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Sample records for exhibit high levels

  1. Patients with IgA nephropathy exhibit high systemic PDGF-DD levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, Peter; Eitner, Frank; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Mertens, Peter R; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a central mediator of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN). In experimental mesangioproliferative GN, PDGF-DD serum levels, unlike PDGF-BB, increased up to 1000-fold. We assessed disease activity in 72 patients with GN, established a novel PDGF-D ELISA and then determined their PDGF-DD levels. In parallel, we studied renal PDGF-DD mRNA expression by RT-PCR. PDGF-DD serum levels in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) were significantly higher (1.67 +/- 0.45 ng/ml) and in patients with lupus nephritis significantly lower (0.66 +/- 0.86 ng/ml) compared to healthy controls (1.17 +/- 0.46 ng/ml), while patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous GN and ANCA-positive vasculitis did not differ from controls. The subgroup of IgAN patients with elevated PDGF-DD levels (27% of samples) did not differ in their clinical features from those with normal PDGF-DD levels. In IgAN patients with repetitive PDGF-DD determinations, most exhibited only minor fluctuations of serum levels over time. Intrarenal PDGF-DD mRNA expression did not differ between controls and patients, suggesting an extrarenal source of the elevated PDGF-DD in IgAN. Serum PDGF-DD levels were specifically elevated in patients with IgAN, in particular in those with early disease, i.e. preserved renal function. Our data support the rationale for anti-PDGF-DD therapy in mesangioproliferative GN.

  2. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high

  3. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.

  4. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-10-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which approximately 21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic

  5. Label-free profiling of white adipose tissue of rats exhibiting high or low levels of intrinsic exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden-Davies, Kelly; Connolly, Joanne; Burghardt, Paul; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2015-07-01

    Divergent selection has created rat phenotypes of high- and low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that have differences in aerobic capacity and correlated traits such as adiposity. We analyzed visceral adipose tissue of HCR and LCR using label-free high-definition MS (elevated energy) profiling. The running capacity of HCR was ninefold greater than LCR. Proteome profiling encompassed 448 proteins and detected 30 significant (p <0.05; false discovery rate <10%, calculated using q-values) differences. Approximately half of the proteins analyzed were of mitochondrial origin, but there were no significant differences in the abundance of proteins involved in aerobic metabolism. Instead, adipose tissue of LCR rats exhibited greater abundances of proteins associated with adipogenesis (e.g. cathepsin D), ER stress (e.g. 78 kDa glucose response protein), and inflammation (e.g. Ig gamma-2B chain C region). Whereas the abundance antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] was greater in HCR tissue. Putative adipokines were also detected, in particular protein S100-B, was 431% more abundant in LCR adipose tissue. These findings reveal low running capacity is associated with a pathological profile in visceral adipose tissue proteome despite no detectable differences in mitochondrial protein abundance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  7. Maize inbreds exhibit high levels of copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV) in genome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathan M; Ying, Kai; Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Barbazuk, W Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

    2009-11-01

    Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop.

  8. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  9. Functional α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in hippocampal interneurons exhibit high sensitivity to pathological level of amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs, which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. Results GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1 nM oligomeric Aβ. Similar effects were observed in identified hippocampal interneurons prepared from GFP-GAD mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that Aβ modulation of cholinergic signaling in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons via α7β2-nAChRs could be an early and critical event in Aβ-induced functional abnormalities of hippocampal function, which may be relevant to learning and memory deficits in AD.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  13. Cytotoxic Th1 and Th17 cells infiltrate the intestinal mucosa of Behcet patients and exhibit high levels of TNF-α in early phases of the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Giacomo; Silvestri, Elena; Bella, Chiara Della; Grassi, Alessia; Benagiano, Marisa; Cianchi, Fabio; Squatrito, Danilo; Cantarini, Luca; Emmi, Lorenzo; Selmi, Carlo; Prisco, Domenico; D’Elios, Mario Milco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gastrointestinal involvement is one of the most serious in Behçet disease, potentially leading to severe complications. Aim of this study was to investigate at mucosal level the T-cell responses in Behçet patients with early intestinal involvement. Methods: We isolated T cells from intestinal mucosa of 8 patients with intestinal symptoms started within 6 months. T lymphocytes were cloned and analyzed for surface phenotype and cytokines production. Results: We obtained 382 T-cell clones: 324 were CD4+ and 58 were CD8+. Within the 324 CD4+ clones, 195 were able to secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-4, nor IL-17 thus showing a polarized Th1 profile, whereas CD4 clones producing both IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17 profile) were 79. Likewise, the number of CD8 clones producing type 1 cytokines was higher than those of CD8 clones producing both type 1 and 2 cytokines. Almost all intestinal-derived T-cell clones expressed perforin-mediated cytotoxicity and Fas–Fas Ligand-mediated pro-apoptotic activity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in the early stages of the disease, both Th1 and Th17 cells drive inflammation leading to mucosal damage via abnormal and long-lasting cytokines production as well as via both perforin- and Fas–Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, all the T cells at mucosal level were able to produce large amount of TNF-α, suggesting that its production is a property of intestinal T cells of patients with early active intestinal disease. These results support the therapy with anti-TNF-α agents and suggest the use of anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibodies in Behçet patients with early intestinal involvement. PMID:27930541

  14. Caecilians exhibit cutaneous respiration and high evaporative water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caecilians exhibit cutaneous respiration and high evaporative water loss. W.K. Steele, G.N. Louw. Abstract. Scolecomorphus kirki het 'n gemiddelde rustende VO2 van 0,052 ± 0,009 ml O2 g-1 h by 20% rh en 20°C. Die gemiddelde RK was 1,06 en 54,5% van die totale CO2-produksie het deur die vel verlore gegaan.

  15. Fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomkrong, Nunyarat; Gongruttananun, Nirat; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Noosud, Jatuporn; Theerawatanasirikul, Sirin; Kayan, Autchara

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the fiber characteristics of pork muscle exhibiting different levels of drip loss during storage. The samples were taken from Longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate drip loss (n = 100). Fifteen muscles per group (low and high drip loss) were selected to evaluate the histological characteristics at 0 and 72 h of storage time. The statistical analysis revealed that a high drip loss group had greater endomysium thickness than a low drip loss group at 0 h of storage time (P  0.05). At 72 h of storage time, a high drip loss was evident in higher total number of fibers (P loss group. There was no significant difference in perimysium thickness (P > 0.05). In conclusion, drip loss might be affected by muscle structural characteristics during storage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  17. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  18. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  19. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  20. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS: This st......AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS...... training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...

  1. Microbial eukaryote plankton communities of high-mountain lakes from three continents exhibit strong biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Vila, Irma; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Microbial eukaryotes hold a key role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Yet, their diversity in freshwater lakes, particularly in high-mountain lakes, is relatively unknown compared with the marine environment. Low nutrient availability, low water temperature and high ultraviolet radiation make most high-mountain lakes extremely challenging habitats for life and require specific molecular and physiological adaptations. We therefore expected that these ecosystems support a plankton diversity that differs notably from other freshwater lakes. In addition, we hypothesized that the communities under study exhibit geographic structuring. Our rationale was that geographic dispersal of small-sized eukaryotes in high-mountain lakes over continental distances seems difficult. We analysed hypervariable V4 fragments of the SSU rRNA gene to compare the genetic microbial eukaryote diversity in high-mountain lakes located in the European Alps, the Chilean Altiplano and the Ethiopian Bale Mountains. Microbial eukaryotes were not globally distributed corroborating patterns found for bacteria, multicellular animals and plants. Instead, the plankton community composition emerged as a highly specific fingerprint of a geographic region even on higher taxonomic levels. The intraregional heterogeneity of the investigated lakes was mirrored in shifts in microbial eukaryote community structure, which, however, was much less pronounced compared with interregional beta-diversity. Statistical analyses revealed that on a regional scale, environmental factors are strong predictors for plankton community structures in high-mountain lakes. While on long-distance scales (>10 000 km), isolation by distance is the most plausible scenario, on intermediate scales (up to 6000 km), both contemporary environmental factors and historical contingencies interact to shift plankton community structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma; Isao Yumoto; Hideyuki Kimoto; Kazuaki Yoshimune

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...

  3. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunis Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  4. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420

  5. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii, that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1 that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2 under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2.

  6. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Takeyama, Masao

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250.degree. C. and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr.sub.2 Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements.

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  8. Oxidative profile exhibited by Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients at diagnosis: Increased keratan urinary levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Donida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morquio A disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA is one of the 11 mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs, a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs caused by deficiency in enzymes need to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Morquio A is characterized by a decrease in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity and subsequent accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in cells and body fluids. As the pathophysiology of this LSD is not completely understood and considering the previous results of our group concerning oxidative stress in Morquio A patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in Morquio A patients at diagnosis. It was studied 15 untreated Morquio A patients, compared with healthy individuals. The affected individuals presented higher lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels and no protein damage, determined by sulfhydryl groups in plasma and di-tyrosine levels in urine. Furthermore, Morquio A patients showed DNA oxidative damage in both pyrimidines and purines bases, being the DNA damage positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. In relation to antioxidant defenses, affected patients presented higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, while superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities were similar to controls. Our findings indicate that Morquio A patients present at diagnosis redox imbalance and oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, reinforcing the idea about the importance of antioxidant therapy as adjuvant to ERT, in this disorder.

  9. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  10. High level controls at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.; Saltmarsh, C.; Satogata, T.; Fryer, M.

    1994-12-01

    We report on the software tools and techniques in development to ensure that the commissioning and operations teams for RHIC have access to high level analysis, diagnosis, modelling and control functions early in the start up of the machine. The first tests will be for the sextant test in mid-1995.

  11. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  16. The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Privitera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR.Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1 or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2. Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals.Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1. In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences.Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

  17. The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Cooper, Kathryn C; Cosco, Alexis R

    2012-01-01

    Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies. To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR). Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1) or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2). Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals. Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1). In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences. Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

  18. Cold urticaria patients exhibit normal skin levels of functional mast cells and histamine after tolerance induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring Tannert, Line; Stahl Skov, Per; Bjerremann Jensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a skin condition characterized by rapid appearance of itchy wheals and occasionally angioedema in response to cold stimulation. Antihistamines do not sufficiently protect all patients from symptoms, even when used in higher than standard doses. In these patients, desensitization...... to cold can be beneficial. The aim was to investigate whether desensitization can lower temperature thresholds and reduce release of histamine in the skin. Cold urticaria patients were subjected to desensitization and assessed for skin responses to cold stimulation and codeine before and after. Histamine...... levels mediated by cold and codeine were determined by cutaneous microdialysis before and after desensitization in patients and healthy controls. Desensitization to cold resulted in protection from cold-induced symptoms and lower temperature thresholds in six out of nine patients. Desensitization also...

  19. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  20. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jay O.; Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Barr, Pamela K.

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

  1. High Expression of Antiviral Proteins in Mucosa from Individuals Exhibiting Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sandra Milena; Taborda, Natalia Andrea; Feria, Manuel Gerónimo; Arcia, David; Aguilar-Jiménez, Wbeimar; Zapata, Wildeman; Rugeles, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Several soluble factors have been reported to have the capacity of inhibiting HIV replication at different steps of the virus life cycle, without eliminating infected cells and through enhancement of specific cellular mechanisms. Yet, it is unclear if these antiviral factors play a role in the protection from HIV infection or in the control of viral replication. Here we evaluated two cohorts: i) one of 58 HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs) who were compared with 59 healthy controls (HCs), and ii) another of 13 HIV-controllers who were compared with 20 HIV-progressors. Peripheral blood, oral and genital mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) samples were obtained to analyze the mRNA expression of ELAFIN, APOBEC3G, SAMHD1, TRIM5α, RNase 7 and SerpinA1 using real-time PCR. HESNs exhibited higher expression of all antiviral factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), oral or genital mucosa when compared with HCs. Furthermore, HIV-controllers exhibited higher levels of SerpinA1 in GALT. These findings suggest that the activity of these factors is compartmentalized and that these proteins have a predominant role depending on the tissue to avoid the infection, reduce the viral load and modulate the susceptibility to HIV infection.

  2. High Expression of Antiviral Proteins in Mucosa from Individuals Exhibiting Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Several soluble factors have been reported to have the capacity of inhibiting HIV replication at different steps of the virus life cycle, without eliminating infected cells and through enhancement of specific cellular mechanisms. Yet, it is unclear if these antiviral factors play a role in the protection from HIV infection or in the control of viral replication. Here we evaluated two cohorts: i one of 58 HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs who were compared with 59 healthy controls (HCs, and ii another of 13 HIV-controllers who were compared with 20 HIV-progressors. Peripheral blood, oral and genital mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT samples were obtained to analyze the mRNA expression of ELAFIN, APOBEC3G, SAMHD1, TRIM5α, RNase 7 and SerpinA1 using real-time PCR.HESNs exhibited higher expression of all antiviral factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, oral or genital mucosa when compared with HCs. Furthermore, HIV-controllers exhibited higher levels of SerpinA1 in GALT.These findings suggest that the activity of these factors is compartmentalized and that these proteins have a predominant role depending on the tissue to avoid the infection, reduce the viral load and modulate the susceptibility to HIV infection.

  3. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  4. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  5. Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Limin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06 and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9 were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

  6. High- compared to low-arched athletes exhibit smaller knee abduction moments in walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise

    2016-12-01

    High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Peak knee abduction moments and time-to-peak knee abduction moments were calculated using Visual 3D. High-arched athletes had smaller peak knee abduction moments compared to low-arched athletes during walking (KAM1: p=0.019; KAM2: p=0.015) and running (p=0.010). No differences were observed in time-to-peak knee abduction moment during walking (KAM1: p=0.360; KAM2: p=0.085) or running (p=0.359). These findings demonstrate that foot type is associated with altered frontal plane knee kinetics which may contribute to patellofemoral pain. Future research should address the efficacy of clinical interventions including orthotics and rehabilitation programs in these athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Psoriasis patients exhibit impairment of the high potency CCR5+ T regulatory cell subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C.; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Young, Andrew B.; Massari, Jessica V.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    CCR5 expression on CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been reported to be crucial for limiting Th1 inflammation associated with autoimmunity and bacterial infections. We inquired whether abnormalities in chemokine receptors expressed on Tregs might be involved in the psoriatic pathogenesis. Indeed, the proportion of CCR5+Treg was 58.8% in healthy individuals (n=9), whereas only half as many CCR5+Treg cells were found in psoriatic individuals (29.1%, n=8, p<0.01). The flow-enriched control CCR5+Tregs consistently exceeded the suppressive capacity of unsorted Tregs in autologous MLR assays (n=5, p<0.05) showing that CCR5+Treg subset is a high potency regulatory T cell population. Interestingly, psoriatic CCR5+Treg cells exhibited significantly less migratory capacity toward CCR5 ligands MIP-1β and RANTES in vitro compared to CCR5+Treg controls (n=3, p<0.05). Our data demonstrate that psoriatic CCR5+Tregs cells are numerically-, functionally- and chemotactically-deficient compared to controls and may pose a triple impairment on the ability of psoriatic Tregs to restrain inflammation. PMID:23954573

  8. An Initial Analysis of Learning Styles Exhibited by High School Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Frederick; Bensel, H.; Miller, D.; Seebode, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Howell, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Educational research magazines are filled with information on learning styles and how they affect the learning process, but few studies have been conducted to specifically look at learning styles exhibited by high school science students. This project attempted to obtain a general “snapshot” of learning styles found in the high school science classroom, and then compare that to one derived from a subgroup of highly motivated science students involved in a NITARP student team. Control students (N=54) from elective science courses at four high schools (urban, suburban, and rural) were administered the Felder Learning Style (FLS) assessment and rated on Likert scales in four learning constructs: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global. NITARP student team members (N=7) were given the FLS before project work began, and then re-tested approximately three months later, after project work concluded. Chi Square Analysis showed no clear significant difference between the general group and the NITARP group (p = .52). Both groups tended to be very visual and sequential, but more reflective than active. The results suggest several concerns that science teachers may need to address: (1) Research shows best practice science classes often are hands on, yet a majority of students are more reflective than active; (2) Big ideas tend to be better understood by global students, but a majority are more sequential; (3) Since a majority of students are visual, information given verbally may not be very effective. Further research is indicated for these areas of discontinuity. This research was conducted as part of the NASA/IPAC Training in Archival Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  9. A study of CDR3 loop dynamics reveals distinct mechanisms of peptide recognition by T-cell receptors exhibiting different levels of cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuko; Namiuchi, Yoshiki; Wako, Hiroshi; Tsurui, Hiromichi

    2017-10-09

    T-cell receptors (TCRs) can productively interact with many different peptides bound within the MHC binding groove. This property varies with the level of cross-reactivity of TCRs; some TCRs are particularly hyper cross-reactive while others exhibit greater specificity. To elucidate the mechanism behind these differences, we studied five TCRs in complex with the same class II MHC (1A b )-peptide (3K), that are known to exhibit different levels of cross-reactivity. Although these complexes have similar binding affinities, the interface areas between the TCR and the peptide-MHC (pMHC) differ significantly. We investigated static and dynamic structural features of the TCR-pMHC complexes and of TCRs in a free state, as well as the relationship between binding affinity and interface area. It was found that the TCRs known to exhibit lower levels of cross-reactivity bound to pMHC using an induced-fitting mechanism, forming large and tight interfaces rich in specific hydrogen bonds. In contrast, TCRs known to exhibit high levels of cross-reactivity used a more rigid binding mechanism where non-specific π-interactions involving the bulky Trp residue in CDR3β dominated. As entropy loss upon binding in these highly degenerate and rigid TCRs is smaller than that in less degenerate TCRs, they can better tolerate changes in residues distal from the major contacts with MHC-bound peptide. Hence, our dynamics study revealed that differences in the peptide recognition mechanisms by TCRs appear to correlate with the levels of T-cell cross-reactivity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH and inhibin B indicative of impaired spermatogenesis.

  11. New Derivatives of Pyridoxine Exhibit High Antibacterial Activity against Biofilm-Embedded Staphylococcus Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airat R. Kayumov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis often form rigid biofilms on tissues and inorganic surfaces. In the biofilm bacterial cells are embedded in a self-produced polysaccharide matrix and thereby are inaccessible to biocides, antibiotics, or host immune system. Here we show the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized cationic biocides, the quaternary ammonium, and bisphosphonium salts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6 against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. The derivatives of 6-hydroxymethylpyridoxine were ineffective against biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations up to 64 μg/mL, although all compounds tested exhibited low MICs (2 μg/mL against planktonic cells. In contrast, the quaternary ammonium salt of pyridoxine (N,N-dimethyl-N-((2,2,8-trimethyl-4H-[1,3]dioxino[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ylmethyloctadecan-1-aminium chloride (3 demonstrated high biocidal activity against both planktonic and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Thus, the complete death of biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells was obtained at concentrations of 64 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that the quaternary ammonium salts of pyridoxine are perspective to design new synthetic antibiotics and disinfectants for external application against biofilm-embedded cells.

  12. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  13. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  14. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples...... of paint and film dosemeters were installed in the 450 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and irradiated during operation for more than two years. Within the useful range of the dosemeters, dose comparisons with other dosemeter types gave satisfactory results. Application in other fields...

  15. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Incarcerated Colon Inguinal Hernia That Perforated into the Scrotum and Exhibited an Air-Fluid Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seisuke Ota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports of a transverse colon inguinal hernia; furthermore, an inguinal hernia perforating the scrotum is rare. Here we report the case of a 79-year-old man who died after developing an incarcerated colon inguinal hernia that perforated the scrotum and exhibited an air-fluid level. The patient was referred to our hospital in November 2011 with a complaint of inability to move. Physical examination revealed an abnormally enlarged left scrotum and cold extremities. He reported a history of gastric cancer that was surgically treated more than 30 years ago. His white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated. Abdominal and inguinal computed tomography revealed that his transverse colon was incarcerated in the left inguinal canal. Free air and air-fluid level were observed around the transverse colon, suggestive of a perforation. The patient and his family refused any surgical intervention; therefore, he was treated with sultamicillin tosilate hydrate and cefotiam hydrochloride. However, he succumbed to panperitonitis 19 days after admission. The findings from this case indicate that the transverse colon can perforate into an inguinal hernia sac.

  17. Fungal endophytes associated with three South American Myrtae (Myrtaceae) exhibit preferences in the colonization at leaf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Aline B M; da Costa, Andre G F C; Raad, Lucélia V V; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-03-01

    Fungal endophytes associated with Myrtaceae from Brazil and Argentina were isolated at three levels of nesting: leaf, individual host trees, and site collection. The alternating logistic regression (ALR) was used to model the data because it offers a computationally convenient method for fitting regression structures involving large clusters. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) whether the colonization pattern is influenced by environmental variables, (ii) if there is some leaf part they prefer to colonize; (iii) if there is some fungal endophyte aggregation between hierarchical levels; (iv) what the distance effect is on the fungal association. The environmental variables were statistically significant only for Xylaria, i.e., when the elevation and water precipitation increase and the temperature decreases, the odds ratio of finding another fungal endophyte of that genus previously found increases. Sordariomycetes, Xylariales, and Xylaria exhibited leaf fragment preference to petiole and tip. Fungal endophytes showed association within leaf. The horizontal transmission mode and the dispersal limitation may explain this association at the leaf level. Moreover, our results suggest that when a fungal endophyte infects a leaf or host tree individual, the odds ratio of dispersal inside them is greater. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unspliced precursors of NMD-sensitive β-globin transcripts exhibit decreased steady-state levels in erythroid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Morgado

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a quality control mechanism that detects and rapidly degrades mRNAs carrying premature translation-termination codons (PTCs. Mammalian NMD depends on both splicing and translation, and requires recognition of the premature stop codon by the cytoplasmic ribosomes. Surprisingly, some published data have suggested that nonsense codons may also affect the nuclear metabolism of the nonsense-mutated transcripts. To determine if nonsense codons could influence nuclear events, we have directly assessed the steady-state levels of the unspliced transcripts of wild-type and PTC-containing human β-globin genes stably transfected in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL cells, after erythroid differentiation induction, or in HeLa cells. Our analyses by ribonuclease protection assays and reverse transcription-coupled quantitative PCR show that β-globin pre-mRNAs carrying NMD-competent PTCs, but not those containing a NMD-resistant PTC, exhibit a significant decrease in their steady-state levels relatively to the wild-type or to a missense-mutated β-globin pre-mRNA. On the contrary, in HeLa cells, human β-globin pre-mRNAs carrying NMD-competent PTCs accumulate at normal levels. Functional analyses of these pre-mRNAs in MEL cells demonstrate that their low steady-state levels do not reflect significantly lower pre-mRNA stabilities when compared to the normal control. Furthermore, our results also provide evidence that the relative splicing efficiencies of intron 1 and 2 are unaffected. This set of data highlights potential nuclear pathways that might be promoter- and/or cell line-specific, which recognize the NMD-sensitive transcripts as abnormal. These specialized nuclear pathway(s may be superimposed on the general NMD mechanism.

  19. Do highly body dissatisfied women exhibit attentional biases towards thin and overweight figures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Body dissatisfaction has been linked as a direct precursor for life threatening eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Current research indicates that attentional bias may play a key role in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction in women due to the constant exposure to media depicted images. Therefore, we conducted an eye-tracking study to investigate whether individuals with high body dissatisfaction show a heightened attentional bias towards images of thin and overweight bodies compared to low body dissatisfied individuals. We also examined whether there was a general tendency for participants to show an attentional bias towards overweight bodies opposed to medium bodies and thin bodies opposed to medium bodies. Method: Thirty six participants completed a body dissatisfaction scale, and subsequently took part in an eye-tracking study. An eye-tracker was used to measure and record both gaze direction and gaze duration frequencies whilst exposing participants to images of females presented for 2000ms. Each trial compared either thin with medium images, or overweight with medium images. Results: Results indicated that overall participants viewed the thin images for a significantly longer time (M=.451, M= .534 respectively than the overweight images F(1, 34= 9.806, p = .04, ηp2= .224. However, there were no significant effects of gaze direction towards the thin or overweight bodies. Similarly, no significant effects were obtained for direction or duration bias towards the thin or overweight bodies across the high and low body dissatisfied groups. Conclusions: These data show that overall, participants orient their attention more towards thin body images. However, body dissatisfaction level appears to have no effect on such attentional biases.

  20. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  1. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and

  2. Delayed avalanche breakdown of high-voltage silicon diodes: Various structures exhibit different picosecond-range switching behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylevskiy, Viktor; Smirnova, Irina; Gutkin, Andrej; Brunkov, Pavel; Rodin, Pavel; Grekhov, Igor

    2017-11-01

    We present a comparative study of silicon high-voltage diodes exhibiting the effect of delayed superfast impact-ionization breakdown. The effect manifests itself in a sustainable picosecond-range transient from the blocking to the conducting state and occurs when a steep voltage ramp is applied to the p+-n-n+ diode in the reverse direction. Nine groups of diodes with graded and abrupt pn-junctions have been specially fabricated for this study by different techniques from different Si substrates. Additionally, in two groups of these structures, the lifetime of nonequilibrium carriers was intentionally reduced by electron irradiation. All diodes have identical geometrical parameters and similar stationary breakdown voltages. Our experimental setup allows measuring both device voltage and current during the kilovolt switching with time resolution better than 50 ps. Although all devices are capable of forming a front with kilovolt amplitude and 100 ps risetime in the in-series load, the structures with graded pn-junctions have anomalously large residual voltage. The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy study of all diode structures has been performed in order to evaluate the effect of deep centers on device performance. It was found that the presence of deep-level electron traps negatively correlates with parameters of superfast switching, whereas a large concentration of recombination centers created by electron irradiation has virtually no influence on switching characteristics.

  3. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jarløv Rasmussen

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7 years and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction were recorded systematically.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7 nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0 nmol/l (P < 0.01. Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5 of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01. Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01. The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2% (11.1; 42.2, erectile dysfunction ((27.3% (13.3; 45.6 and decreased libido ((40.1% (23.2; 57.0 than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH

  4. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  5. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  6. Low and High-Frequency Field Potentials of Cortical Networks Exhibit Distinct Responses to Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have become an important, high content in vitro assay for assessing neuronal function. MEA experiments typically examine high- frequency (HF) (>200 Hz) spikes, and bursts which can be used to discriminate between differ...

  7. Expression Analyses of ABCDE Model Genes and Changes in Levels of Endogenous Hormones in Chinese Cabbage Exhibiting Petal-Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan MENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal formation of floral organs affects plant reproduction and can directly interfere with the progress of breeding programs. Using PCR amplification, ABCDE model genes BraAP2, BraAP3, BraPI, BraAG, BraSHP, and BraSEP were isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis. We examined six development stages of floral buds collected from Chinese cabbage and compared between a line demonstrating normal flowering (A-8 and two mutated lines that exhibited plants having petal-loss (A-16 and A-17. The expression of ABCDE model genes has been analyzed by qRT-PCR. Compared with flower buds of petal-loss plants and normal plants, the expression of A-class gene BraAP2 was significantly decreased during the first to fourth stages, C-class gene BraAG expression was significantly decreased during the first to fifth stages, and D-class gene BraSHP expression was significantly decreased during the first to third stages. Furthermore, B-class gene BraAP3 and BraPI and E-class gene BraSEP expressions were significantly decreased during all six stages of petal-loss plants compared with normal plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected nine endogenous phytohormones during all stages examined here. Except for the second-stage and third-stage buds, levels of the auxin IAA and cytokinin dhZR were always higher in the petal-loss plants than the normal plants at corresponding time points. Meanwhile, concentrations of GA1+3 at the first, fourth, and fifth stages were higher in the petal-loss plants than in the normal plants. Our results provide a theoretical basis for future exploration of the molecular mechanism that determines petal loss and the effects that hormones have on such development in Chinese cabbage plants.

  8. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  9. Yersinia pestis intracellular parasitism of macrophages from hosts exhibiting high and low severity of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis causes severe disease in natural rodent hosts, but mild to inapparent disease in certain rodent predators such as dogs. Y. pestis initiates infection in susceptible hosts by parasitizing and multiplying intracellularly in local macrophages prior to systemic dissemination. Thus, we hypothesize that Y. pestis disease severity may depend on the degree to which intracellular Y. pestis overcomes the initial host macrophage imposed stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, the progression of in vitro infection by Y. pestis KIM62053.1+ of mouse splenic and RAW264.7 tissue culture macrophages and dog peripheral blood-derived and DH82 tissue culture macrophages was studied using microscopy and various parameters of infection. The study showed that during the early stage of infection, intracellular Y. pestis assumed filamentous cellular morphology with multiple copies of the genome per bacterium in both mouse and dog macrophages. Later, in mouse macrophages, the infection elicited spacious vacuolar extension of Yersinia containing vacuoles (YCV, and the filamentous Y. pestis reverted to coccobacillary morphology with genomic equivalents approximately equaling colony forming units. In contrast, Y. pestis infected dog macrophages did not show noticeable extension of YCV, and intracellular Y. pestis retained the filamentous cellular morphology for the entire experiment in DH82 cells or were killed by blood-derived macrophages. In addition, during the later stage of infection, Y. pestis infected mouse macrophages exhibited cell lysis whereas dog macrophages did not. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Y. pestis in mouse macrophages can overcome the initial intracellular stress necessary for subsequent systemic infection. However, in dogs, failure of Y. pestis to overcome macrophage imposed stress may result in mild or in apparent disease in dogs.

  10. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibit heterogeneous CD52 expression levels and show differential sensitivity to alemtuzumab mediated cytolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva P Rao

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs display the highest number while natural killer (NK cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.

  11. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  12. Homogenous 96-plex PEA immunoassay exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity, and excellent scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assarsson, Erika; Lundberg, Martin; Holmquist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Medical research is developing an ever greater need for comprehensive high-quality data generation to realize the promises of personalized health care based on molecular biomarkers. The nucleic acid proximity-based methods proximity ligation and proximity extension assays have, with their dual...

  13. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  14. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengkun; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers while overexpressed AR and 72 gene set represented moderately aggressive ovarian cancer potential biomarkers. Based on our knowledge, the current study is first time to report the potential biomarkers relevant to different aggressive

  15. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  16. Antifungal bacteria on woodland salamander skin exhibit high taxonomic diversity and geographic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R.; DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Lips, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis. Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus, 15 P. glutinosus, 9 P. cylindraceus) via culturing methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities and sampled P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 to 1,000 meters above sea level [masl]) at one locality. We identified 50 anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and found that the degree of B. dendrobatidis inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial strains occurred on multiple amphibian species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. The prevalence of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria was higher at Shenandoah National Park (NP), VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial species compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin Mountain Park (MP), MD, and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA), VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for B. dendrobatidis. Anti-B. dendrobatidis bacterial species are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacterial species that we identified may play a protective

  17. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  18. High performance optical oxygen sensors based on iridium complexes exhibiting interchromophore energy shuttling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Denisov, Sergey A; Cudré, Yanouk; Male, Louise; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge F; Tron, Arnaud; Jonusauskas, Gediminas; McClenaghan, Nathan D; Baranoff, Etienne

    2016-05-10

    A doubly pyrene-grafted bis-cyclometallated iridium complex with engineered electronically excited states demonstrates reversible electronic energy transfer between adjacent chromophores giving rise to extremely long-lived red luminescence in solution (τ = 480 μs). Time-resolved spectroscopic studies afforded determination of pertinent photophysical parameters including rates of energy transfer and energy distribution between constituent chromophores in the equilibrated excited molecule (ca. 98% on the organic chromophores). Incorporation into a nanostructured metal-oxide matrix (AP200/19) gave highly sensitive O2 sensing films, as the detection sensitivity was 200-300% higher than with the commonly used PtTFPP and approaches the sensitivity of the best O2-sensing dyes reported to date.

  19. Platinum Dendritic-Flowers Prepared by Tellurium Nanowires Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activity for Glycerol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yunpeng; Wu, Long; Cai, Kai; Li, Tingting; Yin, Wenmin; Li, Dian; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Han, Heyou

    2015-08-19

    Dentritic Pt-based nanomaterials with enriched edge and corner atoms have recently attracted considerable attention as electrocatalysts. Meanwhile, Pt(111) facets are generally considered more active for the glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR). Thus, it is significant to construct the rational design and synthesis of dentritic Pt whose surface is mostly enclosed by {111} facets. Reported herein is a unique Pt-branched structure enriched by a large amount of valency unsaturated atoms prepared by the aggravation of the galvanic replacement strategy. The synthesis is developed to generate highly crystallized Pt nanoflowers using Te nanowires as a template. Furthermore, the electrochemical results show that Pt nanoflower is an excellent catalyst with higher mass activity and better structure stability than commercial Pt/C (20% Pt) for glycerol electro-oxidation. Besides, the template-broken approach could provide a novel potential way to synthesize Pt-based or other noble metals/alloys for their advanced functional applications.

  20. Antifungal Bacteria on Woodland Salamander Skin Exhibit High Taxonomic Diversity and Geographic Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Yarwood, Stephanie A; Campbell Grant, Evan H; Fleischer, Robert C; Lips, Karen R

    2017-05-01

    Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus , 15 P. glutinosus , 9 P. cylindraceus ) via culturing methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities and sampled P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 to 1,000 meters above sea level [masl]) at one locality. We identified 50 anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and found that the degree of B. dendrobatidis inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial strains occurred on multiple amphibian species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. The prevalence of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria was higher at Shenandoah National Park (NP), VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin Mountain Park (MP), MD, and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA), VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for B. dendrobatidis Anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacterial species that we identified may play a

  1. The cataphoretic emitter effect exhibited in high intensity discharge lamp electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentel, Juergen

    2018-01-01

    A mono-layer of atoms, electropositive with respect to the substrate atoms, forms a dipole layer, reducing its work function. Such a layer is generated by diffusion of emitter material from the interior of the substrate, by vapour deposition or by deposition of emitter material onto arc electrodes by cataphoresis. This cataphoretic emitter effect is investigated within metal halide lamps with transparent YAG ceramic burners, and within model lamps. Within the YAG lamps, arcs are operated with switched-dc current between rod shaped tungsten electrodes in high pressure Hg vapour seeded with metal iodides. Within the model lamps, dc arcs are operated between rod-shaped tungsten electrodes—one doped—in atmospheric pressure Ar. Electrode temperatures are determined by 1λ -pyrometry, combined with simulation of the electrode heat balance. Plasma temperatures, atom and ion densities of emitter material are determined by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Phase resolved measurements in YAG lamps seeded with CeI3, CsI, DyI3, TmI3 and LaI3 show, within the cathodic half period, a reduction of the electrode temperature and an enhanced metal ion density in front of the electrode, and an opposite behavior after phase reversal. With increasing operating frequency, the state of the cathode overlaps onto the anodic phase—except for Cs, being low in adsorption energy. Generally, the phase averaged electrode tip temperature is reduced by seeding a lamp with emitter material; its height depends on admixtures. Measurements at tungsten electrodes doped with ThO2, La2O3 and Ce2O3 within the model lamp show that evaporated emitter material is redeposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface. It reduces the work function of tungsten cathodes above the evaporation temperature of the emitter material, too; and also of cold anodes, indicating a field reversal in front of them. The formation of an emitter spot at low cathode temperature and high emitter material

  2. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breath process, the surface pressure (Π) periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. Pulmonary surfactant consists of ~90......% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). DPPC is the only known lipid that can be compressed to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapses. Most probably, this feature contributes to the mechanical....... Here, we report a second phase transition at elevated surface pressure (~50mN/m). The lateral structure of the monolayer at selected states (8mN/m, 20mN/m, 30mN/m, 40mN/m, 50mN/m, 60mN/m, 70mN/m; covering the whole pressure range of the isotherm) was investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction...

  3. Plasmodium falciparum exhibits markers of regulated cell death at high population density in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2016-12-01

    The asexual erythrocytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the pathogenesis of malaria and causes the overwhelming majority of malaria deaths. Rapidly increasing parasitaemia during this 48hour cycle threatens the survival of the human host and the parasite prior to transmission of the slow-maturing sexual stages to the mosquito host. The parasite may utilise regulated cell death (RCD) to control the burden of infection on the host and thus aid its own survival and transmission. The occurrence of RCD in P. falciparum remains a controversial topic. We provide strong evidence for the occurrence of an apoptosis-like phenotype of RCD in P. falciparum under conditions of high parasite density. P. falciparum was maintained in vitro and stressed by allowing growth to an unrestricted peak parasitaemia. Cell death markers, including morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial polarisation and phosphatidylserine externalisation were used to characterise parasite death at the time of peak parasitaemia and 24h later. At peak parasitaemia, mitochondrial depolarisation was observed, together with phosphatidylserine externalisation in both parasitised- and neighbouring non-infected erythrocytes. DNA fragmentation coincided with a decline in parasitaemia. Fewer merozoites were observed in mature schizonts at peak parasitaemia. Growth recovery to near-peak parasitaemia was noted within two intraerythrocytic cycles. The combination and chronological order of the biochemical markers of cell death suggest the occurrence of an apoptosis-like phenotype. The identification of a RCD pathway in P. falciparum may provide novel drug targets, particularly if the pathway differs from the host machinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Partial sequencing of recent Portuguese myxoma virus field isolates exhibits a high degree of genetic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Silva, E; Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Ferreira, P G; Carvalheira, J C; Nowotny, N; Thompson, G

    2010-01-06

    To study genetic changes underlying myxoma virus evolution in its new host, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), we sequenced selected genomic regions of nine recent virulent field strains and a live attenuated vaccine strain ("MAV", Germany). DNA was extracted from cell culture passaged myxoma virus. A total of 4863 bp (approximately 3% of the genome) of 10 regions spanning 12 genes of the myxoma viruses was sequenced and compared to the original virulent strain "Lausanne" and its attenuated field derivative strain "6918". The field strains displayed a maximum of three (strains C43, C95) and a minimum of one (strains CD01, CD05) nucleotide substitutions. These were distributed through all analysed coding regions, except gene M022L (major envelope protein), where all strains were identical to "Lausanne" and "6918". Two new single nucleotide insertions were observed in some of the field strains: within the intergenic region M014L/M015L and within gene M009L, where it leads to a frameshift. These insertions were located after homopolymeric regions. The vaccine strain displayed 37 nucleotide substitutions, predominantly (95%) located in genes M022L and M036L. Interestingly, regions M009L and M014L/M015L of the vaccine were not amplified successfully, suggesting major genomic changes that could account for its attenuated phenotype. Our results support a high degree of genetic stability of myxoma virus over the past five decades. None of the analysed genome regions by its own seems sufficient for the genetic characterisation of field strains.

  5. Overview of high level synthesis tools

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J

    2011-01-01

    High Level Synthesis takes an abstract behavioural or algorithmic description of a digital system and creates a register transfer level structure that realises the described behaviour. Various methodologies have been developed to perform such synthesis tasks. This paper presents the different HLS concepts used in the current leading tools. It makes a comparison between the different approaches and highlights their advantages and limitations. We also present a high level synthesis example.

  6. Exhibiting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases, it identif......This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases...

  7. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  8. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  9. Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  10. Glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin exhibiting amyloidal nature in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-12-01

    Glyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, we have investigated the effect of glyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Gel electrophoretic profile of hemolysate collected from glyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kg body wt. dose) after one week exhibited the presence of some high molecular weight protein bands that were found to be absent for control, untreated rats. Mass spectrometric and absorption studies indicated that the bands represented hemoglobin. Further studies revealed that the fraction exhibited the presence of intermolecular cross β-sheet structure. Thus glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin with amyloid characteristics in rats. Aggregated hemoglobin fraction was found to exhibit higher stability compared to glyoxal-untreated hemoglobin. As evident from mass spectrometric studies, glyoxal was found to modify Arg-30β and Arg-31α of rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to induce amyloid-like aggregation of hemoglobin in rats. Considering the increased level of glyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, the above findings may be physiologically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  12. High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) exhibiting good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhai, Lianjie; Wang, Bozhou; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) not only exhibit good energetic performances but also have a good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of energetic materials. In this contribution, two high-energy CPs Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3·3H2O (1) and [Cu3(DDT)2(H2O)2]n (2) (H2DNBT = 3,3‧-dinitro-5,5‧-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole and H3DDT = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Furthermore, 1 was thermos-dehydrated to produce Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3 (1a). The thermal decomposition kinetics of 1, 1a and 2 were studied by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stability and low sensitivity for external stimuli. Meanwhile, all compounds have large positive enthalpy of formation, which are calculated as being (1067.67 ± 2.62) kJ mol-1 (1), (1464.12 ± 3.12) kJ mol-1 (1a) and (3877.82 ± 2.75) kJ mol-1 (2), respectively. The catalytic effects of 1a and 2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were also investigated.

  13. Who cares and who acts? Different types of outdoor recreationists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario F. Teisl; Kelly O' Brien

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between a person's level of environmental concern and behavior, and their participation in different types of outdoor recreational activities has been a matter of study for approximately 25 years. However, most of the research occurred in the mid- to late seventies and, until recently, there has been relatively little research performed since then...

  14. Comparison of the Levels of Infectious Virus in Respirable Aerosols Exhaled by Ferrets Infected with Influenza Viruses Exhibiting Diverse Transmissibility Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a major public health burden to communities around the world by causing respiratory infections that can be highly contagious and spread rapidly through the population. Despite extensive research on influenza viruses, the modes of transmission occurring most often among humans are not entirely clear. Contributing to this knowledge gap is the lack of an understanding of the levels of infectious virus present in respirable aerosols exhaled from infected hosts. Here, we used the ferret model to evaluate aerosol shedding patterns and measure the amount of infectious virus present in exhaled respirable aerosols. By comparing these parameters among a panel of human and avian influenza viruses exhibiting diverse respiratory droplet transmission efficiencies, we are able to report that ferrets infected by highly transmissible influenza viruses exhale a greater number of aerosol particles and more infectious virus within respirable aerosols than ferrets infected by influenza viruses that do not readily transmit. Our findings improve our understanding of the ferret transmission model and provide support for the potential for influenza virus aerosol transmission. PMID:23658443

  15. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  16. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    , this book draws on unique archival material, including photographs, documentary evidence and newspaper articles, newly discovered in Copenhagen. This opens for new insights and perspectives on these European exhibitions. The book employs post-colonial and feminist approaches to the material to shed fresh...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  17. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow...

  18. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitt Brian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BACE1 is a key enzyme in the generation of the Aβ peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. While BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target, its normal physiological function remains largely unknown. Examination of BACE1-/- mice can provide insight into this function and also help anticipate consequences of BACE1 inhibition. Here we report a seizure-susceptibility phenotype that we have identified and characterized in BACE1-/- mice. Results We find that electroencephalographic recordings reveal epileptiform abnormalities in some BACE1-/- mice, occasionally including generalized tonic-clonic and absence seizures. In addition, we find that kainic acid injection induces seizures of greater severity in BACE1-/- mice relative to BACE1+/+ littermates, and causes excitotoxic cell death in a subset of BACE1-/- mice. This hyperexcitability phenotype is variable and appears to be manifest in approximately 30% of BACE1-/- mice. Finally, examination of the expression and localization of the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit Nav1.2 reveals no correlation with BACE1 genotype or any measure of seizure susceptibility. Conclusions Our data indicate that BACE1 deficiency predisposes mice to spontaneous and pharmacologically-induced seizure activity. This finding has implications for the development of safe therapeutic strategies for reducing Aβ levels in Alzheimer's disease. Further, we demonstrate that altered sodium channel expression and axonal localization are insufficient to account for the observed effect, warranting investigation of alternative mechanisms.

  19. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Brian D; Jaramillo, Thomas C; Chetkovich, Dane M; Vassar, Robert

    2010-08-23

    BACE1 is a key enzyme in the generation of the Abeta peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. While BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target, its normal physiological function remains largely unknown. Examination of BACE1-/- mice can provide insight into this function and also help anticipate consequences of BACE1 inhibition. Here we report a seizure-susceptibility phenotype that we have identified and characterized in BACE1-/- mice. We find that electroencephalographic recordings reveal epileptiform abnormalities in some BACE1-/- mice, occasionally including generalized tonic-clonic and absence seizures. In addition, we find that kainic acid injection induces seizures of greater severity in BACE1-/- mice relative to BACE1+/+ littermates, and causes excitotoxic cell death in a subset of BACE1-/- mice. This hyperexcitability phenotype is variable and appears to be manifest in approximately 30% of BACE1-/- mice. Finally, examination of the expression and localization of the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit Nav1.2 reveals no correlation with BACE1 genotype or any measure of seizure susceptibility. Our data indicate that BACE1 deficiency predisposes mice to spontaneous and pharmacologically-induced seizure activity. This finding has implications for the development of safe therapeutic strategies for reducing Abeta levels in Alzheimer's disease. Further, we demonstrate that altered sodium channel expression and axonal localization are insufficient to account for the observed effect, warranting investigation of alternative mechanisms.

  20. Mo-MuLV nucleotide sequence exhibits three levels of oligomeric repetitions, suggesting a stepwise molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprevotte, I

    1992-11-01

    An exhaustive computer-assisted analysis of the Moloney murine leukemia virus nucleotide sequence shows numerous deviations in the oligomeric distribution, suggesting three overlapping levels of a stepwise duplicative evolution. (1) The sequence fits the universal rule of TG/CT excess which has been proposed as the construction principle of all sequences, and maintains some degree of symmetry between the two complementary strands. (2) Oligomeric repeating units share a core consensus regularly scattered throughout the sequence. This consensus is not merely predictable from the doublet frequencies and codon usage, but could correspond to an intermediary stage in a so-called periodic-to-chaotic transition. (3) Probable stepwise local duplications could be accounted for by slippagelike mechanisms. Comparison with the human spumaretrovirus (HSRV) shows similar segments in the overrepresented oligomers of the two sequences. The intermediary stage of transition oligomeric repeating units is not so clearly suggested in HSRV, perhaps because of numerous stepwise local duplications. In any case, a common evolutionary origin for the two viruses is not ruled out.

  1. High-level Synthesis Integrated Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dossis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known in the engineering community that more than 60% of the IC design project time is spent on verification. For the very complex contemporary chips, this may prove prohibitive for the IC to arrive at the correct time in the market and therefore, valuable sales share may be lost by the developing industry. This problem is deteriorated by the fact that most of conventional verification flows are highly repetitive and a great proportion of the project time is spent on last-moment simulations. In this paper we present an integrated approach to rapid, high-level verification, exploiting the advantages of a formal High-level Synthesis tool, developed by the author. Verification in this work is supported at 3 levels: high-level program code, RTL simulation and rapid, generated C testbench execution. This paper is supported by strong experimental work with 3-4 popular design synthesis and verification that proves the principles of our methodology.

  2. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  3. The Effects of High Level Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is...8217Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism?’. It would be comforting to know that

  4. Insulin Resistance and Adipocytokine Levels in High Fat High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high fat high fructose (HF/HFr) diet on the onset of the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and the levels of some adipocytokines in growing male and female rats. Also we aimed to study the possible protective effects of cinnamon (CN) against HF/HFr diet ...

  5. Efficient Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts for 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation exhibiting high selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Dongdong

    2017-01-05

    Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts have been successfully prepared using the metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) approach, by choosing [Pd(η-CH)(η-CH)] as a volatile precursor, and the hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework, MIL-101(Cr) as a support. The prepared Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts characterized with various analytical techniques, exhibited highly monodispersed immobilized Pd nanoparticles in the MIL-101(Cr) cavities, while retaining the pristine crystallinity and porosity. The intact hybrid Pd@MIL-101(Cr) has been demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation with excellent activity, stability and selectivity (2-butene-1,4-diol (>94%)).

  6. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly luminescent blue-emitting ZnSe(S) quantum dots exhibiting low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnajafizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramsey, Deborah; McAlpine, Shelli [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Fan; Reece, Peter [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Stride, John Arron, E-mail: j.stride@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) that emit in the visible spectrum are of interest to a number of imaging technologies, not least that of biological samples. One issue that hinders the application of luminescent markers in biology is the potential toxicity of the fluorophore. Here we show that hydrothermally synthesized ZnSe(S) QDs have low cytotoxicity to both human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and human skin fibroblast cells (WS1). The QDs exhibited a high degree of crystallinity, with a strong blue photoluminescence at up to 29% quantum yield relative to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without post-synthetic UV-irradiation. Confocal microscopy images obtained of HCT-116 cells after incubation with the QDs highlighted the stability of the particles in cell media. Cytotoxicity studies showed that both HCT-116 and WS1 cells retain 100% viability after treatment with the QDs at concentrations up to 0.5 g/L, which makes them of potential use in biological imaging applications. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent ZnSe(S) QDs were synthesized using a simple, one-step hydrothermal method. • The as-synthesized QDs were found to be nontoxic in the presence of biological cells. • The QDs were stable in biological media with identical emission profile to that in water.

  8. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  9. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  10. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  11. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  12. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  13. High level modeling of Dynamic Reconfigurable FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rafiq Quadri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As System-on-Chip (SoC based embedded systems have become a defacto industry standard, their overall design complexity has increased exponentially in recent years, necessitating the introduction of new seamless methodologies and tools to handle the SoC codesign aspects. This paper presents a novel SoC co-design methodology based on Model Driven Engineering and the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded Systems (MARTE standard, permitting us to raise the abstraction levels and allows to model fine grain reconfigurable architectures such as FPGAs. Extensions of this methodology have enabled us to integrate new features such as Partial Dynamic Reconfiguration supported by Modern FPGAs. The overall objective is to carry out system modeling at a high abstraction level expressed in a graphical language like Unified Modeling Language (UML and afterwards transformation of these models automatically generate the necessary code for FPGA synthesis.

  14. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  15. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  16. Macroalgae of Izmir Gulf: Dictyotaceae exhibit high in vitro anti-cancer activity independent from their antioxidant capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelenk, Fatma Gül; Özkaya, Ali Burak; Sukatar, Atakan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 24 marine macroalgae collected from the coastline of Izmir Gulf were examined for their antioxidant activities and their effects on cell proliferation. Crude extracts were obtained from samples with cold methanol extraction. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC); growth inhibitory effects of the extracts were determined by using WST-8. Amongst the species, Polysiphonia denuata (Rhodophyta) and Cystoseira species (Phaeophyceae) have been noticed by their high DPPH radical scavenging activities and TPCs. As expected, there was a strong correlation between these tests. Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) showed the highest anti-cancer activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 17.2 ng mL-1. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that D. dichotoma methanolic extract strongly induced apoptosis. This extract exhibited moderate viability inhibition on MCF10A cells (IC50: 49.3 ng mL-1), suggesting a potential use of the extracts or its compounds for cancer therapy. There was no correlation between anti-cancer potential and antioxidant content of the extracts.

  17. Nearshore Turbid-Zone Corals Exhibit High Bleaching Tolerance on the Great Barrier Reef Following the 2016 Ocean Warming Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Morgan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available High sea surface temperatures (SSTs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR during summer 2015/2016 caused extensive coral bleaching, with aerial and in-water surveys confirming high (but variable bleaching-related coral mortality. In contrast, bleaching impacts on nearshore turbid-zone reefs, traditionally considered more “marginal” coral habitats, remain poorly documented. This is because rapid ecological surveys are difficult in these turbid water settings, and baseline coral community data from which to quantify disturbance are rare. However, models suggest that the extreme environmental conditions characteristic of nearshore settings (e.g., fluctuating turbidity, light, and temperature may acclimate corals to the thermal anomalies associated with bleaching on offshore reefs, although validation by field evidence has to-date been sparse. Here we present a novel pre- (June 2013/2014 and post-warming (August 2016 assessment of turbid-zone coral communities and examine the response of corals to prolonged and acute heat stress within the Paluma Shoals reef complex, located on the central GBR. Our analysis of 2,288 still video frames (~1,200 m2 which include 11,374 coral colonies (24 coral genera suggest a high tolerance of turbid-zone corals to bleaching, with no significant changes in coral cover (pre: 48 ± 20%; post: 55 ± 26% or coral community structure (e.g., Acropora, Montipora, Turbinaria, Porites following the warming event. Indeed, only one coral colony (Lobophyllia sp. exhibited full colony bleaching, and just 1.5% of colonies displayed partial pigmentation loss (<20% colony surface. Taxa-specific responses to this thermal stress event contrast with clear-water assessments, as Acropora corals which are normally reported as highly susceptible to bleaching on clear-water reefs were least impacted at Paluma Shoals, a phenomena that has been observed within other turbid settings. Importantly, field surveys confirm regional SSTs were

  18. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  19. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  20. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton isolation. Reconstructed tracks are also used to distinguish the primary vertex, which identifies the hard interaction process, from the pileup ones. This task is particularly important in the LHC environment given the large number of interactions per bunch crossing: on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II. We will present the performance of HLT tracking algorithms, discussing its impact on CMS physics program, as well as new developments done towards the next data taking in 2015.

  1. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Latha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group. These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments. Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02, hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that

  2. Cardiac Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Exhibit High Differentiation Potential to Cardiovascular Cells in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hiroki; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Asahi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (AdSCs) have recently been shown to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells. However, little is known about the fat tissue origin-dependent differences in AdSC function and differentiation potential. AdSC-rich cells were isolated from subcutaneous, visceral, cardiac (CA), and subscapular adipose tissue from mice and their characteristics analyzed. After four different AdSC types were cultured with specific differentiation medium, immunocytochemical analysis was performed for the assessment of differentiation into cardiovascular cells. We then examined the in vitro differentiation capacity and therapeutic potential of AdSCs in ischemic myocardium using a mouse myocardial infarction model. The cell density and proliferation activity of CA-derived AdSCs were significantly increased compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Immunocytochemistry showed that CA-derived AdSCs had the highest appearance rates of markers for endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes among the AdSCs. Systemic transfusion of CA-derived AdSCs exhibited the highest cardiac functional recovery after myocardial infarction and the high frequency of the recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Moreover, long-term follow-up of the recruited CA-derived AdSCs frequently expressed cardiovascular cell markers compared with the other adipose tissue-derived AdSCs. Cardiac adipose tissue could be an ideal source for isolation of therapeutically effective AdSCs for cardiac regeneration in ischemic heart diseases. Significance The present study found that cardiac adipose-derived stem cells have a high potential to differentiate into cardiovascular lineage cells (i.e., cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells) compared with stem cells derived from other adipose tissue such as subcutaneous, visceral, and subscapular adipose tissue. Notably, only a small number of supracardiac adipose-derived stem cells that were

  3. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  4. High Level Trigger Using ALICE ITS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, A K

    2004-01-01

    The high $P_T$ trigger capabilities of the ALICE inner tracking system (ITS) as a standalone detector have been investigated. Since the high $P_T$ charged particles mostly lead to the linear trajectories within this ITS sector, it is possible to select tracks of $P_T$ of the order of 2 GeV and above by confining to a narrow search window in the ($\\theta,\\phi$) space. Also shown that by performing a principal component transformation, it is possible to rotate from a 12 dimensional ($\\theta$-$\\phi$) space (in this space, a good ITS track has 6 pairs of hit co-ordinates) into a parametric space characterized by only two independent components when the track momentum exceeds a particular limit. This independent component analysis (ICA) has been uitilised further to reduce the false track contribution to an acceptable level particularly when the charged multiplicity is large. Finally, it is shown that with a narrow bin width of $\\Delta \\theta = \\Delta \\phi \\sim 0.008$ radian and with PCA or ICA cut, the ITS can be...

  5. Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor member ST2 exhibits higher soluble levels in type 2 diabetes, especially when accompanied with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fousteris Evangelos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble ST2, a member of the of the Toll/IL-1 superfamily, is a novel biomarker with exceptional predictive value in heart failure and myocardial infarction- related mortality as well as in acute dyspneic states. Soluble ST2 is considered a decoy receptor of IL 33 that blocks the protective effects of the cytokine in atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling. In the present study we investigated the differences in the levels of soluble ST2, BNP and hs-CRP between healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between sST2 and other biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c. Methods 158 volunteers were recruited and underwent a complete Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of both systolic & diastolic cardiac function. All subjects with ejection fraction Results Patients with type 2 diabetes with (p Conclusions Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher sST2 levels compared to healthy controls. The presence of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with even higher sST2 levels. A significant correlation between glycemic control and sST2 levels was also revealed.

  6. The ATLAS high level trigger steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N.; Bold, T.; Eifert, T.; Fischer, G.; George, S.; Haller, J.; Hoecker, A.; Masik, J.; Nedden, M. Z.; Reale, V. P.; Risler, C.; Schiavi, C.; Stelzer, J.; Wu, X.

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.

  7. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  8. C-peptide exhibits a late induction effect on matrix metallopeptidase-9 in high glucose-stimulated rat mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Li, Yanning; Xu, Mingzhi; Li, Dandan; Wang, Yu; Qi, Jinsheng; He, Kunyu

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 is considered to be a contributor of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy (DN). C-peptide can reverse fibrosis, thus exerting a beneficial effect on DN. Whether C-peptide induces MMP-9 and MMP-2 to reverse ECM accumulation is not clear. In the present study, in order to determine ECM metabolism, rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and C-peptide intervention, then the early and late effects of C-peptide on HG-affected MMP-9 and MMP-2 were evaluated. Firstly, it was confirmed that HG mainly suppressed MMP-9 expression levels. Furthermore, C-peptide treatment induced MMP-9 expression at 6 h and suppressed it at 24 h, revealing the early dual effects of C-peptide on MMP-9 expression. Subsequently, significant increase in MMP-9 expression at 72, 96 and 120 h C-peptide treatment was observed. These changes in MMP-9 protein content confirmed its expression changes following late C-peptide treatment. Furthermore, at 96 and 120 h C-peptide treatment reversed the HG-inhibited MMP-9 secretion, further indicating the late induction effect of C-peptide on MMP-9. The present results demonstrated that C-peptide exerted a late induction effect on MMP-9 in HG-stimulated rat mesangial cells, which may be associated with the underlying mechanism of C-peptide's reversal effects on DN.

  9. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Vision in high-level football officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Pedro M.; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T.

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pvision measures in the football officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of

  11. High serum calcitonin levels in heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Capra, F; Dorizzi, R; Luisetto, G; Accordini, A; Renda, E; Parolin, A

    1984-08-01

    An involvement of calcitonin in the mechanism of pain perception has recently been hypothesized. In order to collect information about the relationship between this hormone and well known analgesic substances such as opioids, we have studied the serum levels of calcitonin in a group of heroin addicts, finding higher average concentrations than in normal subjects of matched age and sex. In these addicts there were no severe signs of impaired renal or hepatic function, or alterations of the serum levels of calcium and phosphate. So we think that opioids, in a direct or indirect way, can stimulate the secretion of calcitonin.

  12. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  13. Algorithms for the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, S R; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Gomez, M D; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Segura, E; Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A T; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, H

    2004-01-01

    Following rigorous software design and analysis methods, an object-based architecture has been developed to derive the second- and third-level trigger decisions for the future ATLAS detector at the LHC. The functional components within this system responsible for generating elements of the trigger decisions are algorithms running within the software architecture. Relevant aspects of the architecture are reviewed along with concrete examples of specific algorithms and their performance in "vertical" slices of various physics selection strategies.

  14. Tumours with elevated levels of the Notch and Wnt pathways exhibit efficacy to PF-03084014, a γ-secretase inhibitor, in a preclinical colorectal explant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaroli, J J; Quackenbush, K S; Purkey, A; Powell, R W; Pitts, T M; Bagby, S; Tan, A C; Cross, B; McPhillips, K; Song, E-K; Tai, W M; Winn, R A; Bikkavilli, K; Vanscoyk, M; Eckhardt, S G; Messersmith, W A

    2013-08-06

    Dysregulation of the Notch pathway has been identified to play an important role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we used a patient-derived CRC explant model to investigate the efficacy of the clinical γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) PF-03084014. A total of 16 CRC explants were treated with PF-03084014. Knockdown of RBPjκ gene was used to determine the specificity of PF-03084014. Evaluation of the Notch and Wnt pathways in CRC explant tumours was performed by gene array and immunoblotting. We identified a subset of CRC tumours that exhibited elevations of the Notch and Wnt pathways sensitive to PF-03084014. Treatment with the GSI resulted in a significant reduction in cleaved Notch, Axin2 (Wnt-dependent gene) and active β-catenin. In addition, knockdown of the RBPjκ gene showed that PF-03084014 has specificity for the Notch pathway in an HCT116 cell line xenograft model. Finally, an increase in apoptosis was observed in CRC001- and CRC021-sensitive tumours. This study provides evidence that inhibition of γ-secretase may be beneficial in a subset of patients with elevated levels of the Wnt and Notch pathways.

  15. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  16. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    .2-2.5) for 1 allergic disease, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.5-4.4) for 2 allergic diseases, and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.2-9.0) for 3 allergic diseases. High alcohol consumption was associated with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. The odds ratio for high versus low IgE levels per 1 alcoholic drink per week......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  17. Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Rosenbush, Vera K; Kiselev, Nikolai N

    2006-06-20

    The totality of new and previous optical observations of a class of high-albedo solar system objects at small phase angles reveals a unique combination of extremely narrow brightness and polarization features centered at exactly the opposition. The specific morphological parameters of these features provide an almost unequivocal evidence that they are caused by the renowned effect of coherent backscattering.

  18. Oligonucleotides containing a piperazino-modified 2'-amino-LNA monomer exhibit very high duplex stability and remarkable nuclease resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Chenguang; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of a piperazino-modified 2'-amino-LNA monomer (PipLNA-T) into oligonucleotides conferred very high affinity and base-pairing selectivity towards complementary DNA and RNA strands. Furthermore, one PipLNA-T modification provided a robust nuclease resistance that safeguarded three...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit M to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Conservation of Wetlands and Highly Erodible Land Affecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... B, Highly Erodible Land Conservation, and Subtitle C, Wetland Conservation, of Title XII of the Food... technical guide and properly approved by the appropriate SCS conservation district or the SCS. To apply this... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Implementation Procedures for the Conservation of...

  20. Unexpected Spin-Crossover and a Low-Pressure Phase Change in an Iron(II)/Dipyrazolylpyridine Complex Exhibiting a High-Spin Jahn-Teller Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw Cook, Laurence J; Thorp-Greenwood, Flora L; Comyn, Tim P; Cespedes, Oscar; Chastanet, Guillaume; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2015-07-06

    The synthesis of 4-methyl-2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (L) and four salts of [FeL2]X2 (X(-) = BF4(-), 1; X(-) = ClO4(-), 2; X(-) = PF6(-), 3; X(-) = CF3SO3(-), 4) are reported. Powder samples of 1 and 2 both exhibit abrupt, hysteretic spin-state transitions on cooling, with T1/2↓ = 204 and T1/2↑ = 209 K (1), and T1/2↓ = 175 and T1/2↑ = 193 K (2). The 18 K thermal hysteresis loop for 2 is unusually wide for a complex of this type. Single crystal structures of 2 show it to exhibit a Jahn-Teller-distorted six-coordinate geometry in its high-spin state, which would normally inhibit spin-crossover. Bulk samples of 1 and 2 are isostructural by X-ray powder diffraction, and undergo a crystallographic phase change during their spin-transitions. At temperatures below T1/2, exposing both compounds to 10(-5) Torr pressure inside the powder diffractometer causes a reversible transformation back to the high-temperature crystal phase. Consideration of thermodynamic data implies this cannot be accompanied by a low → high spin-state change, however. Both compounds also exhibit the LIESST effect, with 2 exhibiting an unusually high T(LIESST) of 112 K. The salts 3 and 4 are respectively high-spin and low-spin between 3 and 300 K, with crystalline 3 exhibiting a more pronounced version of the same Jahn-Teller distortion.

  1. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  2. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  3. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  4. Tendon exhibits complex poroelastic behavior at the nanoscale as revealed by high-frequency AFM-based rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connizzo, Brianne K; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2017-03-21

    Tendons transmit load from muscle to bone by utilizing their unique static and viscoelastic tensile properties. These properties are highly dependent on the composition and structure of the tissue matrix, including the collagen I hierarchy, proteoglycans, and water. While the role of matrix constituents in the tensile response has been studied, their role in compression, particularly in matrix pressurization via regulation of fluid flow, is not well understood. Injured or diseased tendons and tendon regions that naturally experience compression are known to have alterations in glycosaminoglycan content, which could modulate fluid flow and ultimately mechanical function. While recent theoretical studies have predicted tendon mechanics using poroelastic theory, no experimental data have directly demonstrated such behavior. In this study, we use high-bandwidth AFM-based rheology to determine the dynamic response of tendons to compressive loading at the nanoscale and to determine the presence of poroelastic behavior. Tendons are found to have significant characteristic dynamic relaxation behavior occurring at both low and high frequencies. Classic poroelastic behavior is observed, although we hypothesize that the full dynamic response is caused by a combination of flow-dependent poroelasticity as well as flow-independent viscoelasticity. Tendons also demonstrate regional dependence in their dynamic response, particularly near the junction of tendon and bone, suggesting that the structural and compositional heterogeneity in tendon may be responsible for regional poroelastic behavior. Overall, these experiments provide the foundation for understanding fluid-flow-dependent poroelastic mechanics of tendon, and the methodology is valuable for assessing changes in tendon matrix compressive behavior at the nanoscale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Naphthacenodithiophene Based Polymers-New Members of the Acenodithiophene Family Exhibiting High Mobility and Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Knall, Astrid Caroline

    2016-08-18

    Wide-bandgap conjugated polymers with a linear naphthacenodithiophene (NDT) donor unit are herein reported along with their performance in both transistor and solar cell devices. The monomer is synthesized starting from 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene with a double Fries rearrangement as the key step. By copolymerization with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) via a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction, NDT-BT co-polymers with high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities are afforded. These novel wide-bandgap polymers are evaluated as the semiconducting polymer in both organic field effect transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. The synthesized polymers reveal an optical bandgap in the range of 1.8 eV with an electron affinity of 3.6 eV which provides sufficient energy offset for electron transfer to PC70BM acceptors. In organic field effect transistors, the synthesized polymers demonstrate high hole mobilities of around 0.4 cm2 V–1 s–1. By using a blend of NDT-BT with PC70BM as absorber layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, power conversion efficiencies of 7.5% are obtained. This value is among the highest obtained for polymers with a wider bandgap (larger than 1.7 eV), making this polymer also interesting for application in tandem or multijunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  6. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun

    2017-10-01

    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  7. Mice deficient in cryptochrome 1 (Cry1-/- exhibit resistance to obesity induced by a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGriebel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of circadian clock enhances the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Circadian clocks rely on a highly regulated network of transcriptional and translational loops that drive clock-controlled gene expression. Among these transcribed clock genes are cryptochrome (CRY family members, which comprise Cry1 and Cry2. While the metabolic effects of deletion of several core components of the clock gene machinery have been well characterized, those of selective inactivation of Cry1 or Cry2 genes have not been described. In this study we demonstrate that ablation of Cry1, but not Cry2, prevents high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity in mice. Despite similar caloric intake, Cry1-/- mice on HFD gained markedly less weight (-18 % at the end of the 16-week experiment and displayed reduced fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT littermates (-61 %, suggesting increased energy expenditure. Analysis of serum lipid and glucose profiles showed no difference between Cry1-/- and WT mice. Both Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice are indistinguishable from WT controls in body weight, fat and protein contents, and food consumption when they are allowed unlimited access to a standard rodent diet. We conclude that although CRY signaling may not be essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis under steady-state nutritional conditions, Cry1 may play a role in readjusting energy balance under changing nutritional circumstances. These studies reinforce the important role of circadian clock genes in energy homeostasis and suggest that Cry1 is a plausible target for antiobesity therapy.

  8. Sarcolipin knockout mice fed a high-fat diet exhibit altered indices of adipose tissue inflammation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Gamu, Daniel; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Kwon, Frenk; Tupling, A Russell; Wright, David C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate indices of adipose tissue inflammation and remodeling in high-fat diet (HFD) sarcolipin-knockout (SLN(-) (/-) ) mice. SLN regulates muscle-based nonshivering thermogenesis and is up-regulated with HFD. SLN(-) (/-) mice develop greater diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. This is accompanied by increases in circulating catecholamines and fatty acids. Catecholamines and fatty acids play a role in the pathology of adipose tissue inflammation. Male mice (wild type and SLN(-) (/-) ) were fed a HFD (42% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. SLN(-) (/-) mice displayed greater obesity and glucose intolerance. This was accompanied by higher circulating epinephrine and nonesterified fatty acids. Epididymal but not inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue from SLN(-) (/-) mice displayed higher interleukin-6, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression, and this was associated with increased markers of macrophage infiltration (F4/80 expression and crown-like structures) and M1 polarization (higher CD11c expression and CD11c/MGL1). Interestingly, this occurred despite SLN(-) (/-) mice having smaller adipocytes. In conditions of nutrient excess, SLN(-) (/-) mice display depot-specific increases in indices of adipose tissue inflammation and remodeling. This could be a compensatory response to reductions in muscle-based thermogenesis. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. The Human Embryoid Body Cystic Core Exhibits Architectural Complexity Revealed by use of High Throughput Polymer Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L

    2015-07-01

    In pluripotent stem cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EBs) provide a three-dimensional [3D] multicellular precursor in lineage specification. The internal structure of EBs is not well characterized yet is predicted to be an important parameter to differentiation. Here, we use custom SU-8 molds to generate transparent lithography-templated arrays of polydimethylsiloxane (LTA-PDMS) for high throughput analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) EB formation and internal architecture. EBs formed in 200 and 500 μm diameter microarray wells by use of single cells, 2D clusters, or 3D early aggregates were compared. We observe that 200 μm EBs are monocystic versus 500 μm multicystic EBs that contain macro, meso and microsized cysts. In adherent differentiation of 500 μm EBs, the multicystic character impairs the 3D to 2D transition creating non-uniform monolayers. Our findings reveal that EB core structure has a size-dependent character that influences its architecture and cell population uniformity during early differentiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biofilm-Forming Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Survive in Kupffer Cells and Exhibit High Virulence in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Oyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal body flora, heavy usage of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA. MRSA can form biofilms and cause indwelling foreign body infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis. Using an in vitro assay, we screened 173 clinical blood isolates of MRSA and selected 20 high-biofilm formers (H-BF and low-biofilm formers (L-BF. These were intravenously administered to mice and the general condition of mice, the distribution of bacteria, and biofilm in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney were investigated. MRSA count was the highest in the liver, especially within Kupffer cells, which were positive for acid polysaccharides that are associated with intracellular biofilm. After 24 h, the general condition of the mice worsened significantly in the H-BF group. In the liver, bacterial deposition and aggregation and the biofilm-forming spot number were all significantly greater for H-BF group than for L-BF. CFU analysis revealed that bacteria in the H-BF group survived for long periods in the liver. These results indicate that the biofilm-forming ability of MRSA is a crucial factor for intracellular persistence, which could lead to chronic infections.

  11. Patients With High Bone Mass Phenotype Exhibit Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibition of Adipogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Andersen, Tom; Bollerslev, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Genetic mutations in the LRP5 gene affect Wnt signaling and lead to changes in bone mass in humans. Our in vivo and in vitro results show that activated mutation T253I of LRP5 enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis. Inactivating mutation T244M of LRP5 exerts opposite effects. Introduction......: Mutations in the Wnt co-receptor, LRP5, leading to decreased or increased canonical Wnt signaling, result in osteoporosis or a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, respectively. However, the mechanisms whereby mutated LRP5 causes changes in bone mass are not known. Materials and Methods: We studied bone marrow composition...... in iliac crest bone biopsies from patients with the HBM phenotype and controls. We also used retrovirus-mediated gene transduction to establish three different human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) strains stably expressing wildtype LRP5 (hMSC-LRP5WT), LRP5T244 (hMSC-LRP5T244, inactivation mutation leading...

  12. Pichia pastoris Exhibits High Viability and a Low Maintenance Energy Requirement at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Vos, Tim; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. Understanding its physiology at extremely low growth rates is a first step in the direction of decoupling product formation from cellular growth and therefore of biotechnological relevance. Retentostat cultivation is an excellent tool for studying microbes at extremely low specific growth rates but has so far not been implemented for P. pastoris Retentostat feeding regimes were based on the maintenance energy requirement (mS) and maximum biomass yield on glucose (YX /S (max)) estimated from steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Aerobic retentostat cultivation enabled reproducible, smooth transitions from a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.025 h(-1) to near-zero specific growth rates (μ growth rates, viability remained at least 97%. The value of mS at near-zero growth rates was 3.1 ± 0.1 mg glucose per g biomass and h, which was 3-fold lower than the mS estimated from faster-growing chemostat cultures. This difference indicated that P. pastoris reduces its maintenance energy requirement at extremely low μ, a phenomenon not previously observed in eukaryotes. Intracellular levels of glycogen and trehalose increased, while μ progressively declined during retentostat cultivation. Transcriptional reprogramming toward zero growth included the upregulation of many transcription factors as well as stress-related genes and the downregulation of cell cycle genes. This study underlines the relevance of comparative analysis of maintenance energy metabolism, which has an important impact on large-scale industrial processes. The yeast Pichia pastoris naturally lives on trees and can utilize different carbon sources, among them glucose, glycerol, and methanol. In biotechnology, it is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. For both the understanding of life in its natural habitat and optimized production processes, a better understanding of cell physiology at an

  13. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Wong

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae. Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold. The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50>5,000 μg/mL. However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50 = 32-650 μg/mL. These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  14. Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Austin C; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Sloan, Kenneth R; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, R Theodore; Curcio, Christine A; Ach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locations: 3 eccentricities (fovea, perifovea, near periphery) in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal). Image stacks of lipofuscin-attributable autofluorescence and phalloidin labeled F-actin cytoskeleton were obtained using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Nuclei were devoid of autofluorescence and were marked using morphometric software. Cell areas were approximated by Voronoi regions. Mean number of nuclei per cell among eccentricity/quadrant groups and by age were compared using Poisson and binominal regression models. A total of 11,403 RPE cells at 200 locations were analyzed: 94.66% mono-, 5.31% bi-, 0.02% tri-nucleate, and 0.01% with 5 nuclei. Age had no effect on number of nuclei. There were significant regional differences: highest frequencies of MN-cells were found at the perifovea (9.9%) and near periphery (6.8%). The fovea lacked MN-cells almost entirely. The nasal quadrant had significantly more MN-cells compared to other quadrants, at all eccentricities. This study demonstrates MN-RPE cells in human macula. MN-cells may arise due to endoreplication, cell fusion, or incomplete cell division. The topography of MN-RPE cells follows the topography of photoreceptors; with near-absence at the fovea (cones only) and high frequency at perifovea (highest rod density). This distribution might reflect specific requirements of retinal metabolism or other mechanisms addressable in further studies.

  15. Fischer-344 Tp53-knockout rats exhibit a high rate of bone and brain neoplasia with frequent metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hansen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in the Tp53 tumor suppressor gene are the most commonly seen genetic alterations in cancer, and germline mutations in Tp53 predispose individuals to a variety of early-onset cancers. Development of appropriate translational animal models that carry mutations in Tp53 and recapitulate human disease are important for drug discovery, biomarker development and disease modeling. Current Tp53 mouse and rat models have significant phenotypic and genetic limitations, and often do not recapitulate certain aspects of human disease. We used a marker-assisted speed congenic approach to transfer a well-characterized Tp53-mutant allele from an outbred rat to the genetically inbred Fischer-344 (F344 rat to create the F344-Tp53tm1(EGFP-PacQly/Rrrc (F344-Tp53 strain. On the F344 genetic background, the tumor spectrum shifted, with the primary tumor types being osteosarcomas and meningeal sarcomas, compared to the hepatic hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma identified in the original outbred stock model. The Fischer model is more consistent with the early onset of bone and central nervous system sarcomas found in humans with germline Tp53 mutations. The frequency of osteosarcomas in F344-Tp53 homozygous and heterozygous animals was 57% and 36%, respectively. Tumors were highly representative of human disease radiographically and histologically, with tumors found primarily on long bones with frequent pulmonary metastases. Importantly, the rapid onset of osteosarcomas in this promising new model fills a current void in animal models that recapitulate human pediatric osteosarcomas and could facilitate studies to identify therapeutic targets.

  16. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Costantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  18. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Constantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  19. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K; Arraras, Juan I

    2013-01-01

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF) and fati...

  20. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-11-01

    High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels and allergic disease both observationally and genetically using a Mendelian randomization design free of reverse causation and largely free of confounding. Among 111,408 subjects aged 20 to 100 years from the general population, 50,019 had plasma IgE measurements, and 102,270 were genotyped for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.2-2.5) for 1 allergic disease, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.5-4.4) for 2 allergic diseases, and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.2-9.0) for 3 allergic diseases. High alcohol consumption was associated with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. The odds ratio for high versus low IgE levels per 1 alcoholic drink per week higher consumption was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.02-1.23) genetically and 1.01 (95% CI, 1.01-1.02) observationally; for allergic disease, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00) genetically and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) observationally. High alcohol consumption is associated observationally and genetically with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A polyhedral metal-organic framework based on the supermolecular building block strategy exhibiting high performance for carbon dioxide capture and separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Yao, Shuo; Wang, Tao; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2015-10-25

    By using the supermolecular building block (SBB) strategy, a polyhedron-based metal-organic framework (PMOF), which features three types of cages with multiple sizes and shapes, has been synthesized. It exhibits high performance for CO2 capture (170 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K under 1 bar) and selectivity of CO2/CH4 (9.4) and C3H8/CH4 (271.5).

  2. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  3. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  4. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  5. Practical Use of High-level Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The aim of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners with interests in the use of high-level nets and their tools for practical applications. A typical paper is expected to report on a case study where high-level Petri nets and their tools have been used in practice. We also...... welcome papers describing a tool, a methodology, or other developments that have proved successful to make high-level Petri nets more applicable in practice....

  6. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  7. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  8. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  9. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  10. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  11. High pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels: A valuable tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels: A valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of pleural TB in a middle-income country with a high TB/HIV burden. ... Following queries from clinicians concerning the likely high false-positive (FP) rate of FADA from our laboratory, we performed a retrospective audit of all high FADA ...

  12. ]thiophene-Based Nonfullerene Acceptor with High Crystallinity Exhibiting Single Junction Solar Cell Efficiencies Greater than 13% with Low Voltage Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping

    2018-01-10

    A new synthetic route, to prepare an alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor (C8-ITIC), is reported. Compared to the reported ITIC with phenylalkyl side chains, the new acceptor C8-ITIC exhibits a reduction in the optical band gap, higher absorptivity, and an increased propensity to crystallize. Accordingly, blends with the donor polymer PBDB-T exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.4%. Further improvements in efficiency are found upon backbone fluorination of the donor polymer to afford the novel material PFBDB-T. The resulting blend with C8-ITIC shows an impressive PCE up to 13.2% as a result of the higher open-circuit voltage. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate that backbone fluorination reduces the energy loss of the blends, with PFBDB-T/C8-ITIC-based cells exhibiting a small energy loss of 0.6 eV combined with a high JSC of 19.6 mA cm-2 .

  13. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  15. Factors associated with high cholesterol levels in Lusaka, Zambia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High cholesterol level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates for high cholesterol levels in Lusaka district, Zambia. Methods: A modified World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance method was used to collect data ...

  16. High-Level Multi-Threading in hProlog

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overveldt, Timon; Demoen, Bart

    2011-01-01

    A new high-level interface to multi-threading in Prolog, implemented in hProlog, is described. Modern CPUs often contain multiple cores and through high-level multi-threading a programmer can leverage this power without having to worry about low-level details. Two common types of high-level explicit parallelism are discussed: independent and-parallelism and competitive or-parallelism. A new type of explicit parallelism, pipeline parallelism, is proposed. This new type can be used in certain c...

  17. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause – Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mebes, I.; Graf, M.; Kellner, M.; Keck, C; Segerer, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (> 4300 pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as m...

  18. High Crystallinity CuScO2 Delafossite Films Exhibiting Ultraviolet Photoluminescence Grown by Vapor-Liquid-Solid Tri-phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Makino, Takayuki; Hiraga, Hiroki; Chen, Chunlin; Tsukimoto, Susumu; Ueno, Kazunori; Kozuka, Yusuke; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    We have grown direct wide-bandgap CuScO2 thin films on MgAl2O4(111) substrates by tri-phase epitaxy employing molten Bi-O flux on the growth surface. The full width at half maximum of (0006) rocking curve is as narrow as 0.005 degrees, an order of magnitude narrower than those grown by conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Transmission electron microscopy confirms the scarcity of defect structures or precipitates, which are of high density in PLD films. The films exhibit sharp near-bandedge photoluminescence at 3.3 eV, which is absent in PLD films.

  19. Pentiptycene-Based Luminescent Cu (II) MOF Exhibiting Selective Gas Adsorption and Unprecedentedly High-Sensitivity Detection of Nitroaromatic Compounds (NACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Liangliang; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qinhui; Wang, Rongming; Dai, Fangna; Sun, Daofeng

    2016-02-01

    The assembly of a fluorescent pentiptycene-based ligand with copper ion resulted in the formation of a 3D porous metal-organic framework (UPC-21) based on well-known paddlewheel SBUs. UPC-21 exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and N2 at 273 K and 295 K, C2H2 over CH4 at 273 K. The most significant performance of UPC-21 is its highly efficient detection of NACs such as 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, and 1,3-DNB with the calculated quenching constants, Ksv, being 3.097 × 106, 1.406 × 106, 4.420 × 105, and 1.498 × 105 M-1 for 4-NP, 1,4-DNB, NB, 1,3-DNB, respectively, which keeps a record on the fluorescence detection of NACs. This is the first porous Cu(II) MOF that exhibits fluorescent detection of NACs with high sensitivities.

  20. High brain serotonin levels in migraine between attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, Marie; Hansen, Hanne D.; Hougaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate brain 5-HT4-receptor binding with positron emission tomography (PET) as a proxy of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels in migraine patients between attacks. Methods Brain 5-HT4-receptor binding, assessed with PET imaging of the specific 5-HT4-receptor radioligand...... episodically high brain 5-HT-level. Our finding is in apparent contrast with the longstanding hypothesis of migraine being a syndrome of chronic low brain 5-HT-levels. We were unable to demonstrate any associations with attack frequency or years with migraine. This suggests that high brain 5-HT-levels may...

  1. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    High-level Petri nets have been introduced as a powerful net type by which it is possible to handle rather complex systems in a succinct and manageable way. The success of high-level Petri nets is undebatable when we speak about description, but there is still much work to be done to establish...... the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  2. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  3. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  4. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  5. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  6. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchard, Neil; Elzein, Abier; Trafford, Clare; Rockett, Kirk; Pinder, Margaret; Jallow, Muminatou; Harding, Rosalind; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; McKenzie, Colin

    2007-08-10

    The sickle (betas) mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB) occurs on five "classical" betas haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the betas allele - a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes - has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical betas haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical betas haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI). The most common betas sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P haplotypes were highly conserved, with very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) extending a megabase across the betas mutation. Two different classical betas haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of betas haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from beta-globin.

  7. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  8. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information about...... given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  9. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Benmohammed, M.; S. Merniz

    2005-01-01

    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  10. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reagents in next three days. Repeated estimations by Roche reagents showed falsely very high level of total bilirubin. However, estimation by DiaSys and Randox reagents showed acceptable normal levels as per visual estimation. There was interference, most probably due to paraprotein in the estimation of total bilirubin ...

  11. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The γ- and conversion electron spectra following 131Ba ε-decay are investigated, using. HPGe detector and mini-orange electron spectrometer. Attention is particularly focussed on iden- tifying weak transitions associated with low energy high spin levels in 131Cs level scheme earlier inferred in reaction studies but ...

  12. Primate Cerebellar Granule Cells Exhibit a Tonic GABAAR Conductance that is not Affected by Alcohol: A Possible Cellular Substrate of the Low Level of Response Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMohr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate, Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs, non-human primate (NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by 6 subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10M, inhibition by 6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100M, and enhancement by THDOC (10-20nM and THIP (500nM. In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%, application of EtOH (25-105mM did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%, EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate 6 subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral

  13. Primate cerebellar granule cells exhibit a tonic GABAAR conductance that is not affected by alcohol: a possible cellular substrate of the low level of response phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Claudia; Kolotushkina, Olena; Kaplan, Joshua S; Welsh, John; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A; Rossi, David J

    2013-01-01

    In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs) in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate (NHP), Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs), NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by α6δ subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10 μM), inhibition by α6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100 μM), and enhancement by THDOC (10-20 nM) and THIP (500 nM). In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%), application of EtOH (25-105 mM) did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%), EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate α6δ subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral consequences.

  14. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  15. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Muminatou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (βs mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" βs haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the βs allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical βs haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical βs haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common βs sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical βs haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of βs haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from β-globin.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluations of transgenic soybean exhibiting high-dose expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A gene for control of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Ted C; Baur, Matthew E; Boethel, David J; Fitzpatrick, Bentley J; Gao, Ai-Guo; Gamundi, Juan Carlos; Harrison, Leslie A; Kabuye, Victor T; McPherson, Robert M; Miklos, John A; Paradise, Mark S; Toedebusch, Andrea S; Viegas, Alejo

    2005-04-01

    Transgenic lines of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expressing a synthetic cry1A gene (tic107) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were evaluated in screenhouse and conventional field trials for efficacy against lepidopteran pests. In screenhouse trials, Bt soybean and negative checks (isogenic segregants and parental lines) were evaluated against Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) in the United States and against A. gemmatalis, Epinotia aporema (Walsingham), Rachiplusia nu (Guenée), and Spilosoma virginica (F.) in Argentina. Bt soybean exhibited virtually complete efficacy against each of these pests, whereas negative checks suffered significant damage. Bt soybean and negative checks also were evaluated in conventional trials against native populations of A. gemmatalis and P. includens in the southeastern United States. Each of these insects caused significant damage to negative checks in one or more locations, whereas Bt soybean exhibited virtually complete efficacy against these pests. In the laboratory, lyophilized leaf tissues from Bt soybean incorporated in artificial diet at a concentration representing a 25-fold dilution of fresh tissue caused complete mortality of A. gemmatalis and near complete mortality of P. includens neonates after 11 d, whereas mortality on negative checks did not exceed 10% for either insect. Average TIC107 expression approached or exceeded 50 microg/g fresh weight at V3 stage of growth and 200 microg/g by R6 stage of growth. These results demonstrate that expression of TIC107 in soybean can not only achieve highly efficacious control of several lepidopterans under field conditions but also provide a high dose for effective insect resistance management.

  17. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  18. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. Yuzhong Li1, Jing Fan1, Haiying Ma1, Fei Shen1, Ge Zhang1, Jianguang Wang1. , Guangmin Xia2,. Duoqing Fan3 and Suiyun Chen1*. 1School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming ...

  19. Bridging semantic gap between high-level and low-level features in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Content-based video retrieval system aims at assisting a user to retrieve targeted video sequence in a large database. Most of the search engines use textual annotations to retrieve videos. These types of engines offer a low-level abstraction while the user seeks high-level semantics. Bridging this type of semantic gap in ...

  20. Belle-II High Level Trigger at SuperKEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Itoh, R.; Higuchi, T.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Won, E.

    2012-12-01

    A next generation B-factory experiment, Belle II, is now being constructed at KEK in Japan. The upgraded accelerator SuperKEKB is designed to have the maximum luminosity of 8 × 1035 cm-2s-1 that is a factor 40 higher than the current world record. As a consequence, the Belle II detector yields a data stream of the event size ~1 MB at a Level 1 rate of 30 kHz. The Belle II High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to reduce the Level 1 rate to 1/5 by performing the real time full event reconstruction and by applying the physics level event selection as the software trigger. In this paper, the development of the high level trigger system for Belle II and its performance is discussed.

  1. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  2. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause - Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebes, I; Graf, M; Kellner, M; Keck, C; Segerer, S E

    2015-09-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (> 4300 pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies to optimize the selectivity of the test system. Secondary, a radioimmunoassay was performed to exclude interferences of the detection system where lower, but still elevated estradiol levels (186 pg/ml) were found. Hypothesizing that our patient underwent a cross reaction with irregular antibodies, a control was done using sheep-derived antibodies, which proved a postmenopausal hormone level (estradiol level  200 mg/l; reference < 30 mg/l). This case depicts the pitfalls of estradiol measurement detecting false elevated estradiol levels in a postmenopausal woman.

  3. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause – Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebes, I.; Graf, M.; Kellner, M.; Keck, C.; Segerer, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (> 4300 pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies to optimize the selectivity of the test system. Secondary, a radioimmunoassay was performed to exclude interferences of the detection system where lower, but still elevated estradiol levels (186 pg/ml) were found. Hypothesizing that our patient underwent a cross reaction with irregular antibodies, a control was done using sheep-derived antibodies, which proved a postmenopausal hormone level (estradiol level  200 mg/l; reference < 30 mg/l). This case depicts the pitfalls of estradiol measurement detecting false elevated estradiol levels in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:26500371

  4. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  5. Design and membrane-disruption mechanism of charge-enriched AMPs exhibiting cell selectivity, high-salt resistance, and anti-biofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyo Mi; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Park, Yoonkyung

    2016-02-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the innate immune system, offering protection against invading pathogenic bacteria. In nature, AMPs serve as antibiotics with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties. However, low effective stability in high-salt environments and physiological instability in biological membranes limit the applicability of naturally occurring AMPs as novel therapeutics. We therefore designed short synthetic cationic peptides by substituting key residues in myxinidin, an AMP derived from the epidermal mucus of hagfish, with lysine (Lys, K), arginine (Arg, R), and tryptophan (Trp, W). The resultant myxinidin analogs exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains, even under high-salt conditions. Moreover, these peptides showed high binding affinity for both lipopolysaccharides and lipoteichoic acids and inhibited biofilm formation by most bacteria, but did not cause significant lysis of human red blood cells and were not cytotoxic to normal human keratinocytes. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that myxinidin and its analogs assumed α-helical or β-sheet structures within artificial liposomes and bacterial membranes. In addition, bacterial killing and membrane permeation experiments demonstrated that the myxinidin analogs permeated through bacterial membranes, leading to cytoplasmic disruption and cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest myxinidin analogs may be promising candidate antibiotic agents for therapeutic application against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  6. High and low-virulent bovine Pasteurella multocida capsular type A isolates exhibit different virulence gene expression patterns in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nengzhang; Long, Qingshan; Du, Huihui; Zhang, Jixin; Pan, Tingting; Wu, Chenlu; Lei, Guihua; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2016-11-30

    Pasteurella multocida capsular type A causes respiratory disease in cattle. P. multocida virulence gene expression patterns, especially among different virulent isolates, during in vitro and in vivo growth are poorly understood. Here we show that the highly virulent bovine P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ2 exhibits a significantly higher growth rate in mice, as compared with a strain of lower virulence, P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ6. Among the six known and potential virulence genes (ompA, ompH, pfhB2, hasR, pm0979, and pm0442) investigated, most genes were expressed more highly in both isolates when grown in vivo as compared with in vitro, with ompH and pm0442 having the highest magnitude of expression. Virulence gene expression was higher in PmCQ6 than in PmCQ2 during in vitro growth. However, in mice, most virulence genes were expressed more highly in PmCQ2 as compared with PmCQ6. Virulence gene expression was highest in the liver and lowest in the lung, but was uncorrelated to bacterial loads. This study indicates that individual pathogenic capacity of P. multocida isolates is associated with the virulence gene expression patterns in vivo growth but not in vitro, and the investigation of virulence gene expression in pathogen should be performed in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meal related effects of IV glucose, glucagon and insulin on blood glucose level: role in glucoregulation exhibited by self-injecting rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhaneau, J; Le Magnen, J

    1982-08-01

    In previous works, it was demonstrated that rats self-injected with (IV) glucose, insulin and/or glucagon and that the self-administration pattern was related to the meal. It was suggested that the different preprandial or postprandial blood glucose level (B.G.L) determined the meal and were dependent on it. Previously self-injected amounts of glucose, glucagon and insulin were here injected by an automatic device and their effect on B.G.L. were compared in the post and preprandial conditions. Results indicated that the effects of insulin, glucagon and glucose on B.G.L., which were different during the postprandial hyperglycemia compared to the preprandial normoglycemia, accounted for the different self-injection patterns. Furthermore successive injection of glucose and insulin or glucagon and insulin suggest that rats, by pressing alternatively two levers performed a regulatory correction of variations of their B.G.L. It is concluded that rats may learn to perform a behavioral regulation of their B.G.L. by IV self-injections of glucose and glucoregulatory hormones.

  8. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  9. Cued Memory Retrieval Exhibits Reinstatement of High Gamma Power on a Faster Timescale in the Left Temporal Lobe and Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Robert B; Shaikhouni, Ammar; Arai, Jennifer; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-04-26

    Converging evidence suggests that reinstatement of neural activity underlies our ability to successfully retrieve memories. However, the temporal dynamics of reinstatement in the human cortex remain poorly understood. One possibility is that neural activity during memory retrieval, like replay of spiking neurons in the hippocampus, occurs at a faster timescale than during encoding. We tested this hypothesis in 34 participants who performed a verbal episodic memory task while we recorded high gamma (62-100 Hz) activity from subdural electrodes implanted for seizure monitoring. We show that reinstatement of distributed patterns of high gamma activity occurs faster than during encoding. Using a time-warping algorithm, we quantify the timescale of the reinstatement and identify brain regions that show significant timescale differences between encoding and retrieval. Our data suggest that temporally compressed reinstatement of cortical activity is a feature of cued memory retrieval.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that cued memory retrieval reinstates neural activity on a faster timescale than was present during encoding. Our data therefore provide a link between reinstatement of neural activity in the cortex and spontaneous replay of cortical and hippocampal spiking activity, which also exhibits temporal compression, and suggest that temporal compression may be a universal feature of memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/374472-09$15.00/0.

  10. Visitors Center Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  11. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  12. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    The traveling exhibition titled "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and its Affinities" opened first at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and was then moved to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1976. Discusses the exhibition's historic value, how Fauvism passed through three fairly distinct stylistic phases, and the social…

  13. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  14. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  15. Diffusion of minority carriers against electric field (high injection level)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gert, A. V.; Dmitriev, A. P.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Yuferev, V. S.; Palmour, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    A one-dimensional analytic model describing the motion of minority carriers against the electric field direction under the conditions of high injection level is developed. The results of the model can also be used to estimate the motion of carriers against the field in the case of an arbitrary injection level. The model makes it possible to describe, in good agreement with the results of computer simulation, the modulation of the collector layer resistance in a high voltage SiC bipolar transistor.

  16. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. (Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit)

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  17. Radon action level for high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK$0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK$120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m(-3) was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m(-3) for newly built buildings.

  18. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  19. Knowledge of the self-control benefits of high-level versus low-level construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Karen E; Carnevale, Jessica J; Dusthimer, Nicole E; Fujita, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that inducing high-level construal (processing that highlights invariant, essential features) relative to low-level construal (processing that highlights idiosyncratic, peripheral features) promotes self-control (Fujita & Carnevale, 2012). In the present work, we investigate to what extent people recognize the self-control benefits of high-level construal, and explore the consequences of this knowledge. Studies 1 and 2 provide initial evidence that individuals are aware that high-level relative to low-level construal promotes self-control in the dieting domain. Studies 3 and 4 find that individual differences in this knowledge predict self-control success outcomes (i.e., body mass index) among those who are motivated by dieting goals. Examining academics as a domain of self-control, Study 5 demonstrates that those with higher knowledge of construal level's impact on self-control earned higher end-of-semester grades to the extent that they were motivated to do well academically. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of Feeding High Level of Cowpea Husk on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to find out the effect of feeding high levels of cowpea husk on the haematological parameters and Blood urea nitrogen of Uda lambs. Fifteen (15) weeks feeding trial (including three (3) weeks digestibility trial) was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda ...

  1. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  2. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  3. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  4. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  5. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  6. High Level Trigger Performance Plots for ICHEP2016

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the High Level Trigger (HLT) with the first data collected in 2016 is presented. Preliminary results are shown on the performance of tau objects, b-tagging, SUSY and Exotics multijet triggers. Simulation on jet reconstruction at the HLT is also shown.

  7. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  8. Incidence of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enterococcaJ isolates. Results. The incidence of HLGR was 26.5% of. Enterococcus faecaJis isolates and 20% of E. faecium isolates grown during the study period. Conclusions. High-level gentamicin resistance is common among enterococci isolated at Johannesburg. Hospital, and this observation must be considered in.

  9. Incidence of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of HLGR was 26.5% of Enterococcus faecaJis isolates and 20% of E. faecium isolates grown during the study period. Conclusions. High-level gentamicin resistance is common among enterococci isolated at Johannesburg Hospital, and this observation must be considered in defining strategies for the ...

  10. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The staphylokinase (Sak) is emerging as an important thrombolytic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular disease. Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of the Sak variant SakøC from Staphylococcus aureus QT08 in Escherichia coli ...

  11. High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... High-level expression of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in Escherichia coli presents research opportunities such as analysis ... The general agreement from the published data on heterologous gene ..... for protein expression (Casimiro et al., 1997; Gold et al.,. 1981; Hamdan et al., 2002; ...

  12. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  13. Effector biology exhibits diversity at every level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao; McDowell, John M

    2017-11-21

    Effector proteins play key roles in the molecular interplay between plants and plant-associated organisms, and effector biology remains one of the most active areas in the research field of molecular plant-microbe Interactions. Using effectors as probes, much has been learned about pathogen virulence and host immunity, which has broad implications in developing disease-resistant crops that are essential for global food security. Thus, the MPMI Editorial Board felt that it is an opportune time to showcase recent progress in this area.

  14. Femoroacetabular impingement in former high-level youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam C; Shaman, Mark A; Ryan, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can be a source of hip pain in young adults. Repetitive kicking associated with youth soccer may lead to morphologic changes of the proximal femur that predispose a person to the development of FAI. Young adults who participated in high-level soccer competition as youths are more likely to demonstrate radiographic changes consistent with FAI and to have increased alpha angles as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Pelvic radiographs (anteroposterior and frog-lateral) were obtained on 50 individuals who participated in high-level soccer during skeletal immaturity and 50 controls who did not participate in high-level soccer. There were 25 men and 25 women in each group. All subjects were between 18 and 30 years of age, had a body mass index of less than 30, and had not sought or received treatment for hip disorders. Radiographs were analyzed independently for the presence of FAI, and alpha angles were measured. Hips with alpha angles that measured greater than or equal to 55° were deemed to have cam deformity. Fifteen of the 25 male subjects had evidence of cam deformity, compared with 14 male controls. Nine of the 25 female subjects had evidence of cam deformity, compared with 8 female controls. Neither of these differences was statistically significant. There was a significantly higher prevalence of cam deformity in men as compared with women (29 vs 17, P = .016). Participation in high-level soccer during skeletal immaturity is not associated with a higher risk of development of cam deformity in the young adult years. There is a high prevalence of cam deformity in the young adult population. Males demonstrate a higher prevalence of cam deformity than do females.

  15. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  16. High plasma interleukin-6 levels associated with poor prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Lin, Hang; Li, Yong-Shi; Lee, Ying-Hui; Chen, Ho-Min; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Chih-Hung

    2017-10-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is crucial for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an inflammatory response mediator that can promote angiogenesis. We explored its prognostic role in patients with advanced HCC. We had two patient cohorts, both comprising patients who received sorafenib-containing therapy as the first-line treatment for advanced HCC. We explored the best cut point for pretreatment plasma IL-6 levels in the exploration cohort and then confirmed it in the validation cohort. In total, 55 and 73 patients constituted the exploration and validation cohorts, respectively. In the exploration cohort, a cut point of 4.28 pg/ml was the best for defining high and low IL-6 levels because it could most effectively differentiate overall survival (OS). On application of this cut point to the validation cohort, patients with high plasma IL-6 levels, compared with patients with low IL-6 levels, exhibited significantly poorer OS (median, 8.0 vs 13.9 months, P = 0.031) but similar progression-free survival or treatment response. After adjusting for patient demographics and tumor characteristics, a high plasma IL-6 level remained an independent predictor of poor OS (hazard ratio 2.594, P = 0.005). High pretreatment plasma IL-6 levels were associated with poor prognosis of patients with advanced HCC.

  17. High leptin levels are associated with migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Cunningham, Janet L; Del Zompo, Maria; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Mwinyi, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Background Migraine is a prevalent disorder characterised by recurrent headache attacks preceded or accompanied by aura in a subgroup of patients. Migraine often occurs together with major depressive disorder (MDD). Alterations of adipokine levels have been reported both in migraine and in MDD. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the associations between serum leptin and adiponectin levels and migraine or migraine subtypes. Analyses were adjusted for a lifetime history of MDD in order to investigate the association between adipokines and migraine under consideration of depression status. Methods We included 3025 participants from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. The impact of leptin and adiponectin levels on a diagnosis of migraine was analysed by binary regression analyses, adjusting for variables known to influence adipokine levels. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the presence of aura. Results Crude leptin levels were significantly higher in subjects with migraine than controls (Mann-Whitney U = 515,102, p = 6 × 10 -7 ). When performing adjusted analyses, leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in subjects with migraine (odds ratio = 1.22, p = 0.024) and migraine with aura (odds ratio = 1.34, p = 0.004). Conclusion High leptin levels might play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine and migraine with aura.

  18. Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 μg/d with concentrations of 4749 μg/L and 3769 μg/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 μg/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 μg/d with concentrations of 30 μg/L and 21 μg/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy.

  19. Poplar trees for phytoremediation of high levels of nitrate and applications in bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, Vanessa; García-Gutiérrez, Angel; Canales, Javier; Cañas, Rafael A; Kirby, Edward G; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of high amounts of nitrate fertilizers for crop yield leads to nitrate pollution of ground and surface waters. In this study, we report the assimilation and utilization of nitrate luxuriant levels, 20 times more than the highest N fertilizer application in Europe, by transgenic poplars overexpressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1). In comparison with the wild-type controls, transgenic plants grown under high N levels exhibited increased biomass (171.6%) and accumulated higher levels of proteins, chlorophylls and total sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. These plants also exhibited greater nitrogen-use efficiency particularly in young leaves, suggesting that they are able to translocate most of the resources to the above-ground part of the plant to produce biomass. The transgenic poplar transcriptome was greatly affected in response to N availability with 1237 genes differentially regulated in high N, while only 632 genes were differentially expressed in untransformed plants. Many of these genes are essential in the adaptation and response against N excess and include those involved in photosynthesis, cell wall formation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Cellulose production in the transgenic plants was fivefold higher than in control plants, indicating that transgenic poplars represent a potential feedstock for applications in bioenergy. In conclusion, our results show that GS transgenic poplars can be used not only for improving growth and biomass production but also as an important resource for potential phytoremediation of nitrate pollution. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High-frame-rate echocardiography with reduced sidelobe level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Echocardiography has become an indispensable modality for diagnosis of the heart. It enables observation of the shape of the heart and estimation of global heart function based on B-mode and M-mode imaging. Methods for echocardiographic estimation of myocardial strain and strain rate have also been developed to evaluate regional heart function. Furthermore, it has been recently shown that echocardiographic measurements of transmural transition of myocardial contraction/relaxation and propagation of vibration caused by closure of the heart valve would be useful for evaluation of myocardial function and viscoelasticity. However, such measurements require a frame rate (typically >200 Hz) much higher than that achieved by conventional ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. We have recently realized a high frame rate of about 300 Hz with a full field of view of 90° using diverging transmit beams and parallel receive beamforming. Although high-frame-rate imaging was made possible by this method, the side lobe level was slightly larger than that of the conventional method. To reduce the side lobe level, phase coherence imaging has recently been developed. Using this method, the spatial resolution is improved and the side lobe level is also reduced. However, speckle-like echoes, for example, echoes from the inside of the heart wall, are also suppressed. In the present study, a method for reducing the side lobe level while preserving speckle-like echoes was developed. The side lobe level was evaluated using a wire phantom. The side lobe level of the high-frame-rate imaging using unfocused diverging beams was improved by 13.3 dB by the proposed method. In in vivo measurements, a B-mode image of the heart of a 23-year-old healthy male could be obtained while preserving the speckle pattern in the heart wall at a frame rate of 316 Hz with a full field of view of 90°.

  1. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  2. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Touradj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an -dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to cope with multiple

  3. EmtA, a rRNA methyltransferase conferring high-level evernimicin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, P. A.; Xiong, L.; Mankin, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium strain 9631355 was isolated from animal sources on the basis of its resistance to the growth promotant avilamycin. The strain also exhibited high-level resistance to evernimicin, a drug undergoing evaluation as a therapeutic agent in humans. Ribosomes from strain 9631355...... exhibited a dramatic reduction in evernimicin binding, shown by both cell-free translation assays and direct-binding assays. The resistance determinant was cloned from strain 9631355; sequence alignments suggested it was a methyltransferase and therefore it was designated emtA for evernimicin...... methyltransferase. Evernimicin resistance was transmissible and emtA was localized to a plasmid-borne insertion element. Purified EmtA methylated 50S subunits from an evernimicin-sensitive strain 30-fold more efficiently than those from a resistant strain. Reverse transcription identified a pause site...

  4. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  5. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  6. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  7. Exploring Self - Confidence Level of High School Students Doing Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Emir Ekinci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.

  8. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  9. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  10. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  11. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  12. The High Level Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xuyang

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger, a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In this poster we will present the performance with the specific algorithms developed to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up and bunch crossing rate using 13 TeV data during 2015, and prospects for improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet the new challenges for 2016 scenarios with a peak instantaneous luminosity of $1.2 \\times 10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 30 pileup events.

  13. Mammut: High-level management of system knobs and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sensi, Daniele; Torquati, Massimo; Danelutto, Marco

    Managing low-level architectural features for controlling performance and power consumption is a growing demand in the parallel computing community. Such features include, but are not limited to: energy profiling, platform topology analysis, CPU cores disabling and frequency scaling. However, these low-level mechanisms are usually managed by specific tools, without any interaction between each other, thus hampering their usability. More important, most existing tools can only be used through a command line interface and they do not provide any API. Moreover, in most cases, they only allow monitoring and managing the same machine on which the tools are used. MAMMUT provides and integrates architectural management utilities through a high-level and easy-to-use object-oriented interface. By using MAMMUT, is possible to link together different collected information and to exploit them on both local and remote systems, to build architecture-aware applications.

  14. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  17. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Benmohammed, M.; M. Bourahla; S. Merniz

    2003-01-01

    Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable contr...

  18. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  19. The epistemological chain in high-level adventure sports coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L.; Collins, D; Grecic, D.,

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the personal epistemology of adventure sports coaches, the existence of the epistemological chain and its impact on professional judgment and decision-making. The epistemological chain’s role and operationalization in other fields is considered, offering clues to how it may manifest itself in the adventure sports coach context. High-level adventure sports coaches were interviewed and an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was adopted for the interview transcri...

  20. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  1. BEAM SCRAPING FOR LHC INJECTION: HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

    CERN Document Server

    LETNES, P A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) will be the world's most powerful accelerator when it is commissioned during 2008. To operate the LHC, injection of very high intensity beams from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) pre-accelerator is required. With intensities of more than 3 _ 1013 p=cycle, it is essential that there is virtually no beam halo present. Such particles can hit the LHC beam pipe, and may cause magnet quenches due to heating. Fast scrapers have been installed in the SPS to measure and remove any halo before the beam is extracted towards the LHC. Fast scrapers have been chosen because there is too little time available for beam cleaning with large collimators. The scraper hardware has been in place in the SPS ring for several years. A low level computer for controlling the scrapers is also in place. A high level control application was, however, not written at the time. The development of the missing high level control application is the subject o...

  2. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  4. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  5. High serum YKL-40 level after surgery for colorectal carcinoma is related to short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, Christina; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2002-01-01

    carcinoma are associated with a significantly poorer prognosis compared to patients with normal serum YKL-40. In the current study the authors evaluated the value of serum YKL-40 in monitoring patients with colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: YKL-40 was determined by an in-house radioimmunoassay method in serum...... died. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was significantly decreased in the first postoperative blood sample in 62% of patients with high preoperative levels. In addition, patients with high serum YKL-40 (adjusted for age) six months after curative operation had significantly shorter survival times (P = 0...... that patients exhibiting elevated serum YKL-40 had an increased hazard for death within the following six months compared to those patients with normal serum YKL-40 level (hazard ratio [HR] = 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.0-15.5, P

  6. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  7. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  8. Evaluation of the bone status in high-level cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Gérard; Chappard, Daniel; Audran, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone status in highly trained professional cyclists subjected to regular training and tough competitions. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at different regions of interest by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and main biological parameters related to bone metabolism were obtained in 29 cyclists. Lumbar BMD was 0.94 ± 0.01g/cm(2) (Z-score=-1.28 ± 0.07), and 1 cyclist out of 4 had an abnormally low value (Z-score cyclists (15%) had Z-scores cyclists had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Blood testosterone and thyroid stimulating hormone were in the normal range. Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were in the normal range; however, a significant inverse correlation was found with lumbar BMD (r=0.495; p=0.003). We confirm that cycling has no positive effect on BMD, BMD being often lower than in normal controls at the lumbar site; femoral BMD is less concerned. The absence of beneficial changes at the spine can be explained by biomechanical conditions related to the cyclists' position, reducing loading strains. It is necessary to pay greater attention to the bone status of high-level athletes to prevent an increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  10. B-tagging at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabert, Eric Christian

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The Level 1 Trigger is implemented on custom-designed electronics. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. Using b-tagging at trigger level will play a crucial role during the Run II data taking to ensure the Top quark, beyond the Standard Model and Higgs boson physics programme of the experiment. It will help to significantly reduce the trigger output rate which will increase due to the higher instantaneous luminosity and higher cross sections at 13 TeV. B-tagging algorithms based on the identification of tracks displaced from the primary proton-proton collision or on the reconstruction of secondary vertices have been successfully used during Run I. We will present their design and performance with an emphasis on the dedicated aspects of track and primary vertex reconstruction, as well as the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data ta...

  11. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  12. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  13. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  15. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  16. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  17. ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, ROI Collection and Event Building

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, K; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bogaerts, A; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Comune, G; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Ellis, Nick; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hauser, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kugel, A; Lankford, A; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Petersen, J; Portes de Albuquerque, M; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Segura, E; Seixas, M; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vandelli, W; Van Wasen, J; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zobernig, H

    2006-01-01

    We describe the base-line design and implementation of the Data Flow and High Level Trigger (HLT) part of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system. We then discuss improvements and generalization of the system design to allow the handling of events in parallel data streams and we present the possibility for event duplication, partial Event Building and data stripping. We then present tests on the deployment and integration of the TDAQ infrastructure and algorithms at the TDAQ â€?pre-series” cluster (~10% of full ATLAS TDAQ). Finally, we tackle two HLT performance issues.

  18. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  19. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  20. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...... development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile time verify for a given program that no runtime errors can occur while building documents or receiving form input, and that all documents being shown are valid according to the document type definition for XHTML 1.0.We compare JWIG...

  1. Deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Beck, H P; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Burckhart, Doris; Caprini, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Conde, P; Corso-Radu, A; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gruwé, M; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Joos, M; Kabana, S; Kazarov, A; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kolos, S; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A; Lehmann, G; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meirosu, C; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sloper, J; Sobreira, A; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R A; Stancu, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Usai, G; Vandelli, Wainer R; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiesmann, M; Yasu, Y; Zobernig, G; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS combined test beam in the second half of 2004 saw the first deployment of the ATLAS High-Level Triggers (HLT). The next steps are deployment on the pre-series farms in the experimental area during 2005, commissioning and cosmics tests in 2006 and collisions in 2007. This paper reviews the experience gained in the test beam, describes the current status and discusses the further enhancements to be made. We address issues related to the dataflow, selection algorithms, testing, software distribution, installation and improvements.

  2. Combinatorial polarization, code loops, and codes of high level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vojtěchovský

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We first find the combinatorial degree of any map f:V→F, where F is a finite field and V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. We then simplify and generalize a certain construction, due to Chein and Goodaire, that was used in characterizing code loops as finite Moufang loops that possess at most two squares. The construction yields binary codes of high divisibility level with prescribed Hamming weights of intersections of codewords.

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  4. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  5. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  6. Identification of sources of high radon levels in Slovenian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotic, J

    2002-01-01

    The sources of radon were investigated in twenty selected schools with high room levels of radiation. A combination of radon measuring techniques was applied: etched track and electret detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration. devices to record radon concentration continuously and thus characterise its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to analyse air from potential sources of radon entry. In some cases, a single strong source was identified (e.g. sinks, sub-floor channels), while in others the poor quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for high indoor radon concentrations. The combination of etched track and electret detectors and alpha scintillation cells was essential for locating these sources.

  7. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  8. High-level expression and characterization of a highly functional Comamonas acidovorans xanthine dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nikolai V; Trani, Manuela; Edmondson, Dale E

    2004-09-01

    An improved procedure is described for the high-level expression of Comamonas acidovorans XDH in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1-LAC. The level of functional expression (56 mg protein/L culture) is found to be 7-fold higher than that observed in Escherichia coli and 30-fold higher than that induced in C. acidovorans. Co-expression of the xdhC gene is required for maximal level of functional expression. Comparison of purified preparations of XDH expressed in the absence of xdhC (XDH(AB)) with that expressed in its presence (XDH(ABC)) shows the increased level of activity due to the level of Mo incorporation. The Fe and FAD contents of expressed enzymes are independent of xdhC co-expression. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, metal analysis, and kinetic properties of recombinant purified XDH(ABC) are identical with those exhibited by the native enzyme. This expression system should serve as a valuable tool for further biophysical and mechanistic investigations of xanthine dehydrogenase by site-directed mutagenesis. A method is also described to evaluate the suitability of P. aeruginosa and other organisms as potential expression hosts for five different sources of xdh genes.

  9. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  10. Color image retrieval: from low-level representation to high-level concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabi, M-C; Richard, N; Fernandez-Maloigne, C

    2007-01-20

    This work takes place within the framework of color image retrieval in specialized databases. A CBIR scheme has been proposed allowing to use a description thanks to low-level features in the framework of a high-level concept using a knowledge management. Starting from a representation of the three most frequently used features i.e. color, texture and shape, cooperation techniques are proposed in order to use the expert knowledge in the combination process. Two types of cooperation have been defined; the first is without categorization and the second with categorization. The second approach allows to make a selection of the query category in order to simplify queries in large image databases. Finally, in order to avoid the standard relevance feedback stage, a competition technique has been proposed allowing an unsupervised refinement of the submitted query. The proposed techniques have shown their performances and their robustness and are generalizable to all types of image databases.

  11. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger Pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level Triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5 Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows studying how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by Fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Finally, we list the benefits and the limi...

  12. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  13. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  14. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  15. Muons in the CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072218

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of LHC detectors play a fundamental role in defining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude in the rate of collected events, with respect to the proton-proton bunch crossing rate generated by the LHC, is mandatory to cope with the limits imposed by the readout and storage system. An accurate and efficient online selection mechanism is thus required to fulfill the task keeping maximal the acceptance to physics signals. The CMS experiment operates using a two-level trigger system. Firstly a Level-1 Trigger (L1T) system, implemented using custom-designed electronics, is designed to reduce the event rate to a limit compatible to the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) capabilities. A High Level Trigger System (HLT) follows, aimed at further reducing the rate of collected events finally stored for analysis purposes. The latter consists of a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software and operates on a computer farm. It runs algorithms o...

  16. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and future development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  17. Muons in the CMS High Level Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwilligen, Piet; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The trigger systems of LHC detectors play a fundamental role in defining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude in the rate of collected events, with respect to the proton-proton bunch crossing rate generated by the LHC, is mandatory to cope with the limits imposed by the readout and storage system. An accurate and efficient online selection mechanism is thus required to fulfill the task keeping maximal the acceptance to physics signals. The CMS experiment operates using a two-level trigger system. Firstly a Level-1 Trigger (L1T) system, implemented using custom-designed electronics, is designed to reduce the event rate to a limit compatible to the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) capabilities. A High Level Trigger System (HLT) follows, aimed at further reducing the rate of collected events finally stored for analysis purposes. The latter consists of a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software and operates on a computer farm. It runs algorithms optimized to make a trade-off between computational complexity, rate reduction and high selection efficiency. With the computing power available in 2012 the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. An efficient selection of muons at HLT, as well as an accurate measurement of their properties, such as transverse momentum and isolation, is fundamental for the CMS physics programme. The performance of the muon HLT for single and double muon triggers achieved in Run I will be presented. Results from new developments, aimed at improving the performance of the algorithms for the harsher scenarios of collisions per event (pile-up) and luminosity expected for Run II will also be discussed.

  18. High level of burnout in intensivists: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embriaco, Nathalie; Azoulay, Elie; Barrau, Karine; Kentish, Nancy; Pochard, Frédéric; Loundou, Anderson; Papazian, Laurent

    2007-04-01

    Professional burnout is a psychological syndrome arising in response to chronic interpersonal stressors on the job. There is the perception that intensivists are particularly exposed to stress because lives are literally in their hands. To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors (patients or organization) of burnout among physicians working in intensive care units (ICUs) (including interns, residents, fellows, and attending physicians). A 1-day national survey was conducted in adult ICUs in French public hospitals. The level of burnout was evaluated on the basis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). A total of 189 ICUs participated and 978 surveys were returned (82.3% response rate). A high level of burnout was identified in 46.5% of the respondents. Ordinal logistic regression showed that female sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 2.30) was independently associated with a higher MBI score. Whereas no factor related to the severity of illness of patients was retained by the model, organizational factors were strongly associated with a higher MBI score. Workload (the number of night shifts per month, a long period of time from the last nonworking week, night shift the day before the survey) and impaired relationships (such as conflict with another colleague intensivist, and/or with a nurse) were the variables independently associated with a higher MBI score. In contrast, the quality of the relationships with chief nurses and nurses was associated with a lower MBI score. Approximately one-half of the intensivists presented a high level of burnout. Organizational factors, but not factors related to the patients, appeared to be associated with burnout.

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of a Plasmodium vivax clinical isolate exhibits geographical characteristics and high genetic variation in China-Myanmar border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Bo; Wang, Yue; Kassegne, Kokouvi; Xu, Bin; Shen, Hai-Mo; Chen, Jun-Hu

    2017-02-06

    Currently in China, the trend of Plasmodium vivax cases imported from Southeast Asia was increased especially in the China-Myanmar border area. Driven by the increase in P. vivax cases and stronger need for vaccine and drug development, several P. vivax isolates genome sequencing projects are underway. However, little is known about the genetic variability in this area until now. The sequencing of the first P. vivax isolate from China-Myanmar border area (CMB-1) generated 120 million paired-end reads. A percentage of 10.6 of the quality-evaluated reads were aligned onto 99.9% of the reference strain Sal I genome in 62-fold coverage with an average of 4.8 SNPs per kb. We present a 539-SNP marker data set for P. vivax that can identify different parasites from different geographic origins with high sensitivity. We also identified exceptionally high levels of genetic variability in members of multigene families such as RBP, SERA, vir, MSP3 and AP2. The de-novo assembly yielded a database composed of 8,409 contigs with N50 lengths of 6.6 kb and revealed 661 novel predicted genes including 78 vir genes, suggesting a greater functional variation in P. vivax from this area. Our result contributes to a better understanding of P. vivax genetic variation, and provides a fundamental basis for the geographic differentiation of vivax malaria from China-Myanmar border area using a direct sequencing approach without leukocyte depletion. This novel sequencing method can be used as an essential tool for the genomic research of P. vivax in the near future.

  20. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  1. An established Arabidopsis thaliana var. Landsberg erecta cell suspension culture accumulates chlorophyll and exhibits a stay-green phenotype in response to high external sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avery; Chung, Michelle; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Inman, Michael; Maxwell, Denis P; Hüner, Norman P A

    2016-07-20

    An established cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana var. Landsberg erecta was grown in liquid media containing 0-15%(w/v) sucrose. Exponential growth rates of about 0.40d-1 were maintained between 1.5-6%(w/v) sucrose, which decreased to about 0.30d-1 between 6 and 15%(w/v) sucrose. Despite the presence of external sucrose, cells maintained a stay-green phenotype at 0-15% (w/v) sucrose. Sucrose stimulated transcript levels of genes involved in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway (ChlH, ChlI2, DVR). Although most of the genes associated with photosystem II and photosystem I reaction centers and light harvesting complexes as well as genes associated with the cytochrome b6f and the ATP synthase complexes were downregulated or remained unaffected by high sucrose, immunoblotting indicated that protein levels of PsaA, Lhcb2 and Rubisco per gram fresh weight changed minimallyon a Chl basis as a function of external sucrose concentration. The green cell culture was photosynthetically competent based on light-dependent, CO2-saturated rates of O2 evolution as well as Fv/Fm and P700 oxidation. Similar to Arabidopsis WT seedlings, the suspension cells etiolated in the dark and but remained green in the light. However, the exponential growth rate of the cell suspension cultures in the dark (0.45±0.07d-1) was comparable to that in the light (0.42±0.02d-1). High external sucrose levels induced feedback inhibition of photosynthesis as indicated by the increase in excitation pressure measured as a function of external sucrose concentration. Regardless, the cell suspension culture still maintained a stay-green phenotype in the light at sucrose concentrations from 0 to 15%(w/v) due, in part, to a stimulation of photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching. The stay-green, sugar-insensitive phenotype of the cell suspension contrasted with the sugar-dependent, non-green phenotype of Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta WT seedlings grown at comparable external sucrose

  2. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  3. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  4. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  5. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  6. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  7. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  8. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  9. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  10. FADO 2.0: A high level tagging language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. M. L.; Pimenta, M.; Varela, J.; Souza, J.

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and consice way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicity a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering.

  11. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  12. High Level Control Applications for SOLEIL Commissioning and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolski, Laurent S; Ho, Katy; Leclercq, Nicolas; Ounsy, Majid; Petit, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    The SOLEIL control system, namely TANGO developed in collaboration with ESRF, is now mature and stable. TANGO has also been chosen now by several other laboratories. High-level control applications implemented in the control room for the storage ring, the two transfer lines, and the booster will be described in this paper. Three kinds of tools for commissioning are used. First the generic TANGO tools (alarms, simple graphical control applications), which allow us to control in a simple way any TANGO Device Server. Secondly a Matlab Middle Layer (adapted from ALS and SPEAR3): Matlab is fully interconnected with TANGO; it is used primarily for writing Physics control applications. Finally Globalscreen, a commercial SCADA software devoted for building operation applications has been selected (panels for controlling or displaying setpoint, readback values, status of equipments). In addition an overview of the historical and short-term databases for the accelerators will be given. They have been developed in house...

  13. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  14. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories' new high level acoustic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hendrick, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test facility has been designed and is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The chamber is designed to provide an acoustic environment of 154dB (re 20 {mu}Pa) overall sound pressure level over the bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The chamber has a volume of 16,000 cubic feet with interior dimensions of 21.6 ft {times} 24.6 ft {times} 30 ft. The construction of the chamber should be complete by the summer of 1990. This paper discusses the design goals and constraints of the facility. The construction characteristics are discussed in detail, as are the acoustic performance design characteristics. The authors hope that this work will help others in designing acoustic chambers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Supervision of the ATLAS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S.; Meessen, C.; Qian, Z.; Touchard, F.; Negri, France A.; Zobernig, H.; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics; Negri, France A.

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system provides software-based event selection after the initial LVL1 hardware trigger. It is composed of two stages, the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter. The HLT is implemented as software tasks running on large processor farms. An essential part of the HLT is the supervision system, which is responsible for configuring, coordinating, controlling and monitoring the many hundreds of processes running in the HLT. A prototype implementation of the supervision system, using tools from the ATLAS Online Software system is presented. Results from scalability tests are also presented where the supervision system was shown to be capable of controlling over 1000 HLT processes running on 230 nodes.

  17. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  18. Environmental determinants, liver function, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, L H; Hulley, S B; LaPorte, R E; Neaton, J; Dai, W S

    1983-04-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) is negatively associated with coronary heart disease. Environmental heart disease risk factors may partially be related to coronary heart disease through alterations in HDL-chol concentrations. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which environmental factors are related to HDL-chol. The authors investigated a possible mechanism: changes in liver function as a mediating link between risk factors and HDL-chol concentrations in marathon runners, alcoholics, and participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Liver function, as measured by liver enzymes, was related to both coronary heart disease risk factors and alcohol consumption, suggesting that the increased levels of HDL-chol associated with alcohol were primarily the result of changes in liver function. The relationship of obesity to HDL-chol could not be explained by the alterations in liver function.

  19. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  20. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  1. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  3. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  4. Landau level splitting in Cd3As2 under high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junzhi; Liang, Sihang; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yanwen; Huang, Junwei; Jin, Zhao; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Qisi; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shiyan; Dai, Xi; Zou, Jin; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Xiu, Faxian

    2015-07-13

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are a new kind of Dirac materials that exhibit linear energy dispersion in the bulk and can be viewed as three-dimensional graphene. It has been proposed that TDSs can be driven to other exotic phases like Weyl semimetals, topological insulators and topological superconductors by breaking certain symmetries. Here we report the first transport experiment on Landau level splitting in TDS Cd3As2 single crystals under high magnetic fields, suggesting the removal of spin degeneracy by breaking time reversal symmetry. The detected Berry phase develops an evident angular dependence and possesses a crossover from non-trivial to trivial state under high magnetic fields, a strong hint for a fierce competition between the orbit-coupled field strength and the field-generated mass term. Our results unveil the important role of symmetry breaking in TDSs and further demonstrate a feasible path to generate a Weyl semimetal phase by breaking time reversal symmetry.

  5. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A high level implementation and performance evaluation of level-I asynchronous cache on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To bridge the ever-increasing performance gap between the processor and the main memory in a cost-effective manner, novel cache designs and implementations are indispensable. Cache is responsible for a major part of energy consumption (approx. 50% of processors. This paper presents a high level implementation of a micropipelined asynchronous architecture of L1 cache. Due to the fact that each cache memory implementation is time consuming and error-prone process, a synthesizable and a configurable model proves out to be of immense help as it aids in generating a range of caches in a reproducible and quick fashion. The micropipelined cache, implemented using C-Elements acts as a distributed message-passing system. The RTL cache model implemented in this paper, comprising of data and instruction caches has a wide array of configurable parameters. In addition to timing robustness our implementation has high average cache throughput and low latency. The implemented architecture comprises of two direct-mapped, write-through caches for data and instruction. The architecture is implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA chip using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHSIC HDL along with advanced synthesis and place-and-route tools.

  7. High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... NIH/3T3 cells. Purified rhbFGF exhibited proliferative activity comparable to commercial rhbFGF. Key words: Translation initiation region mutagenesis, modified gene, codon optimization, GC ... frequency and codon preferences vary between different ..... Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  8. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  9. Multi-threading in the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Over the next decade of LHC data-taking the instantaneous luminosity will reach up 7.5 times the design value with over 200 interactions per bunch-crossing and will pose unprecedented challenges for the ATLAS trigger system. With the evolution of the CPU market to many-core systems, both the ATLAS offline reconstruction and High-Level Trigger (HLT) software will have to transition from a multi-process to a multithreaded processing paradigm in order not to exhaust the available physical memory of a typical compute node. The new multithreaded ATLAS software framework, AthenaMT, has been designed from the ground up to support both the offline and online use-cases with the aim to further harmonize the offline and trigger algorithms. The latter is crucial both in terms of maintenance effort and to guarantee the high trigger efficiency and rejection factors needed for the next two decades of data-taking. We report on an HLT prototype in which the need for HLT­specific components has been reduced to a minimum while...

  10. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. High levels of vicarious exposure bias pain judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkachin, Kenneth M; Rocha, Elizabete M

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to facial expression of pain, on observers' perceptions of pain expression. Participants were undergraduates shown brief video clips of the facial expressions of shoulder-pain patients displaying no pain or moderate pain. Participants were randomly allocated to either a high preexposure condition in which each clip was preceded by 10 other clips showing strong pain or a no-exposure control. On each test trial, participants indicated whether they thought the person they saw was in pain or not. Data were analyzed using signal detection theory methods. High prior exposure to pain was unrelated to sensitivity to pain expression, but did significantly diminish the likelihood of judging the other to be in pain. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for pain judgments of health-care professionals, adaptation-level theory, and the psychophysical method of selective adaptation. This paper provides an experimental demonstration that, when people have large amounts of exposure to others' expressions of pain, their estimation of others' pain is reduced. The findings offer 1 explanation for the widely observed underestimation bias in pain judgments and may suggest ways of changing it. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  13. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological indices of SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c were compared with those with normal HDL.c levels. Results: The SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c presented with lower levels of hemoglobin (P < 0.01), hematocrit (P < 0.001), total leukocyte count (P = 0.02), red blood cell count (P < 0.01), ...

  14. The blood of healthy individuals exhibits CD8 T cells with a highly altered TCR Vb repertoire but with an unmodified phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Degauque

    Full Text Available CD8 T cell clonal expansions (TCE have been observed in elderly, healthy individuals as well in old mice, and have been associated with the ageing process. Both chronic latent and non-persistent viral infections have been proposed to drive the development of distinct non-functional and functional TCE respectively. Biases in TCR Vβ repertoire diversity are also recurrently observed in patients that have undergone strong immune challenge, and are preferentially observed in the CD8 compartment. Healthy adults can also exhibit CD8 T cells with strong alterations of their CDR3 length distribution. Surprisingly, no specific investigations have been conducted to analyze the CD8 T cell repertoire in normal adults, to determine if such alterations in TCR Vβ repertoire share the features of TCE. In this study, we characterized the phenotype and function of the CD8 population in healthy individuals of 25-52 years of age. All but one of the EBV-positive HLA-B8 healthy volunteers that were studied were CMV-negative. Using a specific unsupervised statistical method, we identified Vβ families with altered CDR3 length distribution and increased TCR Vβ/HPRT transcript ratios in all individuals tested. The increase in TCR Vβ/HPRT transcript ratio was more frequently associated with an increase in the percentage of the corresponding Vβ(+ T cells than with an absence of modification of their percentage. However, in contrast with the previously described TCE, these CD8(+ T cells were not preferentially found in the memory CD8 subset, they exhibited normal effector functions (cytokine secretion and cytotoxic molecule expression and they were not reactive to a pool of EBV/CMV/Flu virus peptides. Taken together, the combined analysis of transcripts and proteins of the TCR Vβ repertoire led to the identification of different types of CD8(+ T cell clone expansion or contraction in healthy individuals, a situation that appears more complex than previously described

  15. Impact of high electromagnetic field levels on childhood leukemia incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepen, Jop C; van Dijck, Jos A A M

    2012-08-15

    The increasing exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has raised concern, as increased exposure may result in an increased risk of childhood leukemia (CL). Besides a short introduction of CL and EMF, our article gives an evaluation of the evidence of a causal relation between EMF and CL by critically appraising the epidemiological and biological evidence. The potential impact is also estimated by the population attributable risk. The etiology of CL is largely unknown, but is probably multifactorial. EMF may be one of the environmental exposures involved. Three pooled analyses of case-control studies showed a 1.4- to 1.7-fold increased CL risk for extremely low-frequency EMF (ELF-EMF) exposure levels above 0.3 μT. Several biases may have played a role in these studies, but are unlikely to fully explain the increased risk. For effects of radiofrequency ELF evidence is lacking. None of the proposed biological mechanisms by which ELF-EMF might cause CL have been confirmed. The estimated overall population attributable risk was 1.9%, with the highest estimates in Northern America and Brazil (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). The potential impact of EMF exposure on public health is probably limited, although in some countries exposure might be relatively high and thus might have a more substantial impact. We recommend nationwide surveys to gain more insight into the contemporary exposure levels among children. Reducing exposure from power lines near densely populated areas and schools is advised. Future epidemiological studies should focus on limiting bias. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  16. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  17. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  18. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  19. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  20. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  1. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  2. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  3. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  4. The Software Architecture of the LHCb High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a spectrometer dedicated to the study of heavy flavor at the LHC. The rate of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is 15 MHz, but disk space limitations mean that only 3 kHz can be written to tape for offline processing. For this reason the LHCb data acquisition system -- trigger -- plays a key role in selecting signal events and rejecting background. In contrast to previous experiments at hadron colliders like for example CDF or D0, the bulk of the LHCb trigger is implemented in software and deployed on a farm of 20k parallel processing nodes. This system, called the High Level Trigger (HLT) is responsible for reducing the rate from the maximum at which the detector can be read out, 1.1 MHz, to the 3 kHz which can be processed offline,and has 20 ms in which to process and accept/reject each event. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, the HLT was designed from the outset to reuse the offline reconstruction and selection code, and is based around multiple independent and redunda...

  5. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  6. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  7. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  8. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  9. Zinc Acetate/Carrageenan Gels Exhibit Potent Activity In Vivo against High-Dose Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaginal and Rectal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Romero, José A.; Abraham, Ciby J.; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Menon, Radhika; Begay, Othell; Seidor, Samantha; Ford, Brian E.; Gil, Pedro I.; Peters, Jennifer; Katz, David; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Topical microbicides that block the sexual transmission of HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) are desperately needed to reduce the incidence of HIV infections worldwide. Previously we completed phase 3 testing of the carrageenan-based gel Carraguard. Although the trial did not show that Carraguard is effective in preventing HIV transmission during vaginal sex, it did show that Carraguard is safe when used weekly for up to 2 years. Moreover, Carraguard has in vitro activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) and HSV-2 and favorable physical and rheological properties, which makes it a useful vehicle to deliver antiviral agents such as zinc acetate. To that end, we previously reported that a prototype zinc acetate carrageenan gel protects macaques against vaginal challenge with combined simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Herein, we report the safety and efficacy of a series of zinc acetate and/or carrageenan gels. The gels protected mice (75 to 85% survival; P gels were found to be effective spreading gels, exhibited limited toxicity in vitro, caused minimal damage to the architecture of the cervicovaginal and rectal mucosae in vivo, and induced no increased susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in a mouse model. Our results provide a strong rationale to further optimize and evaluate the zinc acetate/carrageenan gels for their ability to block the sexual transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:22064530

  10. An intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion with a high drug loading, H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair complex exhibiting excellent antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion (CLE with good stability and excellent antibacterial activity. The CLE was prepared by the thin-film dispersed homogenization method. The interaction between clarithromycin (CLA and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR analysis. The interfacial drug loading, thermal sterilization, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were investigated systematically. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra showed that CHEMS (CLA: CHEMS, M ratio 1:2 could interact with CLA through H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair. The CHEMS was found necessary to maintain the stability of CLE. Ultracentrifugation showed that almost 88% CLA could be loaded into the interfacial layer. The optimized CLE formulation could withstand autoclaving at 121 °C for 10 min and remain stable after three freeze–thaw cycles. The in vitro susceptibility test revealed that the CLA–CHEMS ion-pair and CLE have similar activity to the parent drug against many different bacterial strains. The in vivo antibacterial activity showed that the ED50 of intravenous CLE was markedly lower than that of CLA solution administrated orally. CLE exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity and might be a candidate for a new nanocarrier for CLA with potential advantages over the current commercial formulation.

  11. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); You, Shutang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  12. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  13. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  14. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  15. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute

  16. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  17. Neural network controller development and implementation for spark ignition engines with high EGR levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Jonathan Blake; Singh, Atmika; Kaul, Brian C; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Drallmeier, James A

    2007-07-01

    Past research has shown substantial reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations by using 10%-25% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition (SI) engines (see Dudek and Sain, 1989). However, under high EGR levels, the engine exhibits strong cyclic dispersion in heat release which may lead to instability and unsatisfactory performance preventing commercial engines to operate with high EGR levels. A neural network (NN)-based output feedback controller is developed to reduce cyclic variation in the heat release under high levels of EGR even when the engine dynamics are unknown by using fuel as the control input. A separate control loop was designed for controlling EGR levels. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given and the boundedness of the control input is demonstrated by relaxing separation principle, persistency of excitation condition, certainty equivalence principle, and linear in the unknown parameter assumptions. Online training is used for the adaptive NN and no offline training phase is needed. This online learning feature and model-free approach is used to demonstrate the applicability of the controller on a different engine with minimal effort. Simulation results demonstrate that the cyclic dispersion is reduced significantly using the proposed controller when implemented on an engine model that has been validated experimentally. For a single cylinder research engine fitted with a modern four-valve head (Ricardo engine), experimental results at 15% EGR indicate that cyclic dispersion was reduced 33% by the controller, an improvement of fuel efficiency by 2%, and a 90% drop in NOx from stoichiometric operation without EGR was observed. Moreover, unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) drop by 6% due to NN control as compared to the uncontrolled scenario due to the drop in cyclic dispersion. Similar performance was observed with the controller on a different engine.

  18. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  19. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  20. Activatable Water-Soluble Probes Enhance Tumor Imaging by Responding to Dysregulated pH and Exhibiting High Tumor-to-Liver Fluorescence Emission Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hu; Kos, Petra; Yan, Yunfeng; Zhou, Kejin; Miller, Jason B; Elkassih, Sussana; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2016-07-20

    Dysregulated pH has been recognized as a universal tumor microenvironment signature that can delineate tumors from normal tissues. Existing fluorescent probes that activate in response to pH are hindered by either fast clearance (in the case of small molecules) or high liver background emission (in the case of large particles). There remains a need to design water-soluble, long circulating, pH-responsive nanoprobes with high tumor-to-liver contrast. Herein, we report a modular chemical strategy to create acidic pH-sensitive and water-soluble fluorescent probes for high in vivo tumor detection and minimal liver activation. A combination of a modified Knoevenagel reaction and PEGylation yielded a series of NIR BODIPY fluorophores with tunable pKas, high quantum yield, and optimal orbital energies to enable photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) activation in response to pH. After intravenous administration, Probe 5c localized to tumors and provided excellent tumor-to-liver contrast (apparent T/L = 3) because it minimally activates in the liver. This phenomenon was further confirmed by direct ex vivo imaging experiments on harvested organs. Because no targeting ligands were required, we believe that this report introduces a versatile strategy to directly synthesize soluble probes with broad potential utility including fluorescence-based image-guided surgery, cancer diagnosis, and theranostic nanomedicine.

  1. Experimentally constrained CA1 fast-firing parvalbumin-positive interneuron network models exhibit sharp transitions into coherent high frequency rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Katie A; Huh, Carey Y L; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Williams, Sylvain; Skinner, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of high frequency oscillations (HFOs; >100 Hz) and theta oscillations (3-12 Hz) in the CA1 region of rats increases during REM sleep, indicating that it may play a role in memory processing. However, it is unclear whether the CA1 region itself is capable of providing major contributions to the generation of HFOs, or if they are strictly driven through input projections. Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons may play an essential role in these oscillations due to their extensive connections with neighboring pyramidal cells, and their characteristic fast-spiking. Thus, we created mathematical network models to investigate the conditions under which networks of CA1 fast-spiking PV+ interneurons are capable of producing high frequency population rhythms. We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings of fast-spiking, PV+ cells in the CA1 region of an intact hippocampal preparation in vitro to derive cellular properties, from which we constrained an Izhikevich-type model. Novel, biologically constrained network models were constructed with these individual cell models, and we investigated networks across a range of experimentally determined excitatory inputs and inhibitory synaptic strengths. For each network, we determined network frequency and coherence. Network simulations produce coherent firing at high frequencies (>90 Hz) for parameter ranges in which PV-PV inhibitory synaptic conductances are necessarily small and external excitatory inputs are relatively large. Interestingly, our networks produce sharp transitions between random and coherent firing, and this sharpness is lost when connectivity is increased beyond biological estimates. Our work suggests that CA1 networks may be designed with mechanisms for quickly gating in and out of high frequency coherent population rhythms, which may be essential in the generation of nested theta/high frequency rhythms.

  2. Experimentally constrained CA1 fast-firing parvalbumin-positive interneuron network models exhibit sharp transitions into coherent high frequency rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A Ferguson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of high frequency oscillations (HFOs; >100 Hz and theta oscillations (3-12 Hz in the CA1 region of rats increases during REM sleep, indicating that it may play a role in memory processing. However, it is unclear whether the CA1 region itself is capable of providing major contributions to the generation of HFOs, or if they are strictly driven through input projections. Parvalbumin-positive (PV+ interneurons may play an essential role in these oscillations due to their extensive connections with neighbouring pyramidal cells, and their characteristic fast-spiking. Thus, we created mathematical network models to investigate the conditions under which networks of CA1 fast-spiking PV+ interneurons are capable of producing high frequency population rhythms.We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings of fast-spiking, PV+ cells in the CA1 region of an intact hippocampal preparation in vitro to derive cellular properties, from which we constrained an Izhikevich-type model. Novel, biologically constrained network models were constructed with these individual cell models, and we investigated networks across a range of experimentally determined excitatory inputs and inhibitory synaptic strengths. For each network, we determined network frequency and coherence.Network simulations produce coherent firing at high frequencies (> 90 Hz for parameter ranges in which PV-PV inhibitory synaptic conductances are necessarily small and external excitatory inputs are relatively large. Interestingly, our networks produce sharp transitions between random and coherent firing, and this sharpness is lost when connectivity is increased beyond biological estimates. Our work suggests that CA1 networks may be designed with mechanisms for quickly gating in and out of high frequency coherent population rhythms, which may be essential in the generation of nested theta/high frequency rhythms.

  3. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of ?High-Level Potentialities? (Highly Gifted) Children

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills ea...

  4. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyualuronic acid gel

    OpenAIRE

    Tollner, Theodore L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus s...

  5. TiO2anatase nanorods with non-equilibrium crystallographic {001} facets and their coatings exhibiting high photo-oxidation of NO gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Margarita; Krambrock, Klaus; Maia da Costa, M E H; Morgado, Edisson; Marinkovic, Bojan A

    2018-01-01

    Development of highly active photocatalysts is mandatory for more widespread application of this alternative environmental technology. Synthesis of photocatalysts, such as anatase TiO 2 , with more reactive, non-equilibrium, crystallographic facets is theoretically justified by a more efficient interfacial charge transfer to reactive adsorbed species, increasing quantum efficiency of photocatalyst. Air and vacuum calcinations of protonated trititanate nanotubes lead to their transformation to anatase nanorods. The nanorods synthesized by air calcination demonstrate photo-oxidation of NO gas more than three times superior to the one presented by the benchmark P-25 photocatalyst. This performance has been explained in terms of 50% higher specific surface area and, more importantly, through the predominance of more reactive, non-equilibrium, {001} crystallographic facets of the anatase nanorods. These facets present a high density of undercoordinated Ti cations, which favors adsorption of reactant species, and strained Ti-O-Ti bonds, leading to more efficient photo-oxidation reactions. Reduced Ti species, such as Ti 3+ , were not observed in the as-obtained nanorods, while reactive adsorbed molecules are scarce on the nanorods obtained through vacuum calcination. Dip-coating of TiO 2 anatase nanorods (air calcined) over soda-lime glass plates was used to prepare visible light transparent, superhydrophilic and highly adherent photocatalytic coatings with homogenously distributed nanopores.

  6. Lyotropic chiral nematic liquid crystalline aliphatic conjugated polymers based on disubstituted polyacetylene derivatives that exhibit high dissymmetry factors in circularly polarized luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, Benedict A; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo

    2012-12-05

    We synthesized disubstituted liquid crystalline polyacetylene (diLCPA) derivatives bearing 4-nonyloxy phenyl groups with lyotropic and thermotropic LC behavior. The poly(diphenylacetylene) main chain structure of the diLCPAs and the chirality induced with either chiral moieties or chiral dopants allow the formation of a highly ordered lyotropic N*-LC phase. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the diLCPAs imply that one-handed intrachain helical structures are formed in solution, while interchain helical π-stacking between the polymer main chains are formed in cast film and in the N*-LC state. Absorption dissymmetry factors (g(abs)) in the N*-LC state show values on the order of 10(-1). The N*-LC state facilitates the formation of helically π-stacked structures with a high degree of helical ordering of the diLCPA and is indispensable for the generation of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high emission dissymmetry factors (g(em)) on the order of 10(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported value of CPL achieved for aliphatic, conjugated polymers. As an alternative to the thermotropic N*-LC phase, we have found that the lyotropic N*-LC phase of diLCPA could be promising materials possessing CPL functionality for use in next-generation π-conjugated organic optoelectronic devices, displays, and sensors.

  7. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  8. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with low hypodiploid/near triploid karyotype is a specific clinical entity and exhibits a very high TP53 mutation frequency of 93%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Verena; Zenger, Melanie; Schnittger, Susanne; Weissmann, Sandra; Kunze, Franziska; Kohlmann, Alexander; Bellos, Frauke; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Haferlach, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) are subdivided by the WHO classification into five subgroups defined by specific translocations and two further subgroups defined by the number of chromosomes. The hypodiploid subgroup is heterogeneous and comprises ALL with a chromosome number of karyotype, we performed chromosome banding analysis, FISH, array comparative genomic hybridization, and mutational analyses of FBXW7, NOTCH1, KRAS, NRAS, TP53, and IKZF1 in 29 cases. We observed a nonrandom pattern of chromosome losses, including chromosomes 3, 7, 13, 15, 16, and 17. A deletion encompassing the CDKN2A/B locus was the only recurrent structural abnormality. A duplication of the low hypodiploid karyotype occurred frequently, resulting in a near triploid karyotype based on the definition by merely counting chromosomes but in fact was a very low tetraploid chromosome set. Mutational analyses revealed no mutations in IKZF1, FBXW7, NOTCH1, and KRAS and only one mutation in NRAS. However, we discovered a high frequency of TP53 mutations in 93% (27/29) of cases. In 26/27 cases with TP53 mutation, the second TP53 allele was lost due to monosomy 17. Median overall survival was short (18.5 months), which might be related to the high frequency of TP53 alterations. Therefore, ALL with low hypodiploidy is characterized by a typical pattern of chromosome losses and a remarkably high TP53 mutation frequency. Our data suggest the introduction of a novel WHO entity within the B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma group showing low hypodiploid/very low tetraploid karyotype and concomitant TP53 mutation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fast and selective adsorption of arsenic with high adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L-1 As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114.8 mg g-1 for As(V) and 143.6 mg g-1 for As(III), higher than most previously reported adsorbents. The anti-interference capacity for iAs adsorption was improved by the electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion effects of the MIL-100(Fe) shell, which also decreased the zero-charge point of the hybrid absorbent for a broad pH adsorption range. The adsorption mechanisms of iAs on the MNPs are proposed. An Fe-O-As structure was formed on CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) through hydroxyl substitution with the deprotonated iAs species. Monolayer adsorption of As(V) was observed, while hydrogen bonding led to the multi-layer adsorption of neutral As(III) for its high adsorption capacity. The high efficiency and the excellent pH- and interference-tolerance capacities of CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) allowed effective iAs removal from natural water samples, as validated with batch magnetic separation mode and a portable filtration strategy.

  10. Mice Deficient in Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Exhibit Glucose Intolerance on a High-Fat Diet but Are Resistant to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Takagi; Keita Kinoshita; Nobuaki Ozaki; Yusuke Seino; Yoshiharu Murata; Yoshiharu Oshida; Yoshitaka Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous glucagon-GFP knock-in mice (Gcg gfp/gfp ) lack proglucagon derived-peptides including glucagon and GLP-1, and are normoglycemic. We have previously shown that Gcg gfp/gfp show improved glucose tolerance with enhanced insulin secretion. Here, we studied glucose and energy metabolism in Gcg gfp/gfp mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Gcg gfp/gfp and Gcg gfp/+ mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD) or an HFD for 15–20 weeks. Regardless of the genotype, mice on an HFD showed gl...

  11. Task alters category representations in prefrontal but not high-level visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugatus, Lior; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-07-15

    A central question in neuroscience is how cognitive tasks affect category representations across the human brain. Regions in lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLFPC) constitute the extended "what" pathway, which is considered instrumental for visual category processing. However, it is unknown (1) whether distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC explicitly represent category, task, or some combination of both, and (2) in what way representations across these subdivisions of the extended 'what' pathway may differ. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we scanned 12 participants using fMRI to test the effect of category and task on distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC. Results reveal that task and category modulate responses in both high-level visual regions, as well as prefrontal cortex. However, we found fundamentally different types of representations across the brain. Distributed responses in high-level visual regions are more strongly driven by category than task, and exhibit task-independent category representations. In contrast, distributed responses in prefrontal cortex are more strongly driven by task than category, and contain task-dependent category representations. Together, these findings of differential representations across the brain support a new idea that LOTC and VTC maintain stable category representations allowing efficient processing of visual information, while prefrontal cortex contains flexible representations in which category information may emerge only when relevant to the task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  13. The Rapid Emergence of High Level Gentamicin Resistance in Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Forward

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of enterococci isolated from blood and urine cultures that were highly resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin were determined. No blood or urine isolates highly resistant to gentamicin were seen in 1983, whereas by 1986–87 25% of blood and 17% of urine isolates were highly resistant. The rapid emergence of gentamicin resistance has serious implications for patients with life threatening enterococcal disease.

  14. The Rapid Emergence of High Level Gentamicin Resistance in Enterococci

    OpenAIRE

    Forward, Kevin R; Kennedy, James K; Degagne, Patricia A; Bartlett, Kathy R; Harding, Godfrey KM

    1990-01-01

    The proportion of enterococci isolated from blood and urine cultures that were highly resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin were determined. No blood or urine isolates highly resistant to gentamicin were seen in 1983, whereas by 1986–87 25% of blood and 17% of urine isolates were highly resistant. The rapid emergence of gentamicin resistance has serious implications for patients with life threatening enterococcal disease.

  15. Combining High-Contrast Imaging with Doppler Radial Velocity: a Survey of Subgiant Stars that Exhibit Long-term Linear Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We are commencing a high-contrast imaging survey at Keck that will target several dozen nearby subgiant stars that show evidence for the existence of a distant companion, as is indicated by a long-term, linear radial velocity (RV) trend. The goal of the survey is to place very tight constraints on the mass and orbit of the body responsible for accelerating each star. Our targets are massive, former A-stars and 28% have a known exoplanet. The typical time baseline for Doppler measurements is 3+ years and a number of targets have minimum periods of 12 years. By combining complementary detection techniques, we will be able to determine with high statistical confidence whether the (outer-most) companion is stellar or substellar in nature for most of the sample. This "inside-out" approach will provide a measure of the occurrence rate of multi-planet systems and brown dwarfs around massive stars. In this poster, we present further motivation on the topic, including several representative RV curves and the anticipated mass, inclination, and semi-major axis constraints imposed by imaging and RV.

  16. DistributedFBA.jl: high-level, high-performance flux balance analysis in Julia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirendt, Laurent; Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2017-05-01

    Flux balance analysis and its variants are widely used methods for predicting steady-state reaction rates in biochemical reaction networks. The exploration of high dimensional networks with such methods is currently hampered by software performance limitations. DistributedFBA.jl is a high-level, high-performance, open-source implementation of flux balance analysis in Julia. It is tailored to solve multiple flux balance analyses on a subset or all the reactions of large and huge-scale networks, on any number of threads or nodes. The code is freely available on github.com/opencobra/COBRA.jl. The documentation can be found at opencobra.github.io/COBRA.jl. ronan.mt.fleming@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. DistributedFBA.jl: High-level, high-performance flux balance analysis in Julia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirendt, Laurent; Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2017-01-16

    Flux balance analysis, and its variants, are widely used methods for predicting steady-state reaction rates in biochemical reaction networks. The exploration of high dimensional networks with such methods is currently hampered by software performance limitations. DistributedFBA.jl is a high-level, high-performance, open-source implementation of flux balance analysis in Julia. It is tailored to solve multiple flux balance analyses on a subset or all the reactions of large and huge-scale networks, on any number of threads or nodes. The code is freely available on github.com/opencobra/COBRA.jl. The documentation can be found at opencobra.github.io/COBRA.jl. ronan.mt.fleming@gmail.com. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaul Rajinder

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia

  19. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an

  20. MCF-7 cells expressing nuclear associated lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) exhibit an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and are highly invasive in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Finney, Joel; Xu, Li; Moore, David; Welch, Danny R; Mure, Minae

    2013-10-18

    LOXL2 is a copper- and lysine tyrosylquinone-dependent amine oxidase that has been proposed to function both extracellularly and intracellularly to activate oncogenic signaling pathways leading to EMT and invasion of breast cancer cells. In this study, we selected MCF-7 cells that stably express forms of recombinant LOXL2 differing in their subcellular localizations and catalytic competencies. This enabled us to dissect the molecular functions of intracellular and extracellular LOXL2s and examine their contributions to breast cancer metastasis/invasion. We discovered that secreted LOXL2 (~100-kDa) is N-glycosylated at Asn-455 and Asn-644, whereas intracellular LOXL2 (~75-kDa) is nonglycosylated and N-terminally processed, and is primarily associated with the nucleus. Both forms of LOXL2 can oxidize lysine in solution. However, we found that expression of intracellular LOXL2 is more strongly associated with EMT and invasiveness than secreted LOXL2 in vitro. The results indicate that nuclear associated LOXL2 contributes to the stabilization of Snail1 transcription factor at the protein level to induce EMT and promote invasion in vitro, through repression of E-cadherin, occludin, and estrogen receptor-α, and up-regulation of vimentin, fibronectin, and MT1-MMP.

  1. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  2. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  3. Pseudo 5D HN(C)N experiment to facilitate the assignment of backbone resonances in proteins exhibiting high backbone shift degeneracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dinesh, E-mail: dineshcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR), SGPGIMS Campus, Raibareli Road, Lucknow 226014 (India); Raikwal, Nisha [Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR), SGPGIMS Campus, Raibareli Road, Lucknow 226014 (India); Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Arora, Ashish [Molecular and Structural Biology Division, CSIR, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Guleria, Anupam, E-mail: anuguleriaphy@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR), SGPGIMS Campus, Raibareli Road, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A reduced dimensionality experiment – referred as pseudo 5D HN(C)N- is presented. • Encodes highly resolved 5D spectral information in a 3D spectrum. • Superior in terms of peak dispersion. • Facilitates assignment of crowded HSQC spectra of moderately sized proteins. • Modulated {sup 15}N chemical shifts are used to break the amide shift degeneracy. - Abstract: Assignment of protein backbone resonances is most routinely carried out using triple resonance three-dimensional NMR experiments involving amide {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N resonances. However for intrinsically unstructured proteins, alpha-helical proteins or proteins containing several disordered fragments, the assignment becomes problematic because of high-degree of backbone shift degeneracy. In this backdrop, a novel reduced-dimensionality (RD) experiment –(5, 3)D-hNCO-CANH- is presented to facilitate/validate the sequential backbone resonance assignment in such proteins. The proposed 3D NMR experiment makes use of the modulated amide {sup 15}N chemical shifts (resulting from the joint sampling along both its indirect dimensions) to resolve the ambiguity involved in connecting the neighboring amide resonances (i.e. H{sub i}N{sub i} and H{sub i−1}N{sub i−1}) for overlapping amide-NH peaks. The experiment -in combination with routine triple resonance 3D-NMR experiments involving backbone amide ({sup 1}H/{sup 15}N) and carbon ({sup 13}C{sup α}/{sup 13}C′) chemical shifts- will serve as a powerful complementary tool to achieve the nearly complete assignment of protein backbone resonances in a time efficient manner.

  4. SUNCT and high nocturnal prolactin levels: some new unusual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Domenico; Labate, Angelo; Mungari, Pasquale; Vero, Sergio; Fava, Antonietta

    2007-04-01

    SUNCT is a rare condition characterised by a short-lasting periorbital pain associated with autonomic symptoms and is usually unresponsive to pharmacological treatment. We report a case of SUNCT syndrome linked to a pituitary micro-adenoma, with only nocturnal attacks. The nocturnal levels of prolactin (PRL) were increased, while other hormonal, haematological, serological and biochemical investigations and levels of PRL did not reveal abnormal findings during the day-time. PRL serum secretion after thyrotropin-releasing hormone test was lower than nocturnal secretion, but not enough to induce severe attacks. We suggest that in our patient the rise of nocturnal levels of PRL could have a direct role in the worsening of this headache, perhaps secondarily to an altered regulation of the hypothalamic-hypophysial axis, however the actual influence of sleep and the interaction between all neurotransmitters and hormones needs to be clarified further.

  5. Not So Giants: Mice Lacking Both Somatostatin and Cortistatin Have High GH Levels but Show No Changes in Growth Rate or IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Arévalo, S; Córdoba-Chacón, J; Pozo-Salas, A I; L-López, F; de Lecea, L; Gahete, M D; Castaño, J P; Luque, R M

    2015-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CORT) are two highly related neuropeptides involved in the regulation of various endocrine secretions. In particular, SST and CORT are two primary negative regulators of GH secretion. Consequently, single SST or CORT knockout mice exhibit elevated GH levels; however, this does not lead to increased IGF-1 levels or somatic growth. This apparent lack of correspondence has been suggested to result from compensatory mechanisms between both peptides. To test this hypothesis, in this study we explored, for the first time, the consequences of simultaneously deleting endogenous SST and CORT by generating a double SST/CORT knockout mouse model and exploring its endocrine and metabolic phenotype. Our results demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of SST and CORT induced a drastic elevation of endogenous GH levels, which, surprisingly, did not lead to changes in growth rate or IGF-1 levels, suggesting the existence of additional factors/systems that, in the absence of endogenous SST and CORT, could counteract GH actions. Notably, elevation in circulating GH levels were not accompanied by changes in pituitary GH expression or by alterations in the expression of its main regulators (GHRH and ghrelin) or their receptors (GHRH receptor, GHS receptor, or SST/CORT receptors) at the hypothalamic or pituitary level. However, although double-SST/CORT knockout male mice exhibited normal glucose and insulin levels, they had improved insulin sensitivity compared with the control mice. Therefore, these results suggest the existence of an intricate interplay among the known (SST/CORT), and likely unknown, inhibitory components of the GH/IGF-1 axis to regulate somatic growth and glucose/insulin homeostasis.

  6. Evaluation of transgenic soybean exhibiting high expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A transgene for suppressing lepidopteran population densities and crop injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; MacRae, Ted C

    2009-08-01

    Several transgenic lines of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., expressing a synthetic cry1A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined in replicated field trials in 2003-2007 for suppression of naturally occurring population densities of lepidopteran pests and the resultant crop injury that they caused. Bt soybean and negative controls (isogenic segregants and parental lines) were evaluated against velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner); soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); and green cloverworm, Hypena scabra (F.). Population densities of these lepidopteran species were essentially absent in each of the Bt soybean entries evaluated throughout the growing season in every year of the study compared with moderate (5-10 larvae per row-m) to large (20-30 larvae per row-m) peak population densities in the negative control soybean entries. These lepidopteran populations caused significant plant injury in the non-Bt soybean plots, ranging from 53% defoliation in 2003 to 17.5% in 2007, compared with < 1.5% defoliation (mostly 0.0% defoliation) in the Bt soybean plots. When two or three foliar insecticides were applied in August or September, as lepidopteran populations approached or exceeded economic threshold levels, pest populations were suppressed and defoliation was minimal in the treated non-Bt entries similar to results in Bt soybean. Soybean 100-seed weights and harvested yields were similar between the Bt and non-Bt entries each year of this study. It seems that Bt transgenic soybean provides excellent season-long control of lepidopteran pests and have yields equal to the standard cultivars examined in this study. Once available to producers, this Bt technology has the potential to provide an effective insect pest management option similar to that being used in Bt cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and Bt corn, Zea mays L., and enhance the sustainability and profitability of soybean production in the southern region where

  7. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  9. Muon triggers in the High Level Trigger of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2011-01-01

    The muon trigger selections for both levels of the LHCb software trigger (HLT1 and 2) are described and their performance is evaluated using $B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+}$ signals reconstructed in 330 pb$^{-1}$ of data which were collected in the first half 2011.

  10. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial activation.[5,6] Bacterial infection associated with leukocytosis, malaria, dehydration, extremes of temperatures, stress, and low oxygen tension have all been shown to precipitate sickle cell crises and consequent adverse clinical outcome. Even though, decreased levels ...

  11. High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate phenolic levels, phytophenolic profiles and total antioxidant activities of Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice. Methods: Unpolished Thai rice strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose were measured for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  12. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In day to day clinical biochemistry laboratory practices, occasionally abnormal levels of individual parameters are noted. These reports cannot be explained immediately with certainty always. Inquisitiveness with in-depth analysis might reveal the possible cause sometimes. To find out the possible cause of false elevation in ...

  13. High Smog Levels Seen in Mecca During the Annual Pilgrimage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urton, James

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the Hajj drew 3.5 million Muslims to Mecca for 5 days of prayer and spiritual enlightenment. The annual pilgrimage, one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world, also brings dangerous levels of air pollution to Islam's holiest city.

  14. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N-terminal region.[17]. Conclusion. Decreased HDL-c levels in SCD patients appears to portend severe anemia, higher leukocyte and platelet counts and may .... sampling method. The students were briefed about the objective of the study and their informed consent was taken for participation. A self-administered ...

  15. 'Urban insight': A high level of undiagnosed need reflects limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye- care services are often both the cause and the result of social, economic and developmental challenges ... learning difficulties and compromised vision and to prevent the avoidable disabling effects of uncorrected vision. Given the low levels of educational attainment in ...

  16. Space Electronics Operating at High Temperatures and Radiation Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to produce high efficiency DC/DC power modules in a small low profile package that can tolerate extreme environment conditions. The primary effort...

  17. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  18. [Potential of using inertial sensors in high level sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzova, T K; Andreev, D A; Shchukin, A I

    2013-01-01

    The article thoroughly covers development of wireless inertial sensors technology in medicine. The authors describe main criteria of diagnostic value of inertial sensors, advantages and prospects of using these systems in sports medicine, in comparison with other conventional methods of biomechanical examination in sports medicine. The results obtained necessitate further development of this approach, specifically creation of algorithms and methods of biomechanic examination of highly qualified athletes in high achievements sports.

  19. Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Coumarin7 as the Donor Exhibiting Greater Than 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and a High Fill Factor of 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Wei; Tao, Si-Lu; Fan, Cong; Chen, Dong-Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Su, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-06

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), because the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC 71 BM). A champion PCE value of 10.28% was realized in the ternary OSCs when incorporated with 10 wt % C7 doping ratio in the donors, corresponding to about 35% enhancement compared with the PTB7:PC 71 BM-based OSCs, a high fill factor (FF) of 75.03%, a short-circuit currentdensity (J sc ) of 18.72 mA cm -2 and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.73 V. The enhanced performance of the ternary OSCs can be attributed to the simultaneous improvement of the FF and the J sc . In addition to extended light absorption, a perfect nanofiber filament active layer morphology is obtained due to the good compatibility between C7 and PTB7, which facilitates the balance of charge transportation and the suppression of charge recombination. This investigation suggests that coumarin derivatives, which have completely different structure with polymer donors, can also be used to fabricate ternary solar cells and have the potential applications to obtain amazing performance after further device engineering and optimization.

  20. Frozen-thawed rhesus sperm retain normal morphology and highly progressive motility but exhibit sharply reduced efficiency in penetrating cervical mucus and hyaluronic acid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, Theodore L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; VandeVoort, Catherine A

    2011-02-01

    The preservation of the genetic diversity of captive populations of rhesus monkeys is critical to the future of biomedical research. Cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm is relatively simple to perform, yields high post-thaw motility, and theoretically, provides via artificial insemination (AI) a way to easily transfer genetics among colonies of animals. In the interest of optimizing semen cryopreservation methods for use with vaginal AI, we evaluated the ability of frozen-thawed rhesus sperm to penetrate periovulatory cervical mucus (CM). Motile sperm concentration of pre-freeze ("fresh") and post-thawed ("thawed") samples from five different males were normalized for both computer assisted sperm motion analysis and CM penetration experiments. Sperm samples were deposited into slide chambers containing CM or gel composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as a surrogate for CM and numbers of sperm were recorded as they entered a video field a preset distance from the sperm suspension-CM (or HA) interface. Fresh and thawed sperm were dried on glass slides, "Pap"-stained, and assessed for changes in head dimensions and head and flagellar shape. While retaining better than 80% of fresh sperm progressive motility, thawed sperm from the same ejaculate retained on average only 18.6% of the CM penetration ability. Experiments using HA gel yielded similar results only with reduced experimental error and thus improved detection of treatment differences. Neither the percentage of abnormal forms nor head dimensions differed between fresh and thawed sperm. While findings suggests that sperm-CM interaction is a prominent factor in previous failures of vaginal AI with cryopreserved macaque sperm, neither sperm motility nor morphology appears to account for changes in the ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate CM. Our data points to a previously unidentified manifestation of cryodamage which may have implications for assessment of sperm function beyond the cervix and across

  1. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  2. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  3. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  4. Theory and Methods for Supporting High Level Military Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    and across capability areas and for making 2 Discussions can be found in a number of sources (Keaney and Cohen, 1993; Lambeth, 1992; Beagle , 2000...conceptual template for how America’s armed forces would channel the vitality of their people and leverage technological opportunities to achieve new levels...1986. Beagle , T. W., Effects-Based Targeting: Another Empty Promise? Maxwell AFB, Ala.: Air University Press, 2000. Botterman, Maarten, Jonathan

  5. An Overview of Algorithms for the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, S; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G

    2004-01-01

    Following rigorous software design and analysis methods, an object-based architecture has been developed to derive the second- and third-level trigger decisions for the future ATLAS detector at the LHC. The functional components within this system responsible for generating elements of the trigger decisions are algorithms running within the software architecture. Relevant aspects of the architecture are reviewed along with concrete examples of specific algorithms.

  6. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  7. Cultural education through the high school level English textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ookawa Kouki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It cannot be denied that intercultural understanding is crucial in the process of learning English at elementary school, junior high school, high school, and beyond. This paper analyzes the high school English textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan from the perspective of intercultural understanding. First, it elucidates the types of articles, the countries materials deal with, and the purposes of the materials used in the books. Then it considers important elements of intercultural education. The result of the research shows that the materials contain various kinds of categories, and many concern English-speaking countries. Furthermore, an important fact is that many materials concerning Japan, aimed at understanding its own culture, are shown in the textbooks as well. Finally, the paper suggests future direction for the use of materials in the textbooks in order to facilitate intercultural understanding.

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  3. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the 4000 – 6000 Hz range when compared to the students. To ensure that this hearing loss was not due to aging ( presbycusis ), the authors compared...conductive” or “noise-induced” hearing loss); and (2) hearing loss associated with aging ( presbycusis ) (Coles 1985). High- frequency sensorineural

  4. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  5. Reaction time on fencing and karate high level athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de Quel Pérez, Óscar; Saucedo Morales, Francisco; López Adán, Enrique; Sillero Quintana, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The great speed of the actions in combat sports makes very difficult to react quickJy without mistakes. If the fighter had longer time to react, their reaction would be more accurate. This fact gives relevance to choice lime reaction (CRT) studies on these kinds of sports. The importance of the athletes1 physical or psychological abilities varies depending on the sporl played. According to the requirements of the speciality, players who reach Ihe maximum level will be those who have the chara...

  6. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  7. Digitalizing historical high resolution water level data: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinde, Lars; Hein, Hartmut; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Historical tide-gauge data offer the opportunities for determining variations in key characteristics for water level data and the analyses of past extreme events (storm surges). These information are important for calculating future trends and scenarios. But there are challenges involved due to the extensive effort needed to digitalize gauge sheets and quality control the resulting historical data. Based on these conditions, two main sources for inaccuracies in historical time series can be identified. First are several challenges due to the digitalization of the historical data, e.g. general quality of the sheets, multiple crossing lines of the observed water levels and additional comments on the sheet describing problems or additional information during the measurements. Second are problems during the measurements themselves. These can include the incorrect positioning of the sheets, trouble with the tide-gauge and maintenance. Errors resulting from these problems can be e.g. flat lines, discontinuities and outlier. Especially, the characterization of outliers has to be conducted carefully, to distinguish between real outliers and the appearance of extreme events. Methods for the quality control process involve the use of statistics, machine learning and neural networks. These will be described and applied to three different time series from tide gauge stations at the cost of Lower Saxony, Germany. Resulting difficulties and outcomes of the quality control process will be presented and explained. Furthermore, we will present a first glance at analyses for these time series.

  8. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2004-03-01

    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  9. Sociological Factors Affecting Career Aspiration Level of High School Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Carole J.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the significant factors that affected career aspirations for high school seniors in a suburban school. It also analyzed differences in females' and minorities' college plans, diploma type, and changes in career aspirations from 1986 to 1996. The research design was a causal comparative statistical analysis replicating a 1986 study at the same school. In-depth investigations into female and minority aspirations were also expanded in this 1996 study. ...

  10. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    pressure 5. 6i a.k (hypertension), 2) elevated serum cholesterol level, 3) elevated blood sugar, 4) cigarette smoking, and 5) obesity (overeating with...aerobic training programs. Two recent Stanford studies have noted that both male and female long-distance runners had more HDL than their analogous...Engineers. New York, MY: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966. 8. Nelson, J. K., & J. R. Thomas. Introduction to Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation

  11. High glycogen levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Madsen, Flemming F; Secher, Niels H

    2006-01-01

    During intense cerebral activation approximately half of the glucose plus lactate taken up by the human brain is not oxidized and could replenish glycogen deposits, but the human brain glycogen concentration is unknown. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, undergoing curative surgery, brain...... biopsies were obtained from pathologic hippocampus (n=19) and from apparently 'normal' cortical grey and white matter. We determined the in vivo brain glycogen level and the activity of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase. Regional differences in glycogen concentration were examined similarly in healthy...... pigs (n=5). In the patients, the glycogen concentration in 'normal' grey and white matter was 5 to 6 mmol/L, but much higher in the hippocampus, 13.1+/-4.3 mmol/L (mean+/-s.d.; Pglycogen phosphorylase and synthase displayed the same pattern. In normal hippocampus from pigs...

  12. High levels of lipid peroxidation in semen of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Agata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (one of the final products of lipid peroxidation and well-known marker of oxidative stress) in semen of infertile men with type 2 diabetes and to investigate its relationship with their glycaemic control. Forty infertile men with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. The mean ages were 36.5 ± 8.0. Men with diabetes were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin >10% and group B (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin Mucus Interaction, 1999, Cambridge University Press). MDA was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method. MDA concentration in semen of group A patients (0.95 ± 0.35 nmol ml(-1)) was significantly higher than in group B patients (0.43 ± 0.13 nmol ml(-1)) (P value diabetes with poor metabolic control was associated with low sperm quality. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Vitrification of high-level alumina nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotzman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Borophosphate glass compositions have been developed for the vitrification of a high-alumina calcined defense waste. The effect of substituting SiO/sub 2/, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and CuO for B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the viscosity and leach resistance was measured. The effect of the alkali to borate ratio and the Li/sub 2/O:Na/sub 2/O ratio on the melt viscosity and leach resistance was also measured.

  14. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-level Darunavir Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eNakashima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Darunavir (DRV is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V, which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses.

  15. High-level extracellular expression of inulin fructotransferase in Pichia pastoris for DFA III production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Rongrong; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Yungao; Zhou, Liuming; Zhang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) catalyzes inulin conversion to difructose anhydride (DFA III), which is a natural low-calorie sweetener. Although heterologous expression of IFTase was achieved in Escherichia coli, the extracellular enzyme activity was very low, which limited the commercialization of IFTase. Active IFTase of about 43 kDa molecular mass of subunit was extracellularly expressed by Pichia pastoris and was greatly regulated by the IFTase gene copy number integrated into the P. pastoris genome and by the methanol concentration in the induction phase. Under optimized culture conditions, multicopy P. pastoris exhibited a maximum extracellular IFTase activity of 105.4 U mL(-1) in a 5 L fermenter, which was 8.9-fold the activity in shake flasks and 5.3-fold that obtained from wild-type strain. IFTase was expressed in a eukaryotic P. pastoris system for the first time and achieved high-level extracellular expression using a high-cell-density fed-batch cultivation strategy. This demonstrated that P. pastoris was a good candidate for potential DFA III production as a novel IFTase expression system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Repeated Assessment by High-Throughput Assay Demonstrates that Sperm DNA Methylation Levels Are Highly Reproducible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortessis, Victoria K.; Siegmund, Kimberly; Houshdaran, Sahar; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess reliability of high-throughput assay of sperm DNA methylation. Design Observational study comparing DNA methylation of sperm isolated from three divided and twelve longitudinally collected semen samples. Setting Academic Medical Center Patients One man undergoing screening semen analysis during evaluation of the infertile couple and two healthy fertile male volunteers. Interventions Spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma and somatic cells using gradient separation. DNA was extracted from spermatozoa, and DNA methylation was assessed at 1,505 DNA-sequence specific sites. Main Outcome Measures Repeatability of sperm DNA methylation measures, estimated by correlation coefficients. Results DNA methylation levels were highly correlated within matched sets of divided samples (all r≥0.97) and longitudinal samples (average r=0.97). Conclusions The described methodology reliably assesses methylation of sperm DNA at large numbers of sites. Methylation profiles were consistent over time. High-throughput assessment of sperm DNA methylation is a promising tool for studying the role of epigenetic state in male fertility. PMID:22035967

  17. Methyl CpG level at distal part of heat-shock protein promoter HSP70 exhibits epigenetic memory for heat stress by modulating recruitment of POU2F1-associated nucleosome-remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisliouk, Tatiana; Cramer, Tomer; Meiri, Noam

    2017-05-01

    Depending on its stringency, exposure to heat in early life leads to either resilience or vulnerability to heat stress later in life. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in genes belonging to the cell proteostasis pathways are attributed to long-term responses to heat stress. Epigenetic regulation of the mRNA expression of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 (HSPA2) was evaluated in the chick hypothalamus during the critical period of thermal-control establishment on day 3 post-hatch and during heat challenge on day 10. Both the level and duration of HSP70 expression during heat challenge a week after heat conditioning were more pronounced in chicks conditioned under harsh versus mild temperature. Analyzing different segments of the promoter in vitro indicated that methylation of a distal part altered its transcriptional activity. In parallel, DNA-methylation level of this segment in vivo was higher in harsh- compared to mild-heat-conditioned chicks. Hypermethylation of the HSP70 promoter in high-temperature-conditioned chicks was accompanied by a reduction in both POU Class 2 Homeobox 1 (POU2F1) binding and recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) chromatin-remodeling complex. As a result, histone H3 acetylation levels at the HSP70 promoter were higher in harsh-temperature-conditioned chicks than in their mild-heat-conditioned counterparts. These results suggest that methylation level of a distal part of the HSP70 promoter and POU2F1 recruitment may reflect heat-stress-related epigenetic memory and may be useful in differentiating between individuals that are resilient or vulnerable to stress. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  19. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiological solution. Two weeks after the last received dose of Cortisol orphysiological solution the cordial puncture was applied to take a blood sample inwhich the level of the serum IgA, IgG and IgM was determined. In the experimentalgroup animals the serum IgG value was 11,2 mg/ml at the beginning and 8,7 mg/ml at the end of the experiment (reduction for 22,1%, while the TgA concentration at theend of the experiment was reduced for 5,8%, while the IgM concentration for 12,9%.The serum immunoglobulin concentration in the control group guinea pigs does notreveal any significant differences at the beginning and the end of the experiment.

  20. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    players, or if they are not sufficiently specific for the physical football match performance requirements.The results of Study II indicates that the Yo-Yo IR2 test has a high discriminant andconcurrent validity as it both discriminates between players of different within- (top- vs. mid- vs. bottom-teams...... x 35 m, and moderate correlations between Yo-Yo IR2 and IR1 test performances and sprint speed at 20 and 35 m are revealed. Both Study II and III indicate that sub-maximal heart rate (HR) during the Yo-Yo IR tests is related to test performance, and as Study III shows, good reproducibility of sub......-endurance production training is effective and appropriate. The enhanced anaerobic capacities, as expressed through the improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and acceleration performance, are likely to be of practical significancefor football players as it is shown that top teams have superior capacity in speed...

  1. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities. PMID:21977044

  2. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of "high-level potentialities" (highly gifted) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since "gifted" children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as "high-level potentialities" or "intellectually gifted" develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  3. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  4. Professional Staffing Levels and Fourth-Grade Student Research in Rural Schools with High-Poverty Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla Steege; Donham, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Rural schools in high-poverty areas are often understaffed. This descriptive phenomenological study examined fourth-grade state research projects in high-poverty rural Iowa schools to reveal the influence of school librarians' staffing levels on student learning of research skills. To determine evidence of students' critical literacy, ethical use…

  5. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  6. Implications of high level pseudogene transcription in Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Norman E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mycobacterium leprae genome has less than 50% coding capacity and 1,133 pseudogenes. Preliminary evidence suggests that some pseudogenes are expressed. Therefore, defining pseudogene transcriptional and translational potentials of this genome should increase our understanding of their impact on M. leprae physiology. Results Gene expression analysis identified transcripts from 49% of all M. leprae genes including 57% of all ORFs and 43% of all pseudogenes in the genome. Transcribed pseudogenes were randomly distributed throughout the chromosome. Factors resulting in pseudogene transcription included: 1 co-orientation of transcribed pseudogenes with transcribed ORFs within or exclusive of operon-like structures; 2 the paucity of intrinsic stem-loop transcriptional terminators between transcribed ORFs and downstream pseudogenes; and 3 predicted pseudogene promoters. Mechanisms for translational "silencing" of pseudogene transcripts included the lack of both translational start codons and strong Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequences. Transcribed pseudogenes also contained multiple "in-frame" stop codons and high Ka/Ks ratios, compared to that of homologs in M. tuberculosis and ORFs in M. leprae. A pseudogene transcript containing an active promoter, strong SD site, a start codon, but containing two in frame stop codons yielded a protein product when expressed in E. coli. Conclusion Approximately half of M. leprae's transcriptome consists of inactive gene products consuming energy and resources without potential benefit to M. leprae. Presently it is unclear what additional detrimental affect(s this large number of inactive mRNAs has on the functional capability of this organism. Translation of these pseudogenes may play an important role in overall energy consumption and resultant pathophysiological characteristics of M. leprae. However, this study also demonstrated that multiple translational "silencing" mechanisms are present

  7. High-Efficiency Perovskite Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Devices by Effective Washing Process and Interfacial Energy Level Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takayuki; Hoshi, Keigo; Pu, Yong-Jin; Takeda, Yuya; Hayashi, Yukihiro; Ohisa, Satoru; Kawata, So; Kido, Junji

    2017-05-31

    All inorganic perovskites quantum dots (PeQDs) have attracted much attention for used in thin film display applications and solid-state lighting applications, owing to their narrow band emission with high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs), color tunability, and solution processability. Here, we fabricated low-driving-voltage and high-efficiency CsPbBr3 PeQDs light-emitting devices (PeQD-LEDs) using a PeQDs washing process with an ester solvent containing butyl acetate (AcOBu) to remove excess ligands from the PeQDs. The CsPbBr3 PeQDs film washed with AcOBu exhibited a PLQY of 42%, and a narrow PL emission with a full width at half-maximum of 19 nm. We also demonstrated energy level alignment of the PeQD-LED in order to achieve effective hole injection into PeQDs from the adjacent hole injection layer. The PeQD-LED with AcOBu-washed PeQDs exhibited a maximum power efficiency of 31.7 lm W-1 and EQE of 8.73%. Control of the interfacial PeQDs through ligand removal and energy level alignment in the device structure are promising methods for obtaining high PLQYs in film state and high device efficiency.

  8. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  9. Nifty Native Implemented Functions: low-level meets high-level code

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Erlang Native Implemented Functions (NIFs) allow developers to implement functions in C (or C++) rather than Erlang. NIFs are useful for integrating high performance or legacy code in Erlang applications. The talk will cover how to implement NIFs, use cases, and common pitfalls when employing them. Further, we will discuss how and why Erlang applications, such as Riak, use NIFs. About the speaker Ian Plosker is the Technical Lead, International Operations at Basho Technologies, the makers of the open source database Riak. He has been developing software professionally for 10 years and programming since childhood. Prior to working at Basho, he developed everything from CMS to bioinformatics platforms to corporate competitive intelligence management systems. At Basho, he's been helping customers be incredibly successful using Riak.

  10. High-level Zn and Cd tolerance in Silene paradoxa L. from a moderately Cd- and Zn-contaminated copper mine tailing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnetoli, M.; Vooijs, H.; Gonelli, C.; Gabbrielli, R.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Schat, H.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc tolerance were examined in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from uncontaminated calcareous soil (CVD) and one from a mine tailing (FC) (Cd < 1-15 ppm, Zn 400-1300 ppm, pH 2-6). The mine population exhibited extremely high Zn and Cd tolerance levels, although the degrees of Cd and

  11. Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

  12. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  13. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  14. Neurophysiological markers of high anxiety level in man during the process of preparing for a visual recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremushkin, Evgeniy A; Petrenko, Nadezda E; Yakovenko, Irina A; Gordeev, Sergei A; Alipov, Nikolay N; Sergeeva, Olga V

    2017-11-16

    By means of EEG analysis the functional state of subjects with high and low levels of anxiety was studied in different periods preceding a cognitive task - a visual expression recognition. Several conditions were investigated: background/eyes closed; background/eyes opened; listening the instruction for the cognitive task; operative rest (time lapse between listening the instruction and the beginning of the task), as well as short intervals immediately preceding the exposition of target stimuli (stage of preparation) - pairs of faces pictures with identical or different emotional expressions. At all these pre-task stages high-anxiety subjects exhibited much lower amplitude values in alpha and theta bands (as compared with low-anxiety subjects). The most prominent differences were revealed in the phases of instruction listening and operative rest. These data could provide more precise electrophysiological markers of anxiety level in conditions preceeding cognitive task performance.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2007-11-15

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  16. Levels of high-mobility group box-1 in gingival crevicular fluid in nonsmokers and smokers with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a role in inflammatory disorders. Smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of HMGB1 in the gingival crevicular fluid from periodontally healthy nonsmokers, chronic periodontitis nonsmokers, and chronic periodontitis smokers. Furthermore, the relationship between levels of HMGB1 and periodontal parameters was examined. Methods: Periodontal parameters of 17 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis, nine smokers with chronic periodontitis, and nine periodontally healthy nonsmokers were examined. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected, and the levels of HMGB1 were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median level of HMGB1 was statistically significantly higher in chronic periodontitis nonsmokers (37.5 ng/mL than in chronic periodontitis smokers (9.5 ng/mL and periodontally healthy nonsmokers (3.7 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in the levels of HMGB1 between chronic periodontitis smokers and periodontally healthy nonsmokers. Levels of HMGB1 were positively correlated with plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level of nonsmokers. However, no significant correlations were found between levels of HMGB1 and all periodontal parameters examined in chronic periodontitis smokers. Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis nonsmokers had elevated levels of HMGB1 in gingival crevicular fluid. Moreover, the levels of HMGB1 were correlated with severity of periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis smokers exhibited lower levels of HMGB1 than chronic periodontitis nonsmokers. Further research is needed for understanding the role of HMGB1 in smoking and pathogenesis of periodontitis. Keywords: gingival crevicular fluid, high-mobility group box-1, periodontitis, smoking

  17. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  18. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  19. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  1. Observation of new high-lying odd levels of U I in a two-color multiphoton ionization spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, B.M.; Dasgupta, K.; Bajaj, P.N.; Manohar, K.G.; Talukdar, R.; Chakraborti, P.K.; Rao, P.R.K.

    1987-11-01

    A two-color three-photon ionization technique, using two pulsed dye lasers, was employed to explore the high-lying energy levels of U I. A number of new U I levels in the 34 290--35 120-cm/sup -1/ region was observed. Uncertainty in the assignment of J values to some levels known from earlier studies was also reduced or removed.

  2. High level of gentamicin resistance (HLGR) among enterococcus strains isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadfarma, Narges; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Oskoui, Mahvash; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh

    2013-06-01

    Enterococci are pathogens that can cause nosocomial infections and acquire resistance properties via several molecular mechanisms. The aac (6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene plays a significant role in the emergence of high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) strains. The screening of resistant strains and the provision of appropriate antibiotic therapy can decide the outcome of serious nosocomial infections. In the present study, 142 enterococci were isolated from patients, and the species were identified using standard methods. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method, and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of gentamicin was determined according to the broth micro-dilution method. Additionally, PCR was utilized to detect the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene, the presence of which was confirmed by digestion with Sca1 and sequencing. Of the 142 isolates, 62 (43.7%) were found to exhibit the HLGR phenotype. All except one of the HLGR isolates contained the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics and multi-drug resistance (MDR) was higher among the HLGR isolates compared to the non-HLGR isolates. Our results indicate that high prevalence rates of MDR and HLGR enterococci are an important problem associated with medical treatment. Furthermore, the presence of the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene was shown to correspond to the presence of the HLGR phenotype among enterococci. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  4. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  5. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  6. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  7. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Emily E.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. PMID

  8. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  9. Principles for Language Extensions to VHDL to Support High-Level Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, Peter J.; Philip A. Wilsey

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews proposals for extensions to VHDL to support high-level modeling and places them within a taxonomy that describes the modeling requirements they address. Many of the proposals focus on object-oriented extensions, whereas this paper argues that extension of VHDL to support high-level modeling requires a broader review. The paper presents a detailed discussion of issues to be considered in adding high-level modeling extensions to VHDL, including concurrency and ...

  10. Abnormal lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and high plasma testosterone levels in male but not female aromatase-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Machida, Shuichi; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Takaoka, Osamu; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-05-15

    Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression. Interestingly, we found that hepatic steatosis was accompanied by markedly elevated plasma testosterone levels in male ArKO mice but not in female ArKO mice. Plasma lipoprotein profiles exhibited concurrent decreases in LDL- and small dense LDL-triglyceride (TG) levels in male ArKO mice. Moreover, male mice, but not female mice, exhibited marked elevations in androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and CD36 expression. These results strongly suggest that Cyp19 gene disruption, which induces a sexually dimorphic response and high plasma testosterone levels in male mice, also induces hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its......Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  12. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  13. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Lind, K., E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[ε(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  14. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  15. Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High levels of self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary level clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mostert Wentzel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-management is a vital element in the care of type 2diabetes patients.  In turn, self-efficacy plays a major role in patients’ self-management. Self-efficacy is the patient’s personal judgement of his/herconfidence in performing aspects of diabetes self-management.  This study investigated the level of self-efficacy of patients attending the Pretoria Academic Hospital Diabetes Clinic, in the light of high levels ofre-admission due to complications, suggesting low self-efficacy levels. Eighty type 2 diabetes patients, mean age of 59 years, completed thepublished IDEA LL baseline questionnaire, to establish a self-efficacyscore.  Relationships between self-efficacy and demographic factors wereinvestigated using the chi-square test. The mean self-efficacy level of thesample population is excellent (mean = 85.44%.A lthough self-reported self-efficacy levels are excellent, in comparison to the Sarkar study (2006 in which participants only scored “fair”, it is speculated that self-efficacy is not transferred to self-management behaviour in thispopulation.  Afrikaans and English speaking participants score significantly better than those from other language categories. There is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and level of education and employment status (tendedtowards significance with p values of 0.06 and 0.07 respectively. A lthough self-efficacy scores of clients at this tertiary level outpatient clinic are excellent, further research is necessary to quantify self-management strategies andto correlate these with self-efficacy levels.

  17. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 °C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ≈ 4.0-8.0 × 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ≈ 2.0-4.0 × 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  18. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 is reliable in young high-level soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Deprez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate test reliability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1 in 36 high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. Players were divided into three age groups (U15, U17 and U19 and completed three YYIR1 in three consecutive weeks. Pairwise comparisons were used to investigate test reliability (for distances and heart rate responses using technical error (TE, coefficient of variation (CV, intra-class correlation (ICC and limits of agreement (LOA with Bland-Altman plots. The mean YYIR1 distances for the U15, U17 and U19 groups were 2024 ± 470 m, 2404 ± 347 m and 2547 ± 337 m, respectively. The results revealed that the TEs varied between 74 and 172 m, CVs between 3.0 and 7.5%, and ICCs between 0.87 and 0.95 across all age groups for the YYIR1 distance. For heart rate responses, the TEs varied between 1 and 6 bpm, CVs between 0.7 and 4.8%, and ICCs between 0.73 and 0.97. The small ratio LOA revealed that any two YYIR1 performances in one week will not differ by more than 9 to 28% due to measurement error. In summary, the YYIR1 performance and the physiological responses have proven to be highly reliable in a sample of Belgian high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. The demonstrated high level of intermittent endurance capacity in all age groups may be used for comparison of other prospective young soccer players.

  19. Fe I Oscillator Strengths for Transitions from High-lying Odd-parity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, M. T.; Pickering, J. C.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Guzman, A.; Heiter, U.

    2017-10-01

    We report new experimental Fe I oscillator strengths obtained by combining measurements of branching fractions measured with a Fourier Transform spectrometer and time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence lifetimes. This study covers the spectral region ranging from 213 to 1033 nm. A total of 120 experimental {log}({gf})-values coming from 15 odd-parity energy levels are provided, 22 of which have not been reported previously and 63 of which have values with lower uncertainty than the existing data. The radiative lifetimes for 60 upper energy levels are presented, 39 of which have no previous measurements.

  20. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  1. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  2. Explaining Gaps in Readiness for College-Level Math: The Role of High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice; Conger, Dylan

    2009-01-01

    Despite increased requirements for high school graduation, almost one-third of the nation's college freshmen are unprepared for college-level math. The need for remediation is particularly high among students who are low income, Hispanic, and black. Female students are also less likely than males to be ready for college-level math. This article…

  3. Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et al.in "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…

  4. Changes in Badminton Game Play across Developmental Skill Levels among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    The study examined changes in badminton game play across developmental skill levels among high school students in a physical education setting. Videotapes of badminton game play of 80 students (40 boys and 40 girls) in the four developmental skill levels (each skill level had 10 boys and 10 girls) were randomly selected from a database associated…

  5. High-level gentamicin resistance and vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of enterococci in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, H P; Khanal, B; Acharya, A; Gyawali, N; Jha, P K; Paudel, R

    2012-03-01

    High-level gentamicin resistance and vancomycin resistance in enterococci, a family of important opportunistic pathogens, have emerged as a significant clinical problem over recent years. The present study was conducted to determine the high-level gentamicin and vancomycin resistance among the clinical isolates of enterococci. A total of 110 phenotypically identified enterococcal isolates were subjected to determination of high-level gentamicin resistance (by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods) and vancomycin resistance (by agar screening and agar dilution methods). About 36% of the isolates were found to have high-level gentamicin resistance, which indicates that gentamicin no longer remains an appropriate choice for inclusion in combination therapy with cell wall-active agents. Ten percent isolates exhibited resisance to vancomycin during screening. However, agar dilution confirmed that the isolates did not have resistance to vancomycin but had reduced susceptibility to it, which indicates their impending emergence of resistance to vancomycin.

  6. High-spin level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 91Y

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Yong-De; Liu, Min-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Wang, Kai-Long; Wang, Jian-Guo; Guo, Song; Qiang, Yun-Hua; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Ning-Tao; Li, Guang-Shun; Gao, Bing-Shui; Wu, Xiao-Guang; He, Chuang-Ye; Zheng, Yun

    2015-01-01

    High-spin level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 91Y has been reinvestigated via the 82Se(13C, p3n)91Y reaction. A newly constructed level scheme including several key levels clarifies the uncertainties in the earlier studies. These levels are characterized by the breaking of the Z=38 and N=56 subshell closures, which involves in the spin-isospin dependent central force and tensor force.

  7. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  8. A microporous MOF with a polar pore surface exhibiting excellent selective adsorption of CO2 from CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures with high CO2 loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arun; Chand, Santanu; Elahi, Syed Meheboob; Das, Madhab C

    2017-10-25

    A microporous MOF {[Zn(SDB)(L)0.5]·S}n (IITKGP-5) with a polar pore surface has been constructed by the combination of a V-shaped -SO2 functionalized organic linker (H2SDB = 4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) with an N-rich spacer (L = 2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene), forming a network with sql(2,6L1) topology. IITKGP-5 is characterized by TGA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The framework exhibits lozenge-shaped channels of an approximate size of 4.2 × 5.6 Å(2) along the crystallographic b axis with a potential solvent accessible volume of 26%. The activated IITKGP-5a revealed a CO2 uptake capacity of 56.4 and 49 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K/1 atm and 295 K/1 atm, respectively. On the contrary, it takes up a much smaller amount of CH4 (17 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K and 13.6 cm(3) g(-1) at 295 K) and N2 (5.5 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K; 4 cm(3) g(-1) at 295 K) under 1 atm pressure exhibiting its potential for a highly selective adsorption of CO2 from flue gas as well as a landfill gas mixture. Based on the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST), a CO2/N2 selectivity of 435.5 and a CO2/CH4 selectivity of 151.6 have been realized at 273 K/100 kPa. The values at 295 K are 147.8 for CO2/N2 and 23.8 for CO2/CH4 gas mixtures under 100 kPa. In addition, this MOF nearly approaches the target values proposed for PSA and TSA processes for practical utility exhibiting its prospect for flue gas separation with a CO2 loading capacity of 2.04 mmol g(-1).

  9. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  10. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among player positions at three grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study [mean height (Ht) ± standard deviation (SD) = 178 ± 7 cm, weight (Wt) = 86 ± 19 kg]. Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight two-way (9x3) mixed factorial ANOVAs [position (defensive back (DB), defensive end (DE), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), offensive lineman (OL), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), and wide receiver (WR) x grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)] were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure [Ht, Wt, 40-yard (40yd) dash, pro-agility drill (PA), L-cone drill (LC), vertical jump (VJ), and broad jump (BJ)]. There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Wt, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. RBs were the shortest, while DBs and WRs weighed the least, and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as 'line' vs. 'skill' vs. 'big skill' when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  11. High performance few-layer MoS2 transistor arrays with wafer level homogeneity integrated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianbao; Wang, Yang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Hao; Sun, Qingqing; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-01

    Wafer-level integration of 2D transition metal disulfide is the key factor for future large-scale integration of the continuously scaling-down devices, and has attracted great attention in recent years. Compared with other ultra-thin film growth methods, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has the advantages of excellent step coverage, uniformity and thickness controllability. In this work, we synthesized large-scale and thickness-controllable MoS2 films on sapphire substrate by ALD at 150 °C with molybdenum hexcarbonyl and hexamethyldisilathiane (HMDST) as precursors followed by high-temperature annealing in sulfur atmosphere. HMDST is introduced for the first time to enable a toxic-free process without hazardous sulfur precursors such as H2S and CH3SSCH3. The synthesized MoS2 retains the inherent benefits from the ALD process, including thickness controllability, reproducibility, wafer-level thickness uniformity, and high conformity. Finally, field-effect transistor (FET) arrays were fabricated based on the large-area ALD MoS2 films. The top-gate FETs exhibited excellent electrical performance such as high on/off current ratio over 103 and peak room-temperature mobility up to 11.56 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. This work opens up an attractive approach to realize the application of high-quality 2D materials with wafer scale homogeneity.

  12. High-level expression in Escherichia coli, purification and mosquito-larvicidal activity of the binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Promdonkoy, Peerada; Panyim, Sakol

    2008-12-01

    The mosquito-larvicidal binary toxin produced by Bacillus sphaericus consists of two polypeptides: BinA and BinB. Both proteins function together, and maximum toxicity is obtained when both are present in equimolar ratio. Cloning and expression of each component separately in heterologous hosts led to low toxicity of the crystal proteins. To improve the expression level, the purification process, and the activity of the binary toxin, the binA and binB genes were separately cloned in Escherichia coli. Each gene was fused in frame to the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene to be expressed as GST-fusion protein (GST-BinA and GST-BinB). A high expression level was observed from both constructs, and the fusion proteins exhibited high toxicity to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. High-purity toxin could be obtained by affinity chromatography. The result suggests that GST moiety facilitates high protein production and enables better solubility of the toxin inclusions inside the larval gut, leading to higher toxicity of the fusion protein.

  13. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tim; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  14. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  15. Probabilistic Learning in Junior High School: Investigation of Student Probabilistic Thinking Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper was to investigate level on students’ probabilistic thinking. Probabilistic thinking level is level of probabilistic thinking. Probabilistic thinking is thinking about probabilistic or uncertainty matter in probability material. The research’s subject was students in grade 8th Junior High School students. The main instrument is a researcher and a supporting instrument is probabilistic thinking skills test and interview guidelines. Data was analyzed using triangulation method. The results showed that the level of students probabilistic thinking before obtaining a teaching opportunity at the level of subjective and transitional. After the students’ learning level probabilistic thinking is changing. Based on the results of research there are some students who have in 8th grade level probabilistic thinking numerically highest of levels. Level of students’ probabilistic thinking can be used as a reference to make a learning material and strategy.

  16. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  17. High-level mobility outcomes following acquired brain injury: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin P; Morris, Meg E

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a high-level mobility programme for people with acquired brain injury (ABI). A cohort study which evaluated the efficacy of a high-level mobility programme for people with ABI. A major rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-eight people with acquired brain injury. A 3 month high-level mobility programme conducted twice weekly consisting of strengthening exercises, pre-running and running drills and agility exercises supplemented with a gym or home exercise programme. The primary outcome measure was the high-level mobility assessment tool (HiMAT). Participants were predominantly male and young (average age 33.2 years, range 16-72 years) with chronic ABI. HiMAT scores for the 28 participants who returned at the 3 month follow-up initially ranged from 6-44 points (mean 20.3). The 3 month follow-up scores ranged from 12-51 points (mean 29.2). The mean HiMAT score change ranged from 2-20 points (mean 8.9). Significant recovery in high-level mobility was achieved during a 3 month running programme. People with chronic ABI may also expect to benefit from retraining high-level mobility. Clinical trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of training programmes for high-level mobility.

  18. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  19. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  20. A framework for the definition of variants of high-level Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    with data-type specific issues, which often blocks the view for the really relevant parts. Even worse, supposedly simpler versions of high-level nets often are more difficult to define than high-level nets in general. This paper introduces the concepts and the mathematical tools to ease the definition...... analysis algorithms for symmetric nets. During the standardisation of high-level nets and some of their variations, it turned out that defining the legal data types and the operations on them is the most difficult part. In particular, these definitions become lengthy and mix Petri net specific issues...