 gene expression is elevated also in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic antidepressant treatments. KF-1 mediates E2-dependent ubiquitination and may modulate cellular protein levels as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, though its target proteins are not yet identified. To elucidate the role of kf-1 in the central nervous system, we generated kf-1 knockout mice by gene targeting, using Cre-lox recombination. The resulting kf-1−/− mice were normal and healthy in appearance. Behavioral analyses revealed that kf-1−/− mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared with kf-1+/+ littermates in the light/dark transition and elevated plus maze tests; however, no significant differences were observed in exploratory locomotion using the open field test or in behavioral despair using the forced swim and tail suspension tests. These observations suggest that KF-1 suppresses selectively anxiety under physiological conditions probably through modulating protein levels of its unknown target(s. Interestingly, kf-1−/− mice exhibited significantly increased prepulse inhibition, which is usually reduced in human schizophrenic patients. Thus, the kf-1−/− mice provide a novel animal model for elucidating molecular mechanisms of psychiatric diseases such as anxiety/depression, and may be useful for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds.

  4. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  5. Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Edward B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated and compared to imipenem to determine if imipenem susceptibility could be used as a surrogate for ertapenem susceptibility. Methods 100 ESBL isolates (n = 34 E. coli and n = 66 K. pneumoniae collected from 2005–2006 clinical specimens at WRAMC were identified and tested for susceptibility by Vitek Legacy [bioMerieux, Durham, NC]. Ertapenem susceptibility was performed via epsilometer test (E-test [AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden]. Results 100% of ESBL isolates tested were susceptible to ertapenem. 100% of the same isolates were also susceptible to imipenem. Conclusion These results, based on 100% susceptibility, suggest that ertapenem may be an alternative to other carbapenems for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clinical outcomes studies are needed to determine if ertapenem is effective for the treatment of infection caused by these organisms. However, due to lack of resistant isolates, we are unable to conclude whether imipenem susceptibility accurately predicts ertapenem susceptibility.

  6. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  7. Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; McCowan, Dominique; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Heron, Scott F

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites), during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98%) than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species) is producing a coral assemblage that is more resistant to sustained and ongoing ocean warming.

  8. Changes in Bleaching Susceptibility among Corals Subject to Ocean Warming and Recurrent Bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; McCowan, Dominique; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Heron, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites), during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98%) than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. Conclusions/Significance Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species) is producing a coral assemblage that is more resistant to

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and the correlation between triazoles susceptibility: Results from a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J; Xu, J; Wang, T

    2018-06-01

    Candida spp. is a common cause of invasive fungal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and explore the correlation between triazoles susceptibility. The antifungal susceptibility in the present study was measured by ATB Fungus 3 method, and the potential relationship was examined by obtaining the correlation of measured minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Candida spp. isolates. A total of 2099 clinical isolates of Candida spp. from 1441 patients were analyzed. The organisms included 1435 isolates of Candida albicans, 207 isolates of Candida glabrata, 65 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, 31 isolates of Candida krusei, 268 isolates of Candida tropicalis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than fluconazole and against Candida spp. in vitro. The fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole MIC 90 (MIC for 90% of the isolates) for all Candida spp. isolates was 4mg/L, 1mg/L and 0.25mg/L, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the fluconazole MIC s for Candida spp. isolates and this for voriconazole (R 2 =0.475; P<0.01) and itraconazole (R 2 =0.431; P<0.01). Voriconazole MICs for the Candida spp. isolates also correlated with those for itraconazole (R 2 =0.401; P<0.01). These observations suggest that the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole exhibits a moderate correlation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Effect of structural transition on magnetic susceptibility of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in nonmetal sublattice of TaC y is investigated for the first time by methods of magnetic susceptibility and structural neutron diffraction analysis. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted on high-sensitive magnetic scales in temperature interval of 300 - 1300 K with holding at each temperature up to the establishment of constant, nonchanging in the course of time value of susceptibility x. When investigating x-hardened tantalum carbide within the interval of TaC 0.82 - TaC 0.85 compositions under the conditions of slow heating, it was observed nonrecorded earlier irreversible decrease of susceptibility at temperature of 960 - 1000 K. With further temperature increase T>T tr it was observed at first even and than uneven increase of x value at a temperature of T tr equal to 1090, 1130 and 1150 K for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 respectively. The measuring of magnetic susceptibility of the same samples at temperature decrease reveals the presence of susceptibility temperature hysteresis in the interval of 1070 - 1090, 1100 - 1130 and 1120 - 1150 for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 . Reversible susceptibility jump corresponding to the temperature hysteresis range at dependences of x(T), is connected with equilibrium structural phase transition of order-disorder

  11. Global stability of a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on networks with individual awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke-Zan; Xu Zhong-Pu; Zhu Guang-Hu; Ding Yong

    2014-01-01

    Recent research results indicate that individual awareness can play an important influence on epidemic spreading in networks. By local stability analysis, a significant conclusion is that the embedded awareness in an epidemic network can increase its epidemic threshold. In this paper, by using limit theory and dynamical system theory, we further give global stability analysis of a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on networks with awareness. Results show that the obtained epidemic threshold is also a global stability condition for its endemic equilibrium, which implies the embedded awareness can enhance the epidemic threshold globally. Some numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. MicroRNA-Based Attenuation of Influenza Virus across Susceptible Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Barbara M; Sjaastad, Louisa E; Fiege, Jessica K; Fay, Elizabeth J; Reyes, Ismarc; Moriarity, Branden; Langlois, Ryan A

    2018-01-15

    RNAs were used previously to attenuate influenza A viruses. We propose the development of a novel platform to produce live attenuated vaccines that are highly customizable, efficacious across a broad species range, and exhibit enhanced safety over traditional vaccination methods. This strategy exploits a microRNA that is expressed abundantly in influenza virus-susceptible hosts. By eliminating this ubiquitous microRNA from a cell line, targeted viruses that are attenuated across susceptible strains can be generated. This approach greatly increases the plasticity of the microRNA targeting approach and enhances vaccine safety. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Increased susceptibility to otitis media in a Splunc1-deficient mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Naumann, Paul W.; Salzman, Nita H.; McCray, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. Susceptibility to otitis is influenced by a number of factors, including the actions of innate immune molecules secreted by the epithelia lining the nasopharynx, middle ear and Eustachian tube. The SPLUNC1 (short palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone 1) protein is a highly abundant secretory product of the mammalian nasal, oral and respiratory mucosa that is thought to play a multifunctional role in host defense. In this study we investigated Splunc1 expression in the ear of the mouse, and examined whether this protein contributes to overall host defense in the middle ear and/or Eustachian tube. We found that Splunc1 is highly expressed in both the surface epithelium and in submucosal glands in these regions in wild-type mice. In mice lacking Splunc1, we noted histologically an increased frequency of otitis media, characterized by the accumulation of leukocytes (neutrophils with scattered macrophages), proteinaceous fluid and mucus in the middle ear lumens. Furthermore, many of these mice had extensive remodeling of the middle ear wall, suggesting a chronic course of disease. From these observations, we conclude that loss of Splunc1 predisposes mice to the development of otitis media. The Splunc1−/− mouse model should help investigators to better understand both the biological role of Splunc1 as well as host defense mechanisms in the middle ear. PMID:25765466

  14. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  15. Identification of candidate new cancer susceptibility genes using yeast genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Brown, J.A.; Game, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    A large proportion of cancer susceptibility syndromes are the result of mutations in genes in DNA repair or in cell-cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage, such as ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Fanconi's anemia (FA), Bloom's syndrome (BS), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Mutations in these genes often cause gross chromosomal instability leading to an increased mutation rate of all genes including those directly responsible for cancer. We have proposed that because the orthologs of these genes in budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, confer protection against killing by DNA damaging agents it should be possible to identify new cancer susceptibility genes by identifying yeast genes whose deletion causes sensitivity to DNA damage. We therefore screened the recently completed collection of individual gene deletion mutants to identify genes that affect sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Screening for sensitivity in this obtained up to now with the F98 glioma model othe fact that each deleted gene is replaced by a cassette containing two molecular 'barcodes', or 20-mers, that uniquely identify the strain when DNA from a pool of strains is hybridized to an oligonucleotide array containing the complementary sequences of the barcodes. We performed the screen with UV, IR, H 2 0 2 and other DNA damaging agents. In addition to identifying genes already known to confer resistance to DNA damaging agents we have identified, and individually confirmed, several genes not previously associated with resistance. Several of these are of unknown function. We have also examined the chromosomal stability of selected strains and found that IR sensitive strains often but not always exhibit genomic instability. We are presently constructing a yeast artificial chromosome to globally interrogate all the genes in the deletion pool for their involvement in genomic stability. This work shows that budding yeast is a valuable eukaryotic model organism to identify

  16. Magnetic susceptibility characterisation of superparamagnetic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, David Tim; Wise, Naomi; Oduwole, Olayinka; Sheard, Steve

    2018-04-01

    The separation of magnetic materials in microsystems using magnetophoresis has increased in popularity. The wide variety and availability of magnetic beads has fuelled this drive. It is important to know the magnetic characteristics of the microspheres in order to accurately use them in separation processes integrated on a lab-on-a-chip device. To investigate the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic microspheres, the magnetic responsiveness of three types of Dynabeads microspheres were tested using two different approaches. The magnetophoretic mobility of individual microspheres is studied using a particle tracking system and the magnetization of each type of Dynabeads microsphere is measured using SQUID relaxometry. The magnetic beads' susceptibility is obtained at four different applied magnetic fields in the range of 38-70 mT for both the mobility and SQUID measurements. The susceptibility values in both approaches show a consistent magnetic field dependence.

  17. Influence of deformation on SCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel in PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshima, Yoshiari; Totsuka, Nobuo; Nakajima, Nobuo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were carried out to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of four types of austenitic stainless steels (SUS304, SUS316, SUS304L and SUS316L) in PWR primary water. The influence of deformation on SCC susceptibility of SUS316 was studied. All types of stainless steel were susceptible to SCC, and the SCC susceptibility varied depending on the steel type. The comparison of the SSRT results and tensile test in air based on the reduction of area measurement showed that the SCC susceptibility increased with increasing the degree of deformation. For explaining the influence of deformation on SCC susceptibility, it is necessary to evaluate both intergranular and transgranular fractures. (author)

  18. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  19. Does obesity increase susceptibility to ozone? Respiratory, behavioral, and metabolic assessments in Brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    There may be a link between obesity and susceptibility to the respiratory, cardiovascular, and other health effects of air pollutants. Furthermore, it has been proposed that some air pollutants are obesogenic and may contribute to obesity. In view of the epidemic growth of obesit...

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of periodontal Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. Because systemic antibiotics are often used in these clinical situations, and little is known of the antibiotic susceptibility of subgingival isolates of these two bacterial species, this study determined the in vitro susceptibility to six antibiotics of fresh S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates from human periodontitis lesions. A total of 33 S. constellatus and 17 S. intermedius subgingival strains, each recovered from separate patients with severe chronic periodontitis (n = 50) before treatment, were subjected to antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility testing with amoxicillin, azithromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline on blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar and to the inhibitory effects of metronidazole at 16 mg/L in an enriched Brucella blood agar dilution assay. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretative standards were used to assess the results. Clindamycin was the most active antibiotic against S. constellatus (minimum inhibitory concentration at 90% [MIC90] 0.25 mg/L), and amoxicillin was most active against S. intermedius (MIC90 0.125 mg/L). A total of 30% of the S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates were resistant in vitro to doxycycline, 98% were only intermediate in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and 90% were resistant to metronidazole at 16 mg/L. Subgingival S. constellatus and S. intermedius exhibited variable antibiotic susceptibility profiles, potentially complicating empirical selection of periodontitis antibiotic therapy in patients who are species positive.

  1. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanin Putsathit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. Methods A collection of 105 C. difficile isolated from inpatients admitted at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok in 2015 was tested for their susceptibility to nine antimicrobials via an agar incorporation method. Results All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem. Resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin and moxifloxacin was observed in 73.3%, 35.2% and 21.0% of the isolates, respectively. The in vitro activity of fidaxomicin (MIC50/MIC90 0.06/0.25 mg/L was superior to first-line therapies vancomycin (MIC50/MIC90 1/2 mg/L and metronidazole (MIC50/MIC90 0.25/0.25 mg/L. Rifaximin exhibited potent activity against 85.7% of the isolates (MIC ≤0.03 mg/L, and its MIC50 (0.015 mg/L was the lowest among all antimicrobials tested. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant C. difficile, defined by resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials, was 21.9% (23/105. Conclusions A high level of resistance against multiple classes of antimicrobial was observed, emphasising the need for enhanced antimicrobial stewardship and educational programmes to effectively disseminate information regarding C. difficile awareness and appropriate use of antimicrobials to healthcare workers and the general public.

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility

  4. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  5. Characteristics of Japanese inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Yoshiaki; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Kei; Nagaishi, Kanna; Yamashita, Kentaro; Sonoda, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Takazoe, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-08-01

    There are substantial differences in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) genetics depending on the populations examined. We aimed to identify Japanese population-specific or true culprit susceptibility genes through a meta-analysis of past genetic studies of Japanese IBD. For this study, we reviewed 2,703 articles. The review process consisted of three screening stages: we initially searched for relevant studies and then relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Finally, we adjusted them for the meta-analysis. To maximize our chances of analysis, we introduced proxy SNPs during the first stage. To minimize publication bias, no significant SNPs and solitary SNPs without pairs were combined to be reconsidered during the third stage. Additionally, two SNPs were newly genotyped. Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of 37 published studies in 50 SNPs located at 22 loci corresponding to the total number of 4,853 Crohn's disease (CD), 5,612 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 14,239 healthy controls. We confirmed that the NKX2-3 polymorphism is associated with common susceptibility to IBD and that HLA-DRB1*0450 alleles increase susceptibility to CD but reduce risk for UC while HLA-DRB1*1502 alleles increase susceptibility to UC but reduce CD risk. Moreover, we found individual disease risk loci: TNFSF15 and TNFα to CD and HLA-B*5201, and NFKBIL1 to UC. The genetic risk of HLA was substantially high (odds ratios ranged from 1.54 to 2.69) while that of common susceptibility loci to IBD was modest (odds ratio ranged from 1.13 to 1.24). Results indicate that Japanese IBD susceptibility loci identified by the meta-analysis are closely associated with the HLA regions.

  6. Low-field susceptibilities of rare earth spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.

    1977-01-01

    Static susceptibility in various applied fields and AC susceptibility data on Sc 13% Gd and Sc 4.5% Tb spin glass alloys are reported. The data show that the sharp peak at the freezing temperature, Tsub(g), normally observed in the low-field susceptibility of spin glasses containing 3d magnetic impurities is observed here in the case of Gd, which is an S state solute, but not for Tb. On the contrary, for the Sc-Tb alloy a rather rounded maximum is observed which becomes slightly sharper with increasing applied magnetic fields. (author)

  7. Antibiotic-induced shifts in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome increase susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Casey M.; Koenigsknecht, Mark J.; Carlson, Paul E.; Hatton, Gabrielle E.; Nelson, Adam M.; Li, Bo; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Li, Jun; Young, Vincent B.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics can have significant and long lasting effects on the gastrointestinal tract microbiota, reducing colonization resistance against pathogens including Clostridium difficile. Here we show that antibiotic treatment induces substantial changes in the gut microbial community and in the metabolome of mice susceptible to C. difficile infection. Levels of secondary bile acids, glucose, free fatty acids, and dipeptides decrease, whereas those of primary bile acids and sugar alcohols increase, reflecting the modified metabolic activity of the altered gut microbiome. In vitro and ex vivo analyses demonstrate that C. difficile can exploit specific metabolites that become more abundant in the mouse gut after antibiotics, including primary bile acid taurocholate for germination, and carbon sources mannitol, fructose, sorbitol, raffinose and stachyose for growth. Our results indicate that antibiotic-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome converts the global metabolic profile to one that favors C. difficile germination and growth. PMID:24445449

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided

  11. Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Linda; Netea, Mihai G.; Kullberg, Bart Jan

    2018-01-01

    Candida spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30–50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Loss of skin or mucosal barrier function, microbiome imbalances, or defects of immune defense mechanisms can lead to an increased susceptibility to severe mucocutaneous or invasive candidiasis. A comprehensive understanding of the immune defense against Candida is essential for developing adjunctive immunotherapy. The important role of underlying genetic susceptibility to Candida infections has become apparent over the years. In most patients, the cause of increased susceptibility to fungal infections is complex, based on a combination of immune regulation gene polymorphisms together with other non-genetic predisposing factors. Identification of patients with an underlying genetic predisposition could help determine which patients could benefit from prophylactic antifungal treatment or adjunctive immunotherapy. This review will provide an overview of patient susceptibility to mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis and the potential for adjunctive immunotherapy. PMID:29371502

  12. Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Davidson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30–50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Loss of skin or mucosal barrier function, microbiome imbalances, or defects of immune defense mechanisms can lead to an increased susceptibility to severe mucocutaneous or invasive candidiasis. A comprehensive understanding of the immune defense against Candida is essential for developing adjunctive immunotherapy. The important role of underlying genetic susceptibility to Candida infections has become apparent over the years. In most patients, the cause of increased susceptibility to fungal infections is complex, based on a combination of immune regulation gene polymorphisms together with other non-genetic predisposing factors. Identification of patients with an underlying genetic predisposition could help determine which patients could benefit from prophylactic antifungal treatment or adjunctive immunotherapy. This review will provide an overview of patient susceptibility to mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis and the potential for adjunctive immunotherapy.

  13. Dynamic insecticide susceptibility changes in Florida populations of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Killiny, Nabil; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-02-01

    Five field populations of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama from various regions of Florida were evaluated in 2011 for resistance to commonly used insecticides. Three diagnostic doses (LD50, LD75, and LD95), developed in 2009 using a laboratory susceptible population, were used to measure changes in susceptibility levels of field-collected populations as compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Further reductions in the susceptibility levels of D. citri to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin were determined, compared with results obtained in 2010. Mean percent mortality obtained from all five locations was significantly lower than observed with the laboratory susceptible population for all insecticides tested. Previously, expression of five CYP4 genes was implicated in contributing to insecticide metabolism in D. citri. In the current study, we compared the relative expression of these five CYP4 genes and their associated levels of protein expression among field-collected and laboratory susceptible populations. Expression of all CYP4 genes investigated was higher in field-collected populations when normalized against the laboratory susceptible population. There was an increased signal of a band corresponding to a 45 kDa protein in four of the five field populations as measured by the Western blot assay, which suggests increased production of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The current results indicate that insecticide resistance continues to increase in Florida populations ofD. citri, particularly to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin. However, there was no further decrease in susceptibility of Florida populations of D. citri to neonicotinoid insecticides in 2011 as compared with previous years.

  14. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  15. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  16. Environmental factors regulate Paneth cell phenotype and host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation in Irgm1-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison R. Rogala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. Several susceptibility genes have been linked to CD, though their precise role in the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM is an established risk allele in CD. We have shown previously that conventionally raised (CV mice lacking the IRGM ortholog, Irgm1 exhibit abnormal Paneth cells (PCs and increased susceptibility to intestinal injury. In the present study, we sought to utilize this model system to determine if environmental conditions impact these phenotypes, as is thought to be the case in human CD. To accomplish this, wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice were rederived into specific pathogen-free (SPF and germ-free (GF conditions. We next assessed how these differential housing environments influenced intestinal injury patterns, and epithelial cell morphology and function in wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice. Remarkably, in contrast to CV mice, SPF Irgm1−/− mice showed only a slight increase in susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation. SPF Irgm1−/− mice also displayed minimal abnormalities in PC number and morphology, and in antimicrobial peptide expression. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation were also unaffected by Irgm1 in SPF conditions. No microbial differences were observed between wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice, but gut bacterial communities differed profoundly between CV and SPF mice. Specifically, Helicobacter sequences were significantly increased in CV mice; however, inoculating SPF Irgm1−/− mice with Helicobacter hepaticus was not sufficient to transmit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In summary, our findings suggest the impact of Irgm1-deficiency on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and epithelial function is critically dependent on environmental influences. This work establishes the importance of Irgm1−/− mice as a model to elucidate host

  17. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  18. Increased susceptibility to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents of mice deficient in DNA repair methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, A; Sakumi, K; Sekiguchi, M

    2000-10-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase plays vital roles in preventing induction of mutations and cancer as well as cell death related to alkylating agents. Mice defective in the MGMT: gene, encoding the methyltransferase, were used to evaluate cell death-inducing and tumorigenic activities of therapeutic agents which have alkylation potential. MGMT(-/-) mice were considerably more sensitive to dacarbazine, a monofunctional triazene, than were wild-type mice, in terms of survival. When dacarbazine was administered i.p. to 6-week-old mice and survival at 30 days was enumerated, LD(50) values of MGMT(-/-) and MGMT(+/+) mice were 20 and 450 mg/kg body wt, respectively. Increased sensitivity of MGMT(-/-) mice to 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosou rea (ACNU), a bifunctional nitrosourea, was also noted. On the other hand, there was no difference in survival of MGMT(+/+) and MGMT(-/-) mice exposed to cyclophosphamide, a bifunctional nitrogen mustard. It appears that dacarbazine and ACNU produce O(6)-alkylguanine as a major toxic lesion, while cyclophosphamide yields other types of modifications in DNA which are not subjected to the action of the methyltransferase. MGMT(-/-) mice seem to be less refractory to the tumor-inducing effect of dacarbazine than are MGMT(+/+) mice. Thus, the level of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity is an important factor when determining susceptibility to drugs with the potential for alkylation.

  19. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  20. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  1. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  2. [Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of adolescents with different caries susceptibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangyang, Zhang; Jinzhi, He; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the differences between the bacterial diversities in the saliva of caries-free and caries-susceptible adolescents through polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Twenty adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years were recruited and subdivided into two groups: caries-free adolescents (n = 10) and caries-susceptible adolescents (n = 10). Saliva samples were collected. Total DNA was isolated directly from each sample. A portion of the 16S rRNA gene locus was PCR-amplified by using universal primers. Microbial diversity was analyzed through PCR-DGGE. Analyzing the DGGE profile, we found that the composition of the saliva microbiome exhibited great intra-individual differences; the average band numbers of the caries-free adolescent group and the caries-susceptible adolescent group were 32.5 ± 3.7 and 27.3 ± 3.4, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (P = 0.008). Shannon-Wiener's indexes of the caries-susceptible adolescent group and the caries-free adolescent group were 2.5 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.2, respectively, but the differences between the groups were not significant (P = 0.405). Clustering analysis results suggested that most of the samples in the same group clustered together; this observation showed a high community structure similarity. The microbial diversity and complexity of bacteria in saliva are significantly higher in caries-free adolescents than in caries-susceptible adolescents. During caries development, bacterial diversity in the saliva likely decreases.

  3. Interventions on Metabolism: Making Antibiotic-Susceptible Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Baquero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics act on bacterial metabolism, and antibiotic resistance involves changes in this metabolism. Interventions on metabolism with drugs might therefore modify drug susceptibility and drug resistance. In their recent article, Martin Vestergaard et al. (mBio 8:e01114-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01114-17 illustrate the possibility of converting intrinsically resistant bacteria into susceptible ones. They reported that inhibition of a central metabolic enzyme, ATP synthase, allows otherwise ineffective polymyxin antibiotics to act on Staphylococcus aureus. The study of the intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens has shown that several metabolic genes, including multigene transcriptional regulators, contribute to antibiotic resistance. In some cases, these genes only marginally increase antibiotic resistance, but reduced levels of susceptibility might be critical in the evolution or resistance under low antibiotic concentrations or in the clinical response of highly resistant bacteria. Drug interventions on bacterial metabolism might constitute a critical adjuvant therapy in combination with antibiotics to ensure susceptibility of pathogens with intrinsic or acquired antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Structural properties and magnetic susceptibility of iron-intercalated titanium ditelluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleshchev, V.G.; Titov, A.N.; Titova, S.G.; Kuranov, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Structural peculiarities and magnetic susceptibility of titanium ditelluride, intercalated by iron, are studied. It is established that the basic motive of crystal structure by intercalation is preserved and the iron atoms are locates in the van der Waals gaps in positions with octahedral coordination. It is shown that the magnetic susceptibility of the Fe 0.25 TiT 2 sample increases approximately by 20 times. The magnetic susceptibility for the Fe 0.33 TiTe 2 samples becomes even much higher

  5. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  6. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Chapman, Stephen J; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H; Walley, Andrew J; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K H; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J Anthony; Williams, Thomas N; Berkley, James A; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L S; Fine, Paul E M; Goh, Denise L M; Hill, Adrian V S

    2010-06-03

    The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam. We had previously tested 20 other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (at positions -639, -292, -163, +1320, and +3415 [all relative to CISH]) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multiple-SNP score, we found an association between CISH genetic variants and susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (P=3.8x10(-11) for all comparisons), with -292 accounting for most of the association signal (P=4.58x10(-7)). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells obtained from adult subjects carrying the -292 variant, as compared with wild-type cells, showed a muted response to the stimulation of interleukin-2 production--that is, 25 to 40% less CISH expression. Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling have a role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of one of these infectious diseases was increased by at least 18% among persons carrying the variant CISH alleles. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duylinh; Gose, Severin; Castro, Lina; Chung, Kathleen; Bernstein, Kyle; Samuel, Micheal; Bauer, Heidi; Pandori, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat. Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.

  8. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Godoy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of veterinary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. One hundred Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates from domestic and wild animals were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to species determination. Antimicrobial susceptibility was obtained by a disk diffusion test against six antibiotics: amoxicillin (AMX, cephalexin (LEX, ciprofloxacin (CIP, erythromycin (ERY, gentamicin (GEN and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT. The most common specie was S. pseudintermedius (61%, 61/100 and resistance to ERY (57%, 57/100, SXT (50%, 50/100 and AMX (46%, 46/100 was detected most frequently. In total, 40% (40/100 of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR phenotype. Results of this study emphasize that animals are reservoir of MDR Staphylococcus spp.

  10. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  11. Identification of tomato introgression lines with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to infection by parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kirsten; Johnsen, Hanne R; Pielach, Anna; Lund, Leidulf; Fischer, Karsten; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2018-02-01

    The parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta (dodder) is a parasitic weed that infects many important crops. Once it winds around the shoots of potential host plants and initiates the development of penetration organs, called haustoria, only a few plant species have been shown to deploy effective defense mechanisms to ward off Cuscuta parasitization. However, a notable exception is Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), which exhibits a local hypersensitive reaction when attacked by giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa). Interestingly, the closely related wild desert tomato, Solanum pennellii, is unable to stop the penetration of its tissue by the C. reflexa haustoria. In this study, we observed that grafting a S. pennellii scion onto the rootstock of the resistant S. lycopersicum did not change the susceptibility phenotype of S. pennellii. This suggests that hormones, or other mobile substances, produced by S. lycopersicum do not induce a defense reaction in the susceptible tissue. Screening of a population of introgression lines harboring chromosome fragments from S. pennellii in the genome of the recurrent parent S. lycopersicum, revealed that most lines exhibit the same defense reaction as shown by the S. lycopersicum parental line. However, several lines showed different responses and exhibited either susceptibility, or cell death that extended considerably beyond the infection site. These lines will be valuable for the future identification of key loci involved in the perception of, and resistance to, C. reflexa and for developing strategies to enhance resistance to infection in crop species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Susceptibility and specific heat of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, B.H.; Canals, B.; Lacroix, C.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic susceptibility of the S=((1)/(2)) Heisenberg antiferromagnet is calculated on the Kagome lattice by means of a Green's function decoupling scheme. The spin-spin correlation functions decrease exponentially with distance. The specific heat exhibits a single-peak structure with a T 2 dependence at low temperature and the correct high-temperature behaviour. The calculated total change in entropy indicates a ground-state entropy of 0.46 ln 2

  13. Reappearance and treatment of penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Matthew R; Stefan, Mihaela S; Friderici, Jennifer; Schimmel, Jennifer; Larioza, Julius

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe trends in the prevalence and treatment patterns of penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections. This was a cross-sectional study of MSSA isolates from blood cultures at a tertiary-care centre between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012. All blood cultures positive for MSSA drawn during the study period were used to calculate the prevalence of penicillin-susceptible SA. Repeat cultures were excluded if they were isolated within 6 weeks of the index culture. The analysis was then restricted to inpatient blood cultures to assess treatment patterns. Antibiotics administered 48-96 h after the culture were analysed. A total of 446 blood cultures positive for MSSA were included in the analysis. There was a distinct trend showing an increase in the percentage of penicillin-susceptible SA over 10 years from 13.2% (95% CI 4.1%-22.3%) in 2003 to 32.4% (95% CI 17.3%-47.5%) in 2012 (P trend penicillin use for penicillin-susceptible SA bacteraemia increased from 0.0% in 2003-04 to 50.0% in 2011-12 (P trend = 0.007). Over a decade, there was an ∼3-fold increase in penicillin susceptibility among MSSA blood cultures at a large tertiary-care facility. Although treatment with penicillin increased over the study period, only 50% of penicillin-susceptible SA was treated with penicillin in the final study period. This study suggests that while susceptibility to penicillin appears to be returning in SA, the use of penicillin for penicillin-susceptible SA bacteraemia is low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Halberg, P

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections.......To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections....

  15. Transforming Growth Factor β/Activin signaling in neurons increases susceptibility to starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Alfred Chng

    Full Text Available Animals rely on complex signaling network to mobilize its energy stores during starvation. We have previously shown that the sugar-responsive TGFβ/Activin pathway, activated through the TGFβ ligand Dawdle, plays a central role in shaping the post-prandial digestive competence in the Drosophila midgut. Nevertheless, little is known about the TGFβ/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism beyond the midgut. Here, we address the importance of Dawdle (Daw after carbohydrate ingestion. We found that Daw expression is coupled to dietary glucose through the evolutionarily conserved Mio-Mlx transcriptional complex. In addition, Daw activates the TGFβ/Activin signaling in neuronal populations to regulate triglyceride and glycogen catabolism and energy homeostasis. Loss of those neurons depleted metabolic reserves and rendered flies susceptible to starvation.

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β/Activin signaling in neurons increases susceptibility to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Wen-Bin Alfred; Koch, Rafael; Li, Xiaoxue; Kondo, Shu; Nagoshi, Emi; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Animals rely on complex signaling network to mobilize its energy stores during starvation. We have previously shown that the sugar-responsive TGFβ/Activin pathway, activated through the TGFβ ligand Dawdle, plays a central role in shaping the post-prandial digestive competence in the Drosophila midgut. Nevertheless, little is known about the TGFβ/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism beyond the midgut. Here, we address the importance of Dawdle (Daw) after carbohydrate ingestion. We found that Daw expression is coupled to dietary glucose through the evolutionarily conserved Mio-Mlx transcriptional complex. In addition, Daw activates the TGFβ/Activin signaling in neuronal populations to regulate triglyceride and glycogen catabolism and energy homeostasis. Loss of those neurons depleted metabolic reserves and rendered flies susceptible to starvation.

  17. A Regulatory Polymorphism at Position -309 in PTPRCAP Is Associated with Susceptibility to Diffuse-type Gastric Cancer and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungseok Ju

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PTPRCAP (CD45-AP is a positive regulator of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC (CD45, which activates Src family kinases implicated in tumorigenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs869736 located at position -309 of the PTPRCAP promoter was associated with susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer in the current case-control study. The minor-allele homozygote was significantly associated with a 2.5-fold increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer (P = .0021, n = 252, but not to intestinal-type (P = .30, n = 178, versus the major-allele homozygote, when comparing unrelated Korean patients with healthy controls (n = 406. Nine other SNPs were in nearly perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.97 with this SNP, exhibiting the same association, and spread out for 26 kb on chromosome 11q13.1 covering RPS6KB2, PTPRCAP, CORO1B, and GPR152. Among the four genes, however, only PTPRCAP expression was affected by haplotypes of the 10 SNPs. Endogenous transcript levels of PTPRCAP were linearly correlated with copy numbers (0, 1, and 2 of the risk-haplotype (P = .0060 in 12 lymphoblastoid cells derived from blood samples, but those of the other three genes were not. Furthermore, the cancer-risk, minor-allele T of rs869736 increased both promoter activity and specific nuclear protein-binding affinity than the nonrisk, major-allele G in luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, respectively. Accordingly, the minor allele of rs869736 in the PTPRCAP promoter is associated with increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer by increasing PTPRCAP expression, possibly leading to activation of the oncogenic Src family kinases.

  18. Soil characterization using patterns of magnetic susceptibility versus effective radium concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Girault

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-field magnetic susceptibility χm and effective radium concentration ECRa, obtained from radon emanation, have been measured in the laboratory with 129 soil samples from Nepal. Samples along horizontal profiles in slope debris or terrace scarps showed rather homogeneous values of both χm and ECRa. One sample set, collected vertically on a lateritic terrace scarp, had homogeneous values of ECRa while χm increased by a factor of 1 to 10 for residual soils and topsoils. However, for a set of samples collected on three imbricated river terraces, values of ECRa, homogeneous over a given terrace, displayed a gradual increase from younger to older terraces. By contrast, χm showed more homogeneous mean values over the three terraces, with a larger dispersion, however, for the younger one. Similarly, Kathmandu sediments exhibited a large increase in ECRa from sand to clay layers, while χm increased moderately. The combination of χm and ECRa, thus, provides a novel tool to characterize quantitatively various soil groups and may be of interest to distinguish modes of alteration or deposition histories.

  19. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of uropathogenic bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics has been on increase and responsible for increased mortality and morbidity among patients. Clinical isolates (22) of uropathogenic bacteria comprising Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for susceptibility to standard ...

  20. Epizootic to enzootic transition of a fungal disease in tropical Andean frogs: Are surviving species still susceptible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.

  1. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  2. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391

  3. Posaconazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo synergistic antifungal activity with caspofungin or FK506 against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to test whether posaconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, exhibits synergy with the β-1,3 glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin or the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Although current drug treatments for Candida infection are often efficacious, the available antifungal armamentarium may not be keeping pace with the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains. The development of drug combinations or novel antifungal drugs to address emerging drug resistance is therefore of general importance. Combination drug therapies are employed to treat patients with HIV, cancer, or tuberculosis, and has considerable promise in the treatment of fungal infections like cryptococcal meningitis and C. albicans infections. Our studies reported here demonstrate that posaconazole exhibits in vitro synergy with caspofungin or FK506 against drug susceptible or resistant C. albicans strains. Furthermore, these combinations also show in vivo synergy against C. albicans strain SC5314 and its derived echinocandin-resistant mutants, which harbor an S645Y mutation in the CaFks1 β-1,3 glucan synthase drug target, suggesting potential therapeutic applicability for these combinations in the future.

  4. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  5. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE WITH APPLICATIONS IN SUSCEPTIBLE-INFECTIOUS-SUSCEPTIBLE MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Arotăriţei, D; Rotariu, Mariana; Popescu, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    Practical significance of understanding the dynamics and evolution of infectious diseases increases continuously in contemporary world. The mathematical study of the dynamics of infectious diseases has a long history. By incorporating statistical methods and computer-based simulations in dynamic epidemiological models, it could be possible for modeling methods and theoretical analyses to be more realistic and reliable, allowing a more detailed understanding of the rules governing epidemic spreading. To provide the basis for a disease transmission, the population of a region is often divided into various compartments, and the model governing their relation is called the compartmental model. To present all of the information available, a graphical user interface provides icons and visual indicators. The graphical interface shown in this paper is performed using the MATLAB software ver. 7.6.0. MATLAB software offers a wide range of techniques by which data can be displayed graphically. The process of data viewing involves a series of operations. To achieve it, I had to make three separate files, one for defining the mathematical model and two for the interface itself. Considering a fixed population, it is observed that the number of susceptible individuals diminishes along with an increase in the number of infectious individuals so that in about ten days the number of individuals infected and susceptible, respectively, has the same value. If the epidemic is not controlled, it will continue for an indefinite period of time. By changing the global parameters specific of the SIS model, a more rapid increase of infectious individuals is noted. Using the graphical user interface shown in this paper helps achieving a much easier interaction with the computer, simplifying the structure of complex instructions by using icons and menus, and, in particular, programs and files are much easier to organize. Some numerical simulations have been presented to illustrate theoretical

  6. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  7. [Susceptibility of natural populations of dengue vector to insecticides in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacoloma, Liliana; Chaves, Bernardo; Brochero, Helena Luisa

    2012-09-01

    Physiological resistance of natural population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides contribute to the decreased efficacy of chemical control as a main control strategy during dengue outbreaks. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti was assessed for the carbamate propoxur, the adulticide malathion and the larvicide temephos on 13 natural populations of Ae. aegypti immature forms were taken from 8 Colombian localities. These included the following: Bucaramanga (1), Sabana de Torres (2), Girardot (2), La Mesa (2), Villavicencio (2), Puerto López (2), San José del Guaviare (1) and Florencia (1). Susceptibility tests mainly consisted of the standardized bioassay outlined by WHO (1981) and CDC bottles (1998). Colorimetric tests were undertaken to determine enzyme levels possibly responsible for the reduction of susceptibility to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. All specimens demonstrated susceptibility to malathion and propoxur insecticides. Four of the 13 populations revealed susceptibility to the temephos larvicide. Seven of 11 populations showed a limited increase in values for nonspecific esterase enzymes. The Bucaramanga population was the only one which showed an increase in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enzymes. Neither population was found with modified acetilcolinesterase. The widespread susceptibility to organophosphates used as adulticides indicated that malathion, the most used insecticide in Colombia, remains effective in interrupting the transmission of dengue. Physiological resistance to insecticides occurring in communities of a single township proved to be a localized phenomenon.

  8. Quark number density and susceptibility calculation with one correction in mean field potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. Somorendro

    2016-01-01

    We calculate quark number density and susceptibility of a model which has one loop correction in mean field potential. The calculation shows continuous increasing in the number density and susceptibility up to the temperature T = 0.4 GeV. Then the value of number density and susceptibility approach to the lattice result for higher value of temperature. The result indicates that the calculated values of the model fit well and the result increase the temperature to reach the lattice data with the one loop correction in the mean field potential. (author)

  9. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrulis, IL; Mulligan, AM; Schmutzler, RK; Barrowdale, D; McGuffog, L; Robson, M; Schmidt, MK; Spurdle, AB; Neuhausen, SL; Kuchenbaecker, KB

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and the general population for several loci, no study has comprehensively evaluated the associations of all known BC susceptibility alleles with risk of BC subtypes in BRCA1 and BRC...

  10. Family-specific aggregation of lipid GWAS variants confers the susceptibility to familial hypercholesterolemia in a large Austrian family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkola, Elina; Ko, Arthur; Alvarez, Marcus; Cantor, Rita M.; Garske, Kristina; Kim, Elliot; Gee, Stephanie; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Muxel, Reinhard; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Borén, Jan; Lamina, Claudia; Kronenberg, Florian; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Palotie, Aarno; Laakso, Markku; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Hypercholesterolemia confers susceptibility to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) exhibit a strong genetic component (heritability estimates 0.41-0.50). However, a large part of this heritability cannot be explained by the

  11. Ranking alloys for susceptibility to MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.J.B.; Davies, M.; Goldie, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that laboratory experiments demonstrate that alloys containing 6 to 9% Mo are susceptible to microbiologically influenced corrosion attack. They also demonstrate that corrosion behavior in batch cultures do not correlate well with standard ferric chloride and pitting potential tests of the same alloys. In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of the incidence of plant equipment failures caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This has led to the search for suitable testing techniques to look for MIC, which, in turn, has expanded the list of known susceptible alloys. Faced with field failures, the normal response has been to upgrade the alloy of construction. There is, for example, a common belief that the addition of more molybdenum to austenitic stainless steels conveys immunity (or at least increased resistance) to MIC. The basis for this is an extrapolation of localized corrosion data. The supposed correlation between molybdenum content and resistance to MIC has not yet been supported by a comprehensive testing program

  12. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E; Van Mieghem, P

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  13. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  14. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed.

  15. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Auckland: 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, K P; Pottumarthy, S; Morris, A J

    1999-11-12

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of local anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 357 obligate anaerobes collected between 1991 and 1997 was determined by a standard agar dilution method. Isolates tested included Bacteroides spp. 131, Fusobacterium spp. 12, Prevotella spp. 13, Veillonella spp. 5, Clostridium perfringens 27, other Clostridium spp. 29, Propionibacterium spp. 57, Actinomyces spp. 7, other non-sporing gram-positive bacilli 28 and Peptostreptococcus spp. 48. Ten antimicrobials were tested: penicillin, amoxycillin/ clavulanic acid, pipercillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. Imipenem, pipercillin/tazobactam, meropenem and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid were active against virtually all anaerobes tested. Metronidazole was active against all anaerobic gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium spp., but had variable activity against other anaerobes. Cefoxitin was the most active cephalosporin against Bacteroides spp., with 76%, 64% and 15% of Bacteroides spp. being susceptible to cefoxitin, cefotetan and ceftriaxone, respectively. Penicillin had poor activity against anaerobic gram negative bacilli. Actinomyces and Propionibacterium spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except metronidazole. Variable results were obtained with other antimicrobial-organism combinations. Comparison of results with data from a previously published survey showed little change in susceptibility except for increased resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to ceftriaxone and Clostridium species (not C perfringens) to clindamycin. Our results update the local susceptibility profile of anaerobic bacteria and may be considered when choosing an antimicrobial agent for prophylaxis or treatment of anaerobic infections.

  16. Estimating chronic wasting disease susceptibility in cervids using real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Rielinger, Rachel; Davenport, Kristen A; O'Rourke, Katherine; Mitchell, Gordon; Richt, Jürgen A

    2017-11-01

    In mammals, susceptibility to prion infection is primarily modulated by the host's cellular prion protein (PrP C ) sequence. In the sheep scrapie model, a graded scale of susceptibility has been established both in vivo and in vitro based on PrP C amino acids 136, 154 and 171, leading to global breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of scrapie in sheep. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) resistance in cervids is often characterized as decreased prevalence and/or protracted disease progression in individuals with specific alleles; at present, no PrP C allele conferring absolute resistance in cervids has been identified. To model the susceptibility of various naturally occurring and hypothetical cervid PrP C alleles in vitro, we compared the amplification rates and amyloid extension efficiencies of eight distinct CWD isolates in recombinant cervid PrP C substrates using real-time quaking-induced conversion. We hypothesized that the in vitro conversion characteristics of these isolates in cervid substrates would correlate to in vivo susceptibility - permitting susceptibility prediction for the rare alleles found in nature. We also predicted that hypothetical alleles with multiple resistance-associated codons would be more resistant to in vitro conversion than natural alleles with a single resistant codon. Our studies demonstrate that in vitro conversion metrics align with in vivo susceptibility, and that alleles with multiple amino acid substitutions, each influencing resistance independently, do not necessarily contribute additively to conversion resistance. Importantly, we found that the naturally occurring whitetail deer QGAK substrate exhibited the slowest amplification rate among those evaluated, suggesting that further investigation of this allele and its resistance in vivo is warranted.

  17. Discrete time Markov chains (DTMC) susceptible infected susceptible (SIS) epidemic model with two pathogens in two patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismawati, Eka; Respatiwulan; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    The SIS epidemic model describes the pattern of disease spread with characteristics that recovered individuals can be infected more than once. The number of susceptible and infected individuals every time follows the discrete time Markov process. It can be represented by the discrete time Markov chains (DTMC) SIS. The DTMC SIS epidemic model can be developed for two pathogens in two patches. The aims of this paper are to reconstruct and to apply the DTMC SIS epidemic model with two pathogens in two patches. The model was presented as transition probabilities. The application of the model obtain that the number of susceptible individuals decreases while the number of infected individuals increases for each pathogen in each patch.

  18. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  19. Magnetic susceptibility measuring probe utilizing a compensation coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Jean; Fournet, Julien.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns a magnetic susceptibility measuring probe. It is used, inter alia, in logging, to wit continuous logging of the magnetic susceptibility of the ground throughout the length of a bore hole. The purpose of this invention is to increase the sensitivity of this type of probe by creating a side focusing effect . To this end, it provides for the use of a compensation winding, coaxial with the measurement winding and arranged symmetrically to the latter with respect to the centre of the induction windings [fr

  20. Hot tearing susceptibility of binary Mg–Y alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi; Huang, Yuanding; Srinivasan, Amirthalingam; Liu, Zheng; Beckmann, Felix; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hort, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quantitatively and qualitatively assessing hot tearing susceptibility for different alloys. ► Monitoring the hot tearing propagation process. ► Detecting the hot tearing initiation/onset temperature. ► Recording the stress and strain evolution during the casting solidification and the subsequent cooling. - Abstract: The influence of Y content on the hot tearing susceptibility (HTS) of binary Mg–Y alloys has been predicted using thermodynamic calculations based on Clyne and Davies model. The calculated results are compared with experimental results determined using a constrained rod casting (CRC) apparatus with a load cell and data acquisition system. Both thermodynamic calculations and experimental measurements indicate that the hot tearing susceptibility as a function of Y content follows the “λ” shape. The experimental results show that HTS first increases with increase in Y content, reaches the maximum at about 0.9 wt.%Y and then decreases with further increase the Y content. The maximum susceptibility observed in Mg–0.9 wt.%Y alloy is attributed to its coarsened columnar microstructure, large solidification range and small amount of eutectic at the time of hot tearing. The initiation of hot cracks is monitored during CRC experiments. It corresponds to a drop in load increment on the force curves. The critical solid fractions at which the hot cracks are initiated are in the range from 0.9 to 0.99. It is also found that it decreases with increasing the content of Y. The hot cracks propagate along the dendritic or grain boundaries through the interdendritic separation or tearing of interconnected dendrites. Some of the formed cracks are possible to be healed by the subsequent refilling of the remained liquids

  1. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Gresnigt, M.S.; Lecompte, T.; Bibert, S.; Manuel, O.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Rueger, S.; Berger, C.; Boggian, K.; Cusini, A.; Garzoni, C.; Hirsch, H.H.; Weisser, M.; Mueller, N.J.; Meylan, P.R.; Steiger, J.; Kutalik, Z.; Pascual, M.; Delden, C. van; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Bochud, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHODS: Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped

  2. Effects of tissue susceptibility on brain temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Andrew A; Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field. These metabolite-specific susceptibility effects are also shown to change with age. Results indicate no change of apparent brain temperature with age from 18 to 84 years old, with a trend for increased brain temperature throughout the cerebrum in females relative for males on the order of 0.1°C; slightly increased temperatures in the left hemisphere relative to the right; and a lower temperature of 0.3°C in the cerebellum relative to that of cerebral white-matter. This study presents a novel acquisition method for noninvasive measurement of brain temperature that is of potential value for diagnostic purposes and treatment monitoring, while also demonstrating limitations of the measurement due to the confounding effects of tissue susceptibility variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of oxygen adsorbed on the surface of spherical and fibrous activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kawamura

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic susceptibilities of oxygen adsorbed on the surface of bead-shaped activated carbon and activated carbon fibers were evaluated as a function of temperature between 4.2 K and 300 K, and found to exhibit a sharp peak at around 50 K. This implies that the adsorbed oxygen molecules form an antiferromagnetic state. The relation between the susceptibility and the adsorbed mass suggest that the thickness of the adsorbed oxygen is thin enough to consider a two-dimensional structure for bead–shaped activated carbon and carbon fibers across the fiber axis but thick enough to regard it as three-dimensional along the fiber axis. The result is discussed with reference to the study on one-dimensional oxygen array.

  4. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  5. Spaceflight and Simulated Microgravity Increases Virulence of the Known Bacterial Pathogen S. Marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens-Grisham, Rachel Andrea; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Wade, William

    2016-01-01

    After spaceflight, the number of immune cells is reduced in humans. In other research models, including Drosophila, not only is there a reduction in the number of plasmatocytes, but expression of immune-related genes is also changed after spaceflight. These observations suggest that the immune system is compromised after exposure to microgravity. It has also been reported that there is a change in virulence of some bacterial pathogens after spaceflight. We recently observed that samples of gram-negative S. marcescens retrieved from spaceflight is more virulent than ground controls, as determined by reduced survival and increased bacterial growth in the host. We were able to repeat this finding of increased virulence after exposure to simulated microgravity using the rotating wall vessel, a ground based analog to microgravity. With the ground and spaceflight samples, we looked at involvement of the Toll and Imd pathways in the Drosophila host in fighting infection by ground and spaceflight samples. We observed that Imd-pathway mutants were more susceptible to infection by the ground bacterial samples, which aligns with the known role of this pathway in fighting infections by gram-negative bacteria. When the Imd-pathway mutants were infected with the spaceflight sample, however, they exhibited the same susceptibility as seen with the ground control bacteria. Interestingly, all mutant flies show the same susceptibility to the spaceflight bacterial sample as do wild type flies. This suggests that neither humoral immunity pathway is effectively able to counter the increased pathogenicity of the space-flown S. marcescens bacteria.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  8. AC susceptibility, XRD and DSC studies of Sm1-xGdxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervan, S.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Sm 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Gd for Sm leads to a linear decrease of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The samples with x=0.6 and 0.8 exhibit spin reorientation phenomenon. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique and the Curie temperature T C (RE) increase linearly with increasing Gd content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  9. Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data suggest that in Texas Latino youth exhibit higher rates of susceptibility to smoking than youth from other ethnic groups. In this analysis we examined the relationship between susceptibility to smoking and well-known risk factors associated with smoking initiation among a cohort of 11 to 13 year old Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 1,187 participants who reported they had never smoked, even a puff of a cigarette. The survey assessed peer and family social influence, school and neighborhood characteristics, level of family acculturation and socioeconomic status, and attitudes toward smoking. Bivariate associations, Student's t-tests, and logistic regression analysis were used to examine predictors of susceptibility. Results Overall, 22.1% of the never-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Boys were more likely to be susceptible than girls (25.6% vs. 18.9%, and susceptible children were slightly older than non-susceptible children (12.1 vs. 11.8 years. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that positive expectations about smoking exerted the strongest influence on susceptibility status (odds ratio = 4.85. Multivariate analyses further revealed that compared to non-susceptible participants, susceptibles were more likely to report peer influences supportive of smoking, lower subjective social status and more detentions at school, more temptations to try smoking and to have a mother and a brother who smokes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions that target positive expectations about smoking may be useful in this population. Furthermore, because youth encounter smoking-initiation risk factors in different social environments, our results underscore the continued need for both family- and school-based primary prevention programs to adequately combat their influence. The results also can be used to inform the development of culturally

  10. Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles for mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, L S; Benson, R H; Post, J E; DeCloux, J C

    1985-10-01

    Susceptibility tests were performed on milk samples representing prevalent mastitis infections in certain herds. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from several mastitis infections in the same herd were consistent. The herd antibiotic susceptibility profiles were used as a basis for selecting antibiotics for treatment of all such mastitis cases in that herd. A high degree of correlation was seen between the susceptibility test results and treatment results. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from mastitis infections in different herds varied greatly, which indicated that any one antibiotic would not work equally well against the same bacterial infection in every herd. Therefore, treatment should be selected on the basis of susceptibility test results. When both Streptococcus and Staphylococcus mastitis occurred in the same herd, the susceptibility patterns for the 2 bacterial species varied widely. Therefore, for herds that experienced both streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis, antibiotics to which both bacterial species were susceptible were used for treatment.

  12. A Review of Moxifloxacin for the Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Anushka; Naidoo, Kogieleum; McIlleron, Helen; Essack, Sabiha; Padayatchi, Nesri

    2017-11-01

    Moxifloxacin, an 8-methoxy quinolone, is an important drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and is being investigated in novel drug regimens with pretomanid, bedaquiline, and pyrazinamide, or rifapentine, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Early results of these studies are promising. Although current evidence does not support the use of moxifloxacin in treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, it may be recommended in patients unable to tolerate standard first-line drug regimens or for isoniazid monoresistance. Evidence suggests that the standard 400-mg dose of moxifloxacin used in the treatment of tuberculosis may be suboptimal in some patients, leading to worse tuberculosis treatment outcomes and emergence of drug resistance. Furthermore, a drug interaction with the rifamycins results in up to 31% reduced plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin when these are combined for treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, although the clinical relevance of this interaction is unclear. Moxifloxacin exhibits extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Higher doses of moxifloxacin may be needed to achieve drug exposures required for improved clinical outcomes. Further study is, however, needed to determine the safety of proposed higher doses and clinically validated targets for drug exposure to moxifloxacin associated with improved tuberculosis treatment outcomes. We discuss in this review the evidence for the use of moxifloxacin in drug-susceptible tuberculosis and explore the role of moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions with rifamycins, on tuberculosis treatment outcomes when used in first-line tuberculosis drug regimens. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem induce increased resistance to methicillin and imipenem in vitro in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, B A; McClatchey, K D; Schaberg, D R

    1984-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus that was susceptible to less than 0.75 micrograms of imipenem per ml demonstrated inducible resistance. MR S. aureus preincubated with 0.05 microgram of imipenem per ml grew in medium with an imipenem concentration of 32 micrograms/ml, and methicillin MICs increased 20-fold. Non-MR S. aureus exhibited no induction. Preincubation with methicillin produced no effect. Induction appeared to be a unique interaction of imipenem with MR S. aureus.

  14. Risk of leukemia in susceptible children exposed to preconception, in utero, and postnatal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, I.D.J.; Natarajan, N.

    1974-01-01

    Further statistical analysis has clarified the hypothesis that there exists a susceptible subgroup of children who are prone to develop leukemia after exposure to low doses of diagnostic radiation which have no effect on normal insusceptible children. The susceptible group does not show marked increase in relative risk when there is no report of exposure. The risk of developing leukemia among the susceptible children with any of the three types of radiation exposure is markedly increased in the appropriate age groups. The data are concordant with a latent period of 4 to 7 years. (auth)

  15. Vaginal microbicides: detecting toxicities in vivo that paradoxically increase pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusuwwa Raed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbicides must protect against STD pathogens without causing unacceptable toxic effects. Microbicides based on nonoxynol-9 (N9 and other detergents disrupt sperm, HSV and HIV membranes, and these agents are effective contraceptives. But paradoxically N9 fails to protect women against HIV and other STD pathogens, most likely because it causes toxic effects that increase susceptibility. The mouse HSV-2 vaginal transmission model reported here: (a Directly tests for toxic effects that increase susceptibility to HSV-2, (b Determines in vivo whether a microbicide can protect against HSV-2 transmission without causing toxicities that increase susceptibility, and (c Identifies those toxic effects that best correlate with the increased HSV susceptibility. Methods Susceptibility was evaluated in progestin-treated mice by delivering a low-dose viral inoculum (0.1 ID50 at various times after delivering the candidate microbicide to detect whether the candidate increased the fraction of mice infected. Ten agents were tested – five detergents: nonionic (N9, cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BZK, anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS, the pair of detergents in C31G (C14AO and C16B; one surface active agent (chlorhexidine; two non-detergents (BufferGel®, and sulfonated polystyrene, SPS; and HEC placebo gel (hydroxyethylcellulose. Toxic effects were evaluated by histology, uptake of a 'dead cell' dye, colposcopy, enumeration of vaginal macrophages, and measurement of inflammatory cytokines. Results A single dose of N9 protected against HSV-2 for a few minutes but then rapidly increased susceptibility, which reached maximum at 12 hours. When applied at the minimal concentration needed for brief partial protection, all five detergents caused a subsequent increase in susceptibility at 12 hours of ~20–30-fold. Surprisingly, colposcopy failed to detect visible signs of the N9 toxic effect that increased susceptibility at 12 hours. Toxic

  16. Strongyle Infection and Gut Microbiota: Profiling of Resistant and Susceptible Horses Over a Grazing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Clark

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal strongyles are a major threat to horses' health and welfare. Given that strongyles inhabit the same niche as the gut microbiota, they may interact with each other. These beneficial or detrimental interactions are unknown in horses and could partly explain contrasted susceptibility to infection between individuals. To address these questions, an experimental pasture trial with 20 worm-free female Welsh ponies (10 susceptible (S and 10 resistant (R to parasite infection was implemented for 5 months. Fecal egg counts (FEC, hematological and biochemical data, body weight and gut microbiological composition were studied in each individual after 0, 24, 43, 92 and 132 grazing days. R and S ponies displayed divergent immunological profiles and slight differences in microbiological composition under worm-free conditions. After exposure to natural infection, the predicted R ponies exhibited lower FEC after 92 and 132 grazing days, and maintained higher levels of circulating monocytes and eosinophils, while lymphocytosis persisted in S ponies. Although the overall gut microbiota diversity and structure remained similar during the parasite infection between the two groups, S ponies exhibited a reduction of bacteria such as Ruminococcus, Clostridium XIVa and members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which may have promoted a disruption of mucosal homeostasis at day 92. In line with this hypothesis, an increase in pathobionts such as Pseudomonas and Campylobacter together with changes in several predicted immunological pathways, including pathogen sensing, lipid metabolism, and activation of signal transduction that are critical for the regulation of immune system and energy homeostasis were observed in S relative to R ponies. Moreover, S ponies displayed an increase in protozoan concentrations at day 92, suggesting that strongyles and protozoa may contribute to each other's success in the equine intestines. It could also be that S individuals

  17. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  18. Old Yellow Enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi Exhibits In Vivo Prostaglandin F2α Synthase Activity and Has a Key Role in Parasite Infection and Drug Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Díaz-Viraqué

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that trypanosomatids, unicellular organisms of the order Kinetoplastida, are capable of synthesizing prostaglandins raised questions about the role of these molecules during parasitic infections. Multiple studies indicate that prostaglandins could be related to the infection processes and pathogenesis in trypanosomatids. This work aimed to unveil the role of the prostaglandin F2α synthase TcOYE in the establishment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the causative agent of Chagas disease. This chronic disease affects several million people in Latin America causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, we propose a prokaryotic evolutionary origin for TcOYE, and then we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to show that T. cruzi prostaglandin F2α synthase plays an important role in modulating the infection process. TcOYE overexpressing parasites were less able to complete the infective cycle in cell culture infections and increased cardiac tissue parasitic load in infected mice. Additionally, parasites overexpressing the enzyme increased PGF2α synthesis from arachidonic acid. Finally, an increase in benznidazole and nifurtimox susceptibility in TcOYE overexpressing parasites showed its participation in activating the currently anti-chagasic drugs, which added to its observed ability to confer resistance to hydrogen peroxide, highlights the relevance of this enzyme in multiple events including host–parasite interaction.

  19. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  20. Increased Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Its Promoter Polymorphisms Correlate with Disease Progression and Higher Susceptibility towards Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, is a paracrine inhibitor of melanocytes, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including vitiligo, as abnormal immune responses have frequently been observed in vitiligo patients. Moreover, vitiligo patients show higher lesion levels of TNF-α. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of TNF-α are involved in the regulation of its expression. The present study explores TNF-α promoter polymorphisms and correlates them with TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients and controls of Gujarat along with its effect on disease onset and progression. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of these polymorphisms in 977 vitiligo patients and 990 controls. TNF-α transcript and protein levels were measured by Real time PCR and ELISA respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies for the investigated polymorphisms were significantly associated with vitiligo patients. The study revealed significant increase in TNF-α transcript and protein levels in vitiligo patients compared to controls. In particular, haplotypes: AATCC, AACCT, AGTCT, GATCT, GATCC and AGCCT were found to increase the TNF-α levels in vitiligo patients. Analysis of TNF-α levels based on the gender and disease progression suggests that female patients and patients with active vitiligo had higher levels of TNF-α. Also, the TNF-α levels were high in patients with generalized vitiligo as compared to localized vitiligo. Age of onset analysis of the disease suggests that the haplotypes: AACAT, AACCT, AATCC and AATCT had a profound effect in the early onset of the disease. Moreover, the analysis suggests that female patients had an early onset of vitiligo. Overall, our results suggest that TNF-α promoter polymorphisms may be genetic risk factors for susceptibility and progression of the disease. The up-regulation of TNF-α transcript and protein levels in individuals with susceptible haplotypes advocates

  1. Low-temperature susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnikov, Alexander F.; Lebedev, Alexander V.

    2004-09-01

    The initial susceptibility of concentrated magnetic fluids (ferrocolloids) has been experimentally investigated at low temperatures. The results obtained indicate that the interparticle dipole-dipole interactions can increase the susceptibility by several times as compared to the Langevin value. It is shown that good agreement between recent theoretical models and experimental observations can be achieved by introducing a correction for coefficients in the series expansion of susceptibility in powers of density and aggregation parameter. A modified equation for equilibrium susceptibility is offered to sum over corrections made by Kalikmanov (Statistical Physics of Fluids, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001) and by B. Huke and M. Lücke (Phys. Rev. E 67, 051403, 2003). The equation gives good quantitative agreement with the experimental data in the wide range of temperature and magnetic particles concentration. It has been found that in some cases the magnetic fluid solidification occurs at temperature several tens of kelvins higher than the crystallization temperature of the carrier liquid. The solidification temperature of magnetic fluids is independent of particle concentration (i.e., magneto-dipole interparticle interactions) and dependent on the surfactant type and carrier liquid. This finding allows us to suggest that molecular interactions and generation of some large-scale structure from colloidal particles in magnetic fluids are responsible for magnetic fluid solidification. If the magnetic fluid contains the particles with the Brownian relaxation mechanism of the magnetic moment, the solidification manifests itself as the peak on the "susceptibility-temperature" curve. This fact proves the dynamic nature of the observed peak: it arises from blocking the Brownian mechanism of the magnetization relaxation.

  2. Novel disease susceptibility factors for fungal necrotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobón, Albor; Canet, Juan Vicente; García-Andrade, Javier; Angulo, Carlos; Neumetzler, Lutz; Persson, Staffan; Vera, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms. Although several signaling components of disease resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens have been identified, our understanding for how molecular components and host processes contribute to plant disease susceptibility is rather sparse. Here, we identified four transcription factors (TFs) from Arabidopsis that limit pathogen spread. Arabidopsis mutants defective in any of these TFs displayed increased disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and a general activation of non-immune host processes that contribute to plant disease susceptibility. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the mutants share a common transcriptional signature of 77 up-regulated genes. We characterized several of the up-regulated genes that encode peptides with a secretion signal, which we named PROVIR (for provirulence) factors. Forward and reverse genetic analyses revealed that many of the PROVIRs are important for disease susceptibility of the host to fungal necrotrophs. The TFs and PROVIRs identified in our work thus represent novel genetic determinants for plant disease susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

  3. Novel disease susceptibility factors for fungal necrotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albor Dobón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms. Although several signaling components of disease resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens have been identified, our understanding for how molecular components and host processes contribute to plant disease susceptibility is rather sparse. Here, we identified four transcription factors (TFs from Arabidopsis that limit pathogen spread. Arabidopsis mutants defective in any of these TFs displayed increased disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and a general activation of non-immune host processes that contribute to plant disease susceptibility. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the mutants share a common transcriptional signature of 77 up-regulated genes. We characterized several of the up-regulated genes that encode peptides with a secretion signal, which we named PROVIR (for provirulence factors. Forward and reverse genetic analyses revealed that many of the PROVIRs are important for disease susceptibility of the host to fungal necrotrophs. The TFs and PROVIRs identified in our work thus represent novel genetic determinants for plant disease susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

  4. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  5. Gene Variants Are Associated with PCOS Susceptibility and Hyperandrogenemia in Young Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyeong Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are also common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Therefore, the FTO gene might be a candidate gene for PCOS susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of FTO gene variants on PCOS susceptibility and metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters.MethodsWe recruited 432 women with PCOS (24±5 years and 927 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles (27±5 years and performed a case-control association study. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 in the FTO gene and collected metabolic and hormonal measurements.ResultsLogistic regression revealed that the G/G genotype (rs1421085, 1.6%, the C/C genotype (rs17817449, 1.6%, and the A/A genotype (rs8050136, 1.6% were strongly associated with an increased risk of PCOS (odds ratio, 2.551 to 2.559; all P<0.05. The strengths of these associations were attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI. The women with these genotypes were more obese and exhibited higher free androgen indices (P<0.05 and higher free testosterone levels (P=0.053 to 0.063 compared to the other genotypes. However the significant differences disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI. When we analyzed the women with PCOS and the control groups separately, there were no significant differences in the metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters according to the FTO gene variants.ConclusionThe rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 variants of the FTO gene were associated with PCOS susceptibility and hyperandrogenemia in young Korean women. These associations may be mediated through an effect of BMI.

  6. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  7. Personality traits as potential susceptibility markers : Differential susceptibility to support among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Deković, M.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parents are differentially susceptible to support from their spouse and adolescent child depending on their personality traits, and whether differences in susceptibility to support among parents, in turn, are linked to the quality of support parents give to their

  8. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  9. Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sappenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis; there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.

  10. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  11. The Particular Aspects of Science Museum Exhibits That Encourage Students' Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaby, Neta; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Tal, Tali

    2017-06-01

    This research explores learning in science museums through the most common activity in a science museum—interaction with exhibits. The goal of this study was to characterize the learning behaviors exhibited by students as they engage with interactive exhibits in order to draw insight regarding the design of the exhibits. In order to do so, we used a qualitative method of observation as well as the Visitor Engagement Framework (VEF) model, a visitor-based framework for assessing visitors' learning experiences with exhibits in a science center setting. The combined method produced a framework of nine learning behaviors exhibited during the visitors' interaction with the exhibits, grouped into three categories that reflect increasing levels of engagement and depth of the learning experience. Our research participants consisted of a total 1800 students aged 10-12 (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) who came to the museum with their class for a day visit. We observed nine exhibits, each visited by 200 students. Our observations revealed several design elements that contribute to engagement with exhibits in science museums. For example, exhibits that have familiar activation encourage visitors' interaction, exhibits that facilitate social interaction are more likely to increase engagement, and the highest levels of engagement can be found in exhibits that support large groups.

  12. Reversion of High-level Mecillinam Resistance to Susceptibility in Escherichia coli During Growth in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Thulin

    2017-09-01

    This is the first example describing conditional resistance where a genetically stable antibiotic resistance can be phenotypically reverted to susceptibility by metabolites present in urine. These findings have several important clinical implications regarding the use of mecillinam to treat UTIs. First, they suggest that mecillinam can be used to treat also those clinical strains that are identified as MecR in standard laboratory tests. Second, the results suggest that testing of mecillinam susceptibility in the laboratory ought to be performed in media that mimics urine to obtain clinically relevant susceptibility testing results. Third, these findings imply that changes in patient behavior, such as increased water intake or use of diuretics to reduce urine osmolality and increased intake of cysteine, might induce antibiotic susceptibility in an infecting MecR E. coli strain and thereby increase treatment efficiency.

  13. LuxS/AI-2 system is involved in antibiotic susceptibility and autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Zhao, Liping; Sun, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment for Staphylococcus aureus infections relies heavily upon the cell wall synthesis inhibitor antibiotics such as penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Increasing antibiotic resistance requires the development of new approaches to combating infection. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) exists widely both in Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens and is suggested as a universal language for intraspecies and interspecies communication. This study demonstrates the association between AI-2 signalling and cell wall synthesis inhibitor antibiotic susceptibility in S. aureus. In addition, a luxS mutant exhibited decreased autolysis and upregulated vancomycin resistance-associated VraRS two-component regulatory system. This finding may provide novel clues for antimicrobial therapy in S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Placental Dysfunction Underlies Increased Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth in Advanced Maternal Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Samantha C; Heazell, Alexander E P; Dilworth, Mark R; Mills, Tracey A; Jones, Rebecca L

    2017-08-29

    Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age (AMA) are susceptible to fetal growth restriction (FGR) and stillbirth. We hypothesised that maternal ageing is associated with utero-placental dysfunction, predisposing to adverse fetal outcomes. Women of AMA (≥35 years) and young controls (20-30 years) with uncomplicated pregnancies were studied. Placentas from AMA women exhibited increased syncytial nuclear aggregates and decreased proliferation, and had increased amino acid transporter activity. Chorionic plate and myometrial artery relaxation was increased compared to controls. AMA was associated with lower maternal serum PAPP-A and sFlt and a higher PlGF:sFlt ratio. AMA mice (38-41 weeks) at E17.5 had fewer pups, more late fetal deaths, reduced fetal weight, increased placental weight and reduced fetal:placental weight ratio compared to 8-12 week controls. Maternofetal clearance of 14 C-MeAIB and 3 H-taurine was reduced and uterine arteries showed increased relaxation. These studies identify reduced placental efficiency and altered placental function with AMA in women, with evidence of placental adaptations in normal pregnancies. The AMA mouse model complements the human studies, demonstrating high rates of adverse fetal outcomes and commonalities in placental phenotype. These findings highlight placental dysfunction as a potential mechanism for susceptibility to FGR and stillbirth with AMA.

  15. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  16. In vivo Host Environment Alters Pseudomonas aeruginosa Susceptibility to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolei; Dong, Yuanyuan; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Chang; Xia, Bin; Shi, Jing; Bai, Fang; Jin, Yongxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui

    2017-01-01

    During host infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinately regulates the expression of numerous genes to adapt to the host environment while counteracting host clearance mechanisms. As infected patients take antibiotics, the invading bacteria encounter antibiotics in the host milieu. P. aeruginosa is highly resistant to antibiotics due to multiple chromosomally encoded resistant determinants. And numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the regulatory mechanisms of antibiotic resistance related genes in response to antibiotics. However, it is not well-known how host environment affects bacterial response to antibiotics. In this study, we found that P. aeruginosa cells directly isolated from mice lungs displayed higher susceptibility to tobramycin than in vitro cultured bacteria. In vitro experiments demonstrated that incubation with A549 and differentiated HL60 (dHL60) cells sensitized P. aeruginosa to tobramycin. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species produced by the host cells contributed to the increased bacterial susceptibility. At the same concentration of tobramycin, presence of A549 and dHL60 cells resulted in higher expression of heat shock proteins, which are known inducible by tobramycin. Further analyses revealed decreased membrane potential upon incubation with the host cells and modification of lipopolysaccharide, which contributed to the increased susceptibility to tobramycin. Therefore, our results demonstrate that contact with host cells increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin. PMID:28352614

  17. Investigation of magnetic fluids exhibiting field-induced increasing loss peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannin, P.C.; Marin, C.N.; Couper, C.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical analysis to explain an increase of the Brownian loss peak with increasing polarizing field, H, in a magnetic fluid, is presented. The model is based on the competition between the Brownian and Neel relaxation processes. It is demonstrated that in magnetic fluids with particles having small anisotropy constant, small average magnetic diameter and narrow particle size distribution an increase of the Brownian loss peak with the polarizing field can be observed. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental results of an Isopar M-based magnetic fluid with magnetite particles stabilized with oleic acid and the model explains qualitatively the main characteristics of the experimental results.

  18. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  19. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshankhah, Shiva; Rostami-Far, Zahra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Farhad; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Jila

    2016-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. G6PD plays a key role in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a major source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for oxidation-reduction reductions involved in protecting against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species such as H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency may reduce the amount of NADPH in sperms, thereby inhibiting the detoxification of H 2 O 2 , which could potentially affect their motility and viability, resulting in an increased susceptibility to infertility. Semen samples were obtained from four males with G6PD deficiency and eight healthy males as a control. In both groups, motile sperms were isolated from the seminal fluid and incubated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM concentrations of H 2 O 2 . After 1 hour incubation at 37℃, sperms were evaluated for motility and viability. Incubation of sperms with 10 and 20 µM H 2 O 2 led to very little decrease in motility and viability, but motility decreased notably in both groups in 40, 60, and 80 µM H 2 O 2 , and viability decreased in both groups in 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM H 2 O 2 . However, no statistically significant differences were found between the G6PD-deficient group and controls. G6PD deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 , and the reducing equivalents necessary for protection against H 2 O 2 are most likely produced by other pathways. Therefore, G6PD deficiency cannot be considered as major risk factor for male infertility.

  1. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  2. Polymyxin susceptibility testing, interpretative breakpoints and resistance mechanisms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Pragasam, Agila Kumari; Biswas, Indranil; Veeraraghavan, Balaji

    2018-03-01

    Emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogens are a great threat. Polymyxins, an old class of cationic polypeptide antibiotic, are considered as last-resort drugs in treating infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Increased use of polymyxins in treating critically ill patients necessitates routine polymyxin susceptibility testing. However, susceptibility testing both of colistin and polymyxin B (PMB) is challenging. In this review, currently available susceptibility testing methods are briefly discussed. The multicomponent composition of colistin and PMB significantly influences susceptibility testing. In addition, poor diffusion in the agar medium, adsorption to microtitre plates and the synergistic effect of the surfactant polysorbate 80 with polymyxins have a great impact on the performance of susceptibility testing methods This review also describes recently identified chromosomal resistance mechanisms, including modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (L-Ara4-N) and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) resulting in alteration of the negative charge, as well as the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants mcr-1, mcr-1.2, mcr-2 and mcr-3. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  4. How heterogeneous susceptibility and recovery rates affect the spread of epidemics on networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an extended heterogeneous SIR model is proposed, which generalizes the heterogeneous mean-field theory. Different from the traditional heterogeneous mean-field model only taking into account the heterogeneity of degree, our model considers not only the heterogeneity of degree but also the heterogeneity of susceptibility and recovery rates. Then, we analytically study the basic reproductive number and the final epidemic size. Combining with numerical simulations, it is found that the basic reproductive number depends on the mean of distributions of susceptibility and disease course when both of them are independent. If the mean of these two distributions is identical, increasing the variance of susceptibility may block the spread of epidemics, while the corresponding increase in the variance of disease course has little effect on the final epidemic size. It is also shown that positive correlations between individual susceptibility, course of disease and the square of degree make the population more vulnerable to epidemic and avail to the epidemic prevalence, whereas the negative correlations make the population less vulnerable and impede the epidemic prevalence. Keywords: Networks, Heterogeneity, Susceptibility, Recovery rates, Correlation, The basic reproductive number, The final epidemic size

  5. FXR-deficiency confers increased susceptibility to torpor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, Bertrand; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Dumont, Julie; Caron, Sandrine; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Burcelin, Remy; Kuipers, Folkert; Staels, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The role of the nuclear receptor FXR in adaptive thermogenesis was investigated using FXR-deficient mice. Despite elevated serum bile acid concentrations and increased mRNA expression profiles of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue, FXR-deficiency did not alter energy expenditure under basal

  6. Survey of susceptibility to marbofloxacin in bacteria isolated from diseased pigs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, F; Kroemer, S; Galland, D; Morrissey, I; Woehrle, F

    2017-06-17

    A monitoring programme of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria from Europe causing respiratory tract infection and meningitis in pigs has been active since 1994 and 2002, respectively. Monitoring digestive, metritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) in pigs has been active since 2005 and susceptibility results until 2013 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution. For MIC interpretation, Vétoquinol-evaluated breakpoints were applied. For digestive pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species (1717 and 300 isolates, respectively) exhibited 7.5 per cent resistance in E coli and no resistance in Salmonella species. Similarly, E coli from metritis (369 isolates) had 7.0 per cent resistance to marbofloxacin. However, E coli from UTI (633 isolates) had higher resistance (10.4 per cent). For Streptococcus suis causing meningitis (585 isolates), marbofloxacin susceptibility was very high with only 0.5 per cent resistance and 0.4 per cent resistance was observed with S suis causing respiratory disease (729 isolates). Other respiratory pathogens were also highly susceptible to marbofloxacin with no resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (647 isolates) or Bordetella bronchiseptica (504 isolates), 0.1 per cent resistance in Pasteurella multocida (1373 isolates) and 1.4 per cent resistance in Haemophilus parasuis (145 isolates). There was no apparent change in marbofloxacin MIC over time for any bacterial pathogen based on MIC 50/90 These data confirm previously published MIC results from porcine and other animal infections. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. FKS2 Mutations Associated with Decreased Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida glabrata following Anidulafungin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Miranda, Isabel Marcos; Silva, Raquel M.; Pinto e Silva, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Amorim, Antonio; Rodrigues, Acacio Goncalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia

    2011-01-01

    This is the first case report of Candida glabrata-disseminated candidiasis describing the acquisition of echinocandin resistance following anidulafungin treatment. The initial isolates recovered were susceptible to echinocandins. However, during 27 days of anidulafungin treatment, two resistant strains were isolated (from the blood and peritoneal fluid). The resistant peritoneal fluid isolate exhibited a Ser663Pro mutation in position 1987 of FKS2 HS1 (hot spot 1), whereas the resistant blood...

  9. Formulation of Biocides Increases Antimicrobial Potency and Mitigates the Enrichment of Nonsusceptible Bacteria in Multispecies Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Cowley, Nicola; Mistry, Hitesh; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current investigation aimed to generate data to inform the development of risk assessments of biocide usage. Stabilized domestic drain biofilm microcosms were exposed daily over 6 months to increasing concentrations (0.01% to 1%) of the biocide benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in a simple aqueous solution (BAC-s) or in a complex formulation (BAC-f) representative of a domestic cleaning agent. Biofilms were analyzed by culture, differentiating by bacterial functional group and by BAC or antibiotic susceptibility. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and changes in biofilm composition were assessed by high-throughput sequencing. Exposure to BAC-f resulted in significantly larger reductions in levels of viable bacteria than exposure to BAC-s, while bacterial diversity greatly decreased during exposure to both BAC-s and BAC-f, as evidenced by sequencing and viable counts. Increases in the abundance of bacteria exhibiting reduced antibiotic or BAC susceptibility following exposure to BAC at 0.1% were significantly greater for BAC-s than BAC-f. Bacteria with reduced BAC and antibiotic susceptibility were generally suppressed by higher BAC concentrations, and formulation significantly enhanced this effect. Significant decreases in the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from the systems before and after long-term BAC exposure were not detected. In summary, dose-dependent suppression of bacterial viability by BAC was enhanced by formulation. Biocide exposure decreased bacterial diversity and transiently enriched populations of organisms with lower antimicrobial susceptibility, and the effects were subsequently suppressed by exposure to 1% BAC-f, the concentration most closely reflecting deployment in formulated products. IMPORTANCE Assessment of the risks of biocide use has been based mainly on the exposure of axenic cultures of bacteria to biocides in simple aqueous solutions. The current investigation aimed to assess the

  10. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization. Furthermore, females are more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of drugs than males. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a short post-weaning social isolation combined with a free access to a chronic high sugar diet (HSD) on the dopaminergic system, oxidative status and behavioral response to an amphetamine-like drug in adulthood. We used female Wistar rats that were socially isolated from post-natal days (PD) 21 to 35 and received free access to a HSD until PD 60. On PD 65, animals were submitted to a challenge with diethylpropion (DEP), an amphetamine-like drug and different responses were analyzed: locomotor activity, immmunocontent of dopamine related proteins, and the oxidative status in the striatum, before and after the DEP challenge. We showed that a short post-weaning social isolation (SI) increased the locomotor response to DEP, when compared with previous saline administration. Social isolation also increased dopamine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and decreased dopamine D2 receptor immunocontent. Additionally, SI increased the overall oxidative status parameters after the challenge with DEP. Interestingly, the exposure to a HSD prevented the SI effects on locomotor response, but did not interfere in the dopaminergic

  11. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  12. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  13. Confined Brownian motion of individual magnetic nanoparticles on a chip: Characterization of magnetic susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommering, K.; Nieuwenhuis, J.H.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Koopmans, B.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of biomedical applications requires detailed knowledge of the magnetic susceptibility of individual particles. With conventional techniques it is very difficult to analyze individual particles smaller than 1 µm. The authors demonstrate how the susceptibility of individual

  14. Deletion of the Candida glabrata ERG3 and ERG11 genes: effect on cell viability, cell growth, sterol composition, and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Hitchcock, C A; Swartz, J E; Pullen, F S; Marsden, K E; Kwon-Chung, K J; Bennett, J E

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the structural genes encoding the delta 5,6 sterol desaturase (ERG3 gene) and the 14 alpha-methyl sterol demethylase (ERG11 gene) from Candida glabrata L5 (leu2). Single and double mutants of these genes were created by gene deletion. The phenotypes of these mutants, including sterol profiles, aerobic viabilities, antifungal susceptibilities, and generation times, were studied. Strain L5D (erg3 delta::LEU2) accumulated mainly ergosta-7,22-dien-3 beta-ol, was aerobically viable, and remained susceptible to antifungal agents but had a slower generation time than its parent strain. L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) strains required medium supplemented with ergosterol and an anaerobic environment for growth. A spontaneous aerobically viable mutant, L5LUD40R (LEU erg11 delta::URA3), obtained from L5LUD (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), was found to accumulate lanosterol and obtusifoliol, was resistant to azole antifungal agents, demonstrated some increase in resistance to amphotericin B, and exhibited a 1.86-fold increase in generation time in comparison with L5 (leu2). The double-deletion mutant L5DUD61 (erg3 delta::LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3) was aerobically viable, produced mainly 14 alpha-methyl fecosterol, and had the same antifungal susceptibility pattern as L5LUD40R (LEU2 erg11 delta::URA3), and its generation time was threefold greater than that of L5 (leu2). Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that the single-deletion mutants had a marked increase in message for the undeleted ERG3 and ERG11 genes. These results indicate that differences in antifungal susceptibilities and the restoration of aerobic viability exist between the C. glabrata ergosterol mutants created in this study and those sterol mutants with similar genetic lesions previously reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:8593007

  15. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taro; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-01-07

    Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates. CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.

  16. Physiological and pathological adaptations in dairy cows that may increase susceptibility to periparturient diseases and disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Loor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows undergo tremendous metabolic and physiological adaptations around parturition to support lactation. The liver  is central to many of these processes, including gluconeogenesis and metabolism of fatty acids mobilized from adipose tis-  sue. Fat accumulation may impair normal functions of the liver and increase ketogenesis, which in turn may predispose cows  to other metabolic abnormalities. Several aspects of dietary management and body condition may alter these adaptations,  affect dry matter intake, and increase or decrease susceptibility to periparturient health problems. Overfeeding energy dur-  ing the dry period is a prominent risk factor. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in describing the adap-  tive changes in the liver and other organs in normal and abnormal states, but this knowledge has not yet identified unequiv-  ocally the key steps that might be compromised during development of metabolic disorders. The potential role of signaling  compounds, such as the inflammatory cytokines released in response to environmental stressors, infectious challenge, and  oxidative stress, in the pathogenesis of periparturient disease is under investigation. New techniques such as functional  genomics, using cDNA or oligonucleotide microarrays, as well as proteomics and metabolomics, provide additional high-  throughput tools to determine the effects of nutrition, management, or stressors on tissue function in development of dis-  ease. Integrative approaches should be fruitful in unraveling the complex interactions of metabolism, immune activation,  stress physiology, and endocrinology that likely underlie development of periparturient disease. 

  17. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  18. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Robson, Mark; Barrowdale, Daniel; McGuffog, Lesley; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Andrulis, Irene L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Nevanlinna, Heli; Thomassen, Mads; Southey, Melissa; Radice, Paolo; Ramus, Susan J.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; James, Paul; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lester, Jenny; Cass, Ilana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Steele, Linda; v O Hansen, Thomas; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Finn C.; Dennis, Joe; Cunningham, Julie; Hart, Steven; Slager, Susan; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Tafur, Isaac; Hander, Mary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Roversi, Gaia; Scuvera, Giulietta; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariani, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Varesco, Liliana; Papi, Laura; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Giuseppe; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Ong, Kai-Ren; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Ellis, Steve; Godwin, Andrew K.; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Steinemann, Doris; Bogdanova-Markov, Nadja; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Gehrig, Andrea; Markiefka, Birgid; Buecher, Bruno; Lefol, Cédrick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Barjhoux, Laure; Faivre, Laurence; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Isaacs, Claudine; van Maerken, Tom; Claes, Kathleen; Piedmonte, Marion; Andrews, Lesley; Hays, John; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, J. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Wijnen, Juul T.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Teulé, Alex; Menendez, Mireia; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Arason, Adalgeir; Maugard, Christine; Soucy, Penny; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Hallberg, Emily; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Vijai, Joseph; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Lincoln, Anne; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; tea, Muy-Kheng; Phelan, Catherine M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Berger, Raanan; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Borg, Ake; Ehrencrona, Hans; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Perkins, Jo; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Hoffman, Jonathan; James, Margaret; Paterson, Joan; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Lalloo, Fiona; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Weaver, Joellen; Bove, Betsy; Sinilnikova, Olga; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Handallo, Sandrine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Eisinger, François; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Coron, Fanny; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Coene, Ilse; Crombez, Brecht; Segura, Pedro Perez; Romero, Atocha; Diaque, Paula; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Erkkilä, Irja; Palola, Virpi; Rookus, M. A.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Verhoef, S.; Schmidt, M. K.; Wijnands, R.; Collée, J. M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Hooning, M. J.; Seynaeve, C.; van Deurzen, C. H. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Devilee, P.; van Cronenburg, T. C. T. E. F.; Kets, C. M.; Mensenkamp, A. R.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gómez-Garcia, E. B.; Blok, M. J.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Vasen, H. F.; Siesling, S.; Overbeek, L. I. H.; Papp, Janos; Vaszko, Tibor; Bozsik, Aniko; Pocza, Timea; Franko, Judit; Balogh, Maria; Domokos, Gabriella; Ferenczi, Judit; Balmaña, J.; Capella, Gabriel; Dumont, Martine; Tranchant, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation

  19. Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); M. Robson (Mark); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Engel (Christoph); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); M. Thomassen (Mads); M.C. Southey (Melissa); P. Radice (Paolo); S.J. Ramus (Susan); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); A. Lee (Andrew); S. Healey (Sue); R. Nussbaum (Robert); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); M. James (Margaret); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); I. Cass (Ilana); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); M.J. Daly (Mark); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); L. Tihomirova (Laima); N. Tung (Nadine); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); L. Steele (Linda); T. v O Hansen (Thomas); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); F. Nielsen (Finn); J. Dennis (Joe); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); S. Hart (Stewart); S. Slager (Susan); A. Osorio (Ana); J. Benítez (Javier); M. Duran (Mercedes); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); I. Tafur (Isaac); M. Hander (Mary); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); G. Roversi (Gaia); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); P. Mariani (Paolo); S. Volorio (Sara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); L. Varesco (Liliana); L. Papi (Laura); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); F. Fostira (Florentia); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); J. Garber (Judy); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); F. Douglas (Fiona); A. Brady (A.); J. Cook (Jackie); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); K. Ong; L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Eeles (Ros); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); S.D. Ellis (Steve); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); D. Steinemann (Doris); N. Bogdanova-Markov (Nadja); K. Kast (Karin); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); B. Markiefka (Birgid); B. Buecher (Bruno); C. Lefol (Cédrick); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); E. Rouleau (Etienne); F. Prieur (Fabienne); F. Damiola (Francesca); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Longy (Michel); N. Sevenet (Nicolas); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); V. Bonadona (Valérie); V. Caux-Moncoutier (Virginie); C. Isaacs (Claudine); T. Van Maerken (Tom); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); M. Piedmonte (Marion); L. Andrews (Lesley); J. Hays (John); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); S. Khan (Sofia); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); K.E. van Roozendaal (Kees); A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); A. Teulé (A.); M. Menéndez (Mireia); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); A. Arason (Adalgeir); C. Maugard; P. Soucy (Penny); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Agata (Simona); P.J. Teixeira; C. Olswold (Curtis); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); B. Hallberg (Boubou); X. Wang (Xianshu); C. Szabo (Csilla); J. Vijai (Joseph); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M. Corines (Marina); A. Lincoln (Anne); A. Berger (Andreas); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); G. Rennert (Gad); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Bojesen (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); U.B. Jensen; M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); R. Berger (Raanan); Y. Laitman (Yael); J. Rantala (Johanna); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); N. Loman (Niklas); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); K. Offit (Kenneth); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); CIMBA; EMBRACE Study; Breast Cancer Family; GEMO Study Collaborators; HEBON; KConFab Investigators

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2

  20. Susceptibility to scratch surface damage of wollastonite- and talc-containing polypropylene micrometric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadal, R.; Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of wollastonite and talc on the scratch deformation behavior of low and high crystallinity polypropylenes under identical test conditions. The vertical resolution of atomic force microscopy and lateral resolution of scanning electron microscopy is utilized to examine the characteristics of scratch damage. Contrary to the expectations that high crystallinity and stiffness of polypropylene composites should increase resistance to scratch deformation, the susceptibility to mechanical deformation depends on bonding of mineral particles to the polymer matrix. Scratch deformed regions in neat polypropylenes were free of voids and grooves, while reinforced-polypropylenes exhibited voids and debonding/detachment of filler particles. The severity of plastic deformation in reinforced polypropylenes is a function of debonding/detachment of mineral particles, which is comparatively more for talc-reinforced polypropylenes than wollastonite-reinforced polypropylenes because of the layered structure of talc that encourages delamination. Usage of coating and coupling agents improved the resistance to scratch deformation by promoting adhesion and bonding between the reinforcement and matrix

  1. Ageing of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghofraniha, N; Conti, C; Leonardo, R Di; Ruzicka, B; Ruocco, G

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optics response of a colloidal dispersion undergoing dynamics slowing down with age, by using Z-scan and dynamic light scattering measurements. We study the high optical nonlinearity of an organic dye (rhodamine B) dispersed in a water-clay (laponite) suspension. We consider different clay concentrations (2.0-2.6 wt%) experiencing dynamics arrest. We find that (i) the concentration dependent exponential growth of both mean relaxation time and nonlinear absorption coefficient can be individually scaled to a master curve and (ii) the scaling times are the same for the two physical quantities. These findings indicate that the optical nonlinear susceptibility exhibits the same ageing universal scaling behaviour, typical of disordered out of equilibrium systems

  2. Polygalacturonase inhibitor protein from fruits of anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, S; Thimmareddy, C; Roy, Tapas K

    2010-08-01

    Chilli fruit is highly susceptible to anthracnose infection at the stage of harvest maturity, due to which the fruit yield in the leading commercial variety Byadgi is severely affected. Field studies on screening of several varieties for resistance to anthracnose have shown that a variety of chilli AR-4/99K is resistant to anthracnose infection. In many crops, resistance to fungal attack has been correlated with PGIP activity in developing fruits based on which transgenic varieties have been developed with resistance to fungi. The present study was carried out to determine whether anthracnose resistance in AR-4/99K was due to the increased levels of PGIP alone and/ or due to differences, if any, in the properties of PGIP. Hence, a comparative study of the properties of polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) isolated from fruits of anthracnose resistant chilli var AR-4/99K and a susceptible variety Byadgi was conducted with the objective of utilizing the information in genetic transformation studies. Both the PGIPs from anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of chilli exhibited similarities in the elution pattern on Sephadex gel, DEAE cellulose, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The two PGIPs were active over a wide range of pH and temperature. Both PGIPs showed differential inhibitory activity against polygalacturonase (PG) secreted by Colletotrichum gleosporoides, C. capsici, C. lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Sclerotium rolfsii. The inhibitory activity of PGIP from both resistant and susceptible varieties was the highest (82% and 76%, respectively) against the PG from Colletotrichum capsici, a pathogen causing anthracnose rot of chilli, while the activity was lower (1.27 to 12.3%) on the other fungal PGs. Although PGIP activity decreased with fruit maturation in both the varieties, the resistant variety maintained a higher activity at 45 days after flowering (DAF) as compared to the susceptible variety which helped it to overcome the infection by

  3. Remarkable increase of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility of azithromycin and increase in the failure of azithromycin therapy in male gonococcal urethritis in Sendai in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from male gonococcal urethritis in Sendai in 2014 and 2015. Furthermore, of all cases, we investigated the clinical efficacy of a single 2-g dose of extended-release azithromycin (AZM-SR) in the treatment of male gonococcal urethritis retrospectively. Sixty N. gonorrhoeae strains in 2014 and 54 strains in 2015 were isolated from male gonococcal urethritis and stored each year. The MIC of AZM was ≥1 mg/L in 4 strains (6.7%) in 2014 and in 13 strains (24.1%) in 2015 and the number of strains having ≥1 mg/L MIC increased significantly (P = 0.016). Microbiological efficacy was evaluated in 32 and 29 of these patients, and the rates of treatment success were 93.8% and 79.3%, respectively. All of the treatment failures were caused by strains having a MIC of AZM of ≥0.5 mg/L. In particular, the increase in the isolates having a MIC of AZM of ≥1 mg/L was remarkable. Therefore, it was thought that the increase in these strains was the reason for the increase in treatment failures in 2015. Because no other drug is effective, it is currently necessary to use AZM-SR to treat gonococcal infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant strains or patients allergic to ceftriaxone. To prevent a further increase in resistance to AZM, we should not use AZM-SR to treat normal cases of gonococcal infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of scandium-hydrogen and lutetium-hydrogen solid-solution alloys from 2 to 3000K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierman, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Results for pure Sc show that the maximum and minimum in the susceptibility discovered earlier are enhanced as the impurity level of iron in scandium decreases. The Stoner enhancement factor, calculated from low-temperature heat capacity data, susceptibility data, and band-structure calculations show Sc to be a strongly enhanced paramagnet. Below 2 0 K, the magnetic anisotropy between the hard and easy directions of scandium decreases linearly with decreasing temperature, tending toward zero at 0 K. The large increase in the susceptibility of Sc at lower temperatures indicates magnetic ordering. Pure Lu and Lu-H alloys showed an anisotropy in susceptibility vs orientation; thus the samples were not random polycrystalline samples. Pure Lu shows the shallow maximum and minimum, but the increase in susceptibility at low temperatures is larger than previously observed. The susceptibility-composition dependence of the Lu-H alloys also did not match other data. The susceptibility-composition dependence does not match the composition dependence of the electronic specific heat constant below 150 K, showing the electronic specific heat is being affected by terms other than phonon-electron and pure electron-electron interactions

  5. Association of cellular and molecular responses in the rat mammary gland to 17β-estradiol with susceptibility to mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Lina; Zhao, Yang; Warren, Christopher L; Sullivan, Ruth; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Shull, James D

    2013-01-01

    We are using ACI and BN rats, which differ markedly in their susceptibility to 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer, to identify genetic variants and environmental factors that determine mammary cancer susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular responses to E2 in the mammary glands of ACI and BN rats to identify qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that associate with and/or may confer differences in susceptibility to mammary cancer. Female ACI and BN rats were treated with E2 for 1, 3 or 12 weeks. Mammary gland morphology and histology were examined by whole mount and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cell proliferation and epithelial density were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantitative western blotting and flow cytometry. Mammary gland differentiation was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by microarray, qRT-PCR and quantitative western blotting assays. Extracellular matrix (ECM) associated collagen was evaluated by Picrosirius Red staining and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. The luminal epithelium of ACI rats exhibited a rapid and sustained proliferative response to E2. By contrast, the proliferative response exhibited by the mammary epithelium of BN rats was restrained and transitory. Moreover, the epithelium of BN rats appeared to undergo differentiation in response to E2, as evidenced by production of milk proteins as well as luminal ectasia and associated changes in the ECM. Marked differences in expression of genes that encode proteins with well-defined roles in mammary gland development (Pgr, Wnt4, Tnfsf11, Prlr, Stat5a, Areg, Gata3), differentiation and milk production (Lcn2, Spp1), regulation of extracellular environment (Mmp7, Mmp9), and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions (Cd44, Cd24, Cd52) were observed. We propose that these cellular and molecular phenotypes are heritable and may underlie, at least in

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis patients exhibit impaired Candida albicans-specific Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishu, Shrinivas; Su, Ee Wern; Wilkerson, Erich R; Reckley, Kelly A; Jones, Donald M; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L; Levesque, Marc C

    2014-02-11

    Accumulating data implicate the CD4+ T cell subset (Th17 cells) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine that induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-1β and IL-6, all of which are targets of biologic therapies used to treat RA. RA patients are well documented to experience more infections than age-matched controls, and biologic therapies further increase the risk of infection. The Th17/IL-17 axis is vital for immunity to fungi, especially the commensal fungus Candida albicans. Therefore, we were prompted to examine the relationship between RA and susceptibility to C. albicans because of the increasing interest in Th17 cells and IL-17 in driving autoimmunity, and the advent of new biologics that target this pathway. We analyzed peripheral blood and saliva from 48 RA and 33 healthy control subjects. To assess C. albicans-specific Th17 responses, PBMCs were co-cultured with heat-killed C. albicans extract, and IL-17A levels in conditioned supernatants were measured by ELISA. The frequency of Th17 and Th1 cells was determined by flow cytometry. As a measure of IL-17A-mediated effector responses, we evaluated C. albicans colonization rates in the oral cavity, salivary fungicidal activity and levels of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 2 (BD2) in saliva. Compared to controls, PBMCs from RA subjects exhibited elevated baseline production of IL-17A (P = 0.004), although they had similar capacity to produce IL-17A in response to Th17 cell differentiating cytokines (P = 0.91). However RA PBMCs secreted less IL-17A in response to C. albicans antigens (P = 0.006). Significantly more RA patients were colonized with C. albicans in the oral cavity than healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Concomitantly, RA saliva had reduced concentrations of salivary BD2 (P = 0.02). Nonetheless, salivary fungicidal activity was preserved in RA subjects (P = 0.70). RA subjects exhibit detectable impairments in oral immune responses to C. albicans, a

  7. STEM promotion through museum exhibits on cardiac monitoring & cardiac rhythm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, Jordan D; Dow, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Formal education in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) does not successfully engage all of the students who have potential to become skilled in STEM activities and careers. Museum exhibits may be able to reach and engage a broader range of the public. STEM Exhibits that are both understandable and capture the imagination of viewers may contribute toward increased interest in STEM activities. One such topic for such an exhibit could be cardiac pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators that sustain life. Although museums have existed for centuries, the available types of exhibit designs has dramatically increased in recent decades due to innovations in technology. Science and technology museums have especially taken advantage of the progression of exhibit design to developed new ways to communicate to their viewers. These novel presentation tools allow museums to more effectively convey to and engage viewers. This paper examines the techniques employed by museums in exhibits and considers the practices of several museums with exhibits related to cardiac monitoring (CM) and cardiac rhythm management (CRM).

  8. Dielectric susceptibility of classical Coulomb systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquard, Ph.; Piller, B.; Rentsch, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the shape dependence of the dielectric susceptibility (equivalently defined, in a canonical ensemble, by the mean square fluctuation of the electric polarization or by the second moment of the charge-charge correlation function) of classical Coulomb systems. The concept of partial second moment is introduced with the aim of analyzing the contributions to the total susceptibility of pairs of particles of increasing separation. For a disk-shaped one-component plasma with coupling parameter γ=2 it is shown, numerically and algebraically for small and large systems, that (1) the correlation function of two particles close to the edge of the disk decays as the inverse of the square of their distance, and (2) the susceptibility is made up of a bulk contribution, which saturates rapidly toward the Stillinger-Lovett value, and of surface contribution, which varies on the scale of the disk diameter and is described by a new law called the arc sine law. It is also shown that electrostatics and statistical mechanics with shape-dependent thermodynamic limits are consistent for the same model in a strip geometry, whereas the Stillinger-Lovett sum rule is verified for a boundary-free geometry such as the surface of a sphere. Some results of extensive computer simulations of one- and two-component plasmas in circular and elliptic geometries are shown. Anisotropy effects on the susceptibilities are clearly demonstrated and the arc sine law for a circular plasma is well confirmed

  9. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  10. Transthyretin knockout mice display decreased susceptibility to AMPA-induced neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ana Filipa; Montero, Maria; Franquinho, Filipa

    2009-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) has been regarded as a neuroprotective protein given that TTR knockout (KO) mice display increased susceptibility for amyloid beta deposition and memory deficits during aging. In parallel, TTR KO mice have increased levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which promotes neuroprotectio...

  11. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. - Highlights: • To define susceptible populations is important for risk assessment and management; • Genetic susceptibility may influence the individual response to nanomaterial exposure; • Susceptibility factors in workplace settings have both scientific and ethical issues.

  12. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iavicoli, Ivo, E-mail: ivo.iavicoli@unina.it [Department of Public Health, Division of Occupational Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Leso, Veruscka, E-mail: veruscka@email.it [Institute of Public Health, Section of Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Schulte, Paul A., E-mail: pas4@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. - Highlights: • To define susceptible populations is important for risk assessment and management; • Genetic susceptibility may influence the individual response to nanomaterial exposure; • Susceptibility factors in workplace settings have both scientific and ethical issues.

  13. Degree of Tissue Differentiation Dictates Susceptibility to BRAF-Driven Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic mutations in BRAF are believed to initiate serrated colorectal cancers; however, the mechanisms of BRAF-driven colon cancer are unclear. We find that oncogenic BRAF paradoxically suppresses stem cell renewal and instead promotes differentiation. Correspondingly, tumor formation is inefficient in BRAF-driven mouse models of colon cancer. By reducing levels of differentiation via genetic manipulation of either of two distinct differentiation-promoting factors (Smad4 or Cdx2, stem cell activity is restored in BRAFV600E intestines, and the oncogenic capacity of BRAFV600E is amplified. In human patients, we observe that reduced levels of differentiation in normal tissue is associated with increased susceptibility to serrated colon tumors. Together, these findings help resolve the conditions necessary for BRAF-driven colon cancer initiation. Additionally, our results predict that genetic and/or environmental factors that reduce tissue differentiation will increase susceptibility to serrated colon cancer. These findings offer an opportunity to identify susceptible individuals by assessing their tissue-differentiation status.

  14. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  15. Zinc-ion-dependent acid phosphatase exhibits magnesium-ion-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Okano, I; Tanaka, Y; Sumida, Y; Tsuda, J; Kawakami, N; Shimohama, S

    1996-06-01

    We have purified bovine brain Zn(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase (Zn(2+)-APase), which requires Zn2+ ions to hydrolyze the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) in an acidic environment. The substrate specificity and metal requirement of Zn(2+)-APase at a physiological pH was also studied. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity on myo-inositol-1- and -2-monophosphates, 2'-adenosine monophosphate, 2'-guanosine monophosphate, and the alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, glucose-1-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of Mg2+ ions, but not on pNPP and phosphotyrosine. Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were less effective for activation. Among the above substrates, myo-inositol-1-phosphate was the most susceptible to hydrolysis by the enzyme in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH at around 8 for myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Li+ ions. The Zn(2+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the purified enzyme fraction exhibited similar behavior on Sephadex G-100 and Mono Q colomns. These findings suggest that Zn(2+)-APase also exhibits Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity under physiological conditions.

  16. Identification of highly susceptible individuals in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoting; Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    Identifying highly susceptible individuals in spreading processes is of great significance in controlling outbreaks. In this paper, we explore the susceptibility of people in susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and rumor spreading dynamics. We first study the impact of community structure on people's susceptibility. Although the community structure can reduce the number of infected people for same infection rate, it will not significantly affect nodes' susceptibility. We find the susceptibility of individuals is sensitive to the choice of spreading dynamics. For SIR spreading, since the susceptibility is highly correlated to nodes' influence, the topological indicator k-shell can better identify highly susceptible individuals, outperforming degree, betweenness centrality and PageRank. In contrast, in rumor spreading model, where nodes' susceptibility and influence have no clear correlation, degree performs the best among considered topological measures. Our finding highlights the significance of both topological features and spreading mechanisms in identifying highly susceptible population.

  17. Use of Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils and their main components to enhance itraconazole activity against azole susceptible/not-susceptible Cryptococcus neoformans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, Daniela; Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Tardugno, Roberta; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Ghisetti, Valeria; Benvenuti, Stefania; Tullio, Vivian

    2018-05-03

    Cryptococcal infections, besides being a problem for immunocompromised patients, are occasionally being a problem for immunocompetent patients. In addition, the lower susceptibility of this yeast to azoles is a growing problem in health care. To date, there are very few molecules with any activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans, leading to heightened interest in finding new alternatives or adjuvants to conventional drugs for the treatment of mycosis caused by this yeast. Since the essential oils (EOs) are considered as a potential rich source of bioactive antimicrobial compounds, we evaluated the antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano), Pinus sylvestris (pine), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme red) EOs, and their components (α-pinene, carvacrol, thymol) compared with fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole, against C.neoformans clinical strains. Then, we investigated the effect of EOs and components in combination with itraconazole. EO composition was analysed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the susceptibility of C.neoformans to azoles, EOs and components. Checkerboard tests, isobolograms and time-kill assays were carried out for combination studies. Six C.neoformans isolates were susceptible to azoles, while one C.neoformans exhibited a reduced susceptibility to all tested azole drugs. All EOs exerted a good inhibitory activity against all C.neoformans strains. Pine EO was the most effective. Among components, thymol exerted the most remarkable activity. By checkerboard testing and isobolographic analysis, combinations of itraconazole with oregano, pine, or thyme EOs, and carvacrol were found to be synergistic (FICI≤0.5) against azole susceptible C.neoformans. Regarding the azole not susceptible C.neoformans strain, the synergistic effect with itraconazole was observed with thyme EO (chemotype: thymol 26.52%; carvacrol 7.85%), and carvacrol. Time-kill assays confirmed the synergistic

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the

  19. The susceptibility of Anopheles lesteri to infection with Korean strain of Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tong-Soo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in Korea. Three species of the Hyrcanusgroup, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. However, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. The present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a Korean isolate of Plasmodium vivax. Also, An. sinensis is primarily suspected to be vector of malaria in Korea, but in Thailand, the same species is described to have less medical importance. Therefore, comparative susceptibility of Thai and Korean strains of An. sinensis with Thai strain of P. vivax may be helpful to understand whether these geographically different strains exhibit differences in their susceptibility or not. Methods The comparative susceptibility of An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus was studied by feeding laboratory-reared mosquitoes on blood from patients carrying gametocytes from Korea and Thailand. Results In experimental feeding with Korean strain of P. vivax, oocysts developed in An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus. Salivary gland sporozoites were detected only in An. lesteri and An. sinensis but not in An. pullus. Large differences were found in the number of sporozoites in the salivary glands, with An. lesteri carrying much higher densities, up to 2,105 sporozoites in a single microscope field of 750 × 560 μM, whereas a maximum of 14 sporozoites were found in any individual salivary gland of An. sinensis. Similar results were obtained from a susceptibility test of two different strains of An. sinensis to Thai isolate of P. vivax, and differences in vector susceptibility according to geographical variation were not detected. Conclusion The high sporozoite rate and sporozoite loads of An. lesteri indicate that this species is highly susceptible to infection with P. vivax

  20. Variation of the dynamic susceptibility along an isochrone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Koperwas et al. showed in a recent paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 125701 (2013)] that the dynamic susceptibility χ4 as estimated by dielectric measurements for certain glass-forming liquids decreases substantially with increasing pressure along a curve of constant relaxation time. This observation...

  1. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  2. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  3. Low-field susceptibilities of rare-earth spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.

    1978-01-01

    The low-field AC susceptibilities of the dilute rare-earth spin glass alloys Sc-Gd, Sc-Tb, Pr-Tb and Pr-Gd are reported and compared with low-field DC susceptibilities of the same samples. The similarities between their behaviour and that of Au-Fe spin glass alloys is also considered. When single-ion anisotropy is important, this can cause a dramatic broadening of the sharp peak. Broadening in the AC peak has also observed as the frequency of the deriving field is increased. These data can be qualitatively discussed in terms of a recent magnetic-cluster model for spin glasses. (author)

  4. Effects of different aging statuses and strain rate on the adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Tan, G.Y.; Chen, P.X.; Zhang, Q.M.

    2012-01-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress–true strain curves and true stress–time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum–lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.

  5. Effects of different aging statuses and strain rate on the adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, G.Y., E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Chen, P.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Zhang, Q.M. [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-06-01

    The adiabatic shear susceptibility of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy was investigated by means of split Hopkinson pressure bar. The stress collapse in true stress-true strain curves and true stress-time curves was observed. The adiabatic shear susceptibility of different aging statuses and strain rate were discussed by means of metallography observation. The critical strain, stress collapse time and formation energy of adiabatic shear bands were compared. The results show that different aging statuses and strain rate have significant influences on adiabatic shear behaviors of 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. The peak-aged specimen has the highest adiabatic shearing susceptibility, while the under-aged specimen has the least adiabatic shear susceptibility. The susceptibility of adiabatic shearing increases with the increases of strain rate.

  6. Drug susceptibility of fungi isolated from ICU patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzewska, Barbara D; Kurnatowska,, Anna J; Khalid, Katarzyna

    Candida species can be a reason of infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. The risk of invasive candidosis for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) is increased due to immunosuppressive states, prolonged length of stay, broad-spectrum antibiotics and Candida colonization. The aim of the study was to determine selected properties of fungi isolated from patients treated in the ICUs of hospitals in Lodz. The materials were collected from the oral cavity, the tracheostomy or endotracheal tube and urine from 16 children and 35 adult. In total, 127 samples were examined to differentiate the fungal strains with used morphological and biochemical methods. Candida species were isolated from adult patients (82.9%), but were not isolated from any of the children; C. albicans was the predominant fungus (61.7%), much less frequent were C. glabrata (12.8%), C. tropicalis (6.4%) and C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis (4.3% each).The susceptibility of fungi to antimycotic drugs revealed that almost all of the strains were susceptible to nystatin (97.9%) and to amphotericin B (72.3%), and resistant to fluconazole (72.3%) and ketoconazole (57.5%). No isolation of fungi from children remaining in ICU may be an evidence of high sanitary regime at these wards; fungi from the genus Candida are the etiological factors for ICU infections; 3/5 of them are caused by C. albicans, mostly of the code 2 576 174, characteristic for strains isolated from hospitalized patients; it is necessary to determine the species of the fungus and its susceptibility to drugs, which allows to conduct effective therapy; prophylactic administration of fluconazole leads to an increase in the number of strains resistant to this chemotherapeutic agent; in the antifungal local treatment, nystatin should be a drug of choice as the drug to which most fungi are susceptible.

  7. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  8. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    and time; that increased levels of COC-producing activities within a source area may increase susceptibility to COC exposure; and that natural and manmade conditions within the source area may increase, decrease, or have no observable effect on susceptibility to COC exposure. Incorporating these assumptions, eight SWSA components were defined: identification, delineation, intrinsic susceptibility, point- and nonpoint-source susceptibility, contaminant occurrence, area-of-primary influence, and summary components. Spatial datasets were prepared to represent approximately 170 attributes or indicators used in the assessment process. These primarily were static datasets (approximately 46 gigabytes (GB) in size). Selected datasets such as PWS surface-water-intake or groundwater-well locations and potential source of contamination (PSOC) locations were updated weekly. Completed assessments were archived, and that database is approximately 10 GB in size. SWSA components currently (2011) are implemented in the Source Water Assessment Program-Decision Support System (SWAP-DSS) computer software, specifically developed to produce SWSAs. On execution of the software, the components work to identify the source of water for the well or intake, assess intrinsic susceptibility of the water- supply source, assess susceptibility to contamination with COCs from point and nonpoint sources, identify any previous detections of COCs from existing water-quality databases, and summarize the results. Each water-supply source's susceptibility is assessed, source results are weighted by source capacity (when a PWS has multiple sources), and results are combined into a single SWSA for the PWS.'SWSA reports are generated using the software; during 2003, more than 6,000 reports were provided to PWS operators and the public. The ability to produce detailed or summary reports for individual sources, and detailed or summary reports for a PWS, by COC or COC group was a unique capability of SWAP

  9. STrategically Acquired Gradient Echo (STAGE) imaging, part I: Creating enhanced T1 contrast and standardized susceptibility weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Liu, Saifeng; Wang, Yu; Kang, Yan; Haacke, E Mark

    2018-02-01

    To provide whole brain grey matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast enhanced T1W (T1WE) images, multi-echo quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), proton density (PD) weighted images, T1 maps, PD maps, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), and R2* maps with minimal misregistration in scanning times creating enhanced GM/WM contrast (the T1WE). The proposed T1WE image was created from a combination of the proton density weighted (6°, PDW) and T1W (24°) images and corrected for RF transmit field variations. Prior to the QSM calculation, a multi-echo phase unwrapping strategy was implemented using the unwrapped short echo to unwrap the longer echo to speed up computation. R2* maps were used to mask deep grey matter and veins during the iterative QSM calculation. A weighted-average sum of susceptibility maps was generated to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The proposed T1WE image has a significantly improved CNR both for WM to deep GM and WM to cortical GM compared to the acquired T1W image (the first echo of 24° scan) and the T1MPRAGE image. The weighted-average susceptibility maps have 80±26%, 55±22%, 108±33% SNR increases across the ten subjects compared to the single echo result of 17.5ms for the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, respectively. STAGE imaging offers the potential to create a standardized brain imaging protocol providing four pieces of quantitative tissue property information and multiple types of qualitative information in just 5min. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  11. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  12. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  13. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  15. Anaerobic bacteraemia revisited: species and susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily S Y; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Tan, Thean Yen

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the frequency of anaerobic bacteraemia over a 10-year period, and to provide updated antibiotic susceptibilities for the more clinically relevant anaerobes causing blood stream infection. Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method. Anaerobes comprised 4.1% of all positive blood culture with 727 obligate anaerobes recovered over the 10-year period, representing a positivity rate of 0.35%. The only significant change in anaerobe positivity rates occurred between 2003 and 2004, with an increase of 0.2%. The Bacteroides fragilis group (45%) were the predominant anaerobic pathogens, followed by Clostridium species (12%), Propioniobacterium species (11%) and Fusobacterium species (6%). The most active in vitro antibiotics were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with susceptibilities of 95.0%, 93.3%, 90.8% and 90.8% respectively. Resistance was high to penicillin, clindamycin and moxifl oxacin. However, there were apparent differences for antibiotic susceptibilities between species. This study indicates that the anaerobes comprise a small but constant proportion of bloodstream isolates. Antibiotic resistance was high to some antibiotics, but metronidazole, the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and

  16. Effects of o-aminoazotoluene on liver regeneration and p53 activation in mice susceptible and resistant to hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, Olga A.; Eremeev, Artem V.; Goloshchapov, Andrey; Kalashnikova, Eugenia; Ilnitskaya, Svetlana; Setkov, Nikolai A.; Kobzev, Victor; Buzard, Gregory S.; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Kaledin, Vasily I.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies greatly within human populations in response to environmental risk agents. The mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility are still largely unknown and need to be clarified to improve HCC chemoprevention and therapeutic treatment. Inbred rodent strains with established predispositions for hepatocarcinogenesis offer the opportunity to identify intrinsic susceptibility and resistance factors. Previously, we have characterized mouse strains showing differential susceptibility to o-aminoazotoluene (OAT) and established that susceptibility does not result from OAT metabolism or genotoxicity in the livers of resistant and susceptible mice. In this study we have found that OAT differently affects hepatocyte proliferation in mice after partial hepatectomy (PH). OAT inhibited hepatocyte proliferation by 60-80% in the livers of susceptible mice, whereas resistant mice showed less than 15% inhibition. The inhibition resulted in significant delay of hepatic mass recovery in susceptible mice. OAT induced p53 stabilization and transcriptional activation in response to carcinogen treatment to the same degree in both, susceptible and resistant mice. Taken together, our data support inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation as a major cause for increased mouse susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis, and acceleration of functional liver recovery may offer a way to increase resistance to hepatic neoplasms. These results may have relevance to clinical observations of HCCs and implications for HCC chemoprevention and treatment

  17. Paradoxical perfusion metrics of high-grade gliomas with an oligodendroglioma component: quantitative analysis of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, Leonard; Park, Sun-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Hong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science, and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chul-Kee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jae-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hye [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate perfusion characteristics of glioblastoma with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) compared with conventional glioblastoma (GBM) using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and microvessel density (MVD). The study was approved by the institutional review board. Newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients were enrolled (n = 72; 20 GBMs, 14 GBMOs, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 13 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs), and six anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOAs)). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including DSC perfusion MR imaging. Normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) values were analyzed using a histogram approach. Histogram parameters were subsequently compared across each tumor subtype and grade. MVD was quantified by immunohistochemistry staining and correlated with perfusion parameters. Progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed according to the tumor subtype. GBMO displayed significantly reduced nCBV values compared with GBM, whereas grade III tumors with oligodendroglial components (AO and AOA) exhibited significantly increased nCBV values compared with AA (p < 0.001). MVD analyses revealed the same pattern as nCBV results. In addition, a positive correlation between MVD and nCBV values was noted (r = 0.633, p < 0.001). Patients with oligodendroglial tumors exhibited significantly increased PFS compared with patients with pure astrocytomas in each grade. In contrast to grade III tumors, the presence of oligodendroglial components in grade IV tumors resulted in paradoxically reduced perfusion metrics and MVD. In addition, patients with GBMO exhibited a better clinical outcome compared with patients with GBM. (orig.)

  18. Modern maize hybrids in Northeast China exhibit increased yield potential and resource use efficiency despite adverse climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochao; Chen, Fanjun; Chen, Yanling; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2013-03-01

    The impact of global changes on food security is of serious concern. Breeding novel crop cultivars adaptable to climate change is one potential solution, but this approach requires an understanding of complex adaptive traits for climate-change conditions. In this study, plant growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, and yield in relation to climatic resource use efficiency of nine representative maize cultivars released between 1973 and 2000 in China were investigated in a 2-year field experiment under three N applications. The Hybrid-Maize model was used to simulate maize yield potential in the period from 1973 to 2011. During the past four decades, the total thermal time (growing degree days) increased whereas the total precipitation and sunshine hours decreased. This climate change led to a reduction of maize potential yield by an average of 12.9% across different hybrids. However, the potential yield of individual hybrids increased by 118.5 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) with increasing year of release. From 1973 to 2000, the use efficiency of sunshine hours, thermal time, and precipitation resources increased by 37%, 40%, and 41%, respectively. The late developed hybrids showed less reduction in yield potential in current climate conditions than old cultivars, indicating some adaptation to new conditions. Since the mid-1990s, however, the yield impact of climate change exhibited little change, and even a slight worsening for new cultivars. Modern breeding increased ear fertility and grain-filling rate, and delayed leaf senescence without modification in net photosynthetic rate. The trade-off associated with delayed leaf senescence was decreased grain N concentration rather than increased plant N uptake, therefore N agronomic efficiency increased simultaneously. It is concluded that modern maize hybrids tolerate the climatic changes mainly by constitutively optimizing plant productivity. Maize breeding programs in the future should pay more attention to cope with the limiting

  19. RNA interference of two glutathione S-transferase genes, Diaphorina citri DcGSTe2 and DcGSTd1, increases the susceptibility of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) to the pesticides fenpropathrin and thiamethoxam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiudao; Killiny, Nabil

    2018-03-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important agricultural pest of citrus globally. Foliar application of chemical insecticides is the most widely used option for reducing D. citri populations. Knockdown of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in several insect species leads to increased susceptibility to insecticides; however, information about the detoxifying role of GST genes in D. citri is unavailable. Via a sequence homology search, we isolated and characterized three DcGST genes (DcGSTd1, DcGSTe1 and DcGSTe2) from D. citri. Phylogenetic analysis grouped DcGSTd1 into the delta class of GST genes, whereas DcGSTe1 and DcGSTe2 were clustered in the epsilon clade. Gene expression analysis revealed that chlorpyrifos treatment increased the mRNA levels of DcGSTe1 and fenpropathrin enhanced the expression level of DcGSTd1, while DcGSTe2 was significantly up-regulated after exposure to thiamethoxam at a dose of 30% lethal concentration (LC30). RNA interference (RNAi) of DcGSTe2 and DcGSTd1 followed by an insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of thiamethoxam-treated psyllids by 23.0% and fenpropathrin-treated psyllids by 15.0%. In contrast, knockdown of DcGSTe1 did not significantly increase the susceptibility of D. citri to any of these three insecticides. Further, feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsDcGSTe2-d1) interfusion co-silenced DcGSTe2 and DcGSTd1 expression in D. citri, and led to an increase of susceptibility to both fenpropathrin and thiamethoxam. The findings suggest that DcGSTe2 and DcGSTd1 play unique roles in detoxification of the pesticides thiamethoxam and fenpropathrin. In addition, co-silencing by creating a well-designed dsRNA interfusion against multiple genes was a good RNAi strategy in D. citri. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Neutron diffraction, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of Ni3(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobal, J.; Pizarro, J.L.; Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, J.M.; Bazan, B.; Arriortua, M.I.; Rojo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 phosphate was synthesized by the ceramic method in air atmosphere. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from Ni 3 O 14 edge-sharing octahedra, which are interconnected by (PO 4 ) 3- oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior was studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at approximately 17.1 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements of Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering (λ-type) peak at 17.1 K. Measurements above T N suggest the presence of a small short-range order in this phase. The total magnetic entropy was found to be 28.1 KJ/mol at 50 K. The magnetic structure of the nickel(II) phosphate exhibits ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni 3 O 14 trimers which are antiferromagnetically coupled between them, giving rise to a purely antiferromagnetic structure

  1. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  2. Survival and behavioural responses of the predatory ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa populations susceptible and resistant to a pyrethroid insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola, A F; Silva-Torres, C S A; Rodrigues, A R S; Torres, J B

    2013-08-01

    The ladybird beetle, Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the commonest predators of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the cotton agroecosystem and in many other row and fruit crops in Brazil, and has been introduced into other countries such as the USA for purposes of aphid control. In addition, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most serious cotton pest where it occurs, including Brazil. Controlling boll weevils and other pests such as cotton defoliators still tends to involve the intense application of insecticides to secure cotton production. The pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is commonly used, but this compound is not effective against aphids; hence, a desirable strategy would be to maintain E. connexa populations in cotton fields where LCT is applied. Using populations of E. connexa resistant (Res) and susceptible (Sus) to LCT, we compared behavioural responses on treated cotton plants and under confinement on partially and fully treated surfaces, and assessed the insects' survival on treated plants compared with that of the boll weevil. The E. connexa resistant population caged on treated plants with 15 and 75 g a.i. ha-1 exhibited ≫82% survival for both insecticide concentrations compared with ≪3% and ≪17% survival for susceptible E. connexa populations and boll weevils, respectively. The response of E. connexa Res and Sus populations when released, either on the soil or on the plant canopy, indicated avoidance towards treated plants, as measured by elapsed time to assess the plant. When compared with susceptible individuals, resistant ones took longer time to suffer insecticide knockdown, had a higher recovery rate after suffering knockdown, and spent more time in the plant canopy. Based on behavioural parameters evaluated in treated arenas, no ladybird beetles exhibited repellency. However, irritability was evident, with the susceptible population exhibiting

  3. Characterization of susceptible chiasma configurations that increase the risk for maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, N E; Feingold, E; Savage, A; Avramopoulos, D; Freeman, S; Gu, Y; Hallberg, A; Hersey, J; Karadima, G; Pettay, D; Saker, D; Shen, J; Taft, L; Mikkelsen, M; Petersen, M B; Hassold, T; Sherman, S L

    1997-09-01

    Recent studies of trisomy 21 have shown that altered levels of recombination are associated with maternal non-disjunction occurring at both meiosis I (MI) and meiosis II (MII). To comprehend better the association of recombination with nondisjunction, an understanding of the pattern of meiotic exchange, i.e. the exchange of genetic material at the four-strand stage during prophase, is required. We examined this underlying exchange pattern to determine if specific meiotic configurations are associated with a higher risk of non-disjunction than others. We examined the crossover frequencies of chromosome 21 for three populations: (i) normal female meiotic events; (ii) meiotic events leading to MI non-disjunction; and (iii) those leading to MII non-disjunction. From these crossover frequencies, we estimated the array of meiotic tetrads that produced the observed crossovers. Using this approach, we found that nearly one-half of MI errors were estimated to be achiasmate. The majority of the remaining MI bivalents had exchanges that clustered at the telomere. In contrast, exchanges occurring among MII cases clustered at the pericentromeric region of the chromosome. Unlike the single exchange distributions, double exchanges from the non-disjoined populations seemed to approximate the distribution in the normal population. These data suggest that the location of certain exchanges makes a tetrad susceptible to non-disjunction. Specifically, this susceptibility is associated with the distance between the centromere and closest exchange. This result challenges the widely held concept that events occurring at MII are largely independent of events occurring at MI, and suggests that all non-disjunction events may be initiated during MI and simply resolved at either of the two meiotic stages.

  4. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02 m/s for working and 0.00 m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90 s stop mode every 2 min; 180 cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10 min working and 30 min stop mode, 9 cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4 mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30 min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. Copyright

  5. Sinkhole Susceptibility Analysis for Karapinar/konya via Multi Criteria Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, F.

    2017-11-01

    Sinkholes are being a natural hazard which threads economic and human life. Sudden occurrence characteristic of sinkholes make it unable to escape. There are a lot of factor that activate sinkholes such as geology, irrigation, land use and human related factors. In Karapınar, Konya, there are over 200 sinkholes and this count is getting increased in recent years. Especially active agricultural lands, decreasing ground water level, extreme irrigation by 55267 water wells increase the risk factor of Karapınar. Nowadays, considering the economic contribution of Karapınar to Turkey economy in the field of agriculture, solar energy fields and thermal reactor which will be planned in next few years, prediction of sinkholes and searching for preventation ways are being more important issue. In this study, sinkhole susceptibility map via AHP was carried out for Karapınar in Konya. Slope, land use, elevation, geology, water wells, distance to roads and settlements criteria are included to determine susceptibility. The weights are calculated with AHP for each criterion and generated susceptibility map is overlapped with existing sinkholes. Suggestions and results are shared for this study.

  6. SINKHOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR KARAPINAR/KONYA VIA MULTI CRITERIA DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarı

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sinkholes are being a natural hazard which threads economic and human life. Sudden occurrence characteristic of sinkholes make it unable to escape. There are a lot of factor that activate sinkholes such as geology, irrigation, land use and human related factors. In Karapınar, Konya, there are over 200 sinkholes and this count is getting increased in recent years. Especially active agricultural lands, decreasing ground water level, extreme irrigation by 55267 water wells increase the risk factor of Karapınar. Nowadays, considering the economic contribution of Karapınar to Turkey economy in the field of agriculture, solar energy fields and thermal reactor which will be planned in next few years, prediction of sinkholes and searching for preventation ways are being more important issue. In this study, sinkhole susceptibility map via AHP was carried out for Karapınar in Konya. Slope, land use, elevation, geology, water wells, distance to roads and settlements criteria are included to determine susceptibility. The weights are calculated with AHP for each criterion and generated susceptibility map is overlapped with existing sinkholes. Suggestions and results are shared for this study.

  7. Susceptibility Status of The Malaria Vector Anopheles Arabiensis To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increasing insecticide resistancein the major anopheline vectors remain the main obstacle for malaria control programmes in African countries including Sudan. Objectives: To assess the susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis the malaria vector to different classes of insecticides in Khartoum State.

  8. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  9. IL1B and DEFB1 Polymorphisms Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Mold Infection After Solid-Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Lecompte, Thanh; Bibert, Stephanie; Manuel, Oriol; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Rüeger, Sina; Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Meylan, Pascal R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Methods. Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped among 1101 SOT recipients (715 kidney transplant recipients, 190 liver transplant recipients, 102 lung transplant recipients, 79 heart transplant recipients, and 15 recipients of other transplants) fro...

  10. The interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 gene increases the susceptibility of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lin

    Full Text Available The association between BDNF gene functional Val66Met polymorphism rs6265 and the schizophrenia is far from being consistent. In addition to the heterogeneous in schizophrenia per se leading to the inconsistent results, the interaction among multi-genes is probably playing the main role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but not a single gene. Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2 is the high-affinity receptor of BDNF, and was reported to be associated with mood disorders, though no literature reported the association with schizophrenia. Thus, in the present study, total 402 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (the most common subtype of schizophrenia and matched 406 healthy controls were recruited to investigate the role of rs6265 in BDNF, three polymorphisms in NTRK2 gene (rs1387923, rs2769605 and rs1565445 and their interaction in the susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. We did not observe significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between patients and healthy controls for all four polymorphisms separately. The haplotype analysis also showed no association between haplotype of NTRK2 genes (rs1387923, rs2769605, and rs1565445 and paranoid schizophrenia. However, we found the association between the interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 with paranoid schizophrenia by using the MDR method followed by conventional statistical analysis. The best gene-gene interaction model was a three-locus model (BDNF rs6265, NTRK2 rs1387923 and NTRK2 rs2769605, in which one low-risk and three high-risk four-locus genotype combinations were identified. Our findings implied that single polymorphism of rs6265 rs1387923, rs2769605, and rs1565445 in BDNF and NTRK2 were not associated with the development of paranoid schizophrenia in a Han population, however, the interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 genes polymorphisms (BDNF-rs6265, NTRK2-rs1387923 and NTRK2-rs2769605 may be involved in the susceptibility to paranoid

  11. The interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 gene increases the susceptibility of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng; Su, Yousong; Zhang, Chengfang; Xing, Mengjuan; Ding, Wenhua; Liao, Liwei; Guan, Yangtai; Li, Zezhi; Cui, Donghong

    2013-01-01

    The association between BDNF gene functional Val66Met polymorphism rs6265 and the schizophrenia is far from being consistent. In addition to the heterogeneous in schizophrenia per se leading to the inconsistent results, the interaction among multi-genes is probably playing the main role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but not a single gene. Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (NTRK2) is the high-affinity receptor of BDNF, and was reported to be associated with mood disorders, though no literature reported the association with schizophrenia. Thus, in the present study, total 402 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (the most common subtype of schizophrenia) and matched 406 healthy controls were recruited to investigate the role of rs6265 in BDNF, three polymorphisms in NTRK2 gene (rs1387923, rs2769605 and rs1565445) and their interaction in the susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. We did not observe significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between patients and healthy controls for all four polymorphisms separately. The haplotype analysis also showed no association between haplotype of NTRK2 genes (rs1387923, rs2769605, and rs1565445) and paranoid schizophrenia. However, we found the association between the interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 with paranoid schizophrenia by using the MDR method followed by conventional statistical analysis. The best gene-gene interaction model was a three-locus model (BDNF rs6265, NTRK2 rs1387923 and NTRK2 rs2769605), in which one low-risk and three high-risk four-locus genotype combinations were identified. Our findings implied that single polymorphism of rs6265 rs1387923, rs2769605, and rs1565445 in BDNF and NTRK2 were not associated with the development of paranoid schizophrenia in a Han population, however, the interaction of BDNF and NTRK2 genes polymorphisms (BDNF-rs6265, NTRK2-rs1387923 and NTRK2-rs2769605) may be involved in the susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia.

  12. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  13. The association of folate pathway and DNA repair polymorphisms with susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goričar, Katja; Erčulj, Nina; Faganel Kotnik, Barbara; Debeljak, Maruša; Hovnik, Tinka; Jazbec, Janez; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-05-15

    Genetic factors may play an important role in susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of our study was to evaluate the associations of genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway and DNA repair genes with susceptibility to ALL. In total, 121 children with ALL and 184 unrelated healthy controls of Slovenian origin were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in seven genes of folate pathway, base excision repair and homologous recombination repair (TYMS, MTHFR, OGG1, XRCC1, NBN, RAD51, and XRCC3). In addition, the exon 6 of NBN was screened for the presence of mutations using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. Twelve polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls and their genotype frequencies were in agreement with those reported in other Caucasian populations. Among the investigated polymorphisms and mutations, NBN Glu185Gln significantly decreased susceptibility to B-cell ALL (p=0.037), while TYMS 3R allele decreased susceptibility to T-cell ALL (p=0.011). Moreover, significantly decreased susceptibility to ALL was observed for MTHFR TA (p=0.030) and RAD51 GTT haplotypes (p=0.016). Susceptibility to ALL increased with the increasing number of risk alleles (ptrend=0.007). We also observed significant influence of hOGG-RAD51 and NBN-RAD51 interactions on susceptibility to ALL. Our results suggest that combination of several polymorphisms in DNA repair and folate pathways may significantly affect susceptibility to childhood ALL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  15. Anisotropy of susceptibility in rocks which are magnetically nonlinear even in low fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouda, František; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, Josef

    2018-06-01

    Theory of the low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) assumes a linear relationship between magnetization and magnetizing field, resulting in field-independent susceptibility. This is valid for diamagnetic and paramagnetic minerals by definition and also for pure magnetite, while in titanomagnetite, pyrrhotite and hematite the susceptibility may be clearly field-dependent even in low fields used in common AMS meter. Consequently, the use of the linear AMS theory is fully legitimate in the former minerals, but in principle incorrect in the latter ones. Automated measurement of susceptibility in 320 directions in variable low-fields ranging from 5 to 700 A m-1 was applied to more than 100 specimens of various pyrrhotite-bearing and titanomagnetite-bearing rocks. Data analysis showed that the anisotropic susceptibility remains well represented by an ellipsoid in the entire low-field span even though the ellipsoid increases its volume and eccentricity. The principal directions do not change their orientations with low-field in most specimens. Expressions for susceptibility as a function of field were found in the form of diagonal tensor whose elements are polynomials of low order. In a large proportion of samples, the susceptibility expressions can be further simplified to have one common skeleton polynomial.

  16. Possible individual variation in susceptibility to radiation-induced genetic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Walker, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies have shown variation between individuals in radiosensitivity. A person could have a high level of cytogenetic indicator because of high exposure or high susceptibility. To relate spontaneous cytogenetic end-points to dose it is advisable to have a measure of both the spontaneous level and of induced susceptibility. These end points need to be compared in irradiated persons who have developed cancer versus those who have not, as a guide to what end points are appropriate for susceptibility to radiogenic cancer. The use of inbred rodent strains may not be appropriate to derive specific locus mutation data relevant to the human situation, in which large differences in susceptibility appear to exist. Variability in response because of differential DNA repair capacity should be kept in mind when evaluating existing human data. For accident situations, using acute exposures for testing susceptibility may be appropriate, but to be relevant to low dose, low dose rate exposures, more use of protracted dose delivery in testing is recommended. There is a need for international collaborative study where these different tests are done on the same donors at the same time. It might now be prudent for radiation protection to take into account the occurrence of critical groups in the population on the basis of their increased radiation sensitivity. (12 refs., 3 figs.)

  17. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  18. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  19. Renal Proteome in Mice with Different Susceptibilities to Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Salvato, Fernanda; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary Milton; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F) metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18) and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18) were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies. PMID:23308176

  20. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  1. Neptunium tetrabromide: a Moessbauer and magnetic susceptibility study below 200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.L.; Jones, E.R. Jr.; Stone, J.A.; Karraker, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    NpBr 4 was studied by 237 Np Moessbauer resonance from 4.2 to 20 0 K and by vibrating-sample magnetometer from 2.2 to 70.5 0 K. The magnetic susceptibility exhibits typical Curie-Weiss behavior about 20 0 K and displays a sharp peak at 12.5 +- 0.5 0 K indicating an antiferromagnetic transition. The Moessbauer spectrum at 4.2 0 K agrees with previous work by Stone and Pillinger [J.A. Stone and W.L. Pillinger, Sym. Faraday Soc., 1, 77(1967)]. At approximately 13 0 K, there is a small decline in H/sub eff/ with paramagnetic relaxation effects remaining at higher temperatures. (U.S.)

  2. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  3. Candidate chromosome 1 disease susceptibility genes for Sjogren’s syndrome xerostomia are narrowed by novel NOD.B10 congenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Patricia K. A.; Kramer, Jill M.; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Herschman, Harvey; Esposito, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by salivary gland leukocytic infiltrates and impaired salivation (xerostomia). Cox-2 (Ptgs2) is located on chromosome 1 within the span of the Aec2 region. In an attempt to demonstrate that COX-2 drives antibody-dependent hyposalivation, NOD.B10 congenic mice bearing a Cox-2flox gene were generated. A congenic line with non-NOD alleles in Cox-2-flanking genes failed manifest xerostomia. Further backcrossing yielded disease-susceptible NOD.B10 Cox-2flox lines; fine genetic mapping determined that critical Aec2 genes lie within a 1.56 to 2.17 Mb span of DNA downstream of Cox-2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that susceptible and non-susceptible lines exhibit non-synonymous coding SNPs in 8 protein-encoding genes of this region, thereby better delineating candidate Aec2 alleles needed for SS xerostomia. PMID:24685748

  4. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  5. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  6. Assessment of the effects of surface preparation and coatings on the susceptibility of line pipe to stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate susceptibility of pipeline steel to SCC when coated with coal-tar enamel, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), and polyethylene tape coatings. The tests included standard cathodic disbondment tests, potential gradients beneath disbonded coatings, electrochemical measurements, and SCC tests. It was concluded that factors affecting relative SCC susceptibility of pipelines with different coatings are the disbonding resistance of the coating and the ability of the coating to pass cathodic protection (CP) current. FBE coated pipelines would be expected to exhibit good SCC resistance, since the FBE coating had high cathodic disbonding resistance and could pass CP current. Grit blasting at levels used at coating mills may be beneficial or detrimental to SCC susceptibility. Excellent correlation was found between th Almen strip deflection and change in SCC threshold stress. It appears to be beneficial to remove as much mill scale as possible, and a white surface finish probably should also be specified. 50 figs, 10 tabs

  7. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  8. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  10. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  11. Radiation-sensitive genetically susceptible pediatric sub-populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Major advances in pediatric cancer treatment have resulted in substantial improvements in survival. However, concern has emerged about the late effects of cancer therapy, especially radiation-related second cancers. Studies of childhood cancer patients with inherited cancer syndromes can provide insights into the interaction between radiation and genetic susceptibility to multiple cancers. Children with retinoblastoma (Rb), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) are at substantial risk of developing radiation-related second and third cancers. A radiation dose-response for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas has been observed in hereditary Rb patients, with many of these cancers occurring in the radiation field. Studies of NF1 patients irradiated for optic pathway gliomas have reported increased risks of developing another cancer associated with radiotherapy. High relative risks for second and third cancers were observed for a cohort of 200 LFS family members, especially children, possibly related to radiotherapy. Children with NBCCS are very sensitive to radiation and develop multiple basal cell cancers in irradiated areas. Clinicians following these patients should be aware of their increased genetic susceptibility to multiple primary malignancies enhanced by sensitivity to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Minjun; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide. In 2011, 1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected. All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents, and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs, Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates. Among the antimicrobial agents tested, ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%, followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%). Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%, 38.3%, 61.1%, and 50.8%, respectively. The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%, 38.1%, 41.2%, and 57.7%, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin. Including the carbapenems, most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  13. Sequencing of FKS Hot Spot 1 from Saprochaete capitata To Search for a Relationship to Reduced Echinocandin Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Aguirre, Inés; Menéndez-Manjón, Pilar; Cuétara, María Soledad; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; García-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Moragues, María Dolores

    2018-02-01

    Saprochaete capitata , formerly known as Geotrichum capitatum , is an emerging fungal pathogen with low susceptibility to echinocandins. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the S. capitata hot spot 1 region of the FKS gene ( FKS HS1), which codifies for the catalytic subunit of β-1,3-d-glucan synthase, the target of echinocandins. For that purpose, we first designed degenerated oligonucleotide primers derived from conserved flanking regions of the FKS1 HS1 segment of 12 different fungal species. Interestingly, analysis of the translated FKS HS1 sequences of 12 isolates of S. capitata revealed that all of them exhibited the same F-to-L substitution in a position that is highly related to reduced echinocandin susceptibility. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Effects of an Informal Energy Exhibit on Knowledge and Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goodman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public has limited knowledge of renewable energy technologies. An increase in energy literacy can potentially lead to desired energy-related behavioral changes in the future. One potential solution is to increase the public’s access to renewable energy information by placing informal energy education exhibits in libraries, community centers, and parks. After calibrating the exhibit based on observations of children’s interactions at a children’s museum, the exhibit was displayed at a university, a private school, and a community center. The opinion surveys and interviews both showed that participants enjoyed and learned from the exhibit. Students showed no significant statistical improvement between the pretests and posttests, but interviews showed that they could recall facts, explain processes, and make inferences from the exhibit. Fourth-grade students can benefit from interacting with an informal energy exhibit in order to increase their knowledge of energy topics and technologies.

  15. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  16. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. PMID:26724381

  17. Pre-Use Susceptibility to Ceftaroline in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Germany: Is There a Non-Susceptible Pool to be Selected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Strommenger

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Based on a representative collection of clinical S. aureus isolates from Germany, supplemented with isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239, we demonstrate the in-vitro susceptibility towards ceftaroline prior to its introduction into clinical use for a total of 219 isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and Etest, respectively. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines and showed considerable variance in dependence on clonal affiliation of the isolates tested. Among isolates of widespread hospital-associated lineages we found a high proportion of clinical isolates with MICs close to the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC50/90 1.0/1.5 mg/L; currently, interpretation of these "borderline" MICs is complicated by a lack of concordant susceptibility testing methods and reasonable breakpoint determination. Isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239 demonstrated increased MIC50/90 values of 2.5/3.33 mg/L. Sequencing of mecA revealed no association of resistance to a specific mecA polymorphism, but rather reveals two regions in the non-penicillin-binding domain of PbP2a which displayed different combinations of mutations putatively involved in resistance development. This study provides national baseline data to (i adjust susceptibility testing methods and current breakpoints to clinical and epidemiological requirements, (ii evaluate current breakpoints with respect to therapeutic outcome and (iii monitor further resistance evolution.

  18. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, P.R.; Blackwell, J.M.; Bradley, D.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1984-07-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras were made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshsup(r) and Lshsup(s) alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. It is concluded that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage.

  19. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, P.R.; Blackwell, J.M.; Bradley, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras mere made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshsup(r) and Lshsup(s) alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. It is concluded that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage. (author)

  20. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, S R K; Knight, V R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2014-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance to maize event TC1507 expressing the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was detected in populations of Spodoptera frugiperda from Puerto Rico. We tested for cross-resistance to purified Cry1A toxins and commercial Bt pesticides in susceptible (Benzon) and TC1507-resistant (456) strains of S. frugiperda. Larvae from the 456 strain exhibited cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins, while no differences in susceptibility to XenTari WG and DiPel ES pesticides were detected. These data support cross-resistance to toxins that share binding sites with Cry1Fa and no cross-resistance to Bt pesticides in S. frugiperda with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcinogen susceptibility is regulated by genome architecture and predicts cancer mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Pablo E; Schwartz, Erin K; King, Devin A; Paulsen, Jonas; Collas, Philippe; Herrera, Rafael E; Morrison, Ashby J

    2017-10-02

    The development of many sporadic cancers is directly initiated by carcinogen exposure. Carcinogens induce malignancies by creating DNA lesions (i.e., adducts) that can result in mutations if left unrepaired. Despite this knowledge, there has been remarkably little investigation into the regulation of susceptibility to acquire DNA lesions. In this study, we present the first quantitative human genome-wide map of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the ubiquitous carcinogen in sunlight that causes skin cancer. Remarkably, the pattern of carcinogen susceptibility across the genome of primary cells significantly reflects mutation frequency in malignant melanoma. Surprisingly, DNase-accessible euchromatin is protected from UV, while lamina-associated heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery is vulnerable. Many cancer driver genes have an intrinsic increase in carcinogen susceptibility, including the BRAF oncogene that has the highest mutation frequency in melanoma. These findings provide a genome-wide snapshot of DNA injuries at the earliest stage of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, they identify carcinogen susceptibility as an origin of genome instability that is regulated by nuclear architecture and mirrors mutagenesis in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Effect of feeding broilers diets differing in susceptible phytate content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Morgan

    2016-03-01

    phytate hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of phytate was greater (P < 0.05 in the gizzard of birds fed the diets supplemented with phytase, regardless of the concentration of susceptible phytate in the diet. Phytase supplementation resulted in improved BWG (P < 0.001 and FCR (P = 0.001, increased P solubility (P < 0.001 in the gizzard, Ca and P solubility (P < 0.001 in the jejunum and ileum and Ca and P concentration (P < 0.001 and strength (P < 0.001 in the tibia and femur. Pepsin activity was higher in birds fed the diets supplemented with phytase (P < 0.001 and was greater (P = 0.031 in birds fed the high susceptible phytate diets compared with the low susceptible phytate diets. Findings from this study suggest that there may be a measure more meaningful to animal nutritionists than measurements of total phytate.

  3. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  4. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  5. Critical behavior of AC antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a spin-1/2 metamagnetic Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulpinar, Gul; Vatansever, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the temperature variations of the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a metamagnetic system are examined near the critical point. The kinetic equations describing the time dependencies of the total and staggered magnetizations are derived by utilizing linear response theory. In order to obtain dynamic magnetic relaxation behavior of the system, the stationary solutions of the kinetic equations in existence of sinusoidal staggered and physical external magnetic fields are performed. In addition, the static and dynamical mean field critical exponents are calculated in order to formulate the critical behavior of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic magnetic response of a metamagnetic system. Finally, a comparison of the findings of this study with previous theoretical and experimental studies is represented and it is shown that a good agreement is found with our results. - Highlights: ► Staggered dynamic susceptibility diverges as T→T N in the low frequency region. ► Dynamic total susceptibility exhibits a finite jump discontinuity as T→T N while wτ 2 ⪡1. ► The slope of the staggered magnetic dispersion curve chances in sign as T→T N .

  6. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  7. RSRC1 and CPZ gene polymorphisms with neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jue; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jiang-Hua; Zeng, Jia-Hang; Wang, Hui; Xia, Huimin; He, Jing

    2018-07-01

    Two new neuroblastoma susceptibility loci at 3q25 (RSRC1 rs6441201 G > A) and 4p16 (CPZ rs3796725 T > C and rs3796727 A > G) were identified by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving Italians, African Americans and European Americans. In this case-control study with 393 neuroblastoma cases and 812 controls, we investigated the association between these three polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese population. We found that participants harboring the RSRC1 rs6441201A allele were associated with an increased risk of neuroblastoma (AA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.03-2.34, P = 0.036). No significant association between the CPZ polymorphisms (rs3796725 T > C and rs3796727A > G) and neuroblastoma susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, our results confirm that the RSRC1 rs6441201A allele is associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Something's missing: need fulfillment and self-expansion as predictors of susceptibility to infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Gary W; Ackerman, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    The present authors investigated whether an individual's motivations that are related to need fulfillment and self-expansion within a romantic relationship can predict self-reported susceptibility to infidelity. A sample of 109 college students (50 men, 59 women) who were in dating relationships completed questionnaires that assessed 5 types of variables of need fulfillment (i.e., intimacy, companionship, sex, security, and emotional involvement), 3 types of self-expansion variables (i.e., self-expansion, inclusion of the other in the self, and potential for self-expansion), and susceptibility to infidelity. As the present authors predicted, both sets of predictors (need fulfillment and self-expansion) significantly contributed to the variance in susceptibility to infidelity. The present findings indicated the possibility that, when a relationship is not able to fulfill needs or provide ample self-expansion for an individual, his or her susceptibility to infidelity increases.

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Leptospira Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, Kirubakaran; Lall, Chandan; Raj, Ratchagadasse Vimal; Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the causative agent of leptospirosis. Biofilm formation in leptospires is a new area of study, and its role in pathogenesis is not fully explored. As in other biofilm-forming bacteria, Leptospira biofilm may play a significant role in antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira biofilm was investigated by 96-well plate assay using Alamar Blue. Leptospira biofilm showed five to sixfold increase in resistance in all the strains used. The range of minimal bactericidal concentrations for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was 1,600 U/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, and 800-1,600 μg/ml, respectively. In agar substrate, the biofilm showed six- to sevenfold increase in resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic cell. The present study emphasizes the importance of biofilm formation and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This could pave the way for devising appropriate strategy to prevent the occurrence of potential chronic leptospirosis in endemic areas and also during an outbreak situation.

  10. Influence of Radiation Damage and Isochronal Annealing on the Magnetic Susceptibility of Pu1-xAmx Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, Scott K.; Fluss, Michael J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Results of radiation damage in Pu and Pu 1-x Am x alloys studied with magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and resistivity are presented. Damage accumulated at low temperatures increases χ(T) for all measured alloys, with the trend generally enhanced as the lattice expands. There is a trend towards saturation observable in the damage induced magnetic susceptibility data. that is not evident in similar damage induced resistivity data taken on the same specimen. A comparison of isochronal annealing curves measured by both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility on a 4.3 at% Ga stabilized δ-Pu specimen show that Stage I annealing, where interstitials begin to move, is largely transparent to the magnetic measurement. This indicates that interstitials have little impact on the damage induced increase in the magnetic susceptibility. The isochronal annealing curves of the Pu 1-x Am x alloys do not show distinct annealing stages as expected for alloys. However, samples near 20% Am concentration show an unexpected increase in magnetization beginning when specimens are annealed to 35 K. This behavior is also reflected in a time dependent increase in the magnetic susceptibility of damaged specimens indicative of first order kinetics. These results suggest there may be a metastable phase induced by radiation damage and annealing in Pu 1-x Am x alloys. (authors)

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of intra-abdominal infection isolates from a tertiary care hospital in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, U.; Anwar, S.; Kahara, U.Z.; Saeed, H.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent pathogens involved are the gastrointestinal flora which can cause poly-microbial infections. Microbiological diagnosis is required to determine the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms involved. Prompt initiation of antimicrobials is essential for improving patient's outcome. Knowledge of local trends of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial isolates is essential for empiric therapy. Methods: A total of 190 clinical isolates collected from intra-abdominal infections during July 2013 to July 2014 were included in the study. Organism identification and Antimicrobial sensitivity testing using standard biochemical tests and CLSI recommended criteria was carried out. Result: Of the total 190 isolates from abdominal infection sources 52% were from fluid sources (peritoneal and ascitic fluid), 41% were from gall bladder and 6.5% were from other abdominal sources. E. coli (46.8%) was the most frequently isolated gram negative and Enterococcus (13.1%) was the most frequently isolated gram positive organism. Carbapenem (imipenem) was the most active agent against enterobacteraceae exhibiting, 94.4% and 91.3% sensitivity against E. coli and Klebsiella respectively. While vancomycin was the most active agent against gram positive organisms. Eighty-four percent of the Enterococci isolated were sensitive to vancomycin. Most isolates exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. Conclusion: Continuous evolution of antimicrobial resistance patterns in bacteria necessitates updating of local data on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to ensure the safety and efficacy of pathogen specific antimicrobial therapies. (author)

  12. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction through augmented activation of renal Toll-like receptors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kouhei; Kuno, Atsushi; Murase, Hiromichi; Muratsubaki, Shingo; Miki, Takayuki; Tanno, Masaya; Yano, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Satoko; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Miura, Tetsuji

    2017-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined the roles of renal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, a rat DM model, and Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) rats, nondiabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF rats than in sham-operated LETO rats, although levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TLR4 were similar. At 12 h after MI, protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the kidney were elevated by 5.3- and 4.0-fold, respectively, and their mRNA levels were increased in OLETF but not LETO rats. The increased KIM-1 and NGAL expression levels after MI in the OLETF kidney were associated with upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and transforming growth factor-β 1 and also with activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB. Cu-CPT22, a TLR1/TLR2 antagonist, administered before MI significantly suppressed MI-induced upregulation of KIM-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 levels and activation of NF-κB, whereas NGAL levels and IL-6 and TNF-α expression levels were unchanged. The results suggest that DM increases the susceptibility to AKI after acute MI by augmented activation of renal TLRs and that TLR1/TLR2-mediated signaling mediates KIM-1 upregulation after MI. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first report to demonstrate the involvement of Toll-like recpetors (TLRs) in diabetes-induced susceptibility to acute kidney injury after acute myocardial infarction. We propose that the TLR1/TLR2

  13. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  14. Phosphorylcholine impairs susceptibility to biofilm formation of hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Laura; Palma, Stefano; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Veeh, Richard; Di Clemente, Daniele; Artini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    To compare silicone-hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), and phosphorylcholine-coated (PC-C) contact lenses in terms of their susceptibility to biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Laboratory investigation. Biofilm formation on colonized test lenses was evaluated with confocal microscopy and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assays. The results of the latter assays were compared with those performed on planktonic cultures of the same organism. For both microorganisms, sessile colonies on silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses displayed lower antibiotic susceptibility than their planktonic counterparts. In contrast, the susceptibility of cultures growing on PC-C lenses was comparable with that for planktonic cultures. In particular, minimum inhibitory concentration for Tazocin (piperacillin plus tazobactam; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Aprilia, Italy; S. epidermidis) and gentamicin (P. aeruginosa) was identical, either in the presence of PC-C support or in planktonic cultures (Tazocin, aeruginosa) was two-fold higher for PC-C lenses (0.4 mug/ml) with respect to planktonic cultures (0.2 mug/ml). Confocal microscopy of lenses colonized for 24 hours with P. aeruginosa green fluorescent protein-expressing cells revealed a sessile colonization on silicone-hydrogel lens and a few isolated bacterial cells scattered widely over the surface of the PC-C lens. An increase in antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial cultures was associated with diminished bacterial adhesion. Our results indicate that PC-C lenses seem to be more resistant than silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses to bacterial adhesion and colonization. This feature may facilitate their disinfection.

  15. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, K C; Marks, M D; Weeks, D P

    1987-04-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative.

  16. Initial magnetic susceptibility of the diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, D.Yu.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites based on magnetic microparticles are experimentally studied. Considered samples have varied concentration of the magnetic powder and different structural anisotropy. Experimental data on magnetic properties are accomplished by microstructural observations performed using X-Ray tomography. Influence of the particles amount and structuring effects on the initial magnetic susceptibility of the composites as well as the applicability of the Maxwell-Garnett approximation, which is widely used in considerations of magnetopolymer elastic composites, are evaluated. It is demonstrated that the approximation works well for diluted samples containing randomly distributed magnetic particles and for the diluted samples with chain-like structures oriented perpendicular to an externally applied field, while it fails to predict the susceptibility of the samples with structures oriented parallel to the field. Moreover, it is shown, that variation of the chains morphology does not significantly change the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction works well for the diluted isotropic composites. • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction can be used for composites with structures oriented perpendicular to an applied field. • Chains oriented parallel to an applied field significantly increase the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. • The number and thickness of chains is not of the highest importance for the diluted composites. • The crucial reason of the observed effect is expected to be the demagnetisation factor of the chains.

  17. Clinical applications of susceptibility weighted MR imaging of the brain - a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Bejoy; Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Kumar Gupta, Arun; Bodhey, Narendra K.; Raman Kapilamoorthy, Tirur

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a novel magnetic resonance (MR) technique that exploits the magnetic susceptibility differences of various tissues, such as blood, iron and calcification. This pictorial review covers many clinical conditions illustrating its usefulness. SWI consists of using both magnitude and phase images from a high-resolution, three-dimensional fully velocity-compensated gradient echo sequence. Phase mask is created from the MR phase images, and multiplying these with the magnitude images increase the conspicuity of the smaller veins and other sources of susceptibility effects, which is depicted using minimal intensity projection (minIP). The phase images are useful in differentiating between diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibility effects of calcium and blood, respectively. This unique MR sequence will help in detecting occult low flow vascular lesions, calcification and cerebral microbleed in various pathologic conditions and aids in characterizing tumors and degenerative diseases of the brain. This sequence also can be used to visualize normal brain structures with conspicuity. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is useful in differentiating and characterizing diverse brain pathologies. (orig.)

  18. Alterations in the transcriptome and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which has been shown to increase the susceptibility of various bacteria to antimicrobials and demonstrated to have broad antimicrobial activity. This study describes transcriptome alterations in S. aureus strain COL grown with diclofenac and characterizes the effects of this NSAID on antibiotic susceptibility in laboratory, clinical and diclofenac reduced-susceptibility (DcRS) S. aureus strains. Methods Transcriptional alterations in response to growth with diclofenac were measured using S. aureus gene expression microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar diffusion MICs and gradient plate analysis. Ciprofloxacin accumulation was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results Growth of S. aureus strain COL with 80 μg/ml (0.2 × MIC) of diclofenac resulted in the significant alteration by ≥2-fold of 458 genes. These represented genes encoding proteins for transport and binding, protein and DNA synthesis, and the cell envelope. Notable alterations included the strong down-regulation of antimicrobial efflux pumps including mepRAB and a putative emrAB/qacA-family pump. Diclofenac up-regulated sigB (σB), encoding an alternative sigma factor which has been shown to be important for antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus aureus microarray metadatabase (SAMMD) analysis further revealed that 46% of genes differentially-expressed with diclofenac are also σB-regulated. Diclofenac altered S. aureus susceptibility to multiple antibiotics in a strain-dependent manner. Susceptibility increased for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin, decreased for oxacillin and vancomycin, and did not change for tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Mutation to DcRS did not affect susceptibility to the above antibiotics. Reduced ciprofloxacin MICs with diclofenac in strain BB255, were not associated with increased drug accumulation. Conclusions The results of

  19. Prevalence & susceptibility to fluconazole of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Srujana; Xess, Immaculata; Hasan, Fahmi; Kapil, Arti; Mittal, Suneeta; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2007-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an important cause of morbidity in women of reproductive age. This study was carried out to determine the species prevalence and susceptibility pattern to fluconazole of yeasts isolated from the vagina of symptomatic women. This prospective study was conducted in a rural primary health care center of north India from May 2003 to April 2004 and included 601 married, sexually active women (18-49 yr) with the self reported symptoms of vaginal discharge and/or genital itching and/or genital burning. Specific aetiology of the genitourinary symptoms including candidal infection were determined. Specimens from the lateral wall of vagina were subjected to direct wet mount microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole was carried out using broth microdilution method. Yeasts were isolated in 111 (18.5%) women and these consisted of Candida glabrata (56, 50.4%), C. albicans (39, 35.1%), C. tropicalis (12, 10.8%), C. krusei (3, 2.7%) and C. parapsilosis (1, 0.9%). Susceptibility testing carried out on 30 representative isolates (15 C. glabrata, 10 C. albicans, 4 C. tropicalis and 1 C. parapsilosis) revealed that 21 isolates (70%) were susceptible (MIC, < or = 8 microg/ml) to fluconazole while 9 (30%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD, MIC 16-32 microg/ml). Our findings suggest a low prevalence of fluconazole resistance in vaginal candida isolates in our population. However, a high prevalence of non-albicans candida species and increased dose-dependent resistance in these isolates necessitates vigilance since this may warrant a change in the optimal therapy of non-albicans candida vaginitis.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2018-03-13

    Some members of the Brachyspira genus cause diseases such as swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal (or colonic) spirochetosis. Severe economic losses are caused by decreased feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio, as well as costs associated with treatment and death. A loss of clinical efficacy of some antimicrobial agents authorized for treating SD has been observed in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira isolated from Taiwan and to investigate the mechanism of decreased susceptibility to macrolides. A total of 55 Brachyspira isolates obtained from the grower-finisher period were evaluated in this study. These isolates included B. hyodysenteriae (n = 37), B. murdochii (n = 11), B. pilosicoli (n = 5), B. intermedia (n = 1), and B. innocens (n = 1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed to examine 12 selected antimicrobial agents. The results showed that the 50% and 90% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the tested macrolides were all >256 μg/ml. The MIC 50 of lincomycin, tiamulin, carbadox, olaquindox, ampicillin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and gentamicin were 32, 1, ≤0.125, ≤0.125, 0.5, 0.25, 2, 2, and 2 μg/ml. The genetic basis of the decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin in Brachyspira spp. was investigated and the results showed a possible connection to the mutations at position A2058 and G2032 of the 23S rRNA gene. These findings demonstrated that, in Taiwan, there may be a decrease in susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. to antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of SD.

  1. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  2. Influence of delta ferrite on corrosion susceptibility of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O. Osoba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the influence of delta (δ ferrite on the corrosion susceptibility of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel was evaluated in 1Molar concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and 1Molar concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl. The study was performed at ambient temperature using electrochemical technique—Tafel plots to evaluate the corrosive tendencies of the austenitic stainless steel sample. The as-received (stainless steel specimen and 60% cold-worked (stainless steel specimens were isothermally annealed at 1,100°C for 2 h and 1 h, respectively, and quenched in water. The results obtained show that the heat-treated specimen and the 60% cold-worked plus heat-treated specimen exhibited higher corrosion susceptibility than the as-received specimen, which invariably contained the highest fraction of δ ferrite particles. The finding shows that the presence of δ ferrite, in which chromium (Cr, the main corrosion inhibitor segregates, does not degrade and or reduces the resistance to aqueous corrosion of the austenitic stainless steel material.

  3. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  4. Assessment of Lupin Induced Mutants for Quality Traits and Susceptibility to Callosbruchus chinensis and Heliothis armigera insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Boshra, S.A.; Mehany, A.L.; Darwish, A.A.; Kharrab, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess 23 induced mutants and two parental varieties Giza1 and Giza2 in the three generations (M3, M4, and M5) for seed quality traits, and susceptibility to two insects i.e C. chinnensis and H.armigera. The obtained results exhibited highly significant decrease for alkaloid content of mutants 20 and 23 as compared with the two local varieties. Most of mutants and Giza 2 showed marked increase for protein content as compared with Giza1, however, the increase did not reach the level of significance for the most mutants as compared with Giza2 in the three generations. Except of M4 generation. marked resistance for infestations with C.chinensis and H.armigera was obtained for mutants 1, 5 and 11 in the three generations. However, for total infestation with the two insects, resistance was obtained in mutants 4 and 10. Except of mutant lines 1, 5 and 11, all mutants showed higher loss percentage than that of the local varieties

  5. Children's differential susceptibility to parenting: An experimental test of "for better and for worse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ellis, Bruce J; Deković, Maja

    2017-02-01

    Differential susceptibility theory proposes that a subset of individuals exist who display enhanced susceptibility to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environments. This experiment represents the first attempt to directly test this assumption by exposing children in the experimental group to both negative and positive feedback using puppet role-plays. It thereby serves as an empirical test as well as a methodological primer for testing differential susceptibility. Dutch children (N=190, 45.3% girls) between the ages of 4 and 6years participated. We examined whether negative and positive feedback would differentially affect changes in positive and negative affect, in prosocial and antisocial intentions and behavior, depending on children's negative emotionality. Results show that on hearing negative feedback, children in the experimental group increased in negative affect and decreased in positive affect more strongly than children in the control group. On hearing positive feedback, children in the experimental group tended to increase in positive affect and decrease in prosocial behavior. However, changes in response to negative or positive feedback did not depend on children's negative emotionality. Moreover, using reliable change scores, we found support for a subset of "vulnerable" children but not for a subset of "susceptible" children. The findings offer suggestions to guide future differential susceptibility experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iota(1440), anomalous Ward identities, and topological susceptibility for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalous Ward identities for QCD are comprehensively analyzed taking into account contributions of all known pseudoscalar mesons, including the iota(1440 MeV) which is a possible glueball candidate. Implications for the standard resolution of the U(1) problem are examined by imposing the important and crucial constraint of positivity for the topological susceptibility. The pure Yang-Mills susceptibility: a quantity relevant in quenched lattice calculations: is shown to increase quite considerably in the presence of the iota, while the total susceptibility is reduced and may even vanish. Allowed ranges for the axial couplings are delineated and two classes of solution emerge: one corresponding to an iota with suppressed singlet axial coupling; the other to a large eta'-like coupling. It may be possible to discriminate between these two alternatives by measurements of the branching ratio for iota→KK-barπ: values near 100% give suppressed couplings; values below 50% unsuppressed ones

  7. Risk factors for tobacco susceptibility in an orthodontic population: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katy; Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is related to increased periodontal disease, tooth loss, and decreased success of orthodontic appliances, and it may inhibit orthodontic tooth movement. Most smokers start during adolescence. Since most cessation attempts fail, prevention appears necessary. A cross-sectional sample of orthodontic patients reported hypothesized risk factors for smoking and susceptibility to tobacco use initiation. Exploratory analyses regressed susceptibility to tobacco initiation on each hypothesized predictor variable in a separate logistic model that included a standard set of covariates. Significant odds ratios (OR) were found for the presence of a smoker in the home (OR, 2.168; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.144-4.107), a friend having no-smoking rules in his or her home and car (OR, 0.337; 95% CI, 0.128-0.886), having been offered a cigarette (OR, 4.526; 95% CI, 1.190-17.207), and exposure to tobacco advertisements (OR, 1.910; 95% CI, 1.044-3.496). Peer, family, and environmental factors appear to increase children's susceptibility to smoking in orthodontic populations. Attention to such factors could help dental clinicians to more effectively identify susceptible young patients in need of antismoking advice. Prospective and experimental studies are required to confirm the role that dental clinicians might play in youth smoking prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heritable susceptibility factors for the development of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, William W.

    2006-01-01

    High frequencies of inherited DNA sequence variations (polymorphisms) are found in the human population. The involvement of polymorphic genes (especially for chemical metabolism and DNA repair) in the development of cancer is under intensive investigation. In our studies, we have irradiated blood lymphocytes from normal non-smokers with γ-rays or UV-light to investigate genotypes and DNA repair functions. We found that XRCC1 399Gln and XRCC3 241Met were deficient in the repair of γ-ray- but not UV-light-induced DNA damage that led to the expression of chromosome aberrations; therefore the variant genotypes are defective in base excision repair. The reverse was found with XPD 312Asn and XPD 751Gln; therefore they are defective in nucleotide excision repair. XRCC1 194Trp, OGG1 326Cys and APE1 148Glu had no DNA repair deficiency based on our experimental conditions. In another study, we investigated the role of some of these genes on the development of lung cancer. We found a significant increase of chromosome aberrations in patients and controls that had the XPD 751Gln and GSTM1 null genotypes, indicating a mechanistic causation of the disease. Therefore, inheritance of susceptibility genes can have significant impact on disease burden in the population. On the other hand, there are many questions that need to be addressed in order to evaluate the impact of susceptibility on cancer. These questions include the understanding of combinations of different polymorphic genes for susceptibility and of specific disease susceptibility for different ethnic populations. (author)

  9. Effect of tensile stress on the 3D reversible and irreversible differential magnetic susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Weihua; Atherton, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops in three orthogonal directions are measured for a line pipe steel sample while the external magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the tensile stress direction. The total magnetization vector is calculated. This tends to the stress direction when tensile stress is applied. The reversible and irreversible differential magnetic susceptibilities are derived. It is found that the susceptibilities in all three directions are enhanced with increasing tensile stress, although the increase in the stress direction is much larger than in the other directions. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. Susceptibility of irradiated Galleria mellonella F1Larvae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.M.; Rizk, S.A.; Sayed, R.M.; Hussein, M.A; Hafez, S.E

    2008-01-01

    Combined effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (40 and 100 Gy) and different concentrations of entomopathogenic nematodes (20, 40, 60, and 80 IJs) on the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella was studied. The 4th larval instar resulted from irradiated male parent pupae mated with normal female were tested for susceptibility to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora BA1 and Steinernema carpocapsae BA2. The mortality rate of the larvae increased by increrasing radiation dose and nematode concentrations. The reproduction of both nematode strains decreased significantly with increasing the treatments (radiation dose and nematode concentrations). In addition, exposure to gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes significantly decreased the total haemocyte count (THC) of the larvae with increasing radiation doses (40 and 100 Gy) and both nematode strains concentrations (20 and 40 IJs) and reached the minimal count at the combiend effect. Finally, larvae were more susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsa than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. (author)

  11. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  12. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  14. Biomarkers of susceptibility: State of the art and implications for occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Schulte, Paul A

    2016-05-15

    Rapid advances and applications in nanotechnology are expected to result in increasing occupational exposure to nano-sized materials whose health impacts are still not completely understood. Scientific efforts are required to identify hazards from nanomaterials and define risks and precautionary management strategies for exposed workers. In this scenario, the definition of susceptible populations, which may be at increased risk of adverse effects may be important for risk assessment and management. The aim of this review is to critically examine available literature to provide a comprehensive overview on susceptibility aspects potentially affecting heterogeneous responses to nanomaterials workplace exposure. Genetic, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations induced by nanomaterials in experimental studies were assessed with respect to their possible function as determinants of susceptibility. Additionally, the role of host factors, i.e. age, gender, and pathological conditions, potentially affecting nanomaterial toxicokinetic and health impacts, were also analysed. Overall, this review provides useful information to obtain insights into the nanomaterial mode of action in order to identify potentially sensitive, specific susceptibility biomarkers to be validated in occupational settings and addressed in risk assessment processes. The findings of this review are also important to guide future research into a deeper characterization of nanomaterial susceptibility in order to define adequate risk communication strategies. Ultimately, identification and use of susceptibility factors in workplace settings has both scientific and ethical issues that need addressing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethical issues of genetic susceptibility testing for occupational diseases: opinions of trainees in a high-risk job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. J.; Rhebergen, M. D. F.; Kezic, S.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Verberk, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are

  16. Leveraging human genetic and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) data to inform susceptibility in human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of susceptibility differences in human health risk assessment (HHRA) has been challenged by a lack of available susceptibility and variability data after exposure to a specific environmental chemical or pharmaceutical. With the increasingly large number of available da...

  17. Curiosity predicts smoking experimentation independent of susceptibility in a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse; Hartman, Sheri J; Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa E; White, Martha M; Portnoy, David B; Choiniere, Conrad J; Vullo, Genevieve C; Pierce, John P

    2014-12-01

    To improve smoking prevention efforts, better methods for identifying at-risk youth are needed. The widely used measure of susceptibility to smoking identifies at-risk adolescents; however, it correctly identifies only about one third of future smokers. Adding curiosity about smoking to this susceptibility index may allow us to identify a greater proportion of future smokers while they are still pre-teens. We use longitudinal data from a recent national study on parenting to prevent problem behaviors. Only oldest children between 10 and 13years of age were eligible. Participants were identified by RDD survey and followed for 6years. All baseline never smokers with at least one follow-up assessment were included (n=878). The association of curiosity about smoking with future smoking behavior was assessed. Then, curiosity was added to form an enhanced susceptibility index and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. Among committed never smokers at baseline, those who were 'definitely not curious' were less likely to progress toward smoking than both those who were 'probably not curious' (ORadj=1.89; 95% CI=1.03-3.47) or 'probably/definitely curious' (ORadj=2.88; 95% CI=1.11-7.45). Incorporating curiosity into the susceptibility index increased the proportion identified as at-risk to smoke from 25.1% to 46.9%. The sensitivity (true positives) for this enhanced susceptibility index for both experimentation and established smoking increased from 37-40% to over 50%, although the positive predictive value did not improve. The addition of curiosity significantly improves the identification and classification of which adolescents will experiment with smoking or become established smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Heliara Maria Spina; Cardoso, Bárbara; Vitali, Lucia Helena; Coelho, Harnoldo Colares; Martinez, Roberto; Ferreira, Márcia Eliana da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Candida spp. are responsible for 80% of all systemic fungal infections and are associated with high mortality rates. This study characterised 79 bloodstream isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. orthopsilosis, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis from patients in a Brazilian hospital. The susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined; virulence factor production was assessed based on haemolysin, phospholipase and proteinase activities, and the patients' clinical characteristics were analysed. C. albicans was the predominant species (44%), followed by C. glabrata (19%), C. tropicalis (19%), C. parapsilosis (14%) and C. orthopsilosis (4%). The candidemia incidence was 1.52 per 1000 admissions, and the crude mortality rate was 52%. One C. albicans isolate was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. Moreover, 20.2%, 2.5% and 3.8% of the isolates exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin, respectively. In conclusion, although the C. glabrata incidence was higher than that usually described in Brazil, its increase was previously observed in studies conducted worldwide. Furthermore, the azole resistance of the C. albicans isolate could be due to previous exposure to these antifungals. These results highlight the importance of epidemiological studies and will facilitate an improved understanding of candidemia in the studied hospital. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Nottinghamshire, UK. A total of 2270 children aged 11-16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  1. Evidence for a decreased susceptibility to acute radiation lethality in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P B [Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt (New Zealand). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Pfeffer, A T [Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Upper Hutt (New Zealand). Wallaceville Animal Research Centre

    1980-08-01

    The survival of 2- to 4-day old Romney-lambs was studied following bilateral /sup 60/Co irradiation at about 3.5 R/min (the exposure rate in air at the mid-line of the animal). Probit analysis of the data yielded an LDsub(50/60) of 900 R with 95% confidence limits of 700-1150 R. Mature sheep irradiated under similar conditions are known to have an LDsub(50/60) in the region of 250-350 R. These data indicate that very young lambs were less susceptible to radiation-induced hemopoietic failure than adults. Dorset Horn lambs and Romneys born by caesarian section also exhibited low susceptibility when irradiated at 2-4 days of age. There are few data available on LD/sub 50/ values for very young, large mammals (as opposed to rodents). Consideration must be given to the possibility that large mammals may be less sensitive to radiation-induced lethality shortly after birth than they are at maturity. Further work on the radiation response as a function of age after birth seems warranted and suggestions for some of the parameters which require investigation are made.

  2. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  3. [Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals to ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, I; Yoshida, T; Higashide, Y; Sakano, T

    1990-01-01

    Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chickens, pigs and cattle to ofloxacin (OFLX) and commonly used antimicrobial agents were investigated. 1. E. coli (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility of OFLX (MIC 0.10-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. Commonly used antimicrobial agents to which these isolates responded with relatively high susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-6.25 micrograms/ml) included oxolinic acid (OXA), ampicillin (ABPC), kanamycin (KM) and chloramphenicol (CP) with their MIC50 values in the increasing order as above. Drugs to which these isolates responded with moderate to weak susceptibilities (MIC50 25 approximately greater than 800 micrograms/ml) were doxycycline (DOXY), streptomycin (SM), spectinomycin (SPCM) and sulfadimethoxine (SDMX) in the increasing order of MIC50. E. coli isolates with resistances to all the test drugs other than OFLX and OXA amounted to 7.1-57.1% of the isolates examined and 20 isolates (71.4%) in total. 2. Susceptibilities to OFLX and 4 existing pyridonecarboxylic acid derivatives of E. coli (48 samples) isolated recently from diarrheal pigs were compared. When evaluated in terms of MIC50, the values of OFLX and norfloxacin were both 0.10 micrograms/ml. The values increased by differences of 0.39-3.13 micrograms/ml in an order of OXA, pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid. 3. Salmonella (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility to OFLX (MIC 0.20-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. The drugs to which these isolates responded with relatively high to moderate susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-12.5 micrograms/ml) included ABPC, OXA, DOXY, KM, CP and SM with their MIC50 values increasing in this order. The drugs to which the isolates responded with low susceptibilities (MIC50 above 100 micrograms/ml) were SPCM and SDMX. Of all the 28 Salmonella isolates tested, 7.1-32.1% were resistant

  4. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  5. TRIGRS Application for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, K.; Sukristiyanti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has been carried out using several different methods. TRIGRS is a modeling program for landslide susceptibility by considering pore water pressure changes due to infiltration of rainfall. This paper aims to present a current state-of-the-art science on the development and application of TRIGRS. Some limitations of TRIGRS, some developments of it to improve its modeling capability, and some examples of the applications of some versions of it to model the effect of rainfall variation on landslide susceptibility are reviewed and discussed.

  6. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. Sub-inhibitory stress with essential oil affects enterotoxins production and essential oil susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Pistelli, Luisa; Najar, Basma; Cerri, Domenico; Fratini, Filippo

    2018-03-01

    Fourteen wild strains of Staphylococcus aureus positive for gene sea were tested for enterotoxins production and the minimum inhibitory concentration of Leptospermum scoparium, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris essential oils (EOs) were determined. After this trial, bacteria stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of each EO were tested for enterotoxins production by an immunoenzymatic assay and resistance to the same EO. Oregano oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity followed by manuka and thyme oils. After the exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of EOs, strains displayed an increased sensitivity in more than 95% of the cases. After treatment with oregano and marjoram EOs, few strains showed a modified enterotoxins production, while 43% of the strains were no longer able to produce enterotoxins after treatment with manuka EO. The results obtained in this study highlight that exposure to sub-inhibitory concentration of EO modifies strains enterotoxins production and EOs susceptibility profile.

  8. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit en