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Sample records for exhibit amyloidosis-enhancing activity

  1. Mouse senile amyloid fibrils deposited in skeletal muscle exhibit amyloidosis-enhancing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Qian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis describes a group of protein folding diseases in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues as fine fibrils. Mouse senile amyloidosis is a disorder in which apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II deposits as amyloid fibrils (AApoAII and can be transmitted from one animal to another both by the feces and milk excreted by mice with amyloidosis. Thus, mouse AApoAII amyloidosis has been demonstrated to be a "transmissible disease". In this study, to further characterize the transmissibility of amyloidosis, AApoAII amyloid fibrils were injected into transgenic Apoa2(cTg(+/- and normal R1.P1-Apoa2(c mice to induce AApoAII systemic amyloidosis. Two months later, AApoAII amyloid deposits were found in the skeletal muscles of amyloid-affected mice, primarily in the blood vessels and in the interstitial tissues surrounding muscle fibers. When amyloid fibrils extracted from the skeletal muscles were subjected to Western blot analysis, apoA-II was detected. Amyloid fibril fractions isolated from the muscles not only demonstrated the structure of amyloid fibrils but could also induce amyloidosis in young mice depending on its fibril conformation. These findings present a possible pathogenesis of amyloidosis: transmission of amyloid fibril conformation through muscle, and shed new light on the etiology involved in amyloid disorders.

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  5. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. M. Shanab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase. The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water. Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80% compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%. However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.. Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction.

  6. [Polysuccinimide exhibited antitumor activity in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, L A; Korman, D B; Varfolomeev, S D; Goldberg, V A; Fomina, M M; Bluhterova, N V; Rikova, V A

    2015-01-01

    Antitumor activity of the novel for oncology compound, such as polysuccinimide, against some of experimental tumor models (Lewis lung carcinoma, Acatol adenocarcinoma, Ca-755 adenocarcinoma) has been established. This drug induced 60-80% tumor growth inhibition of these murine solid tumor strains. Polysuccinimide is also effective (60%) against development of metastatic process in lung (Lewis lung carcinoma). Polysuccinimide causes no changes in pH level in tumor tissue (P-388 leukemia, Acatol adenocarcinoma). This agent may be recommended for further profound preclinical study.

  7. Biologically active heteroarotinoids exhibiting anticancer activity and decreased toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrook, D M; Madler, M M; Spruce, L W; Birckbichler, P J; Nelson, E C; Subramanian, S; Weerasekare, G M; Gale, J B; Patterson, M K; Wang, B; Wang, W; Lu, S; Rowland, T C; DiSivestro, P; Lindamood, C; Hill, D L; Berlin, K D

    1997-10-24

    A series of retinoids, containing heteroatoms in a cyclic ring and called heteroarotinoids, were synthesized, and their biological activity was evaluated using tissue culture lines that have measurable responses to trans-retinoic acid (t-RA). Transglutaminase (TGase) was assessed in the human erythroleukemia cell line (GMO6141A) as an indicator of differentiation and apoptosis. Proliferation was evaluated in a human cervical cell line, CC-1, which exhibits dose-dependent alterations in growth rate in response to treatment with trans-retinoic acid. Activation of nuclear retinoic acid receptors was determined in a reporter cell line established from CC-1. The reporter line, called CC-B, contains a reporter gene controlled by a retinoic acid responsive element (RARE) and a thymidine kinase (tk) promoter. Treatment of the CC-B line with the heteroarotinoids resulted in a dose-responsive and retinoid-dependent regulation of reporter gene expression. The heteroarotinoids exhibited activity in all assays and correlated in a statistically significant manner between assays. RARE transactivation activity in CC-B cells correlated with induction of TGase in GMO6141A (R = 0.96) and with a decrease in the growth rate of CC-1 cells (R = -0.90). The ability of the selected heteroarotinoids to induce differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and activate nuclear receptors demonstrates the chemotherapeutic potential of these agents. In view of the biological activity cited, an in vivo toxicity study was conducted on male B6D2F1 mice with three heteroarotinoids, namely 8 [(2E,4E,6E)-3,7-dimethyl-7-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4,4-dimeth ylthiochroman-6-yl)-2,4,6-heptatrienoic acid], 10 [(2E,4E,6E)-3,7-dimethyl-7-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4,4-dimeth ylchroman-6-yl)-2, 4,6-heptatrienoic acid], and 13 [(E)-p-[2-(4,4-dimethylchroman-6-yl)propenyl]benzoic acid]. The mice were used with gavage of heteroarotinoids in corn oil [0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg] and with 0.01 or 0.05 mg/kg of TTNPB (5) [(E)-4

  8. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  9. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

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    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  10. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  11. Bougainvillea spectabilis Exhibits Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activities in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pratibha; Mahajan, Sunil; Kulshrestha, Archana; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Sharma, Bechan; Goswamy, H M; Prasad, G B K S

    2016-07-01

    The study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and on DNA damage, if any, as well as on liver and kidney functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Daily administration of the aqueous extract of B spectabilis leaves for 28 days resulted in significant reduction in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia as evident from restoration of relevant biochemical markers following extract administration. The extract also exhibited significant antioxidant activity as evidenced from the enzymatic and nonenzymatic responses and DNA damage markers. The extract restored kidney and liver functions to normal and proved to be nontoxic. A marked improvement in the histological changes of tissues was also observed. The present study documented antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative potentials of the aqueous extract of B spectabilis leaves without any toxicity in streptozotocin-treated Wistar rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential

    OpenAIRE

    ALAM, BADRUL; MAJUMDER, RAJIB; AKTER, SHAHINA; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor vo...

  13. Pomegranate extract exhibits in vitro activity against Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Sydney M; Summanen, Paula H; Corbett, Karen; Downes, Julia; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-10-01

    To determine the possible utility of pomegranate extract in the management or prevention of Clostridium difficile infections or colonization. The activity of pomegranate was tested against 29 clinical C. difficile isolates using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved agar dilution technique. Total phenolics content of the pomegranate extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and final concentrations of 6.25 to 400 μg/mL gallic acid equivalent were achieved in the agar. All strains had MICs at 12.5 to 25 mg/mL gallic acid equivalent range. Our results suggest antimicrobial in vitro activity for pomegranate extract against toxigenic C. difficile. Pomegranate extract may be a useful contributor to the management and prevention of C. difficile disease or colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalase-peroxidases (KatG) exhibit NADH oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Wiseman, Ben; Deemagarn, Taweewat; Donald, Lynda J; Duckworth, Harry W; Carpena, Xavi; Fita, Ignacio; Loewen, Peter C

    2004-10-08

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatG) produced by Burkholderia pseudomallei, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyze the oxidation of NADH to form NAD+ and either H2O2 or superoxide radical depending on pH. The NADH oxidase reaction requires molecular oxygen, does not require hydrogen peroxide, is not inhibited by superoxide dismutase or catalase, and has a pH optimum of 8.75, clearly differentiating it from the peroxidase and catalase reactions with pH optima of 5.5 and 6.5, respectively, and from the NADH peroxidase-oxidase reaction of horseradish peroxidase. B. pseudomallei KatG has a relatively high affinity for NADH (Km=12 microm), but the oxidase reaction is slow (kcat=0.54 min(-1)) compared with the peroxidase and catalase reactions. The catalase-peroxidases also catalyze the hydrazinolysis of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) in an oxygen- and H2O2-independent reaction, and KatG-dependent radical generation from a mixture of NADH and INH is two to three times faster than the combined rates of separate reactions with NADH and INH alone. The major products from the coupled reaction, identified by high pressure liquid chromatography fractionation and mass spectrometry, are NAD+ and isonicotinoyl-NAD, the activated form of isoniazid that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis in M. tuberculosis. Isonicotinoyl-NAD synthesis from a mixture of NAD+ and INH is KatG-dependent and is activated by manganese ion. M. tuberculosis KatG catalyzes isonicotinoyl-NAD formation from NAD+ and INH more efficiently than B. pseudomallei KatG.

  15. Alkaloids from Piper nigrum Exhibit Antiinflammatory Activity via Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Quynh Mai Thi; Tran, Phuong Thao; Tran, Manh Hung; Kim, Jeong Ah; Rho, Seong Soo; Lim, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Min, Byung Sun

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, ten alkaloids, namely chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), pyrroperine (4), isopiperolein B (5), piperamide C9:1 (8E) (6), 6,7-dehydrobrachyamide B (7), 4,5-dihydropiperine (8), dehydropipernonaline (9), and piperine (10), were isolated from the fruits of Piper nigrum. Among these, chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), retrofractamide A (3), isopiperolein B (5), and 6,7-dehydrobrachyamide B (7) exhibited significant inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 6.8, 14.5, 30.2, 23.7, and 38.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in bone marrow-derived macrophages with IC50 value of 9.5 μM. Consistent with NO inhibition, treatment of RAW264.7 cells with chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7-dehydrobrachyamide B (7) suppressed expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Chabamide (1), pellitorine (2), and 6,7-dehydrobrachyamide B (7) induced heme-oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional level. In addition, compound 1 induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 target genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase catalytic subunit, in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. These findings suggest that chabamide (1) from P. nigrum exert antiinflammatory effects via the activation of the Nrf2/heme-oxygenase-1 pathway; hence, it might be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma; Isao Yumoto; Hideyuki Kimoto; Kazuaki Yoshimune

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...

  17. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420

  18. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Matsuyma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii, that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1 that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2 under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NARROW SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA by Caitlin M. Barrows Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer...AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Caitlin M. Barrows, Courtney M...antimicrobials which have been implicated as a critical cause of the rise of drug resistant bacteria . Additionally, the presence of females in the field

  20. Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiviral activity against systemic Murine Cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juteau Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (PS-ONs have a sequence-independent, broad spectrum antiviral activity as amphipathic polymers (APs and exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, EBV, and HHV-6A/B, and in vivo activity in a murine microbiocide model of genital HSV-2 infection. The activity of these agents against animal cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in vitro and in vivo was therefore investigated. Results In vitro, a 40 mer degenerate AP (REP 9 inhibited both murine CMV (MCMV and guinea pig CMV (GPCMV with an IC50 of 0.045 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively, and a 40 mer poly C AP (REP 9C inhibited MCMV with an IC50 of 0.05 μM. Addition of REP 9 to plaque assays during the first two hours of infection inhibited 78% of plaque formation whereas addition of REP 9 after 10 hours of infection did not significantly reduce the number of plaques, indicating that REP 9 antiviral activity against MCMV occurs at early times after infection. In a murine model of CMV infection, systemic treatment for 5 days significantly reduced virus replication in the spleens and livers of infected mice compared to saline-treated control mice. REP 9 and REP 9C were administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days at 10 mg/kg, starting 2 days prior to MCMV infection. Splenomegaly was observed in infected mice treated with REP 9 but not in control mice or in REP 9 treated, uninfected mice, consistent with mild CpG-like activity. When REP 9C (which lacks CpG motifs was compared to REP 9, it exhibited comparable antiviral activity as REP 9 but was not associated with splenomegaly. This suggests that the direct antiviral activity of APs is the predominant therapeutic mechanism in vivo. Moreover, REP 9C, which is acid stable, was effective when administered orally in combination with known permeation enhancers. Conclusion These studies indicate that APs exhibit potent, well tolerated

  1. Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented Activity and Z-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrugh, Lauren E.; Herbert, Myles B.; Marx, Vanessa M.; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel chelated ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst bearing an N-2,6-diisopropylphenyl group is reported and displays near-perfect selectivity for the Z-olefin (>95%), as well as unparalleled TONs of up to 7400, in a variety of homodimerization and industrially relevant metathesis reactions. This derivative and other new catalytically-active species were synthesized using an improved method employing sodium carboxylates to induce the salt metathesis and C-H activation of these chelated complexes. All of these new ruthenium-based catalysts are highly Z-selective in the homodimerization of terminal olefins. PMID:23317178

  2. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole hydrazide derivatives exhibiting anti-phytopathogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Dai, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fei; Cao, Ling-Ling; Yan, Wei; Li, Sheng-Kun; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2017-01-27

    A series of new 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have been prepared and screened for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelium growth inhibition method in vitro. The results indicated that the 1,2,3-triazole hydrazide scaffold displayed significant antifungal activity. Compound 6ad exhibited the most potent anti-phytopathogenic activity, with EC50 values of 0.18, 0.35, 0.37 and 2.25 μg mL-1 against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum, and Magnaporthe oryzae, respectively. In vivo testing demonstrated that 6ad was effective for the control of rice sheath blight, rape sclerotinia rot, fusarium head blight and rice blast caused by the aforementioned phytopathogens. This work suggests that the combination of 1,2,3-triazole and hydrazide moiety could be a promising fungicide scaffold in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracts from Fermented Black Soybean Milk Exhibit Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extracts from 2-day fermented black soybean milk (FBE by immobilized Rhizopus oligosporus NTU5 have been evaluated for both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The results reveal that a 2-day FBE had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging effect (76 %. The extracts were further fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and an unknown compound, FBE5-A, was obtained, which exhibited strong antioxidant activity. IC50 of the DPPH scavenging effect of FBE5-A was 7.5 μg/mL, which is stronger than a commonly used antioxidant, vitamin E (α-tocopherol; 17.4 μg/mL, and similar to vitamin C (ascorbic acid; 7.6 μg/mL. The cytotoxic test demonstrated that extracts of 2-day fermented broth exhibited selective cytotoxic activity towards human carcinoma cells, Hep 3B (IC50=150.2 μg/mL, and did not affect normal human lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 (p<0.05. The results indicate the potential applications of fermented black soybean milk as functional food, pharmaceutical or cancer therapy formula.

  4. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  5. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue. PMID:26473885

  6. Anticancer molecule AS1411 exhibits low nanomolar antiviral activity against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métifiot, Mathieu; Amrane, Samir; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Andreola, Marie-Line

    2015-11-01

    During clinical trials, a number of fully characterized molecules are dropped along the way because they do not provide enough benefit for the patient. Some of them show limited side effects and might be of great use for other applications. AS1411 is a nucleolin-targeting aptamer that underwent phase II clinical trials as anticancer agent. Here, we show that AS1411 exhibits extremely potent antiviral activity and is therefore an attractive new lead as anti-HIV agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum Extracts Exhibit Anti-Parasitic and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Krstin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has played an important role in culinary arts and remedies in the traditional medicine throughout human history. Parasitic infections represent a burden in the society of especially poor countries, causing more than 1 billion infections every year and leading to around one million deaths. In this study, we investigated the mode of anti-parasitic activity of “wild garlics” Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum dichloromethane extracts against parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae with regard to their already known antimicrobial activity. We also evaluated their cytotoxic potential against human cells. Both extracts showed a relevant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity, although L. tarentolae was less sensitive. We determined that the probable mode of action of both extracts is the irreversible inhibition of the activity of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase enzyme. The extracts showed a mild cytotoxic activity against human keratinocytes. They also exhibited weak—in most cases comparable—antibacterial and antifungal activity. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that both extracts are abundant in sulfur compounds. Thus, for the first time, the ability of Allium ursinum and Tulbaghia violacea to kill Trypanosoma sp. and Leishmania sp. parasites, probably by binding to and inactivating sulfur-containing compounds essential for the survival of the parasite, is shown.

  8. Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum Extracts Exhibit Anti-Parasitic and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Sonja; Sobeh, Mansour; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Wink, Michael

    2018-02-02

    Garlic has played an important role in culinary arts and remedies in the traditional medicine throughout human history. Parasitic infections represent a burden in the society of especially poor countries, causing more than 1 billion infections every year and leading to around one million deaths. In this study, we investigated the mode of anti-parasitic activity of "wild garlics" Tulbaghia violacea and Allium ursinum dichloromethane extracts against parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae with regard to their already known antimicrobial activity. We also evaluated their cytotoxic potential against human cells. Both extracts showed a relevant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity, although L. tarentolae was less sensitive. We determined that the probable mode of action of both extracts is the irreversible inhibition of the activity of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase enzyme. The extracts showed a mild cytotoxic activity against human keratinocytes. They also exhibited weak-in most cases comparable-antibacterial and antifungal activity. HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that both extracts are abundant in sulfur compounds. Thus, for the first time, the ability of Allium ursinum and Tulbaghia violacea to kill Trypanosoma sp. and Leishmania sp. parasites, probably by binding to and inactivating sulfur-containing compounds essential for the survival of the parasite, is shown.

  9. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  10. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL. Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  11. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

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    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  12. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Li-Hui; Liu, Kun-Peng; Pan, Hao; He, Jian; Cai, Ji-Ye; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb) is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1) and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+) T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65), it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65). In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  13. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world.

  14. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

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    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  15. 76 FR 4929 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry of Articles for Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Exhibition. AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day... Entry of Articles for Exhibition (19 CFR 147.11(c)). This request for comment is being made pursuant to... for Exhibition. OMB Number: 1651-0037. Form Number: None. Abstract: Goods entered for exhibit at fairs...

  16. Hsp90 inhibitors exhibit resistance-free antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Geller

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children, leading to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite its medical importance, no vaccine or effective therapeutic interventions are currently available. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify novel antiviral drugs to combat RSV infections. Hsp90, a cellular protein-folding factor, has been shown to play an important role in the replication of numerous viruses. We here demonstrate that RSV requires Hsp90 for replication. Mechanistic studies reveal that inhibition of Hsp90 during RSV infection leads to the degradation of a viral protein similar in size to the RSV L protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, implicating it as an Hsp90 client protein. Accordingly, Hsp90 inhibitors exhibit antiviral activity against laboratory and clinical isolates of RSV in both immortalized as well as primary differentiated airway epithelial cells. Interestingly, we find a high barrier to the emergence of drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors, as extensive growth of RSV under conditions of Hsp90 inhibition did not yield mutants with reduced sensitivity to these drugs. Our results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may present attractive antiviral therapeutics for treatment of RSV infections and highlight the potential of chaperone inhibitors as antivirals exhibiting high barriers to development of drug resistance.

  17. pH-induced quaternary assembly of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin: the monomer exhibits better peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Yubin; Xu, Haoran; Wu, Lei; Cao, Yufeng; Zhao, Haifeng; Li, Zhengqiang

    2013-10-01

    pH-dependent (pH6.0-8.0) quaternary structural changes of ferric Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) have been investigated using dynamic light scattering. The VHb exhibits a monomeric state under neutral conditions at pH7.0, while the protein forms distinct homodimeric species at pH6.0 and 8.0, respectively. The dissociation constant obtained using the Bio-Layer Interferometry technology indicates that, at pH7.0, the monomer-monomer dissociation of VHb is about 6-fold or 5-fold higher (KD=6.34μM) compared with that at slightly acidic pH (KD=1.05μM) or slightly alkaline pH (KD=1.22μM). The pH-dependent absorption spectra demonstrate that the heme microenvironment of VHb is sensitive to the changes of pH value. The maximum absorption band of heme group of VHb shifts from 402nm to 407nm when pH changes from 6.0 to 8.0. In addition, the fluorescence emission spectra of VHb, taken at excitation wavelength of 295nm, suggest that the single Trp122 fluorescence quantum yields in VHb are decreased due to the formation of the homodimeric species. However, the circular dichroism spectra data display that the secondary structures of VHb are little affected by pH transitions. The pH-dependent peroxidase activity of VHb was also investigated in this study. The optimum pH for VHb using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate is 7.0, which implies that the monomer state of VHb would exhibit better peroxidase activity than the homodimeric species of VHb at pH6.0 and 8.0. © 2013.

  18. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthéfane G. Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  19. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Sthéfane G; Alves, Lucas F; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A; Oliveira, Graziela T; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Ferreira, Jaqueline M S; Lima, Luciana A R S

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  20. Bulbispermine: A Crinine-Type Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Exhibiting Cytostatic Activity towards Apoptosis-Resistant Glioma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Johnston, Robert; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Hayden, Kathryn; Andolfi, Anna; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Reisenauer, Mary R.; Champion, Cody; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Magedov, Igor V.; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio; Rogelj, Snezna; Kornienko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloid bulbispermine was derivatized to produce a small group of synthetic analogues. These, together with bulbispermine’s natural crinine-type congeners, were evaluated in vitro against a panel of cancer cell lines with various levels of resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. Bulbispermine, haemanthamine and haemanthidine showed the most potent antiproliferative activities as determined by the MTT colorimetric assay. Among the synthetic bulbispermine analogues, only the C1,C2-dicarbamate derivative exhibited noteworthy growth inhibitory properties. All active compounds were found not to discriminate between the cancer cell lines based on the apoptosis sensitivity criterion and displayed comparable potencies in both cell types, indicating that apoptosis induction is not the primary mechanism responsible for antiproliferative activity in this series of compounds. It was also found that bulbispermine inhibits the proliferation of glioblastoma cells through cytostatic effects, possibly arising from the rigidification of the actin cytoskeleton. These findings lead us to argue that crinine-type alkaloids are potentially useful drug leads for the treatment of apoptosis resistant cancers and glioblastoma in particular. PMID:22389235

  1. 76 FR 17425 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry of Articles for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Exhibition AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice... approval in accordance with the Paperwork ] Reduction Act: Entry of Articles for Exhibition (19 CFR 147.11.... Title: Entry of Articles for Exhibition. OMB Number: 1651-0037. Form Number: None. Abstract: Goods...

  2. Methanol leaves extract Hibiscus micranthus Linn exhibited antibacterial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Berhan; Mishra, Bharat; Tsegaw, Asegedech; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2017-06-26

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively. In vitro antibacterial screening was carried out against S. aureus, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis bacterial strains using disc-well diffusion assay. Would healing activity was done in rats divided into four groups each consisting of six animals. Group I was served as a negative control (ointment base), Group II served as a positive control Nitrofurazone (NFZ 0.2% ointment), Groups III and IV was treated 5 and 10% extracts respectively. The acute oral toxicity test and skin sensitivity test were also performed before conducting the actual study. The extract was analyzed for secondary metabolites using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening have revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, diterpines, anthraquinones and the absence of glycosides, terpinoides and triterpines. Based on acute oral toxicity test the extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 2 g/kg. In addition, acute dermal toxicity test indicated no sign of skin irritation. The leaves extract exhibited varying degrees of sensitivity with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.00 ± 0.333 (S.pyogenes) to 22.67 ± 1.202 mm (S.aureus). It was found that S. aureus and S. pneumonia (p healing study, the 5 and 10% w/w extract exhibited significant wound contraction rate of 99.30% and 99.13% as compared to NFZ ointment and simple ointment base

  3. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypothesis, crude lysates of different organs of Naja naja karachiensis (black cobra) were tested for antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were tested against selected bacterial pathogens (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumonia), protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii), and filamentous fungus (Fusarium solani). The findings revealed that plasma and various organ extracts of N. n. karachiensis exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli K1, MRSA, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, A. castellanii, and F. solani in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of this study are promising for the development of new antimicrobials.

  4. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  5. New Derivatives of Pyridoxine Exhibit High Antibacterial Activity against Biofilm-Embedded Staphylococcus Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airat R. Kayumov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis often form rigid biofilms on tissues and inorganic surfaces. In the biofilm bacterial cells are embedded in a self-produced polysaccharide matrix and thereby are inaccessible to biocides, antibiotics, or host immune system. Here we show the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized cationic biocides, the quaternary ammonium, and bisphosphonium salts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6 against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. The derivatives of 6-hydroxymethylpyridoxine were ineffective against biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations up to 64 μg/mL, although all compounds tested exhibited low MICs (2 μg/mL against planktonic cells. In contrast, the quaternary ammonium salt of pyridoxine (N,N-dimethyl-N-((2,2,8-trimethyl-4H-[1,3]dioxino[4,5-c]pyridin-5-ylmethyloctadecan-1-aminium chloride (3 demonstrated high biocidal activity against both planktonic and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Thus, the complete death of biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells was obtained at concentrations of 64 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that the quaternary ammonium salts of pyridoxine are perspective to design new synthetic antibiotics and disinfectants for external application against biofilm-embedded cells.

  6. A peptide derived from phage display library exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpakala Sainath Rao

    Full Text Available Emergence of drug resistant strains to currently available antibiotics has resulted in the quest for novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are receiving attention as alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we used phage-display random peptide library to identify peptides binding to the cell surface of E. coli. The peptide with sequence RLLFRKIRRLKR (EC5 bound to the cell surface of E. coli and exhibited certain features common to AMPs and was rich in Arginine and Lysine residues. Antimicrobial activity of the peptide was tested in vitro by growth inhibition assays and the bacterial membrane permeabilization assay. The peptide was highly active against gram-negative organisms and showed significant bactericidal activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa resulting in a reduction of 5 log(10 CFU/ml. In homologous plasma and platelets, incubation of EC5 with the bacteria resulted in significant reduction of E. coli and P. aeruginosa, compared to the peptide-free controls. The peptide was non-hemolytic and non-cytotoxic when tested on eukaryotic cells in culture. EC5 was able to permeabilize the outer membrane of E. coli and P. aeruginosa causing rapid depolarization of cytoplasmic membrane resulting in killing of the cells at 5 minutes of exposure. The secondary structure of the peptide showed a α-helical conformation in the presence of aqueous environment. The bacterial lipid interaction with the peptide was also investigated using Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Thus this study demonstrates that peptides identified to bind to bacterial cell surface through phage-display screening may additionally aid in identifying and developing novel antimicrobial peptides.

  7. The Personnel Competence as a Factor of Increasing the Efficiency of Exhibition and Fair Activity of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava Yermakova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical grounding of personnel importance for the efficiency of trade fair-exhibition activity. Based on the analysis, generalization and systematization of scientific sources, the basic theoretical aspects of exhibitions involving personnel qualification and review personal sales as an important, specific marketing tools are highlighted.

  8. Salidroside exhibits anti-dengue virus activity by upregulating host innate immune factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navita; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly

    2016-12-01

    Dengue is an arboviral disease with no effective therapy available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a potent antiviral agent against dengue virus (DENV). In the present study, salidroside, a main bioactive compound of Rhodiola rosea, was evaluated for its antiviral potential against DENV serotype-2 infection and its effect on host innate immune factors. Antiviral effects of salidroside were examined in DENV-infected cells by western blotting, flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Its underlying mechanism involved in antiviral action was determined by evaluating expression of host innate immune factors including RIG-I, IRF-3, IRF-7, PKR, P-eIF2α and NF-κB. Salidroside potently inhibited DENV infection by decreasing DENV envelope protein expression more than tenfold. Salidroside exerts its antiviral activity by increasing expression of RNA helicases such as RIG-I, thereby initiating a downstream signaling cascade that induces upregulation of IRF-3 and IRF-7. It prevents viral protein synthesis by increasing the expression of PKR and P-eIF2α while decreasing NF-κB expression. It was also found to induce the expression of IFN-α. In addition, the number of NK cells and CD8(+) T cells were also found to be increased by salidroside treatment in human PBMCs, which are important in limiting DENV replication during early stages of infection. The findings presented here suggest that salidroside exhibits antiviral activity against DENV by inhibiting viral protein synthesis and boosting host immunity by increasing the expression of host innate immune factors and hence could be considered for the development of an effective therapeutic agent against DENV infection.

  9. A proanthocyanidin-rich extract from Cassia abbreviata exhibits antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F; Abdelfattah, Mohamed A O; Cheng, Haroan; El-Shazly, Assem M; Wink, Michael

    2018-03-01

    their diastereomers are the main components of the extract. The total phenolic content amounted for 474mg/g root extract expressed as gallic acid equivalent using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The extract exhibited powerful antioxidant activity with EC50 of 6.3μg/mL in DPPH and 19.15mM FeSO4 equivalent/mg sample in FRAP assay. In C. elegans model, the extract (200μg/mL) was able to increase the survival rate by 44.56% and reduced the ROS level to 61.73%, compared to control group. Pretreatment of rats with 100mg extract/kg (b. wt.) reduced MDA by 47.36% and elevated GSH by 59.1%. The extract caused a significant reduction of ALT, AST and GGT activities by 11%, 35.7% and 65%, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the proanthocyanidin-rich extract from C. abbreviata may be an interesting candidate for hepatoprotective activity in case of hepatocellular injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers Exhibit Differences in Frontal Brain Electrical Activity during the Expression of Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined electrical brain activity during negative and positive emotion expression in infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Found that, compared with infants of nondepressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers exhibited increased EEG activation in the frontal but not parietal region when expressing negative emotions. There were no…

  11. Targeting the kinase activities of ATR and ATM exhibits antitumoral activity in mouse models of MLL-rearranged AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Day, Amanda; Murga, Matilde; Lafarga, Vanesa; Anton, Marta Elena; Tubbs, Anthony; Chen, Hua Tang; Ergan, Aysegul; Anderson, Rhonda; Bhandoola, Avinash; Pike, Kurt G; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Wang, Xi; Pierce, Andrew J; Hubbard, Chad; Armstrong, Scott A; Nussenzweig, André; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-09-13

    Among the various subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), those with chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL oncogene (AML-MLL) have a poor prognosis. AML-MLL tumor cells are resistant to current genotoxic therapies because of an attenuated response by p53, a protein that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In addition to chemicals that damage DNA, efforts have focused on targeting DNA repair enzymes as a general chemotherapeutic approach to cancer treatment. Here, we found that inhibition of the kinase ATR, which is the primary sensor of DNA replication stress, induced chromosomal breakage and death of mouse AML(MLL) cells (with an MLL-ENL fusion and a constitutively active N-RAS independently of p53. Moreover, ATR inhibition as a single agent exhibited antitumoral activity, both reducing tumor burden after establishment and preventing tumors from growing, in an immunocompetent allograft mouse model of AML(MLL) and in xenografts of a human AML-MLL cell line. We also found that inhibition of ATM, a kinase that senses DNA double-strand breaks, also promoted the survival of the AML(MLL) mice. Collectively, these data indicated that ATR or ATM inhibition represent potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AML, especially MLL-driven leukemias. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acid Exhibit Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory Standards broth microdilution method. MIC is defined as the lowest concentration of the test antimicrobial that would inhibit the growth of the...idues exhibit negative hydrophobicity and by shortening the side chain the protonated nitrogen is moved closer to the peptide back- bone . This...it appears that back- bone flexibility after the hydrophobic or charged residue and the following Tic residue is more important in the interactions

  14. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  15. The FAI protein of group C streptococci targets B-cells and exhibits adjuvant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kai; Goldmann, Oliver; Toppel, Antonia; Medina, Eva; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2005-02-03

    We have demonstrated that the fibrinogen-albumin-IgG receptor of group C streptococci (FAI) targets B-cells in vivo. We exploited the targeting properties of FAI to improve the immune responses stimulated by soluble antigens administered by the mucosal route. Enhanced systemic and mucosal immune responses were observed in mice after intranasal immunization when ovalbumin was fused to FAI or truncated derivatives. The FAI fragment encompassing the IgG- and fibrinogen-binding regions was the minimal domain exhibiting optimal carrier/adjuvant properties. The obtained results suggest that the FAI protein represents a useful tool to improve the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens.

  16. Cationic peptides from peptic hydrolysates of rice endosperm protein exhibit antimicrobial, LPS-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Kawabe, Junya; Toyoda, Ryu; Namae, Toshiki; Ochiai, Akihito; Saitoh, Eiichi; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we hydrolyzed rice endosperm protein (REP) with pepsin and generated 20 fractions containing multifunctional cationic peptides with varying isoelectric point (pI) values using ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Subsequently, we determined antimicrobial activities of each fraction against the pathogens Prophyromonas gingivalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptocossus mutans, and Candida albicans. Fractions 18, 19, and 20 had pI values greater than 12 and exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis, P. acnes, and C. albicans, but not against S. mutans. In further experiments, we purified and identified cationic peptides from fractions 18, 19, and 20 using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. We also chemically synthesized five identified peptides (RSVSKSR, RRVIEPR, ERFQPMFRRPG, RVRQNIDNPNRADTYNPRAG, and VVRRVIEPRGLL) with pI values greater than 10.5 and evaluated antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities. Among these synthetic peptides, only VVRRVIEPRGLL exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis, with an IC 50 value of 87μM. However, all five cationic peptides exhibited LPS-neutralizing and angiogenic activities with little or no hemolytic activity against mammalian red blood cells at functional concentrations. These present data show dual or multiple functions of the five identified cationic peptides with little or no hemolytic activity. Therefore, fractions containing cationic peptides from REP hydrolysates have the potential to be used as dietary supplements and functional ingredients in food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fungi from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces exhibit a broad range of enzyme activities against recalcitrant substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R A; Bradner, J R; Roberts, T H; Nevalainen, K M H

    2009-02-01

    Identification of fungi isolated from koala faeces and screening for their enzyme activities of biotechnological interest. Thirty-seven fungal strains were isolated from koala faeces and identified by the amplification and direct sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. The fungi were screened for selected enzyme activities using agar plates containing a single substrate for each target class of enzyme. For xylanase, endoglucanase, ligninase (ligninolytic phenoloxidase) and protease over two-thirds of the isolates produced a clearing halo at 25 degrees C, indicating the secretion of active enzyme by the fungus, and one-third produced a halo indicating amylase, mannanase and tannase activity. Some isolates were also able to degrade crystalline cellulose and others displayed lipase activity. Many of the fungal isolates also produced active enzymes at 15 degrees C and some at 39 degrees C. Koala faeces, consisting of highly lignified fibre, undigested cellulose and phenolics, are a novel source of fungi with high and diverse enzyme activities capable of breaking down recalcitrant substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first time fungi from koala faeces have been identified using ITS sequencing and screened for their enzyme activities.

  18. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn Frej; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    -linking does not suppress the constitutive activation of Stat3 in the malignant T cells and there is no correlation between the level of activated Stat3 and the level of CD45 expression on the malignant T cells. Furthermore, in contrast to non-malignant T cells, the malignant T cells are protected against CD45...

  19. Dextrans produced by lactic acid bacteria exhibit antiviral and immunomodulatory activity against salmonid viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Vázquez, Montserrat; Ballesteros, Natalia; Canales, Ángeles; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara Isabel; Prieto, Alicia; Aznar, Rosa; López, Paloma

    2015-06-25

    Viral infections in the aquaculture of salmonids can lead to high mortality and substantial economic losses. Thus, there is industrial interest in new molecules active against these viruses. Here we describe the production, purification, and the physicochemical and structural characterization of high molecular weight dextrans synthesized by Lactobacillus sakei MN1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides RTF10. The purified dextrans, and commercial dextrans with molecular weights ranging from 10 to 2000kDa, were assayed in infected BF-2 and EPC fish cell-line monolayers for antiviral activity. Only T2000 and dextrans from MN1 and RTF10 had significant antiviral activity. This was similar to results obtained against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. However the dextran from MN1 showed ten-fold higher activity against hematopoietic necrosis virus than T2000. In vivo assays using the MN1 polymer confirmed the in vitro results and revealed immunomodulatory activity. These results together with the high levels of dextran production (2gL(-1)) by Lb. sakei MN1, indicate the compounds potential utility as an antiviral agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  1. Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin exhibits antitumor activity in S180 mouse model in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangjie Liu

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which also plays multiple roles in immune defense. While it has been demonstrated that hemocyanin from some mollusks can induce potent immune response and is therefore undergoing clinical trials to be used in anti-tumor immunotherapy, little is currently known about how hemocyanin from arthropods affect tumors. In this study we investigated the anti-tumor activity of hemocyanin from Litopenaeus vannamei on Sarcoma-180 (S180 tumor-bearing mice model. Eight days treatment with 4mg/kg bodyweight of hemocyanin significantly inhibited the growth of S180 up to 49% as compared to untreated. Similarly, histopathology analysis showed a significant decrease in tumor cell number and density in the tissues of treated mice. Moreover, there was a significant increase in immune organs index, lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell cytotoxic activity and serum TNF-α level, suggesting that hemocyanin could improve the immunity of the S180 tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and a decrease in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA in serum and liver, which further suggest that hemocyanin improved the anti-oxidant ability of the S180 tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, our data demonstrated that L. vannamei hemocyanin had a significant antitumor activity in mice.

  2. Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin exhibits antitumor activity in S180 mouse model in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweya, Jude Juventus; Zheng, Zhou; Zhong, Mingqi; Chen, Jiehui; Wang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Hemocyanin is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which also plays multiple roles in immune defense. While it has been demonstrated that hemocyanin from some mollusks can induce potent immune response and is therefore undergoing clinical trials to be used in anti-tumor immunotherapy, little is currently known about how hemocyanin from arthropods affect tumors. In this study we investigated the anti-tumor activity of hemocyanin from Litopenaeus vannamei on Sarcoma-180 (S180) tumor-bearing mice model. Eight days treatment with 4mg/kg bodyweight of hemocyanin significantly inhibited the growth of S180 up to 49% as compared to untreated. Similarly, histopathology analysis showed a significant decrease in tumor cell number and density in the tissues of treated mice. Moreover, there was a significant increase in immune organs index, lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell cytotoxic activity and serum TNF-α level, suggesting that hemocyanin could improve the immunity of the S180 tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a decrease in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and liver, which further suggest that hemocyanin improved the anti-oxidant ability of the S180 tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, our data demonstrated that L. vannamei hemocyanin had a significant antitumor activity in mice. PMID:28854214

  3. CotA, a multicopper oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, exhibits manganese-oxidase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Su

    Full Text Available Multicopper oxidases (MCOs are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0 supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10(-6±0.21 M·min(-1 and 0.32±0.02 s(-1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II oxidation mechanisms, but also offers

  4. Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia (Anacardiaceae exhibit potent anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamkumo Raceline G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering new lead compounds against malaria parasites is a crucial step to ensuring a sustainable global pipeline for effective anti-malarial drugs. As far as we know, no previous phytochemical or pharmacological investigations have been carried out on Sorindeia juglandifolia. This paper describes the results of an anti-malarial activity-driven investigation of the fruits of this Cameroonian plant. Methods Air-dried fruits were extracted by maceration using methanol. The extract was fractionated by flash chromatography followed by column chromatography over silica gel, eluting with gradients of hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures. Resulting fractions and compounds were tested in vitro against the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2, against field isolates of P. falciparum, and against the P. falciparum recombinant cysteine protease falcipain-2. Promising fractions were assessed for acute toxicity after oral administration in mice. One of the promising isolated compounds was assessed in vivo against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Results The main end-products of the activity-guided fractionation were 2,3,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid (1 and 2,3,6-trihydroxy methyl benzoate (2. Overall, nine fractions tested against P. falciparum W2 and falcipain-2 were active, with IC50 values of 2.3-11.6 μg/ml for W2, and 1.1-21.9 μg/ml for falcipain-2. Purified compounds (1 and (2 also showed inhibitory effects against P. falciparum W2 (IC50s 16.5 μM and 13.0 μM and falcipain-2 (IC50s 35.4 and 6.1 μM. In studies of P. falciparum isolates from Cameroon, the plant fractions demonstrated IC50 values of 0.14-19.4 μg/ml and compounds (1 and (2 values of 6.3 and 36.1 μM. In vivo assessment of compound (1 showed activity against P. berghei strain B, with mean parasitaemia suppressive dose and curative dose of 44.9 mg/kg and 42.2 mg/kg, respectively. Active fractions were found to be safe in mice after oral

  5. Secondary hyperalgesia phenotypes exhibit differences in brain activation during noxious stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Pereira, Manuel Pedro; Werner, Mads Utke

    2015-01-01

    . To study differences in the propensity to develop central sensitization we examined differences in brain activity and anatomy according to individual phenotypical expression of secondary hyperalgesia by magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers received a first-degree burn-injury (47 °C, 7 min...... to central neuronal sensitization. Some individuals develop large areas of secondary hyperalgesia (high-sensitization responders), while others develop small areas (low-sensitization responders). The magnitude of each area is reproducible within individuals, and can be regarded as a phenotypic characteristic...... hyperalgesia areas after burn-injury. In addition, T1-weighted images were used to measure differences in gray-matter density in cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. We found significant differences in neuronal activity between high- and low-sensitization responders at baseline (before application...

  6. Platinum Dendritic-Flowers Prepared by Tellurium Nanowires Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activity for Glycerol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yunpeng; Wu, Long; Cai, Kai; Li, Tingting; Yin, Wenmin; Li, Dian; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Han, Heyou

    2015-08-19

    Dentritic Pt-based nanomaterials with enriched edge and corner atoms have recently attracted considerable attention as electrocatalysts. Meanwhile, Pt(111) facets are generally considered more active for the glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR). Thus, it is significant to construct the rational design and synthesis of dentritic Pt whose surface is mostly enclosed by {111} facets. Reported herein is a unique Pt-branched structure enriched by a large amount of valency unsaturated atoms prepared by the aggravation of the galvanic replacement strategy. The synthesis is developed to generate highly crystallized Pt nanoflowers using Te nanowires as a template. Furthermore, the electrochemical results show that Pt nanoflower is an excellent catalyst with higher mass activity and better structure stability than commercial Pt/C (20% Pt) for glycerol electro-oxidation. Besides, the template-broken approach could provide a novel potential way to synthesize Pt-based or other noble metals/alloys for their advanced functional applications.

  7. Tea tree oil exhibits antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea by affecting mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil (TTO) on mitochondrial morphology and function in Botrytis cinerea, mycelia were treated with TTO at different concentrations. TTO at 2ml/l severely damaged mitochondria, resulting in matrix loss and increased mitochondrial irregularity. Mitochondrial membrane permeability was increased by TTO, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and an increase in extracellular ATP content. Increasing concentrations of TTO decreased the activities of enzymes related to mitochondrial function and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, affecting malic dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, ATPase, citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, while sharply increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that mitochondrial damage, resulting in the disruption of the TCA cycle and accumulation of ROS, is involved in the mechanism of TTO antifungal activity against B. cinerea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoparticulate vacuolar ATPase blocker exhibits potent host-targeted antiviral activity against feline coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Chang, Wei-Shan; Fang, Zih-Syun; Chen, You-Ting; Wang, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Hsiao-Han; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Chen, Hui-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by a mutated feline coronavirus, is one of the most serious and fatal viral diseases in cats. The disease remains incurable, and there is no effective vaccine available. In light of the pathogenic mechanism of feline coronavirus that relies on endosomal acidification for cytoplasmic entry, a novel vacuolar ATPase blocker, diphyllin, and its nanoformulation are herein investigated for their antiviral activity against the type II feline infectious per...

  9. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  10. A novel bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 478 exhibits a potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumisantiphong, Uraporn; Siripanichgon, Kanokrat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE) and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical isolates of MDRE and VRE. Over 10,000 bacterial isolates from water, environment and clinical samples were screened. E. faecalis strain 478 isolated from human feces produced the highest antibacterial activity against several MDRE and VRE strains. The optimum condition for bacteriocin production was cultivation in MRS broth at 37°C, pH 5-6 for 16 hours. The bacteriocin-like substance produced from E. faecalis strain EF478 was stable at 60°C for at least 1 hour and retained its antimicrobial activity after storage at -20°C for 1 year, at 4°C for 6 months, and at 25°C for 2 months. A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of the bacteriocin-like substance was similar to serine protease of E. faecalis, gi|488296663 (NCBI database), which has never been reported as a bacteriocin. This study reported a novel bacteriocin with high antibacterial activity against VRE and MDRE.

  11. Nanoparticles of cationic chimeric peptide and sodium polyacrylate exhibit striking antinociception activity at lower dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Singh, Vijay P; Kurupati, Raj K; Mann, Anita; Ganguli, Munia; Gupta, Yogendra K; Singh, Yogendra; Saleem, Kishwar; Pasha, Santosh; Maiti, Souvik

    2009-02-20

    The current study investigates the performance of polyelectrolyte complexes based nanoparticles in improving the antinociceptive activity of cationic chimeric peptide-YFa at lower dose. Size, Zeta potential and morphology of the nanoparticles were determined. Size of the nanoparticles decreases and zeta potential increases with concomitant increase in charge ratio (Z(+/-)). The nanoparticles at Z(+/-)12 are spherical with 70+/-7 nm diameter in AFM and displayed positive surface charge and similar sizes (83+/-8 nm) by Zetasizer. The nanoparticles of Z(+/-) 12 are used in this study. Cytotoxicity by MTT assay on three different mammalian cell lines (liver, neuronal and kidney) revealed lower toxicity of nanoparticles. Hematological parameters were also not affected by nanoparticles compared to normal counts of water treated control group. Nanoparticles containing 10 mg/kg YFa produced increased antinociception, approximately 36%, in tail-flick latency test in mice, whereas the neat peptide at the same concentration did not show any antinociception activity. This enhancement in activity is attributed to the nanoparticle associated protection of peptide from proteolytic degradation. In vitro peptide release study in plasma also supported the antinociception profile of nanoparticles. Thus, our results suggest of a potential nanoparticle delivery system for cationic peptide drug candidates for improving their stability and bioavailability.

  12. A novel bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 478 exhibits a potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraporn Phumisantiphong

    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical isolates of MDRE and VRE. Over 10,000 bacterial isolates from water, environment and clinical samples were screened. E. faecalis strain 478 isolated from human feces produced the highest antibacterial activity against several MDRE and VRE strains. The optimum condition for bacteriocin production was cultivation in MRS broth at 37°C, pH 5-6 for 16 hours. The bacteriocin-like substance produced from E. faecalis strain EF478 was stable at 60°C for at least 1 hour and retained its antimicrobial activity after storage at -20°C for 1 year, at 4°C for 6 months, and at 25°C for 2 months. A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of the bacteriocin-like substance was similar to serine protease of E. faecalis, gi|488296663 (NCBI database, which has never been reported as a bacteriocin. This study reported a novel bacteriocin with high antibacterial activity against VRE and MDRE.

  13. Pardaxin, a Fish Antimicrobial Peptide, Exhibits Antitumor Activity toward Murine Fibrosarcoma in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chun; Hui, Cho-Fat; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2012-01-01

    The antitumor activity of pardaxin, a fish antimicrobial peptide, has not been previously examined in in vitro and in vivo systems for treating murine fibrosarcoma. In this study, the antitumor activity of synthetic pardaxin was tested using murine MN-11 tumor cells as the study model. We show that pardaxin inhibits the proliferation of MN-11 cells and reduces colony formation in a soft agar assay. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that pardaxin altered the membrane structure similar to what a lytic peptide does, and also produced apoptotic features, such as hollow mitochondria, nuclear condensation, and disrupted cell membranes. A qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that pardaxin induced apoptosis, activated caspase-7 and interleukin (IL)-7r, and downregulated caspase-9, ATF 3, SOCS3, STAT3, cathelicidin, p65, and interferon (IFN)-γ suggesting that pardaxin induces apoptosis through the death receptor/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway after 14 days of treatment in tumor-bearing mice. An antitumor effect was observed when pardaxin (25 mg/kg; 0.5 mg/day) was used to treat mice for 14 days, which caused significant inhibition of MN-11 cell growth in mice. Overall, these results indicate that pardaxin has the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent to treat fibrosarcomas. PMID:23015777

  14. One-dimensional poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) assemblies exhibit potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fon; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chang, Sue-Joan; Fan, Nai-Shin; Wang, Chung-Teng; Wu, Chao-Liang; Jan, Jeng-Shiung

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the oncolytic activity of cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed from coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides for cancer therapy. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via the mitochondria-lytic effect. The concept is analogous to that of 1D drug carriers that exhibit enhanced cell penetration. In comparison to free PLL chains, PLL-b-PLT fibril assemblies exhibit selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, low hemolysis activity, enhanced membranolytic activity, and a different apoptosis pathway, which may be due to differences in the peptide-membrane interactions. Antitumor studies using a metastatic LL2 lung carcinoma model indicate that the fibril assemblies significantly inhibited tumor growth, improved survival in tumor-bearing mice and suppressed lung metastasis without obvious body weight loss. An additive efficacy was also observed for treatment with both PLL-b-PLT and cisplatin. These results support the feasibility of using 1D fibril assemblies as potential apoptotic anticancer therapeutics. We report that cationic, one-dimensional (1D) fibril assemblies formed by coil-sheet poly(L-lysine)-block-poly(L-threonine) (PLL-b-PLT) block copolypeptides exhibited potent anticancer activity by enhancing membranolysis. The 1D fibril assemblies can efficiently interact with negatively charged cellular and mitochondrial membranes via electrostatic interactions, leading to necrosis via membrane lysis and apoptosis via mitochondria-lytic effect. Moreover, the fibril assemblies exhibited low hemolytic activity and selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cell, which is advantageous as compared to PLL and most antimicrobial/anticancerous peptides. This study provides a new concept of using cationic, 1D fibril assemblies for cancer therapy

  15. Enantiomers of nifurtimox do not exhibit stereoselective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, toxicity, or pharmacokinetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Carolina B; White, Karen L; Braillard, Stéphanie; Perez, Catherine; Goo, Junghyun; Gaspar, Luis; Shackleford, David M; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Thompson, R C Andrew; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Charman, Susan A; Chatelain, Eric

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of improving the available drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, individual enantiomers of nifurtimox were characterized. The results indicate that the enantiomers are equivalent in their in vitro activity against a panel of Trypanosoma cruzi strains; in vivo efficacy in a murine model of Chagas disease; in vitro toxicity and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics; and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. There is unlikely to be any therapeutic benefit of an individual nifurtimox enantiomer over the racemic mixture. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Unciaphenol, an Oxygenated Analogue of the Bergman Cyclization Product of Uncialamycin Exhibits Anti-HIV Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E; Bottriell, Helen; Davies, Julian; Tietjen, Ian; Brockman, Mark A; Andersen, Raymond J

    2015-11-06

    Unciaphenol (2), an oxygenated analogue of the Bergman cyclization product of the enediyne uncialamycin (1), has been isolated along with 1 from cultures of the actinomycete Streptomyces uncialis. It is proposed that the C-22 OH substituent in 2 might arise from the attack of a nucleophilic oxygen species on the p-benzyne diradical intermediate IA in the Bergman cyclization of 1. 2 shows in vitro anti-HIV activity against viral strains that are resistant to clinically utilized anti-retroviral therapies.

  17. Hydrogen Cyanide Produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Exhibits Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne hapla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are parasites that attack many field crops and orchard trees, and affect both the quantity and quality of the products. A root-colonizing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, possesses beneficial traits including strong nematicidal activity. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the nematicidal activity of P. chlororaphis O6, we constructed two mutants; one lacking hydrogen cyanide production, and a second lacking an insecticidal toxin, FitD. Root drenching with wild-type P. chlororaphis O6 cells caused juvenile mortality in vitro and in planta. Efficacy was not altered in the fitD mutant compared to the wild-type but was reduced in both bioassays for the mutant lacking hydrogen cyanide production. The reduced number of galls on tomato plants caused by the wild-type strain was comparable to that of a standard chemical nematicide. These findings suggest that hydrogen cyanide-producing root colonizers, such as P. chlororaphis O6, could be formulated as “green” nematicides that are compatible with many crops and offer agricultural sustainability.

  18. CXC Chemokines Exhibit Bactericidal Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Crawford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens pose a serious challenge to global health. Countering antimicrobial-resistant pathogens requires a multifaceted effort that includes the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and colistin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that harbor the mobile colistin resistance protein MCR-1 and thus possess phosphoethanolamine-modified lipid A. Colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates affected by genetic mutation of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system, a chromosomally encoded regulator of lipopolysaccharide modification, and containing 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose-modified lipid A were also found to be susceptible to chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity. However, loss of PhoP/PhoQ autoregulatory control, caused by disruption of the gene encoding the negative regulator MgrB, limited the bactericidal effects of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in a variable, strain-specific manner. Cumulatively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, highlight disparities amongst determinants of colistin resistance, and suggest that chemokine-mediated bactericidal effects merit additional investigation as a therapeutic avenue for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  19. Long noncoding RNA linc00617 exhibits oncogenic activity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hengyu; Zhu, Li; Xu, Lu; Qin, Keyu; Liu, Chaoqian; Yu, Yue; Su, Dongwei; Wu, Kainan; Sheng, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Protein-coding genes account for only 2% of the human genome, whereas the vast majority of transcripts are noncoding RNAs including long noncoding RNAs. LncRNAs are involved in the regulation of a diverse array of biological processes, including cancer progression. An evolutionarily conserved lncRNA TUNA, was found to be required for pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. In this study, we found the human ortholog of TUNA, linc00617, was upregulated in breast cancer samples. Linc00617 promoted motility and invasion of breast cancer cells and induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Moreover, knockdown of linc00617 repressed lung metastasis in vivo. We demonstrated that linc00617 upregulated the expression of stemness factor Sox2 in breast cancer cells, which was shown to promote the oncogenic activity of breast cancer cells by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhancing the tumor-initiating capacity. Thus, our data indicate that linc00617 functions as an important regulator of EMT and promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis via activating the transcription of Sox2. Together, it suggests that linc00617 may be a potential therapeutic target for aggressive breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Benzophenones from Mango Leaves Exhibit α-Glucosidase and NO Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; Chen, Guisi; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-10-12

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a succulent tropical fruit. Bioactive phytochemical investigation has been carried out to the leaves of mango. Three new benzophenone glycosides, along with 14 known compounds, were purified and identified. The novel benzophenones were elucidated to be 2,4,4',6-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxybenzophenone-3-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 4,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone-2-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (7), and 4',6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-(2″),3-C-(1″)-1″-desoxy-α-l-fructofuranoside (11). The α-glucosidase inhibitory, NO production inhibitory, and antioxidant activities were assessed for the purified benzophenones and triterpenoids. Some benzophenones showed moderate α-glucosidase and NO inhibitory activities. The IC50 value of the α-glucosidase inhibitory of isolated compounds 1, 13, and 14 were 284.93 ± 20.29, 239.60 ± 25.00, and 297.37 ± 8.12 μM, respectively. Most compounds showed moderate effects to reduce the NO content in 50 and 100 μM. The above results of bioactivity powerfully demonstrated the phytochemicals from mango, especially benzophenones, probably partially rational for its antidiabetes and anti-inflammatory.

  1. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kumar

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  2. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-04

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alcoholic Extract of Eclipta alba Shows In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity without Exhibiting Toxicological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As per WHO estimates, 80% of people around the world use medicinal plants for the cure and prevention of various diseases including cancer owing to their easy availability and cost effectiveness. Eclipta alba has long been used in Ayurveda to treat liver diseases, eye ailments, and hair related disorders. The promising medicinal value of E. alba prompted us to study the antioxidant, nontoxic, and anticancer potential of its alcoholic extract. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba (AEEA in multiple cancer cell lines along with control. We have also evaluated its effect on different in vivo toxicity parameters. Here, we found that AEEA was found to be most active in most of the cancer cell lines but it significantly induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage. Moreover, AEEA treatment inhibited migration in both MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose dependent manner. Further, AEEA possesses robust in vitro antioxidant activity along with high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In summary, our results indicate that Eclipta alba has enormous potential in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  6. A biomimetic collagen derived peptide exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Rosca

    Full Text Available We investigated the application of a mimetic 20 amino acid peptide derived from type IV collagen for treatment of breast cancer. We showed that the peptide induced a decrease of proliferation, adhesion, and migration of endothelial and tumor cells in vitro. We also observed an inhibition of triple negative MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth by 75% relative to control when administered intraperitoneally for 27 days at 10 mg/kg. We monitored in vivo the changes in vascular properties throughout the treatment using MRI and found that the vascular volume and permeability surface area product decreased significantly. The treatment also resulted in an increase of caspase-3 activity and in a reduction of microvascular density. The multiple mode of action of this peptide, i.e., anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic, makes it a viable candidate as a therapeutic agent as a monotherapy or in combination with other compounds.

  7. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  8. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  9. Flavored black ginseng exhibited antitumor activity via improving immune function and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Li, Haijun; Gao, Yugang; Zhang, Lianxue; Zhao, Yan

    2017-05-24

    The objective of this project was to examine saponin and carbohydrate conversion, and to evaluate the antitumor activity of a novel ready-to-eat flavored black ginseng (FBG). The results of chemical experiments showed that common saponins in ginseng such as ginsenoside Re, Rg1, Rb1, etc., are almost completely converted to rare saponins and aglycones such as ginsenoside Rg5, protopanaxadiol (PPD), etc., and non-reducing sugars such as starch are almost completely degraded into reducing sugars as affected by garlic juice and high temperature processing. Furthermore, pharmacological experimental results showed that this novel FBG could inhibit the growth of tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice dose-dependently at the dosage of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1; meanwhile, the results of ELISA, H&E staining, western blotting and qRT-PCR show that FBG could improve immune function and induce tumor cell apoptosis.

  10. A biomimetic collagen derived peptide exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Elena V; Penet, Marie-France; Mori, Noriko; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Popel, Aleksander S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the application of a mimetic 20 amino acid peptide derived from type IV collagen for treatment of breast cancer. We showed that the peptide induced a decrease of proliferation, adhesion, and migration of endothelial and tumor cells in vitro. We also observed an inhibition of triple negative MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth by 75% relative to control when administered intraperitoneally for 27 days at 10 mg/kg. We monitored in vivo the changes in vascular properties throughout the treatment using MRI and found that the vascular volume and permeability surface area product decreased significantly. The treatment also resulted in an increase of caspase-3 activity and in a reduction of microvascular density. The multiple mode of action of this peptide, i.e., anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic, makes it a viable candidate as a therapeutic agent as a monotherapy or in combination with other compounds.

  11. Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti

  12. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  13. Monoterpenoid Terpinen-4-ol Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin F. F. Nóbrega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpinen-4-ol (4TRP is a monoterpenoid alcoholic component of essential oils obtained from several aromatic plants. We investigated the psychopharmacological and electrophysiological activities of 4TRP in male Swiss mice and Wistar rats. 4TRP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at doses of 25 to 200 mg/kg and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 ng/2 μL. For in vitro experiments, 4TRP concentrations were 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM. 4TRP (i.p. inhibited pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures, indicating anticonvulsant effects. Electroencephalographic recordings showed that 4TRP (i.c.v. protected against PTZ-induced seizures, corroborating the behavioural results. To determine whether 4TRP exerts anticonvulsant effects via regulation of GABAergic neurotransmission, we measured convulsions induced by 3-mercapto-propionic acid (3-MP. The obtained results showed involvement of the GABAergic system in the anticonvulsant action exerted by 4TRP, but flumazenil, a selective antagonist of the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, did not reverse the anticonvulsant effect, demonstrating that 4TRP does not bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site. Furthermore, 4TRP decreased the sodium current through voltage-dependent sodium channels, and thus its anticonvulsant effect may be related to changes in neuronal excitability because of modulation of these channels.

  14. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Skaljac, Marisa; Grotmann, Jens; Kirfel, Phillipp; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops. PMID:28837113

  15. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J

    2011-10-01

    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  16. Fungi treated with small chemicals exhibit increased antimicrobial activity against facultative bacterial and yeast pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Bandian, Dragana; Neumayer, Bernhard; Speringer, Franz; Gorfer, Markus; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown "cryptic" secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3-4.3). For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  17. Exhibiting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases, it identif......This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases...

  18. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat 3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator...... of transcription (Stat) activation and cytokine-induced proliferation in lymphocytes. Consequently, CD45 dysregulation could be implicated in aberrant Jak/Stat activation and proliferation in lymphoproliferative diseases. Despite high expression of the CD45 ligand, Galectin-1, in skin lesions from cutaneous T......-cell lymphoma (CTCL), the malignant T cells exhibit constitutive activation of the Jak3/Stat3 signalling pathway and uncontrolled proliferation. We show that CD45 expression is down-regulated on malignant T cells when compared to non-malignant T cells established from CTCL skin lesions. Moreover, CD45 cross...

  19. Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  20. Recombinant Nox4 cytosolic domain produced by a cell or cell-free base systems exhibits constitutive diaphorase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong, E-mail: mvchuong@yahoo.fr [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Zhang, Leilei [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lhomme, Stanislas; Mouz, Nicolas [PX' Therapeutics, MINATEC/Batiment de Haute Technologie, Grenoble (France); Lenormand, Jean-Luc [HumProTher Laboratory, TheReX/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525 CNRS UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, UFR de Medecine, Domaine de la Merci, 38706 La Tronche (France); Lardy, Bernard; Morel, Francoise [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparison of two bacterial cell and cell-free protein expression systems is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins are produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nox4 has a constitutive diaphorase activity which is independent of cytosolic factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isoform Nox4B is unable to initiate the first electronic transfer step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of Nox4 oxidase activity. -- Abstract: The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 which needs a stimulus to be active. Although the precise mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species by Nox2 is well characterized, the electronic transfer throughout Nox4 remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the initial electronic transfer step (diaphorase activity) of the cytosolic tail of Nox4. For this purpose, we developed two different approaches to produce soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins. We synthesized soluble recombinant proteins either by in vitro translation or by bacteria induction. While proteins obtained by bacteria induction demonstrate an activity of 4.4 {+-} 1.7 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 20.5 {+-} 2.8 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c, the soluble proteins produced by cell-free expression system exhibit a diaphorase activity with a turn-over of 26 {+-} 2.6 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 48 {+-} 20.2 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c. Furthermore, the activity of the soluble proteins is constitutive and does not need any stimulus. We also show that the cytosolic tail of the isoform Nox4B lacking the first NADPH binding site is unable to demonstrate any diaphorase activity pointing out the

  1. Curcumin-Free Turmeric Exhibits Activity against Human HCT-116 Colon Tumor Xenograft: Comparison with Curcumin and Whole Turmeric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahdeo Prasad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research within last two decades has indicated that curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa, exhibits anticancer potential, in part through the modulation of inflammatory pathways. However, the residual antitumor activity of curcumin-free turmeric (CFT relative to curcumin or turmeric is not well-understood. In the present study, therefore, we determined activities of these agents in both in vitro and in vivo models of human HCT-116 colorectal cancer (CRC. When examined in an in vitro antiproliferative, clonogenic or anti-inflammatory assay system, we found that curcumin was highly active whereas turmeric and CFT had relatively poor activity against CRC cells. However, when examined in vivo at an oral dose of either 100 or 500 mg/kg given to nude mice bearing CRC xenografts, all three preparations of curcumin, turmeric, and CFT similarly suppressed the growth of the xenograft. The effect of CFT on suppression of tumor growth was dose-dependent, with 500 mg/kg tending to be more effective than 100 mg/kg. Interestingly, 100 mg/kg curcumin or turmeric was found to be more effective than 500 mg/kg. When examined in vivo for the expression of biomarkers associated with cell survival (cIAP-1, Bcl-2, and survivin, proliferation (Ki-67 and cyclin D1 and metastasis (ICAM-1 and VEGF, all were down-modulated. These agents also suppressed inflammatory transcription factors (NF-κB and STAT3 in tumor cells. Overall, our results with CFT provide evidence that turmeric must contain additional bioactive compounds other than curcumin that, in contrast to curcumin, exhibit greater anticancer potential in vivo than in vitro against human CRC. Moreover, our study highlights the fact that the beneficial effects of turmeric and curcumin in humans may be more effectively realized at lower doses, whereas CFT could be given at higher doses without loss in favorable activity.

  2. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  3. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    , this book draws on unique archival material, including photographs, documentary evidence and newspaper articles, newly discovered in Copenhagen. This opens for new insights and perspectives on these European exhibitions. The book employs post-colonial and feminist approaches to the material to shed fresh...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  4. Plant-produced anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies exhibit reduced antibody-dependent enhancement of infection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Paul, Amber M; Sun, Haiyan; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Ming; Esqueda, Adrian; Bai, Fengwei; Steinkellner, Herta; Chen, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The mAb E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian-cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo, and treated animals more susceptible to developing more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60. The mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamianaWT and a ∆XFT line, a glycosylation mutant lacking plant-specific N-glycan residues. The mAb was efficiently expressed and assembled in leaves and exhibited highly homogenous N-glycosylation profiles, i.e. GnGnXF3 or GnGn structures, depending on the expression host. Both E60 glycovariants demonstrated equivalent antigen-binding specificity and in vitro neutralization potency against DENV serotypes 2 and 4 compared with their mammalian-cell-produced counterpart. By contrast, plant-produced E60 exhibited reduced ADE activity in Fc gamma receptor expressing human cells. Our results suggest the ability of plant-produced antibodies to minimize ADE, which may lead to the development of safe and highly efficacious antibody-based therapeutics against DENV and other ADE-prone viral diseases. Our study provides so far unknown insight into the relationship between mAb N-glycosylation and ADE, which contributes to our understanding of how sugar moieties of antibodies modulate Fc-mediated functions and viral pathogenesis.

  5. A Meloidogyne incognita effector is imported into the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Davies, Laura J; Elling, Axel A

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are sedentary biotrophic endoparasites that maintain a complex interaction with their host plants. Nematode effector proteins are synthesized in the oesophageal glands of nematodes and secreted into plant tissue through a needle-like stylet. Effectors characterized to date have been shown to mediate processes essential for nematode pathogenesis. To gain an insight into their site of action and putative function, the subcellular localization of 13 previously isolated Meloidogyne incognita effectors was determined. Translational fusions were created between effectors and EGFP-GUS (enhanced green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase) reporter genes, which were transiently expressed in tobacco leaf cells. The majority of effectors localized to the cytoplasm, with one effector, 7H08, imported into the nuclei of plant cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the nuclear localization of 7H08 was mediated by two novel independent nuclear localization domains. As a result of the nuclear localization of the effector, 7H08 was tested for the ability to activate gene transcription. 7H08 was found to activate the expression of reporter genes in both yeast and plant systems. This is the first report of a plant-parasitic nematode effector with transcriptional activation activity. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Stable self-assembled nanostructured hen egg white lysozyme exhibits strong anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Sailendra; Paul, Subhankar; Srivastava, Ankit; Pastor, Ashutosh; Kundu, Bishwajit; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2015-06-01

    Chemotherapy side effects have long been a matter of great concern. Here we describe a structurally stable self-assembled nanostructured lysozyme (snLYZ) synthesized using a simple desolvation technique that exhibited anticancer activity, as well as excellent hemocompatibility. Field emission scanning electron microscopy; atomic force microscopy and dynamic particle size analyzer were used for analyzing the synthesized snLYZ. The analysis revealed spherical shape with an average size of 300 nm. Circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopic analysis revealed its gross change in secondary as well as the tertiary level of the structure. snLYZ also demonstrated excellent structural as well as the functional stability of LYZ in a wide range of pH and temperature with a fair level of protection against proteinase K digestion. When applied to MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it exhibited approximately 95% cell death within 24h, involving a reactive oxygen species (ROS) based mechanism, and showed excellent hemocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed distinct cellular internalization of snLYZ and the formation of cytoplasmic granules, which initiated a cell-killing process through membrane damage. In order to mimic targeted therapy, we tagged folic acid with snLYZ, which further enhanced cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Therefore, this is the first report of its kind where we demonstrated the preparation of a highly stable self-assembled nanostructured lysozyme with a strong anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Macroalgae of Izmir Gulf: Dictyotaceae exhibit high in vitro anti-cancer activity independent from their antioxidant capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelenk, Fatma Gül; Özkaya, Ali Burak; Sukatar, Atakan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 24 marine macroalgae collected from the coastline of Izmir Gulf were examined for their antioxidant activities and their effects on cell proliferation. Crude extracts were obtained from samples with cold methanol extraction. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC); growth inhibitory effects of the extracts were determined by using WST-8. Amongst the species, Polysiphonia denuata (Rhodophyta) and Cystoseira species (Phaeophyceae) have been noticed by their high DPPH radical scavenging activities and TPCs. As expected, there was a strong correlation between these tests. Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) showed the highest anti-cancer activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 17.2 ng mL-1. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that D. dichotoma methanolic extract strongly induced apoptosis. This extract exhibited moderate viability inhibition on MCF10A cells (IC50: 49.3 ng mL-1), suggesting a potential use of the extracts or its compounds for cancer therapy. There was no correlation between anti-cancer potential and antioxidant content of the extracts.

  8. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  9. Malignant T cells exhibit CD45 resistant Stat 3 activation and proliferation in cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Helvad, Rikke; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator of transcr......CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, which is well-known for regulating antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells via its effect on Src kinases. It has recently been shown that CD45 can also dephosphorylate Janus kinases (Jaks) and thereby regulate Signal transducer and activator...... of transcription (Stat) activation and cytokine-induced proliferation in lymphocytes. Consequently, CD45 dysregulation could be implicated in aberrant Jak/Stat activation and proliferation in lymphoproliferative diseases. Despite high expression of the CD45 ligand, Galectin-1, in skin lesions from cutaneous T......-cell lymphoma (CTCL), the malignant T cells exhibit constitutive activation of the Jak3/Stat3 signalling pathway and uncontrolled proliferation. We show that CD45 expression is down-regulated on malignant T cells when compared to non-malignant T cells established from CTCL skin lesions. Moreover, CD45 cross...

  10. Low-Cytotoxic Synthetic Bromorutaecarpine Exhibits Anti-Inflammation and Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutaecarpine (RUT, the major bioactive ingredient isolated from the Chinese herb Evodia rutaecarpa, possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammation and preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, its high cytotoxicity hampers pharmaceutical development. We designed and synthesized a derivative of RUT, bromo-dimethoxyrutaecarpine (Br-RUT, which showed no cytotoxicity at 20 μM. Br-RUT suppressed nitric oxide (NO production and tumor necrosis factor-α release in concentration-dependent (0~20 μM manners in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages; protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS were downregulated. Br-RUT inhibited cell migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells with 0~48 h of treatment. Furthermore, Br-RUT enhanced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and activated endothelial NOS in human aortic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the synthetic Br-RUT possesses very low cytotoxicity but retains its activities against inflammation and vasodilation that could be beneficial for cardiovascular disease therapeutics.

  11. Spatholobus suberectus Exhibits Antidiabetic Activity In Vitro and In Vivo through Activation of AKT-AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose deposition in peripheral tissue is an important parameter for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus (Ss on glucose disposal in skeletal muscle cells and additionally explore its in vivo antidiabetic potential. Treatment of ethanolic extract of S. suberectus (EeSs significantly enhanced the glucose uptake, mediated through the enhanced expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle via the stimulation of AKT and AMPK pathways in C2C12 cells. Moreover, EeSs have potential inhibitory action on α-glucosidase activity and significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice, associated with increased expression of GLUT4 and AKT and/or AMPK-mediated signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, administration of EeSs significantly boosted up the antioxidant enzyme expression and also mitigated the gluconeogenesis enzyme such as PEPCK and G-6-Pase enzyme expression in liver tissue of STZ-induced diabetic mice model. Collectively, these findings suggest that EeSs have a high potentiality to mitigate diabetic symptoms through stimulating glucose uptake in peripheral tissue via the activation of AKT and AMPK signaling cascade and augmenting antioxidant potentiality as well as blocking the gluconeogenesis process in diabetic mice.

  12. Regulation of an in vivo metal-exchangeable superoxide dismutase from Propionibacterium shermanii exhibiting activity with different metal cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, A P; Meier, B

    1994-12-15

    The anaerobic, but aerotolerant Propionibacterium freudenreichii sp. shermanii contains a single superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1.] exhibiting comparable activity with iron or manganese as metal cofactor. The formation of superoxide dismutase is not depending on the supplementation of iron or manganese to the culture medium. Even in the absence of these metals the protein is built in comparable amounts. Bacteria grown in the absence of iron and manganese synthesize a superoxide dismutase with very low activity which had incorporated copper. If the medium was also depleted of copper, cobalt was incorporated, leading to an enzymically inactive form. In the absence of cobalt an enzymically inactive superoxide dismutase was built with unknown metal contents. Upon aeration the amount of superoxide dismutase activity increased continuously up to 9 h, due to a de novo synthesis of the protein. This superoxide dismutase had incorporated iron into the active centre. The superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii is able to form a much wider variety of complexes with trace metal ions in vivo than previously recognized, leading to the hypothesis that the original function of these proteins was the binding of cytoplasmic trace metals present in excess.

  13. Auxin-activated NADH oxidase activity of soybean plasma membranes is distinct from the constitutive plasma membrane NADH oxidase and exhibits prion-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.; Ternes, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated and growth-related cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity of etiolated hypocotyls of soybeans oscillates with a period of about 24 min or 60 times per 24-h day. Plasma membranes of soybean hypocotyls contain two such NADH oxidase activities that have been resolved by purification on concanavalin A columns. One in the apparent molecular weight range of 14-17 kDa is stimulated by the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The other is larger and unaffected by 2,4-D. The 2,4-D-stimulated activity absolutely requires 2,4-D for activity and exhibits a period length of about 24 min. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of 2,4-D or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D or IAA addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges at the expense of the constitutive activity. A recruitment process analogous to that exhibited by prions is postulated to explain this behavior.

  14. Thymol-based submicron emulsions exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and inhibit Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T A; Li, J; Saenger, M; Scofield, S R

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a very destructive fungal pathogen that leads to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, a disease which costs growers millions of dollars annually both in crop losses and in remediation efforts. Current countermeasures include the deployment of wheat varieties with some resistance to FHB in conjunction with timed fungicide treatments. In this article, we introduce a fungicide based on thymol, a naturally occurring plant phenolic derived from essential oils. To overcome the hydrophobicity of thymol, the thymol active was incorporated into a low-surfactant submicron emulsion with and without a carrier oil. The minimum fungicidal concentration of F. graminearum was found to be both 0·02% for thymol emulsions with and without an oil component. Time-to-kill experiments showed that thymol emulsions were able to inactivate F. graminearum in as little as 10 s at concentrations above 0·06%. Spraying the thymol emulsions (~0·1% range) on the wheat variety Bobwhite demonstrated significant reductions in FHB infection rate (number of infected spikelets). However, with 0·5% thymol, the wheat heads exhibited premature senescence. Transmission and scanning electron micrographs suggest that the mechanism of antifungal action is membrane mediated, as conidia exposed to thymol showed complete organelle disorganization and evidence of lipid emulsification. The collective experimental data suggest that thymol emulsions may be an effective naturally derived alternative to the current thymol treatments, and chemical fungicides in ameliorating FHB. This is the first thymol-derived nanoemulsion particles resuspended into water and not DMSO, exhibiting the same antibacterial/antifungal activity as previously described thymol and thyme oil treatments. This drastically reduces the environmental footprint thymol will leave if utilized as a fungicide treatment on field crops. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Aqueous extracts of avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds exhibit anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Odubanjo, Veronica O; Bello, Fatai; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Nwanna, Emem E; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2016-03-01

    Avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine for the treatment/management of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, information on the mechanism of actions is limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of P. americana leaf and seed aqueous extracts on some enzymes linked with AD (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] activities) and their antioxidant potentials in vitro. The inhibitory effects of extracts on AChE and BChE activities and antioxidant potentials (inhibition of Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced thiobarbiturate reactive species [TBARS] production in rat brain homogenates, radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide] scavenging and iron [Fe] chelation abilities) were investigated. Phenolic content and phytochemical screening were carried out. Alkaloid profile was also determined using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The extracts inhibited AChE and BChE activities and prooxidant-induced TBARS production in a dose-dependent manner, with the seed extract having the highest inhibitory effect and the leaf extract exhibiting higher phenolic content and radical scavenging abilities, but lower Fe chelation ability compared with that of the seed. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids in both extracts, whereas the total alkaloid profile was higher in the seed extract than in the leaf extract, as revealed by GC-FID. The anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activities of avocado leaf and seed could be linked to their phytoconstituents and might be the possible mechanisms underlying their use as a cheap and natural treatment/management of AD. However, these extracts should be further investigated in vivo.

  16. Xyloketal B Exhibits Its Antioxidant Activity through Induction of HO-1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Lei Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a novel marine compound, xyloketal B, has strong antioxidative actions in different models of cardiovascular diseases. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme, has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases. We here investigated whether xyloketal B exhibits its antioxidant activity through induction of HO-1. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, xyloketal B significantly induced HO-1 gene expression and translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The protection of xyloketal B against angiotensin II-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production could be abrogated by the HO-1 specific inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP. Consistently, the suppressive effects of xyloketal B on NADPH oxidase activity could be reversed by SnPP in zebrafish embryos. In addition, xyloketal B induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126 suppressed the induction of HO-1 and translocation of Nrf-2 by xyloketal B, whereas P38 inhibitor SB203580 did not. In conclusion, xyloketal B can induce HO-1 expression via PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 pathways, and the induction of HO-1 is mainly responsible for the antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions of xyloketal B.

  17. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate and exhibit disease-induced activation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julianne K; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are immune cells that reside in tissues that interface with the external environment and contribute to the first line defense against pathogens. However, they also have roles in promoting chronic inflammation. Here we demonstrate that group 3 ILCs, (ILC3s - CD45+Lin-IL-7Rα+RORγt+), are normal residents of the meninges and exhibit disease-induced accumulation and activation in EAE. In addition to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF, ILC3s constitutively express CD30L and OX40L, molecules required for memory T cell survival. We show that disease-induced trafficking of transferred wild type T cells to the meninges is impaired in ILC3-deficient Rorc-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a c-kit+ ILC3 subset that promotes ectopic lymphoid follicle development, a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, are reduced in the meninges of EAE-resistant c-kit mutant Kit(W/Wv) mice. We propose that ILC3s sustain neuroinflammation by supporting T cell survival and reactivation in the meninges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A Langevin

    Full Text Available A single helicase amino acid substitution, NS3-T249P, has been shown to increase viremia magnitude/mortality in American crows (AMCRs following West Nile virus (WNV infection. Lineage/intra-lineage geographic variants exhibit consistent amino acid polymorphisms at this locus; however, the majority of WNV isolates associated with recent outbreaks reported worldwide have a proline at the NS3-249 residue. In order to evaluate the impact of NS3-249 variants on avian and mammalian virulence, multiple amino acid substitutions were engineered into a WNV infectious cDNA (NY99; NS3-249P and the resulting viruses inoculated into AMCRs, house sparrows (HOSPs and mice. Differential viremia profiles were observed between mutant viruses in the two bird species; however, the NS3-249P virus produced the highest mean peak viral loads in both avian models. In contrast, this avian modulating virulence determinant had no effect on LD50 or the neurovirulence phenotype in the murine model. Recombinant helicase proteins demonstrated variable helicase and ATPase activities; however, differences did not correlate with avian or murine viremia phenotypes. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that avian-specific phenotypes are modulated by critical viral-host protein interactions involving the NS3-249 residue that directly influence transmission efficiency and therefore the magnitude of WNV epizootics in nature.

  19. A polar extract of the Maya healing plant Anthurium schlechtendalii (Aracea) exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nicole; Gridling, Manuela; Madlener, Sibylle; Bauer, Sabine; Lackner, Andreas; Popescu, Ruxandra; Diaz, Rene; Tut, Foster M; Vo, Thanh-Phuong Nha; Vonach, Caroline; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Saiko, Philipp; Grusch, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Frisch, Richard; Krupitza, Georg

    2009-10-01

    The Aracea Anthurium schlechtendalii and Syngonium podophyllum are traditional remedies for the treatment of severe and chronic inflammatory conditions. We cross-examined these plants regarding their anti-neoplastic properties, because several anti-inflammatory molecular targets are common for both pathologic conditions due to similar signalling pathways. Two malignant cell lines, HL-60 and MCF-7, were treated with increasing concentrations of plant extracts of increasing polarity. The potential of the extracts to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce cell death was investigated, because these are relevant endpoints to assess the anti-cancer potential in vitro and the protein expression and cell cycle distribution upon exposure to the strongest extract was analysed. Extracts from S. podophyllum were rather ineffective, but the freeze-dried (but not air-dried) roots of A. schlechtendalii exhibited strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing properties. In HL-60 cells 50% proliferation inhibition was achieved by 1.7 microg dichloromethane extract/ml medium and correlated with the activation of Chk2, down-regulation of Cdc25A, suppression of cyclin D1 level, and transient induction of p21. This extract efficiently triggered apoptosis, which was confirmed by caspase 3 activation. The polymerisation of alpha-tubulin and its subsequent degradation that depleted the cells from the G2/M contributed to apoptosis induction, because proper spindle-formation during mitosis is mandatory for survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that A. schlechtendalii root extract specifically targeted carcinogenic mechanisms, because Cdc25A and cyclin D1 are oncogenes that are frequently overexpressed in a variety of cancer entities and further, this extract affected microtubule function reminiscent of taxol.

  20. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei [Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Wei-Ge, E-mail: zhangweige2000@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China); Wu, Ying-Liang, E-mail: yingliang_1016@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  1. Mice lacking Tbk1 activity exhibit immune cell infiltrates in multiple tissues and increased susceptibility to LPS-induced lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlik, Erica; Thakker, Paresh; Carlson, Thaddeus; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Ryan, Mark; Marusic, Suzana; Goutagny, Nadege; Kuang, Wen; Askew, G Roger; Roberts, Victoria; Benoit, Stephen; Zhou, Tianhui; Ling, Vincent; Pfeifer, Richard; Stedman, Nancy; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Lin, Lih-Ling; Hall, J Perry

    2010-12-01

    TBK1 is critical for immunity against microbial pathogens that activate TLR4- and TLR3-dependent signaling pathways. To address the role of TBK1 in inflammation, mice were generated that harbor two copies of a mutant Tbk1 allele. This Tbk1(Δ) allele encodes a truncated Tbk1(Δ) protein that is catalytically inactive and expressed at very low levels. Upon LPS stimulation, macrophages from Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice produce normal levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α), but IFN-β and RANTES expression and IRF3 DNA-binding activity are ablated. Three-month-old Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice exhibit mononuclear and granulomatous cell infiltrates in multiple organs and inflammatory cell infiltrates in their skin, and they harbor a 2-fold greater amount of circulating monocytes than their Tbk1(+/+) and Tbk1(+/Δ) littermates. Skin from 2-week-old Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice is characterized by reactive changes, including hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltrates, and edema. In response to LPS challenge, 3-month-old Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice die more quickly and in greater numbers than their Tbk1(+/+) and Tbk1(+/Δ) counterparts. This lethality is accompanied by an overproduction of several proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice, including TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-6, and KC. This overproduction of serum cytokines in Tbk1(Δ/Δ) mice following LPS challenge and their increased susceptibility to LPS-induced lethality may result from the reactions of their larger circulating monocyte compartment and their greater numbers of extravasated immune cells.

  2. A two disulfide bridge Kazal domain from Phytophthora exhibits stable inhibitory activity against serine proteases of the subtilisin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoun Sophien

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kazal-like serine protease inhibitors are defined by a conserved sequence motif. A typical Kazal domain contains six cysteine residues leading to three disulfide bonds with a 1–5/2–4/3–6 pattern. Most Kazal domains described so far belong to this class. However, a novel class of Kazal domains with two disulfide bridges resulting from the absence of the third and sixth cysteines have been found in biologically important molecules, such as human LEKTI, a 15-domain inhibitor associated with the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. These domains are referred to as atypical Kazal domains. Previously, EPI1, a Kazal-like protease inhibitor from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans, was shown to be a tight-binding inhibitor of subtilisin A. EPI1 also inhibits and interacts with the pathogenesis-related P69B subtilase of the host plant tomato, suggesting a role in virulence. EPI1 is composed of two Kazal domains, the four-cysteine atypical domain EPI1a and the typical domain EPI1b. Results In this study, we predicted the inhibition constants of EPI1a and EPI1b to subtilisin A using the additivity-based sequence to reactivity algorithm (Laskowski algorithm. The atypical domain EPI1a, but not the typical domain EPI1b, was predicted to have strong inhibitory activity against subtilisin A. Inhibition assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that recombinant domain EPI1a exhibited stable inhibitory activity against subilisin A and was solely responsible for inhibition and interaction with tomato P69B subtilase. Conclusion The finding that the two disulfide bridge atypical Kazal domain EPI1a is a stable inhibitor indicates that the missing two cysteines and their corresponding disulfide bond are not essential for inhibitor reactivity and stability. This report also suggests that the Laskowski algorithm originally developed and validated with typical Kazal domains might operate accurately for atypical

  3. Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seori; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove were analyzed and tested for anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo using hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Cinnamon and clove extracts (at final 10 μg/mL) had the strongest anti-glycation and antioxidant activity in this study. Cinnamon and clove had the strongest inhibition of activity against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and LDL phagocytosis by macrophages. Cinnamon or clove extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. They exhibited hypolipidemic activity in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model; the clove extract-treated group had a 68% and 80% decrease in serum cholesterol and TG levels, respectively. The clove extract-fed group had the smallest increase in body weight and height and the strongest antioxidant activity following a 5-week high cholesterol diet. Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, inhibition of CETP, and hypolipidemic activity. These results suggest the potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryonic stem cells deficient for Brca2 or Blm exhibit divergent genotoxic profiles that support opposing activities during homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, Teresa [Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 15355 Lambda Drive San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Kim, Tae Moon [Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 15355 Lambda Drive San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul [Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 15355 Lambda Drive San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States)]. E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu

    2006-12-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility protein, Brca2 and the RecQ helicase, Blm (Bloom syndrome mutated) are tumor suppressors that maintain genome integrity, at least in part, through homologous recombination (HR). Brca2 facilitates HR by interacting with Rad51 in multiple regions, the BRC motifs encoded by exon 11 and a single domain encoded by exon 27; however, the exact importance of these regions is not fully understood. Blm also interacts with Rad51 and appears to suppress HR in most circumstances; however, its yeast homologue Sgs1 facilitates HR in response to some genotoxins. To better understand the biological importance of these two proteins, we performed a genotoxic screen on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells impaired for either Brca2 or Blm to establish their genotoxic profiles (a cellular dose-response to a wide range of agents). This is the first side-by-side comparison of these two proteins in an identical genetic background. We compared cells deleted for Brca2 exon 27 to cells reduced for Blm expression and find that the Brca2- and Blm-impaired cells exhibit genotoxic profiles that reflect opposing activities during HR. Cells deleted for Brca2 exon 27 are hypersensitive to {gamma}-radiation, streptonigrin, mitomycin C and camptothecin and mildly resistant to ICRF-193 which is similar to HR defective cells null for Rad54. By contrast, Blm-impaired cells are hypersensitive to ICRF-193, mildly resistant to camptothecin and mitomycin C and more strongly resistant to hydroxyurea. These divergent profiles support the notion that Brca2 and Blm perform opposing functions during HR in mouse ES cells.

  5. The phzA2-G2 transcript exhibits direct RsmA-mediated activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ren

    Full Text Available In bacteria, RNA-binding proteins of the RsmA/CsrA family act as post-transcriptional regulators that modulate translation initiation at target transcripts. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome contains two phenazine biosynthetic (phz gene clusters, phzA1-G1 (phz1 and phzA2-G2 (phz2, each of which is responsible for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA biosynthesis. In the present study, we show that RsmA exhibits differential gene regulation on two phz clusters in P. aeruginosa M18 at the post-transcriptional level. Based on the sequence analysis, four GGA motifs, the potential RsmA binding sites, are found on the 5'-untranslated region (UTR of the phz2 transcript. Studies with a series of lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays suggest that the third GGA motif (S3, located 21 nucleotides upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, is involved in direct RsmA-mediated activation of phz2 expression. We therefore propose a novel model in which the binding of RsmA to the target S3 results in the destabilization of the stem-loop structure and the enhancement of ribosome access. This model could be fully supported by RNA structure prediction, free energy calculations, and nucleotide replacement studies. In contrast, various RsmA-mediated translation repression mechanisms have been identified in which RsmA binds near the SD sequence of target transcripts, thereby blocking ribosome access. Similarly, RsmA is shown to negatively regulate phz1 expression. Our new findings suggest that the differential regulation exerted by RsmA on the two phz clusters may confer an advantage to P. aeruginosa over other pseudomonads containing only a single phz cluster in their genomes.

  6. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  7. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munmun Nandi

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN, phenazine (PHZ, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which

  8. Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galati Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA. Methods The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols. Results Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6 as well as a tumor-line (HL60. Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA. Conclusion Resveratrol is

  9. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  10. Phenylphenols, biphenols, bisphenol-A and 4-tert-octylphenol exhibit alpha and beta estrogen activities and antiandrogen activity in reporter cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Françoise; Balaguer, Patrick; Térouanne, Béatrice; Servant, Nadège; Lacoste, Caroline; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Sultan, Charles

    2002-07-31

    We previously demonstrated the interactions of different chemical compounds with estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta and the androgen receptor (AR) using different reporter cell lines. In this study, we characterize the ERalpha, ERbeta and AR activity of different biphenyls using the same tools. We provide evidence that several phenyl derivatives present both estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity. The extent of hydroxylation and the position of the hydroxyl function were important in determining their estrogenicity and antiandrogenicity. Of the tested compounds, bisphenol-A and 4,4' biphenol had very high estrogenic activity, although it was lower than that of the strong estrogenic alkylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol. Bisphenol-A and 4,4' biphenol were able to activate ERs at concentrations lower than 1 microM, whereas the other compounds only activated at concentrations above 1 microM. Interestingly, 4,4' biphenol was a better agonist for ERbeta than for ERalpha. No androgenic activity was detected for any of these compounds. Bisphenol-A, 3-OH phenylphenol, 4-OH phenylphenol and 4,4' biphenol exhibited antiandrogenic activity close to that of 4-tert-octylphenol (IC(50) approximately 5 microM). In whole cell binding assays, these compounds displaced [3H] R1881 with Ki = 10 microM. Although these Ki values seem high in comparison with that of hydroxyflutamide (0.4 microM), one must keep in mind that environmental chemicals can accumulate in adipose tissues for several years. In conclusion, these environmental chemicals may have a negative impact on androgen action during fetal and post-natal life. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  11. Composition and structural features of condensed tannins from Texas legumes exhibiting methane abatement activity during in vitro rumen digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies showed that a series of purified condensed tannins (CTs) from warm-season perennial legumes exhibited high variability in their modulation of methane production during in vitro rumen digestion. The molecular weight difference of these CTs did not provide correlation with either the ...

  12. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  13. Posaconazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo synergistic antifungal activity with caspofungin or FK506 against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to test whether posaconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, exhibits synergy with the β-1,3 glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin or the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Although current drug treatments for Candida infection are often efficacious, the available antifungal armamentarium may not be keeping pace with the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains. The development of drug combinations or novel antifungal drugs to address emerging drug resistance is therefore of general importance. Combination drug therapies are employed to treat patients with HIV, cancer, or tuberculosis, and has considerable promise in the treatment of fungal infections like cryptococcal meningitis and C. albicans infections. Our studies reported here demonstrate that posaconazole exhibits in vitro synergy with caspofungin or FK506 against drug susceptible or resistant C. albicans strains. Furthermore, these combinations also show in vivo synergy against C. albicans strain SC5314 and its derived echinocandin-resistant mutants, which harbor an S645Y mutation in the CaFks1 β-1,3 glucan synthase drug target, suggesting potential therapeutic applicability for these combinations in the future.

  14. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  15. Ginsenoside-Rd exhibits anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of JNK and ERK activation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Xin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Er-Long; Li, Si-Jia; Chen, Jia-Jia; Gao, Bei; Min, Guang-Ning; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study has reported that ginsenoside-Rd significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in carrageenan (Carr)-induced rat paw edema, which might be due to its blocking of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to clarify the more detailed mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd in Carr-induced rat paw edema model. Rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or ginsenoside-Rd 1 h before the Carr injection. Six hours after Carr injection, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities in inflamed paw tissues were determined. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum were measured. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB were detected by western blot. In addition, the extent of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was analyzed by western blot. The results showed that ginsenoside-Rd significantly attenuated MPO activity and MDA level, increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, lowered the levels of NO and PGE2, down-regulated the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, and suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Taken together, the possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd were: it could reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory sites, inhibit the tissue lipid peroxidation, increase the antioxidant enzyme activities, and suppress the proinflammatory enzyme expressions through the downregulation of NF-κB activation via suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation.

  16. A polysaccharide extracted from rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes enhances natural killer cell activity and exhibits anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yang, Sung-Bum; Hong, Seong-Gil; Lee, Seong-Ae; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Suh, Hyung-Joo; Park, Mi-Hyoun

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and anticancer effects of exo-biopolymer from rice bran cultured with Lentinus edodes [rice bran exo-biopolymer (RBEP)]. Oral administration of RBEP induced the activation of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner. RBEP also prolonged the life spans of mice transplanted with Sarcoma-180 cells and inhibited growing Sarcoma-180 cells in intraperitoneum. Solid tumor growth was also suppressed by oral administration of RBEP in C57/Bl6 mice transplanted with B16/Bl6 melanoma. Intraperitoneal injection of RBEP was more effective than oral administration at the same dosage in mice with transplanted tumor cells. According to this result, when RBEP directly contacts immune cells, the anticancer activity is higher than by indirectly inducing an immune response through oral administration. Therefore, we suggest that the administration of RBEP may be effective for preventing and/or treating cancer through NK cell activation. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anticancer activity and to investigate the other beneficial effects of RBEP for the development of a new biological response modifier.

  17. Graveoline Analogs Exhibiting Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity as Potential Lead Compounds for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and synthesized a series of new graveoline analogs on the basis of the structural characteristics of acetylcholinesterase (AChE dual-site inhibitors. The activity of these analogs was also evaluated. Results showed that the synthesized graveoline analogs displayed stronger inhibitory activity against AChE and higher selectivity than butyrylcholine esterase (BuChE (Selectivity Index from 45 to 486. When the two sites in the graveoline parent ring substituting phenyl and amino terminal had six chemical bonds (n = 3 and the terminal amino was piperidine, compound 5c showed the best activity. Furthermore, the mechanism of action and binding mode were explored by enzyme kinetic simulation, molecular docking, and thioflavin T-based fluorometric assay. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the low concentration of the analogs did not affect the viability of the neurocyte SH-SY5Y.

  18. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV......) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may...... sites. Together, these results suggest that deregulation of the Cdk/Rb/E2F axis reprograms mammary epithelial cells to initiate a paracrine loop with tumor-associated fibroblasts involving TGF beta and HGF, resulting in desmoplasia. The MMTV-DIK2 mice should provide a useful model system...

  19. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may......Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV...... sites. Together, these results suggest that deregulation of the Cdk/Rb/E2F axis reprograms mammary epithelial cells to initiate a paracrine loop with tumor-associated fibroblasts involving TGF beta and HGF, resulting in desmoplasia. The MMTV-DIK2 mice should provide a useful model system...

  20. Extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Flower Exhibit Antidiabetic Effects via the Inhibition of α-Glucosidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujie Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assay the effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. flower extracts on hyperglycemia of diet-induced obese mice and the underlying mechanisms. Coreopsis tinctoria flower was extracted with ethanol and water, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid levels, and the constituents of the extracts were measured. For the animal experiments, C57BL/6 mice were fed with a chow diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet mixed with 0.4% (w/w water and ethanol extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flower for 8 weeks. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on α-glucosidase activity and the antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro. We found that the extracts blocked the increase of fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG, insulin, leptin, and liver lipid levels and prevented the development of glucose tolerance impairment and insulin resistance in the C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet. The extracts inhibited α-glycosidase activity and increased oxidant activity in vitro. In conclusion, Coreopsis tinctoria flower extracts may ameliorate high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underling mechanism may be via the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Our data indicate that Coreopsis tinctoria flower could be used as a beverage supplement and a potential source of drugs for treatment of diabetics.

  1. Profiling of Substrates for Zinc‐dependent Lysine Deacylase Enzymes: HDAC3 Exhibits Decrotonylase Activity In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Olsen, Christian Adam

    2012-01-01

    Systematic screening of the activities of the eleven human zinc-dependent lysine deacylases against a series of fluorogenic substrates (see scheme) as well as kinetic evaluation revealed substrates for screenings of histone deacetylases HDAC10 and HDAC11 at reasonably low enzyme concentrations...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2882c Protein Induces Activation of Macrophages through TLR4 and Exhibits Vaccine Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Gyu Choi

    Full Text Available Macrophages constitute the first line of defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are critical in linking innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, the identification and characterization of mycobacterial proteins that modulate macrophage function are essential for understanding tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the novel macrophage-activating protein, Rv2882c, from M. tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins. Recombinant Rv2882c protein activated macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and express co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules via Toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and Toll/IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in Rv2882c-induced macrophage activation. Further, Rv2882c-treated macrophages induced expansion of the effector/memory T cell population and Th1 immune responses. In addition, boosting Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination with Rv2882c improved protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis in our model system. These results suggest that Rv2882c is an antigen that could be used for tuberculosis vaccine development.

  3. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, T C; Gambato, G; Fontana, R; Camassola, M; Salvador, M; Moura, S; Hess, J; Henriques, J A P; Dillon, A J P; Roesch-Ely, M

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom extracts are increasingly sold as dietary supplements because of several of their properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. We hypothesized that soluble polar substances present in mushroom extracts may show antioxidant and anticancer properties. This report shows that Brazilian aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exert inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human tumor cell lines laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Cell viability was determined after using 3 different temperatures (4°C, 22°C, and 50°C) for mushroom extraction. Biochemical assays carried out in parallel indicated higher amounts of polyphenols in the L edodes extracts at all extraction temperatures investigated. The scavenging ability of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher activity for L edodes extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity showed no statistically significant difference among the groups for the 2 tested extracts, and catalase-like activity was increased with the L edodes extracts at 4°C. The results for the cytotoxic activity from P sajor-caju extracts at 22°C revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.64% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.25% ± 0.02% for HeLa. A higher cytotoxic activity was found for the L edodes extract at 22°C, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.57% ± 0.01% for HeLa. Substantial morphological modifications in cells were confirmed by Giemsa staining after treatment with either extract, suggesting inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with increasing extract concentrations. These results indicate that the aqueous extracts of Brazilian L edodes and P sajor-caju mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, further investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic uses and to elucidate their modes of

  4. Dimethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate exhibit differential effects on KEAP1, NRF2 activation, and glutathione depletion in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie S Brennan

    Full Text Available Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (also known as gastro-resistant dimethyl fumarate, an oral therapeutic containing dimethyl fumarate (DMF as the active ingredient, is currently approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. DMF is also a component in a distinct mixture product with 3 different salts of monoethyl fumarate (MEF, which is marketed for the treatment of psoriasis. Previous studies have provided insight into the pharmacologic properties of DMF, including modulation of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1, activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2 pathway, and glutathione (GSH modulation; however, those of MEF remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of DMF and MEF on KEAP1 modification, activation of the NRF2 pathway, and GSH conjugation. Using mass spectrometry, DMF treatment resulted in a robust modification of specific cysteine residues on KEAP1. In comparison, the overall degree of KEAP1 modification following MEF treatment was significantly less or undetectable. Consistent with KEAP1 cysteine modification, DMF treatment resulted in nuclear translocation of NRF2 and a robust transcriptional response in treated cells, as did MEF; however, the responses to MEF were of a lower magnitude or distinct compared to DMF. DMF was also shown to produce an acute concentration-dependent depletion of GSH; however, GSH levels eventually recovered and rose above baseline by 24 hours. In contrast, MEF did not cause acute reductions in GSH, but did produce an increase by 24 hours. Overall, these studies demonstrate that DMF and MEF are both pharmacologically active, but have differing degrees of activity as well as unique actions. These differences would be expected to result in divergent effects on downstream biology.

  5. Dimethyl fumarate and monoethyl fumarate exhibit differential effects on KEAP1, NRF2 activation, and glutathione depletion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Melanie S; Matos, Maria F; Li, Bing; Hronowski, Xiaoping; Gao, Benbo; Juhasz, Peter; Rhodes, Kenneth J; Scannevin, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (also known as gastro-resistant dimethyl fumarate), an oral therapeutic containing dimethyl fumarate (DMF) as the active ingredient, is currently approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. DMF is also a component in a distinct mixture product with 3 different salts of monoethyl fumarate (MEF), which is marketed for the treatment of psoriasis. Previous studies have provided insight into the pharmacologic properties of DMF, including modulation of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) pathway, and glutathione (GSH) modulation; however, those of MEF remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of DMF and MEF on KEAP1 modification, activation of the NRF2 pathway, and GSH conjugation. Using mass spectrometry, DMF treatment resulted in a robust modification of specific cysteine residues on KEAP1. In comparison, the overall degree of KEAP1 modification following MEF treatment was significantly less or undetectable. Consistent with KEAP1 cysteine modification, DMF treatment resulted in nuclear translocation of NRF2 and a robust transcriptional response in treated cells, as did MEF; however, the responses to MEF were of a lower magnitude or distinct compared to DMF. DMF was also shown to produce an acute concentration-dependent depletion of GSH; however, GSH levels eventually recovered and rose above baseline by 24 hours. In contrast, MEF did not cause acute reductions in GSH, but did produce an increase by 24 hours. Overall, these studies demonstrate that DMF and MEF are both pharmacologically active, but have differing degrees of activity as well as unique actions. These differences would be expected to result in divergent effects on downstream biology.

  6. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Taxvig, Camilla; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting......Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures...... the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid...

  7. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wei-Hong; Yang, Li-Yun; Cao, Zhong-Yi; Qian, Yong

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The polysaccharide extracts from the fungi Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum do exhibit AChE inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Tešanović, Kristina; Jakovljević, Dragica; Kaišarević, Sonja; Šibul, Filip; Rašeta, Milena; Karaman, Maja

    2017-11-22

    The polysaccharide (PSH) extracts from the edible mushroom species Coprinus comatus and Coprinellus truncorum were screened in liquid for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChE) activity. Both extracts were found to display inhibition of the aforementioned enzyme reaching similar IC50 values of 0.62 ± 0.07 and 0.61 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. According to the means of FTIR spectroscopy, these PSH extracts mostly contained β-glucans. However, the presence of some proteins and polyphenolics as minor ingredients were also detected. Compared with existing literature data for anti-AChE activity of the sugar samples, the findings within this study may be treated as a profound bioactivity. Consequently, this study puts some light on the possible use of the screened macrofungi in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. The curcumin analogue hydrazinocurcumin exhibits potent suppressive activity on carcinogenicity of breast cancer cells via STAT3 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Wenxia; Feng, Wenli; Chen, Tingmei

    2012-04-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development in cancer. In our study, we tested the efficacy of a synthetic curcumin analogue, known as hydrazinocurcumin (HC), in breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that compared to curcumin, HC was more effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and downregulation of an array of STAT3 downstream targets which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion as well as induction of cell apoptosis. It was concluded that HC is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with more favorable pharmacological activity than curcumin, and HC may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for human breast carcinoma.

  10. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  11. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  12. Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Younis, Waleed; Chen, Lu; Peters, Christine E; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Cooper, Bruce; Zhang, Jianan; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman; Oldfield, Eric; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-03-23

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial species, such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. Here, we investigate the spectrum of antibacterial activity of three phenylthiazole-substituted aminoguanidines. These compounds possess potent activity against VRE, inhibiting growth of clinical isolates at concentrations as low as 0.5 μg/mL. The compounds exerted a rapid bactericidal effect, targeting cell wall synthesis. Transposon mutagenesis suggested three possible targets: YubA, YubB (undecaprenyl diphosphate phosphatase (UPPP)), and YubD. Both UPPP as well as undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase were inhibited by compound 1. YubA and YubD are annotated as transporters and may also be targets because 1 collapsed the proton motive force in membrane vesicles. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate that two compounds (1, 3, at 20 μg/mL) retain potent activity in vivo, significantly reducing the burden of VRE in infected worms. Taken altogether, the results indicate that compounds 1 and 3 warrant further investigation as novel antibacterial agents against drug-resistant enterococci.

  13. R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Dong, Lei; Li, Chenying; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Wunderlich, Mark; Qing, Ying; Deng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yungui; Weng, Xiaocheng; Hu, Chao; Yu, Mengxia; Skibbe, Jennifer; Dai, Qing; Zou, Dongling; Wu, Tong; Yu, Kangkang; Weng, Hengyou; Huang, Huilin; Ferchen, Kyle; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Qi, Jun; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Plas, David R; Bradner, James E; Wei, Minjie; Marcucci, Guido; Jiang, Xi; Mulloy, James C; Jin, Jie; He, Chuan; Chen, Jianjun

    2018-01-11

    R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wei-Hong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Yang, Li-Yun [Department of Blood Transfusion, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Cao, Zhong-Yi, E-mail: m18070383032@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yfykqkqy@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  15. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Latha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group. These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments. Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02, hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that

  16. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  17. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Taxvig, Camilla; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures...... of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting...

  19. Polyphenolics from Albizia harveyi Exhibit Antioxidant Activities and Counteract Oxidative Damage and Ultra-Structural Changes of Cryopreserved Bull Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sobeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Albizia harveyi is a tropical deciduous tree, found across South and Eastern Africa and widely used in traditional medicine. The leaf extract ameliorated the damaging effects of the frozen-thawing process in cryopreserved bull semen. In a dose-dependent pattern, sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity were improved compared to the untreated control. Furthermore, the extract increased the percentage of viable sperm cells and reduced the percentages of early apoptotic and apoptotic sperm cells as well as the damage in sperm ultra-structure. These activities are in agreement with the robust antioxidant properties in vitro and in the seminal fluid as observed in the total antioxidant capacity and the lipid peroxidation parameter malondialdehyde. LC-MS yielded 35 compounds. The extract was dominated by quercetin-O-galloyl-hexoside and quercetin-O-pentoside, along with other flavonoid glycosides. The polyphenols are probably responsible for the observed activities. In conclusion, the current findings show that A. harveyi leaves are rich in bioactive polyphenols with functional properties, validating its traditional use.

  20. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PChinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti-Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  1. Waxy and non-waxy barley cultivars exhibit differences in the targeting and catalytic activity of GBSS1a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Nielsen, Morten Munch; Carciofi, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Amylose synthesis is strictly associated with activity of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) enzymes. Among several crops there are cultivars containing starch types with either little or no amylose known as near-waxy or waxy. This (near) amylose-free phenotype is associated with a single locus......_Alamo showed deficient starch targeting mostly into unknown subcellular bodies of 0.5-3 µm in size, indicating that the waxy phenotype of CDC_Alamo is associated with deficient targeting of HvGBSSIa into starch granules....... protein-tagged HvGBSSIa of both the non-waxy type and of the CDC_Alamo type to monitor their subcellular localization patterns in grain endosperm. HvGBSSIa from non-waxy cultivars was found to localize in discrete concentric spheres strictly within starch granules. In contrast, HvGBSSIa from waxy CDC...

  2. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV...... mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF...... beta antiproliferative effects. Fibroblasts derived from MMTV-DIK2 tumors secrete factors that stimulate the proliferation of MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells, stimulate c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation, and stimulate the phosphorylation of the downstream signaling intermediates p70(s6k) and Akt on activating...

  3. The palladacycle, AJ-5, exhibits anti-tumour and anti-cancer stem cell activity in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwaini, Saeb; Peres, Jade; Kröger, Wendy L; Blanckenberg, Angelique; de la Mare, Jo; Edkins, Adrienne L; Mapolie, Selwyn; Prince, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy amongst women worldwide but despite enormous efforts to address this problem, there is still limited success with most of the current therapeutic strategies. The current study describes the anti-cancer activity of a binuclear palladacycle complex (AJ-5) in oestrogen receptor positive (MCF7) and oestrogen receptor negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells as well as human breast cancer stem cells. AJ-5 is shown to induce DNA double strand breaks leading to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis and autophagy cell death pathways which are mediated by the p38 MAP kinase. This study provides evidence that AJ-5 is potentially an effective compound in the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) exhibits antitumor activity by directly interacting with tubulin and overcomes ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Aki; Katayama, Ryohei; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeo; Okuno, Yasushi; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-12-01

    Tivantinib (ARQ197) was first reported as a highly selective inhibitor of c-MET and is currently being investigated in a phase III clinical trial. However, as recently reported by us and another group, tivantinib showed cytotoxic activity independent of cellular c-MET status and also disrupted microtubule dynamics. To investigate if tivantinib exerts its cytotoxic activity by disrupting microtubules, we quantified polymerized tubulin in cells and xenograft tumors after tivantinib treatment. Consistent with our previous report, tivantinib reduced tubulin polymerization in cells and in mouse xenograft tumors in vivo. To determine if tivantinib directly binds to tubulin, we performed an in vitro competition assay. Tivantinib competitively inhibited colchicine but not vincristine or vinblastine binding to purified tubulin. These results imply that tivantinib directly binds to the colchicine binding site of tubulin. To predict the binding mode of tivantinib with tubulin, we performed computer simulation of the docking pose of tivantinib with tubulin using GOLD docking program. Computer simulation predicts tivantinib fitted into the colchicine binding pocket of tubulin without steric hindrance. Furthermore, tivantinib showed similar IC50 values against parental and multidrug-resistant cells. In contrast, other microtubule-targeting drugs, such as vincristine, paclitaxel, and colchicine, could not suppress the growth of cells overexpressing ABC transporters. Moreover, the expression level of ABC transporters did not correlate with the apoptosis-inducing ability of tivantinib different from other microtubule inhibitor. These results suggest that tivantinib can overcome ABC transporter-mediated multidrug-resistant tumor cells and is potentially useful against various tumors. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, A K; Taxvig, C; Svingen, T; Trier, X; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Pedersen, M; Lesné, L; Jégou, B; Vinggaard, A M

    2016-07-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity, as well as steroidogenesis in vitro and ex vivo. In general, PAPs, FTOHs, TMs, and long-chain PFCAs showed estrogenic activity through receptor activation and/or increasing 17β-estradiol levels. Furthermore, short- and long-chain PFCAs activated PPARα and PPARγ. Collectively, this means that (i) PAPs, FTOHs, and PFCAs exhibit endocrine activity through distinct and sometimes different mechanisms, (ii) two out of three tested TMs exhibited estrogenic activity, and (iii) short-chain FTOHs showed estrogenic activity and short-chain PFCAs generally activate both PPARα and PPARγ with similar potency and efficacy as long-chain PFCAs. In conclusion, several new and divergent toxicological targets were identified for different groups of PFAS. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Spine kinematics exhibited during the stop-jump by physically active individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Rumit Singh; Li, Yumeng; Brown, Cathleen N; Kim, Seock-Ho; Oswald, Timothy S; Simpson, Kathy J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis post spinal fusion often return to exercise and sport. However, the movements that individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) use to compensate for the loss of spinal flexibility during high-effort tasks are not known. The objective of this study was to compare the spinal kinematics of the trunk segments displayed during the stop-jump, a maximal effort task, between SF-AIS and healthy control groups. The study used a case-controlled design. Ten SF-AIS (physically active, posterior-approach spinal fusion: 11.2±1.9 fused segments, postop time: 2±.6 years) and nine control individuals, pair matched for gender, age (17.4±1.3 years and 20.6±1.5 years, respectively), mass (63.50±12.2 kg and 66. 40±10.9 kg), height (1.69±.09 m and 1.72±.08 m), and level of physical activity, participated in the study. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and controls (CON) performed five acceptable trials of the stop-jump task. Spatial locations of 21 retroreflective trunk and pelvis markers were recorded via high-speed motion capture methodology. Mean differences and analysis of covariance (jump height=covariate, pjump height and RelAng were detected in the three phases of stop-jump. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis displayed 3.2° greater transverse plane RelAng of LT compared with CON (p=.059) in the stance phase. Group differences for RelAng ranged from 0° to 15.3°. For SegAng in the stance phase, LT demonstrated greater SegAng in the sagittal and frontal planes (mean difference: 3.2°-6.2°), whereas SegAng for MT was 5.1° greater in the sagittal plane and had a tendency of 2° greater displacement in the frontal plane (p=.070). In the vertical flight phase, greater LT displacement in the frontal plane was observed for SF-AIS than CON. In the flight phase, LT had a tendency for greater SegAng for SF-AIS than for CON

  7. Lesional dendritic cells in patients with chronic atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibit parallel ability to activate T-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideki; Shemer, Avner; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Johnson-Huang, Leanne M; Tintle, Suzanne; Cardinale, Irma; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Novitskaya, Inna; Carucci, John A; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2011-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis represent polar immune diseases. AD is a T(H)2/T(H)22-dominant disease, whereas psoriasis is considered a T(H)1/T(H)17 disease. Local immune deviation is suggested to be regulated by dendritic cell (DC)-induced T-cell polarization and recruitment of specific T-cell subsets by chemokines. Although the role of chemokines is well documented, the actual contribution of DCs to activate polar T-cell subsets in human subjects is still a matter of speculation. We sought to elucidate the significance of each cutaneous DC subset in disease-specific T-cell immune deviation. We performed a comprehensive analysis of major cutaneous resident (Langerhans cells and blood dendritic cell antigen 1-positive dermal DCs) and inflammatory (inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and blood dendritic cell antigen 1-negative dermal DCs) DC subsets directly isolated from the lesional skin of patients with AD and those with psoriasis. The ability of each DC subset to expand T(H)1, T(H)2, T(H)17, and T(H)22 subsets was similar between the 2 diseases, despite the association of both with accumulation of resident and inflammatory DCs. We also confirmed differential upregulation of chemokine expression in patients with AD (CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22) and psoriasis (CXCL1, IL-8, and CCL20). The expression of CCL17 and CCL22 was higher in Langerhans cells from patients with AD than from patients with psoriasis, whereas the opposite was observed for CXCL9 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that DC polarity does not directly drive differential T-cell subset responses. Alternatively, disease-specific chemokines might recruit specific memory T-cell subsets into the skin, which in turn might be activated and expanded by DCs at the site of inflammation, maintaining differential immune polarity in these diseases. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitt Brian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BACE1 is a key enzyme in the generation of the Aβ peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. While BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target, its normal physiological function remains largely unknown. Examination of BACE1-/- mice can provide insight into this function and also help anticipate consequences of BACE1 inhibition. Here we report a seizure-susceptibility phenotype that we have identified and characterized in BACE1-/- mice. Results We find that electroencephalographic recordings reveal epileptiform abnormalities in some BACE1-/- mice, occasionally including generalized tonic-clonic and absence seizures. In addition, we find that kainic acid injection induces seizures of greater severity in BACE1-/- mice relative to BACE1+/+ littermates, and causes excitotoxic cell death in a subset of BACE1-/- mice. This hyperexcitability phenotype is variable and appears to be manifest in approximately 30% of BACE1-/- mice. Finally, examination of the expression and localization of the voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit Nav1.2 reveals no correlation with BACE1 genotype or any measure of seizure susceptibility. Conclusions Our data indicate that BACE1 deficiency predisposes mice to spontaneous and pharmacologically-induced seizure activity. This finding has implications for the development of safe therapeutic strategies for reducing Aβ levels in Alzheimer's disease. Further, we demonstrate that altered sodium channel expression and axonal localization are insufficient to account for the observed effect, warranting investigation of alternative mechanisms.

  9. BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Brian D; Jaramillo, Thomas C; Chetkovich, Dane M; Vassar, Robert

    2010-08-23

    BACE1 is a key enzyme in the generation of the Abeta peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. While BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target, its normal physiological function remains largely unknown. Examination of BACE1-/- mice can provide insight into this function and also help anticipate consequences of BACE1 inhibition. Here we report a seizure-susceptibility phenotype that we have identified and characterized in BACE1-/- mice. We find that electroencephalographic recordings reveal epileptiform abnormalities in some BACE1-/- mice, occasionally including generalized tonic-clonic and absence seizures. In addition, we find that kainic acid injection induces seizures of greater severity in BACE1-/- mice relative to BACE1+/+ littermates, and causes excitotoxic cell death in a subset of BACE1-/- mice. This hyperexcitability phenotype is variable and appears to be manifest in approximately 30% of BACE1-/- mice. Finally, examination of the expression and localization of the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit Nav1.2 reveals no correlation with BACE1 genotype or any measure of seizure susceptibility. Our data indicate that BACE1 deficiency predisposes mice to spontaneous and pharmacologically-induced seizure activity. This finding has implications for the development of safe therapeutic strategies for reducing Abeta levels in Alzheimer's disease. Further, we demonstrate that altered sodium channel expression and axonal localization are insufficient to account for the observed effect, warranting investigation of alternative mechanisms.

  10. A novel GH secretagogue, A233, exhibits enhanced growth activity and innate immune system stimulation in teleosts fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebeca; Ubieta, Kenia; Herrera, Fidel; Forellat, Alina; Morales, Reynold; de la Nuez, Ania; Rodriguez, Rolando; Reyes, Osvaldo; Oliva, Ayme; Estrada, Mario P

    2012-09-01

    In teleosts fish, secretion of GH is regulated by several hypothalamic factors that are influenced by the physiological state of the animal. There is an interaction between immune and endocrine systems through hormones and cytokines. GH in fish is involved in many physiological processes that are not overtly growth related, such as saltwater osmoregulation, antifreeze synthesis, and the regulation of sexual maturation and immune functions. This study was conducted to characterize a decapeptide compound A233 (GKFDLSPEHQ) designed by molecular modeling to evaluate its function as a GH secretagogue (GHS). In pituitary cell culture, the peptide A233 induces GH secretion and it is also able to increase superoxide production in tilapia head-kidney leukocyte cultures. This effect is blocked by preincubation with the GHS receptor antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6. Immunoneutralization of GH by addition of anti-tilapia GH monoclonal antibody blocked the stimulatory effect of A233 on superoxide production. These experiments propose a GH-mediated mechanism for the action of A233. The in vivo biological action of the decapeptide was also demonstrated for growth stimulation in goldfish and tilapia larvae (P<0.001). Superoxide dismutase levels, antiprotease activity, and lectin titer were enhanced in tilapia larvae treated with this novel molecule. The decapeptide A233 designed by molecular modeling is able to function as a GHS in teleosts and enhance parameters of the innate immune system in the fish larvae.

  11. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivatives-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Geon Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors were investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculate the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1)-excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state using a dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT. The calculated {\\Delta}EST values of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would have a suitable blue OLED emitter, because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the HOMO and the LUMO and, consequently, the small {\\Delta}EST an...

  12. GM-CSF Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Endothelial Cells Derived from Chronic Venous Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tisato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty patients affected by chronic venous disease (CVD in tertiary venous network and/or saphenous vein were analyzed before surgical ablation by echo-color-doppler for the hemodynamic parameters reflux time (RT and resistance index (RI, a negative and a positive prognostic factor, respectively. RT and RI were next correlated with relevant in vitro parameters of venous endothelial cells (VEC obtained from surgical specimens, such as cell migration in response to serum gradient, proliferation index, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 expression, as well as cytokines release. Of interest, ICAM-1 expression in patient-derived VEC cultures correlated positively with RT and negatively with RI. Moreover, RT showed a positive correlation with the baseline osteoprotegerin (OPG expression by VEC and an inverse correlation with VEC proliferation index. On the other hand, RI correlated positively with TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL expression. Among the cytokines released by VEC, GM-CSF showed a positive correlation with VEC proliferation and TRAIL expression and a negative correlation with OPG, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Since in vitro recombinant GM-CSF induced VEC proliferation and counteracted the induction of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and OPG upon exposure to TNF-α, our data suggest an anti-inflammatory activity of GM-CSF on venous endothelial cells.

  13. Propolis-Sahara honeys preparation exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against bacterial biofims formed on urinary catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aissat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Sahara honeys (SHs against bacterial biofilms formed on urinary catheters in combination with propolis-Sahara honeys (P-SHs. Methods: Three clinical isolates were subjected to biofilm detection methods. The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity for SHs and P-SHs were determined using agar well diffusion and the percentage of biofilm inhibition (PBI methods. Results: The PBI for Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus] was in the range of 0%–20%, while PBI for Gram-negative bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (E. coli] were in range of 17%–57% and 16%–65%, respectively. The highest PBI (65% was produced by SH2 only on E. coli. In agar well diffusion assay, zones of inhibition ranged from 11–20 mm (S. aureus, 9–19 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 11–19 mm (E. coli. The highest inhibition (20 mm was produced by SH1 only on S. aureus. In addition, the treatment of SHs and P-SHs catheters with a polymicrobial biofilms reduced biofilm formation after 48 h exposure period. Conclussions: SHs and P-SHs applied as a natural agent can be used as a prophylactic agent to prevent the formation of in vitro biofilm.

  14. Chios mastic gum extract and isolated phytosterol tirucallol exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Stella; Paraschos, Sotirios; Mitakou, Sofia; Chrousos, George P; Lekakis, Ioannis; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2009-05-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG) is a white, semitransparent, natural resin that is obtained as a trunk exudate from mastic trees. Triterpenic compounds and phytosterols like tirucallol are among its major components. CMG has been associated with cardiovascular protection, exerting its effect mainly through increasing the antioxidant defense system, and effectively lowering the levels of serum cholesterol in human subjects. However, data on its anti-inflammatory effect on endothelium are scarce. Attachment of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium and the subsequent migration of cells into the vessel wall are early events in atherogenesis, and this process requires the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. In this study, we examined the effect of CMG neutral extract (25-200 microg/ml) and tirucallol (0.1-100 microM) on the following: 1) the expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) by Cell ELISA and 2) the attachment of monocytes (U937 cells) in TNF-alpha stimulated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAEC) by Adhesion assay. The impact of treatment with CMG neutral extract and tirucallol in NFkB phosphorylation was also examined by a cell-based ELISA kit. Both CMG extract and tirucallol inhibit significantly VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-alpha-stimulated HAEC. They also inhibit significantly the binding of U937 cells to TNF-alpha-stimulated HAEC and attenuate the phosphorylation of NFkB p65. This study extends existing data regarding the cardioprotective effect of CMG, expands the spectrum of known phytosterols with potent antiatheromatic activity, provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of CMG on endothelial function, and may aid in design of new therapy for intervention in atherosclerosis.

  15. Monomethyl auristatin E Exhibits Potent Cytotoxic Activity against Human Cancer Cell Lines SKBR3 and HEK293

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Abdollahpour-Alitappeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE is a synthetic analog of dolastatin 10, a compound originally isolated from the marine mollusk. MMAE, as a highly potent microtubule inhibitor, exerts its potent cytotoxic effect by inhibiting microtubule assembly, tubulin-dependent GTP hydrolysis and microtubes polymerization. This molecule, by itself, lacks the tumor specificity required to elicit therapeutic benefit. Nevertheless, the extremely cytotoxic potential of MMAE could be harnessed in the form of MMAE-antibody conjugates. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of MMAE against breast (SKBR3 and kidney (HEK293 cancer cell lines in an in vitro cell-based assay.Materials and Methods: SKBR3 and HEK293 cells were treated with different concentrations ranging from 0.002048, 0.01024, 0.0512, 0.256, 1.28, 6.4, 32, 160, 800 and 4000 nM of MMAE, and cell viability was determined after 72 hours using an MTT colorimetric assay. The effect of MMAE was regularly monitored by direct observation using an invert microscope.Results: Microscopic observation showed that there was a concentration-dependent increase in cell death. Results from the MTT assay revealed a statistically significant loss of viability (P<0.0001 at concentrations ranging from 0.01024 to 4000 nM in SKBR3 cells, and 0.0512 to 4000 nM in HEK293 cells. Our findings showed that MMAE inhibited the growth of SKBR3 and HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 3.27 ± 0.42 and 4.24 ± 0.37 nM, respectively.Conclusion: MMAE was able to significantly inhibit cell growth at nanomolar concentrations, emphasizing its great potential for the development of antibody-drug conjugates.

  16. Avian extraintestinal Escherichia coli exhibits enterotoxigenic-like activity in the in vivo rabbit ligated ileal loop assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Silveira, Flávio; Houle, Sébastien; Kobayashi, Renata Katsuko Takayama; Dozois, Charles M; Dias da Silveira, Wanderley

    2014-06-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains harbor a number of virulence genes and cause extraintestinal diseases, such as septicemia, swollen-head syndrome, salpingitis, and omphalitis in poultry. APEC strains are not known to cause intestinal diseases. Herein, for the first time, it is reported that APEC strains were able to induce an enterotoxigenic-like effect in rabbit ligated ileal loops. Strain SEPT362 caused cell detachment of the intestinal villi, which also showed a flattened and wilted appearance, but the integrity of the tight junctions was maintained. Additionally, this strain did not adhere to enterocytes in vivo, although adhesin encoding genes ( fimH, csgA, lpfA2-3, and ECP) were present while other lpfA types, sfa, afa, papC, and ral genes were not. This enterotoxigenic-like activity was conserved after thermal treatment of the supernatant at 65°C but not at 100°C. Moreover, experiments based on filtering with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) pore sizes demonstrated that the component associated with the observed biological effect has a molecular weight >100 kDa. Blast search and polymerase chain reaction assays for known E. coli virulence factors showed that strain SEPT362 harbors the gene encoding for the toxin EAST-1 and the serine protease autotransporter (SPATE) Tsh, but is negative for genes encoding for the toxins LT-I, STh, STp, Stx1, Stx2, CNF-1, CNF-2, CDT and the SPATEs Sat, Pic, Vat, SigA, SepA, EatA, EspP, or EspC. A cloned copy of the tsh gene in E. coli K-12 was also tested and was shown to have an enterotoxic effect. These results suggest that APEC might induce fluid accumulation in the rabbit gut. The Tsh autotransporter seems to be one of the factors associated with this phenotype.

  17. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  18. Isolation of Progenitors that Exhibit Myogenic/Osteogenic Bipotency In Vitro by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting from Human Fetal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Castiglioni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS strategies to purify distinct cell types from the pool of fetal human myofiber-associated (hMFA cells were developed. We demonstrate that cells expressing the satellite cell marker PAX7 are highly enriched within the subset of CD45−CD11b−GlyA−CD31−CD34−CD56intITGA7hi hMFA cells. These CD45−CD11b−GlyA−CD31−CD34−CD56intITGA7hi cells lack adipogenic capacity but exhibit robust, bipotent myogenic and osteogenic activity in vitro and engraft myofibers when transplanted into mouse muscle. In contrast, CD45−CD11b−GlyA−CD31−CD34+ fetal hMFA cells represent stromal constituents of muscle that do not express PAX7, lack myogenic function, and exhibit adipogenic and osteogenic capacity in vitro. Adult muscle likewise contains PAX7+ CD45−CD11b−GlyA−CD31−CD34−CD56intITGA7hi hMFA cells with in vitro myogenic and osteogenic activity, although these cells are present at lower frequency in comparison to their fetal counterparts. The ability to directly isolate functionally distinct progenitor cells from human muscle will enable novel insights into muscle lineage specification and homeostasis.

  19. The Grass Might Be Greener: Medical Marijuana Patients Exhibit Altered Brain Activity and Improved Executive Function after 3 Months of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci A. Gruber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of states have enacted full or partial medical marijuana (MMJ programs, causing the number of patients seeking certification for MMJ use to increase dramatically in recent years. Despite increased use of MMJ across the nation, no studies thus far have examined the specific impact of MMJ on cognitive function and related brain activation. In the present study, MMJ patients seeking treatment for a variety of documented medical conditions were assessed prior to initiating MMJ treatment and after 3 months of treatment as part of a larger longitudinal study. In order to examine the effect of MMJ treatment on task-related brain activation, MMJ patients completed the Multi-Source Interference Test (MSIT while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We also collected data regarding conventional medication use, clinical state, and health-related measures at each visit. Following 3 months of treatment, MMJ patients demonstrated improved task performance accompanied by changes in brain activation patterns within the cingulate cortex and frontal regions. Interestingly, after MMJ treatment, brain activation patterns appeared more similar to those exhibited by healthy controls from previous studies than at pre-treatment, suggestive of a potential normalization of brain function relative to baseline. These findings suggest that MMJ use may result in different effects relative to recreational marijuana (MJ use, as recreational consumers have been shown to exhibit decrements in task performance accompanied by altered brain activation. Moreover, patients in the current study also reported improvements in clinical state and health-related measures as well as notable decreases in prescription medication use, particularly opioids and benzodiapezines after 3 months of treatment. Further research is needed to clarify the specific neurobiologic impact, clinical efficacy, and unique effects of MMJ for a range of indications and how it

  20. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Red1 protein exhibits nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity and potentiates Hop1-promoted pairing of double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Rucha; Ghodke, Indrajeet; Muniyappa, K

    2017-08-18

    Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of various SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-selective DNA-binding protein exhibiting high affinity for the Holliday junction and promoting DNA bridging, condensation, and pairing between double-stranded DNA molecules. However, the exact mode of action of Red1 remains unclear, although it is known to interact with Hop1 and to suppress the spore viability defects of hop1 mutant alleles. Here, we report the purification and functional characterization of the full-length Red1 protein. Our results revealed that Red1 forms a stable complex with Hop1 in vitro and provided quantitative insights into their physical interactions. Mechanistically, Red1 preferentially associated with the Holliday junction and 3-way junction rather than with single- or double-stranded DNA with overhangs. Although Hop1 and Red1 exhibited similar binding affinities toward several DNA substrates, the two proteins displayed some significant differences. Notably, Red1, by itself, lacked DNA-pairing ability; however, it potentiated Hop1-promoted intermolecular pairing between double-stranded DNA molecules. Moreover, Red1 exhibited nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity, thus revealing an unexpected role for Red1 in recombination-based DNA repair. Collectively, this study presents the first direct insights into Red1's mode of action and into the mechanism underlying its role in chromosome synapsis and recombination. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A ubiquitin-like peptide from the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibits relatively potent translation-inhibitory and ribonuclease activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T B; Lam, S K; Chan, S Y

    2002-08-01

    The fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju were extracted with an aqueous buffer and then subjected to affinity chromatography on Affi-gel Blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Superdex 75. From the fraction of the extract adsorbed on Affi-gel Blue gel and unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, a 9.5 kDa peptide with an N-terminal sequence similar to ubiquitin was isolated with a yield of 0.25 mg/kg mushroom. The peptide inhibited cell-free translation with an IC(50) of 30 nM. It exhibited a ribonuclease activity of 450 U/mg toward yeast transfer RNA. The activities were substantially more potent than those of previously isolated mushroom ubiquitin-like protein and peptide. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Zephycandidine A, the First Naturally Occurring Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine Alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida, Exhibits Significant Anti-tumor and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guanqun; Qu, Xiaolan; Liu, Junjun; Tong, Qingyi; Zhou, Junfei; Sun, Bin; Yao, Guangmin

    2016-09-01

    Zephycandidine A (1), the first naturally occurring imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine alkaloid, was isolated from Zephyranthes candida (Amaryllidaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and NMR calculation, and a plausible biogenetic pathway for zephycandidine A (1) was proposed. Zephycandidine A (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.98 to 7.03 μM with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the normal Beas-2B cell. Further studies suggested that zephycandidine A (1) induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by the activation of caspase-3, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and degradation of PARP expression. In addition, zephycandidine A (1) showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the docking studies of zephycandidine A (1) and galanthamine (2) with AChE revealed that interactions with W286 and Y337 are necessary.

  4. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion with a high drug loading, H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair complex exhibiting excellent antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion (CLE with good stability and excellent antibacterial activity. The CLE was prepared by the thin-film dispersed homogenization method. The interaction between clarithromycin (CLA and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR analysis. The interfacial drug loading, thermal sterilization, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were investigated systematically. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra showed that CHEMS (CLA: CHEMS, M ratio 1:2 could interact with CLA through H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair. The CHEMS was found necessary to maintain the stability of CLE. Ultracentrifugation showed that almost 88% CLA could be loaded into the interfacial layer. The optimized CLE formulation could withstand autoclaving at 121 °C for 10 min and remain stable after three freeze–thaw cycles. The in vitro susceptibility test revealed that the CLA–CHEMS ion-pair and CLE have similar activity to the parent drug against many different bacterial strains. The in vivo antibacterial activity showed that the ED50 of intravenous CLE was markedly lower than that of CLA solution administrated orally. CLE exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity and might be a candidate for a new nanocarrier for CLA with potential advantages over the current commercial formulation.

  6. Lignosulfonic acid exhibits broadly anti-HIV-1 activity--potential as a microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qiu

    Full Text Available Some secondary metabolites from plants show to have potent inhibitory activities against microbial pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. Here we report that lignosulfonic acid (LSA, a polymeric lignin derivative, exhibits potent and broad activity against HIV-1 isolates of diverse subtypes including two North America strains and a number of Chinese clinical isolates values ranging from 21.4 to 633 nM. Distinct from other polyanions, LSA functions as an entry inhibitor with multiple targets on viral gp120 as well as on host receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5/CXCR4. LSA blocks viral entry as determined by time-of-drug addiction and cell-cell fusion assays. Moreover, LSA inhibits CD4-gp120 interaction by blocking the binding of antibodies specific for CD4-binding sites (CD4bs and for the V3 loop of gp120. Similarly, LSA interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 via its inhibition of specific anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively. Interestingly, the combination of LSA with AZT and Nevirapine exhibits synergism in viral inhibition. For the purpose of microbicide development, LSA displays low in vitro cytotoxicity to human genital tract epithelial cells, does not stimulate NF-κB activation and has no significant up-regulation of IL-1α/β and IL-8 as compared with N-9. Lastly, LSA shows no adverse effect on the epithelial integrity and the junctional protein expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that LSA can be a potential candidate for tropical microbicide.

  7. Alpha-fetoprotein, identified as a novel marker for the antioxidant effect of placental extract, exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Placenta, as a reservoir of nutrients, has been widely used in medical and cosmetic materials. Here, we focused on the antioxidant properties of placental extract and attempted to isolate and identify the main antioxidant factors. Porcine placental extracts were prepared through homogenization or acid hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Treatment with homogenized placental extract (H-PE increased the cell viability of H2O2-treated HaCaT cells more than two-fold. H-PE treatment suppressed H2O2-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death and decreased intracellular ROS levels in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. The antioxidant factors in H-PE were found to be thermo-unstable and were thus expected to include proteins. The candidate antioxidant proteins were fractionated with cation-exchange, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography, and the antioxidant properties of the chromatographic fractions were investigated. We obtained specific antioxidant fractions that suppressed ROS generation and ROS-induced DNA strand breaks. From silver staining and MALDI-TOF analyses, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP precursor was identified as a main marker for the antioxidant effect of H-PE. Purified AFP or ectopically expressed AFP exhibited synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol. Taken together, our data suggest that AFP, a serum glycoprotein produced at high levels during fetal development, is a novel marker protein for the antioxidant effect of the placenta that exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

  8. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  9. Methyl gallate isolated from Spondias pinnata exhibits anticancer activity against human glioblastoma by induction of apoptosis and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Singh, Sudhir Shankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Spondias pinnata has been reported for its efficient anticancer effects, but the studies were mostly focused on its extract. Since its bioactive compounds are largely unknown, this study was designed to characterize the lead components present in it and their anticancer activity against human glioblastoma cell line (U87). Major compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by column chromatography and their anticancer potentials against U87 cells were evaluated. Furthermore, flow cytometric and immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate the mechanism of apoptosis inducing activity of methyl gallate (MG) against U87 cell line. Four major compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Amongst these, two compounds showed promising activities and with the help of different spectroscopic methods they were identified as gallic acid and MG. Flow cytometric studies revealed that MG-induced apoptosis in U87 cells dose-dependently; the same was confirmed by activation of caspases through cleavage of endogenous substrate poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. MG treatment also induced the expression of p53 and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and cleavage of BH3 interacting-domain with a concomitant decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 expression. Moreover, MG-induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in U87 cells with no change in the phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal of stress-activated protein kinases, p38). MG is a potent antioxidant and it induces sustained ERK1/2 activation and apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87, and provide a rationale for evaluation of MG for other brain carcinoma cell lines for the advancement of glioblastoma therapy.

  10. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  11. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  12. The VPS-20 subunit of the endosomal sorting complex ESCRT-III exhibits an open conformation in the absence of upstream activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Amber L; Hanna, Michael; Quinney, Kyle; Wang, Lei; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R; Audhya, Anjon

    2015-03-15

    Members of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery function in membrane remodelling processes during multivesicular endosome (MVE) biogenesis, cytokinesis, retroviral budding and plasma membrane repair. During luminal vesicle formation at endosomes, the ESCRT-II complex and the ESCRT-III subunit vacuolar protein sorting (VPS)-20 play a specific role in regulating assembly of ESCRT-III filaments, which promote vesicle scission. Previous work suggests that Vps20 isoforms, like other ESCRT-III subunits, exhibits an auto-inhibited closed conformation in solution and its activation depends on an association with ESCRT-II specifically at membranes [1]. However, we show in the present study that Caenorhabditis elegans ESCRT-II and VPS-20 interact directly in solution, both in cytosolic cell extracts and in using recombinant proteins in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrate that purified VPS-20 exhibits an open extended conformation, irrespective of ESCRT-II binding, in contrast with the closed auto-inhibited architecture of another ESCRT-III subunit, VPS-24. Our data argue that individual ESCRT-III subunits adopt distinct conformations, which are tailored for their specific functions during ESCRT-mediated membrane reorganization events.

  13. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  14. Multiple myeloma cells adapted to long-exposure of hypoxia exhibit stem cell characters with TGF-β/Smad pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoko; Ashihara, Eishi; Yao, Hisayuki; Yokota, Asumi; Toda, Yuki; Miura, Yasuo; Nakata, Susumu; Hirai, Hideyo; Maekawa, Taira

    2018-02-05

    The emergence of new molecular targeting agents has improved the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, MM remains incurable because MM stem cells are likely resistant to these agents. Thus, it is important to further investigate the biology of MM stem cells, which reside in the hypoxic bone marrow niche. In this study, we established and investigated the characteristics of hypoxia-adapted MM (HA-MM) cells, which could proliferate for more than six months under hypoxic conditions (1% O 2 ). The G0 fraction of HA-MM cells was larger than that of parental MM cells under normoxic conditions (20% O 2 ). HA-MM cells possess enhanced tumorigenicity in primary and secondary transplantation studies. HA-MM cells also exhibited increased mRNA levels of stem cell markers and an enhanced self-renewal ability, and thus demonstrated characteristics of MM stem cells. These cells overexpressed phosphorylated Smad2, and treatment with a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling inhibitor decreased their clonogenicity in a replating assay. In conclusion, MM cells adapted to long-exposure of hypoxia exhibit stem cell characters with TGF-β/Smad pathway activation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  16. Analogues of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogues against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogues, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analogue designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogues displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogues when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogues displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic towards mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogues that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant

  17. Analogs of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogs against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogs, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analog designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogs displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogs when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogs displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic toward mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogs that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant bacteria.

  18. The synthetic human beta-defensin-3 C15 peptide exhibits antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, both alone and in combination with dental disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Kim, A Reum; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms biofilms on hard tissues in the human oral cavity, such as tooth and dentinal surfaces. Human β-defensin-3 (HBD3) is a 45-amino-acid natural antimicrobial peptide that has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. A synthetic peptide consisting of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of HBD3 (HBD3-C15) was recently shown to be sufficient for its antimicrobial activity. Thus, clinical applications of this peptide have garnered attention. In this study, we investigated whether HBD3-C15 inhibits the growth of the representative cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans and its biofilm formation. HBD3-C15 inhibited bacterial growth, exhibited bactericidal activity, and attenuated bacterial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. HBD3-C15 potentiated the bactericidal and anti-biofilm activity of calcium hydroxide (CH) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), which are representative disinfectants used in dental clinics, against S. mutans. Moreover, HBD3-C15 showed antimicrobial activity by inhibiting biofilm formation by S. mutans and other dentinophilic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii, which are associated with dental caries and endodontic infection, on human dentin slices. These effects were observed for HBD3-C15 alone and for HBD3-C15 in combination with CH or CHX. Therefore, we suggest that HBD3-C15 is a potential alternative or additive disinfectant that can be used for the treatment of oral infectious diseases, including dental caries and endodontic infections.

  19. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  20. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), commonly known as "jambolão" in Brazil is widely used in folk medicine against leishmaniasis, inflammation, chronic diarrhea, and ulcers. It is one of the most commonly used plants for the treatment of diabetes worldwide. In previous studies, Syzygium cumini was shown to possess antihyperlipidemic and anti-allergic properties, and to exhibit good performance as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and Trypanosoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of S. cumini essential oil (ScEO) and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. To evaluate the anti-proliferative effect on Leishmania, effects on promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were assessed using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. The intramacrophagic amastigotes were exposed to ScEO and α-pinene to determine the survival index. To gain insight into the mechanism of action involved in the effect on the samples, we evaluated the modulation of macrophage activation state by observing structural (phagocytic and lysosomal activities) and cellular (nitric oxide increase) changes. To assess the safety profile of ScEO and α-pinene, murine macrophages and human red blood cells were treated with ScEO and α-pinene and the selectivity index was calculated for each treatment. α-Pinene was effective against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 19.7µg/mL. α-Pinene was more active (IC50 values of 16.1 and 15.6µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively) than ScEO (IC50 values of 43.9 and 38.1µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively). Our results showed that the anti-Leishmania effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity, as evidenced by the observed increases in both phagocytic and lysosomal activity

  1. Slaying the Trojan horse: natural killer cells exhibit robust anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent activation and cytolysis against allogeneic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Shayarana L; Richard, Jonathan; Lee, Wen Shi; Finzi, Andrés; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to design prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines have focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) that block infection by free virions. Despite the focus on viral particles, virus-infected cells, which can be found within mucosal secretions, are more infectious than free virus both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, assessment of human transmission couples suggests infected seminal lymphocytes might be responsible for a proportion of HIV-1 transmissions. Although vaccines that induce neutralizing Abs are sought, only some broadly neutralizing Abs efficiently block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. As HIV-1 vaccines need to elicit immune responses capable of controlling both free and cell-associated virus, we evaluated the potential of natural killer (NK) cells to respond in an Ab-dependent manner to allogeneic T cells bearing HIV-1 antigens. This study presents data measuring Ab-dependent anti-HIV-1 NK cell responses to primary and transformed allogeneic T-cell targets. We found that NK cells are robustly activated in an anti-HIV-1 Ab-dependent manner against allogeneic targets and that tested target cells are subject to Ab-dependent cytolysis. Furthermore, the educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cell subset from HLA-Bw4(+) individuals exhibits an activation advantage over the KIR3DL1(-) subset that contains both NK cells educated through other receptor/ligand combinations and uneducated NK cells. These results are intriguing and important for understanding the regulation of Ab-dependent NK cell responses and are potentially valuable for designing Ab-dependent therapies and/or vaccines. NK cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent functions have been associated with protection from infection and disease progression; however, their role in protecting from infection with allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 is unknown. We found that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies bound to allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 or coated

  2. Visitors Center Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  3. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  4. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    The traveling exhibition titled "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and its Affinities" opened first at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and was then moved to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1976. Discusses the exhibition's historic value, how Fauvism passed through three fairly distinct stylistic phases, and the social…

  5. K20E, an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate, exhibits anti-angiogenic activities through down-regulations of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Yi-Chung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung, E-mail: kuoyh@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Tsuzuki Institute for Traditional Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most popular clinical interventions for cancer chemotherapy. A series of synthesized derivative of methyl caffeate were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity and to investigate possible pharmacological mechanisms in the present study. The most potent anti-angiogenic compound was evaluated in the experiments of murine allograft tumor model and Matrigel plug assay as well as cell models in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the LLC1 lung cancer cells. Our results suggested that K20E suppressed the tumor growth in the allograft tumor model and exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in Matrigel plug assay. Besides, HUVEC viability was found to be significantly reduced by arresting cell cycle at G{sub 2}/M phase and apoptosis. Cell migration, invasion, and tube formation of the HUVECs were also markedly suppressed by K20E treatment. K20E largely down-regulated the intracellular and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the LLC1 cancer cells. Besides, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signaling cascades (AKT-mTOR and MEK1/2-ERK1/2) as well as gelatinases were all evidently reduced in the HUVECs treated with K20E. Inversely, K20E can up-regulate the expression levels of p53 and p21 proteins in the HUVECs. Based on these results, our study suggested that K20E possessed inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling cascades in the vascular endothelial cells (VECs). - Highlights: • K20E is an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate. • K20E exhibits anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects. • K20E suppresses the expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) proteins. • K20E deactivates VEGFR-2-mediated downstream signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis. • K20E up-regulates p53-p21 pathway to induce apoptosis and cell arrest at G2/M phase.

  6. The PH Domain of PDK1 Exhibits a Novel, Phospho-Regulated Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium With Important Implications for Kinase Domain Activation: Single Molecule and Ensemble Studies†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P.; Pilling, Carissa; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) is an essential master kinase recruited to the plasma membrane by the binding of its C-terminal PH domain to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4-5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Membrane binding leads to PDK1 phospho-activation, but despite the central role of PDK1 in signaling and cancer biology this activation mechanism remains poorly understood. PDK1 has been shown to exist as a dimer in cells, and one crystal structure of its isolated PH domain exhibits a putative dimer interface. It has been proposed that phosphorylation of PH domain residue T513 (or the phospho-mimetic T513E mutation) may regulate a novel PH domain dimer-monomer equilibrium, thereby converting an inactive PDK1 dimer to an active monomer. However, the oligomeric state(s) of the PH domain on the membrane have not yet been determined, nor whether a negative charge at position 513 is sufficient to regulate its oligomeric state. The present study investigates the binding of purified WT and T513E PDK1 PH domains to lipid bilayers containing the PIP3 target lipid, using both single molecule and ensemble measurements. Single molecule analysis of the brightness of fluorescent PH domain shows that the PIP3-bound WT PH domain on membranes is predominantly dimeric, while the PIP3-bound T513E PH domain is monomeric, demonstrating that negative charge at the T513 position is sufficient to dissociate the PH domain dimer and is thus likely to play a central role in PDK1 monomerization and activation. Single molecule analysis of 2-D diffusion of PH domain-PIP3 complexes reveals that the dimeric WT PH domain diffuses at the same rate a single lipid molecule, indicating that only one of its two PIP3 binding sites is occupied and there is little protein penetration into the bilayer as observed for other PH domains. The 2-D diffusion of T513E PH domain is slower, suggesting the negative charge disrupts local structure in a way that enables greater protein insertion into

  7. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Zininga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  8. Nucleus accumbens neurons in the rat exhibit differential activity to conditioned reinforcers and primary reinforcers within a second-order schedule of saccharin reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David I G; Bowman, Eric M

    2004-11-01

    The nucleus accumbens has been associated with processing information related to primary reinforcement and reward. Most neurophysiological studies report that nucleus accumbens neurons are phasically excited in response to the onsets of salient events during the seeking of reinforcement and to the delivery of primary reinforcers. However, a minority of studies report inhibition during primary reinforcement. We recorded from 65 neurons in the nucleus accumbens whilst thirsty rats performed under a second-order schedule of saccharin reinforcement. This allowed us to analyse neural activity and behaviour during reinforcer-seeking in the presence of conditioned reinforcers (second-order stimuli, also called 'conditioned stimuli'), and during primary reinforcer consumption. Specifically, we sought to examine the valence of potential neural responses to primary reinforcement, to compare these responses to second-order stimulus-evoked responses, and to determine whether responses were differential to second-order stimuli presented at different time points within the schedule. Fifty out of 65 neurons we sampled responded to the second-order stimulus and/or consumption of the primary reinforcer. Most neurons in our sample exhibited excitation following the second-order stimulus and inhibition to the primary reinforcer, a pattern also present over the average response of the neural population. However, there was no systematic variation in neural responses evoked by second-order stimuli presented at different temporal proximities to primary reinforcement. Our results provide evidence that partially overlapping mechanisms within the nucleus accumbens differentially process conditioned reinforcers and primary reinforcers.

  9. CAR T Cells Releasing IL-18 Convert to T-Bethigh FoxO1low Effectors that Exhibit Augmented Activity against Advanced Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Chmielewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells has achieved remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. However, eradicating large solid tumors in advanced stages of the disease remains challenging. We explored augmentation of the anti-tumor immune reaction by establishing an acute inflammatory reaction. Systematic screening indicates that IL-18 polarizes CAR T cells toward T-bethigh FoxO1low effectors with an acute inflammatory response. CAR T cells engineered with inducible IL-18 release exhibited superior activity against large pancreatic and lung tumors that were refractory to CAR T cells without cytokines. IL-18 CAR T cell treatment was accompanied by an overall change in the immune cell landscape associated with the tumor. More specifically, CD206− M1 macrophages and NKG2D+ NK cells increased in number, whereas Tregs, suppressive CD103+ DCs, and M2 macrophages decreased, suggesting that “iIL18 TRUCKs” can be used to sensitize large solid tumor lesions for successful immune destruction.

  10. Zinc Acetate/Carrageenan Gels Exhibit Potent Activity In Vivo against High-Dose Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaginal and Rectal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Romero, José A.; Abraham, Ciby J.; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Menon, Radhika; Begay, Othell; Seidor, Samantha; Ford, Brian E.; Gil, Pedro I.; Peters, Jennifer; Katz, David; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Topical microbicides that block the sexual transmission of HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) are desperately needed to reduce the incidence of HIV infections worldwide. Previously we completed phase 3 testing of the carrageenan-based gel Carraguard. Although the trial did not show that Carraguard is effective in preventing HIV transmission during vaginal sex, it did show that Carraguard is safe when used weekly for up to 2 years. Moreover, Carraguard has in vitro activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) and HSV-2 and favorable physical and rheological properties, which makes it a useful vehicle to deliver antiviral agents such as zinc acetate. To that end, we previously reported that a prototype zinc acetate carrageenan gel protects macaques against vaginal challenge with combined simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Herein, we report the safety and efficacy of a series of zinc acetate and/or carrageenan gels. The gels protected mice (75 to 85% survival; P gels were found to be effective spreading gels, exhibited limited toxicity in vitro, caused minimal damage to the architecture of the cervicovaginal and rectal mucosae in vivo, and induced no increased susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in a mouse model. Our results provide a strong rationale to further optimize and evaluate the zinc acetate/carrageenan gels for their ability to block the sexual transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:22064530

  11. Yessotoxin, a Marine Toxin, Exhibits Anti-Allergic and Anti-Tumoural Activities Inhibiting Melanoma Tumour Growth in a Preclinical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Tobío

    Full Text Available Yessotoxins (YTXs are a group of marine toxins produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. They may have medical interest due to their potential role as anti-allergic but also anti-cancer compounds. However, their biological activities remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that the small molecular compound YTX causes a slight but significant reduction of the ability of mast cells to degranulate. Strikingly, further examination revealed that YTX had a marked and selective cytotoxicity for the RBL-2H3 mast cell line inducing apoptosis, while primary bone marrow derived mast cells were highly resistant. In addition, YTX exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the human B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell line MEC1 and the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. To analyse the potential role of YTX as an anti-cancer drug in vivo we used the well-established B16F10 melanoma preclinical mouse model. Our results demonstrate that a few local application of YTX around established tumours dramatically diminished tumour growth in the absence of any significant toxicity as determined by the absence of weight loss and haematological alterations. Our data support that YTX may have a minor role as an anti-allergic drug, but reveals an important potential for its use as an anti-cancer drug.

  12. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity.

  13. C-Phycocyanin from Oscillatoria tenuis exhibited an antioxidant and in vitro antiproliferative activity through induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, R; Suresh, V; Asenath Princy, W; Rajkumar, M; Senthilkumar, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rengasamy, R; Anbazhagan, C; Kaveri, K; Kannan, S

    2013-09-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an efficient single step chromatographic method for purification of C-phycocyanin (CPC) from species of Oscillatoria tenuis. Purification of CPC involves a multistep treatment of the crude extract by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Pure CPC was finally obtained from O. tenuis with purity ratio (A620/A280) 4.88. SDS-PAGE of pure CPC yielded two bands corresponding to α and β subunits; the molecular weight of α subunit is 17.0 kDa, whereas the molecular weight of β subunit is 19.5 kDa. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy revealed characteristic apoptotic features like cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. CPC exhibited antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells through apoptosis; nuclear apoptosis induction was accompanied by G0/G1 phase arrest and DNA fragmentation. CPC is a natural pigment with potential as an anticancer agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification and characterization of serine proteases that exhibit caspase-like activity and are associated with programmed cell death in Avena sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeen, Warren C; Wolpert, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Victoria blight of Avena sativa (oat) is caused by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, which is pathogenic because of the production of the toxin victorin. The victorin-induced response in sensitive A. sativa has been characterized as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) and displays morphological and biochemical features similar to apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, DNA laddering, cell shrinkage, altered mitochondrial function, and ordered, substrate-specific proteolytic events. Victorin-induced proteolysis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is shown to be prevented by caspase-specific and general protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented for a signaling cascade leading to Rubisco proteolysis that involves multiple proteases. Furthermore, two proteases that are apparently involved in the Rubisco proteolytic cascade were purified and characterized. These proteases exhibit caspase specificity and display amino acid sequences homologous to plant subtilisin-like Ser proteases. The proteases are constitutively present in an active form and are relocalized to the extracellular fluid after induction of PCD by either victorin or heat shock. The role of the enzymes as processive proteases involved in a signal cascade during the PCD response is discussed.

  15. Vacuolar ATPase ‘a2’ isoform exhibits distinct cell surface accumulation and modulates matrix metalloproteinase activity in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Arpita; Katara, Gajendra K.; Ibrahim, Safaa; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Jaiswal, Mukesh K.; Sachs, Alice Gilman; Beaman, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are multi-subunit proton pumps that acidify tumor microenvironment, thereby promoting tumor invasion. Subunit ‘a’ of its V0 domain is the major pH sensing unit that additionally controls sub-cellular targeting of V-ATPase and exists in four different isoforms. Our study reports an elevated expression of the V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform in ovarian cancer(OVCA) tissues and cell lines(A2780, SKOV-3 and TOV-112D). Among all V0’a’ isoforms, V0a2 exhibited abundant expression on OVCA cell surface while normal ovarian epithelia did not. Sub-cellular distribution of V-ATPase-V0a2 confirmed its localization on plasma-membrane, where it was also co-associated with cortactin, an F-actin stabilizing protein at leading edges of cancer cells. Additionally, V0a2 was also localized in early and late endosomal compartments that are sites for modulations of several signaling pathways in cancer. Targeted inhibition of V-ATPase-V0a2 suppressed matrix metalloproteinase activity(MMP-9 & MMP-2) in OVCA cells. In conclusion, V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform is abundantly expressed on ovarian tumor cell surface in association with invasion assembly related proteins and plays critical role in tumor invasion by modulating the activity of matrix-degrading proteases. This study highlights for the first time, the importance of V-ATPase-V0a2 isoform as a distinct biomarker and possible therapeutic target for treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25686833

  16. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  17. Human Herpesvirus 6A Exhibits Restrictive Propagation with Limited Activation of the Protein Kinase R-eIF2α Stress Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eyal; Frenkel, Niza

    2017-05-01

    The eIF2α protein plays a critical role in the regulation of translation. The production of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) during viral replication can activate protein kinase R (PKR), which phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to inhibition of the initial step of translation. Many viruses have evolved gene products targeting the PKR-eIF2a pathway, indicating its importance in antiviral defense. In the present study, we focused on alternations of PKR-eIF2a pathway during human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) infection while monitoring viral gene expression and infectious viral yields. We have found increased phosphorylated PKR as well as phosphorylated eIF2α coincident with accumulation of the late gp82-105 viral protein. The level of total PKR was relatively constant, but it decreased by 144 h postinfection. The phosphorylation of eIF2a led to a moderate increase in activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) accumulation, indicating moderate inhibition of protein translation during HHV-6A infection. The overexpression of PKR led to decreased viral propagation coincident with increased accumulation of phosphorylated PKR and phosphorylated eIF2a. Moreover, addition of a dominant negative PKR mutant resulted in a moderate increase in viral replication. HHV-6A exhibits relatively low efficiency of propagation of progeny virus secreted into the culture medium. This study suggests that the replicative strategy of HHV-6A involves a mild infection over a lengthy life cycle in culture, while preventing severe activation of the PKR-eIF2α pathway.IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are common, widely prevalent viruses, causing from mild to severe disease. Our study focused on the PKR-eIF2α stress pathway, which limits viral replication. The HHV-6 genome carries multiple genes transcribed from the two strands, predicting accumulation of dsRNAs which can activate PKR and inhibition of protein synthesis. We report that HHV-6A induced the accumulation of phosphorylated PKR and

  18. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  19. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.

  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  2. The anthraquinone rhein exhibits synergistic antibacterial activity in association with metronidazole or natural compounds and attenuates virulence gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelmat, Jabrane; Larente, Jade Fournier; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Rhein is a major anthraquinone found in rhubarb root. As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to identify beneficial properties of this anthraquinone for periodontal disease, in this study, we investigated the ability of rhein to (i) exhibit antibacterial synergy towards the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis when used in combination with metronidazole or polyphenols belonging to different families, and (ii) attenuate virulence factor gene expression in P. gingivalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of compounds under investigation were determined by a broth microdilution assay. The synergistic effects of rhein in association with either metronidazole or polyphenols of various families were evaluated using the chequerboard technique to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). The effect of rhein on virulence factor gene expression in P. gingivalis was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Rhein showed a MIC of 2.5 μg/mL, which was similar to that of metronidazole. Except for the association with epigallocatechin-3-gallate that gave an additive effect, all the other combinations (licochalcone A, glabridin, myricetin, and metronidazole) resulted in synergistic effects. The strongest synergy was observed when rhein was used in association with myricetin (FICI=0.12) and licochalcone A (FICI=0.19). At a sub-MIC of rhein (0.5 μg/mL), a significant decrease in the expression of fimA, hagA, and hagB genes, which are involved in host colonization, was observed. Moreover, the expression of rgpA and kgp, two protease genes related to inactivation of host defense mechanisms, tissue destruction, and nutrient acquisition, was also down-regulated. The data presented in our study indicate that rhein possessed antibacterial activity, which can be potentiated in combination with metronidazole or other polyphenols. In addition, rhein can impair the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis by reducing transcription of genes coding for important

  3. A Synthetic S6 Segment Derived from KvAP Channel Self-assembles, Permeabilizes Lipid Vesicles, and Exhibits Ion Channel Activity in Bilayer Lipid Membrane*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Richa; Malik, Chetan; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Ghosh, Subhendu; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2011-01-01

    KvAP is a voltage-gated tetrameric K+ channel with six transmembrane (S1–S6) segments in each monomer from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. The objective of the present investigation was to understand the plausible role of the S6 segment, which has been proposed to form the inner lining of the pore, in the membrane assembly and functional properties of KvAP channel. For this purpose, a 22-residue peptide, corresponding to the S6 transmembrane segment of KvAP (amino acids 218–239), and a scrambled peptide (S6-SCR) with rearrangement of only hydrophobic amino acids but without changing its composition were synthesized and characterized structurally and functionally. Although both peptides bound to the negatively charged phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol model membrane with comparable affinity, significant differences were observed between these peptides in their localization, self-assembly, and aggregation properties onto this membrane. S6-SCR also exhibited reduced helical structures in SDS micelles and phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol lipid vesicles as compared with the S6 peptide. Furthermore, the S6 peptide showed significant membrane-permeabilizing capability as evidenced by the release of calcein from the calcein-entrapped lipid vesicles, whereas S6-SCR showed much weaker efficacy. Interestingly, although the S6 peptide showed ion channel activity in the bilayer lipid membrane, despite having the same amino acid composition, S6-SCR was significantly inactive. The results demonstrated sequence-specific structural and functional properties of the S6 wild type peptide. The selected S6 segment is probably an important structural element that could play an important role in the membrane interaction, membrane assembly, and functional property of the KvAP channel. PMID:21592970

  4. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoen, Carolyn M.; DeStefano, Michelle S.; Hager, Cynthia C.; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D.; Gates, Hiriam O.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Kernodle, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness. PMID:26343849

  5. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C.; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.; Cooper, Kevin D.; McCormick, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3+ T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6–59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0–300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6–81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300nM, p<0.001 between 50 and 150nM, n=8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3+ T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin diseases

  6. N-cadherin{sup +} HSCs in fetal liver exhibit higher long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity than N-cadherin{sup -} HSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Fumio; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Ikushima, Yoshiko Matsumoto [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@z3.keio.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High N-cad expression was detected in E12.5 mouse FL LT-HSCs (EPCR{sup +} LSK cells). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immunohistochemically, N-cad{sup +} HSCs co-localized with sinusoidal ECs (Lyve-1{sup +} cells) in E12.5 FL, but these gradually detached in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad{sup +} LSK cells in E12.5 FL exhibited higher LTR activity versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells, which decreased in E15.5 and E18.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad expression may confer high LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche in FL. -- Abstract: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. The regulation of HSCs in fetal liver (FL) and their niche, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in the maintenance of HSCs during FL hematopoiesis. By using anti-N-cad antibodies (Abs) produced by our laboratory, we detected high N-cad expression in embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) mouse FL HSCs, but not in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that N-cad{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} and N-cad{sup +} endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR){sup +} HSCs co-localized with Lyve-1{sup +} sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) in E12.5 FL and that some of these cells also expressed N-cad. However, N-cad{sup +} HSCs were also observed to detach from the perisinusoidal niche at E15.5 and E18.5, concomitant with a down-regulation of N-cad and an up-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in hepatic cells. Moreover, EPCR{sup +} long-term (LT)-HSCs were enriched in the N-cad{sup +}Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) fraction in E12.5 FL, but not in E15.5 or E18.5 FL. In a long-term reconstitution (LTR) activity assay, higher engraftment associated with N-cad{sup +} LSK cells versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells in E12.5 FL when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice. However, the

  7. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  8. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  9. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  10. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  11. The novel oxygenated chalcone, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone, exhibits potent activity against human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Brøgger Christensen, S; Zhai, L

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, exhibits antileishmanial and antimalarial activities. The present study was designed to examine the antimalarial activity of an analog of licochalcone A, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone (2,4mbc). 2,4mbc inhibited the in vitro...

  12. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  13. Resveratrol, Acetyl-Resveratrol, and Polydatin Exhibit Antigrowth Activity against 3D Cell Aggregates of the SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Simon J. Hogg; Kenny Chitcholtan; Wafaa Hassan; Sykes, Peter H.; Ashley Garrill

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol has aroused significant scientific interest as it has been claimed that it exhibits a spectrum of health benefits. These include effects as an anti-inflammatory and an antitumour compound. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare any potential antigrowth effects of resveratrol and two of its derivatives, acetyl-resveratrol and polydatin, on 3D cell aggregates of the EGFR/Her-2 positive and negative ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8, respectively. Results...

  14. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  15. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design...... and reflect on a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition. This is framed with literature about exhibitions and transmedia, and analyzed with quantitative data from a case-study of visitors in the exhibition; this is organizationally contextualized. The contribution covers a significant gap...... in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  16. How to Modernize the Academic Museum. Exhibition Activity of the Museum Group the ARAS as a Pilot Project of the Museum of History of Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneva-Chaeva Irina A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article on the example of the Museum group of Archives of Russian Academy of Science is demonstrating new possibilities of representation of archival documents in the museum space. The authors focused on the potential exposure of the museum based on the principle of visualization. They explain the special role of representing scientific knowledge for education of youth. They offer a new form of interactive communication with the museum’s scientific heritage, based on the method of comprehending the reality as a “co-experience” and “re-discovery” that leads to the attainment the new generation to the new intellectual and spiritual experience. The experiment, the research paper, the science, the war, and even the modern art are the main themes of our exhibitions. The authors use the special new methods of exhibition to create the intriguing image of scientist. They use light boxes and interactive demonstrations. The main aim of the exposition is to show the documents of Archives of Russian Academy of Science, so we rely on the following materials: personal fond of academicians A.N. Nesmeyanov, V.L. Komarov, M.V. Keldysh, I.V. Kurchatov and others. Authors successfully solve the problems of the development of new theoretical principles exposing archival documents by modern methods.

  17. The Internationalization of the Meetings - Incentives - Conventions - and Exhibitions - (MICE industry: Its Influences on the Actors in the Tourism Business Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smagina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to analyze the link between internationalization and Meetings-, Incentives-, Conventions- and Exhibitions (MICE industry which is refer to the destination development. A comprehensive review of the totality of the processes associated with the regional market of business tourism, allowed to develop a number of actual tools that make it possible to obtain important practical results. One of these tools is a so called public-private partnership (PPP, to strengthen the trust between government and business representatives on regional level. This article reveals the cooperation process between foreign private companies and the local government in organizing the development of the industry connected to MICE. This vision may help all parties connected to the MICE industry to achieve a new level of understanding of the business tourism destination as a result of internationalization processes.

  18. Orally active opioid μ/δ dual agonist MGM-16, a derivative of the indole alkaloid mitragynine, exhibits potent antiallodynic effect on neuropathic pain in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Narita, Minoru; Muramatsu, Naotaka; Nakayama, Terumi; Misawa, Kaori; Kitajima, Mariko; Tashima, Kimihito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2014-01-01

    ...[2,3-a]quinolizin-2-yl)-3-methoxyacrylate (7-hydroxymitragynine), a main active constituent of the traditional herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, is an indole alkaloid that is structurally different from morphine...

  19. Detection, purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus subtilis NK16 exhibits a significant antimicrobial activity against clinical Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Najm Abd

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin is an important antimicrobial peptide that can be used in industrial and medical fields due to its characteristics of antibacterial, food preservation and anticancer activities. Fifty isolates of Bacillus sp were collected from different soil samples which were already recognized via morphological and biochemical identification process. The isolates were screened for bacteriocin production effective against Staphylococcus spp in order to select the highest producing isolate. The isolate NK16 showed the maximum bacteriocin production (80 AU/ml which was further characterized as Bacillus subtilis NK 16 through using API identification system (API 20E and API 50CHB. Then, next step was to detect the optimal conditions for maximum bacteriocin production which were found to be brain-heart infusion broth as the best production medium with pH 6, 30oCand 2% inoculum size. Bacteriocin was partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate and then separation with sephadex G-150 gel filtration. The specific activity of the resulted partial purified bacteriocin was increased to 853.33 AU/mg with 38 fold purification and 24% yield. The study of bacteriocin characterization revealed that the activity of bacteriocin was stable after 10 min at 20, 30, 40oC whereas 50% of the bacteriocin activity was lost after exposure to 50oC and decreased to approximately 20 AU/ml at 60,70 and 80 Co. In addition, bacteriocin activity showed stability at pH 6 and 7 for 30 min while it was decreased by approximately 50% at pH 5 and 8, and completely inhibited at pH 4 and 9. On the other hand, the investigation of mode of action showed that bacteriocin has a bactericidal activity. Antimicrobial activity tests of the partial purified bacteriocin displayed a significant activity against most clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, whereas it was less effective against Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL(-1), respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL(-1). This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  2. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  3. Cysteine-stabilised peptide extract of Morinda lucida (Benth) leaf exhibits antimalarial activity and augments antioxidant defense system in P. berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Joseph O; Adewole, Kayode E; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2017-07-31

    Cysteine-stabilised peptides (CSP) are majorly explored for their bioactivities with applications in medicine and agriculture. Morinda lucida leaf is used indigenously for the treatment of malaria; it also contains CSP but the role of CSP in the antimalarial activity of the leaf has not been evaluated. This study was therefore performed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of partially purified cysteine-stabilised peptide extract (PPCPE) of Morinda lucida leaf and its possible augmentation of the antioxidant systems of liver and erythrocytes in murine malaria. PPCPE was prepared from Morinda lucida leaf. The activity of PPCPE was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum W2 and its cytotoxicity against a BGM kidney cell line. PPCPE was also evaluated for its antimalarial activity and its effects on selected liver and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in P. berghei NK65-infected mice. PPCPE was not active against P. falciparum W2 (IC50: >50µg/ml) neither was it cytotoxic (MLD50: >1000µg/ml). However, PPCPE was active against P. berghei NK65 in vivo, causing 51.52% reduction in parasitaemia at 31.25mg/Kg body weight on day 4 post-inoculation. PPCPE significantly reduced (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and erythrocyte at higher doses compared to untreated controls. PPCPE increased glutathione concentration and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in a dose-dependent manner, which was significant (P < 0.05) at higher doses compared to the untreated controls. The results suggest that PPCPE may require bioactivation in vivo in order to exert its antimalarial effect and that PPCPE may augment the antioxidant defense system to alleviate the reactive oxygen species-mediated complications of malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The translation inhibitor silvestrol exhibits direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive immunity against EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, John T; Lustberg, Mark E; Lozanski, Gerard; Garman, Sabrina L; Towns, William H; Drohan, Callie M; Lehman, Amy; Zhang, Xiaoli; Bolon, Brad; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Grever, Michael R; Lucas, David M; Baiocchi, Robert A

    2015-02-20

    Treatment options for patients with Epstein-Barr Virus-driven lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-LPD) are limited. Chemo-immunotherapeutic approaches often lead to immune suppression, risk of lethal infection and EBV reactivation, thus it is essential to identify agents that can deliver direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive host immune surveillance. Silvestrol possesses direct anti-tumor activity in multiple hematologic malignancies while causing minimal toxicity to normal mononuclear cells. However, the effects of silvestrol on immune function have not been described. We utilized in vitro and in vivo models of EBV-LPD to simultaneously examine the impact of silvestrol on both tumor and normal immune function. We show that silvestrol induces direct anti-tumor activity against EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), with growth inhibition, decreased expression of the EBV oncogene latent membrane protein-1, and inhibition of the downstream AKT, STAT1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Silvestrol promoted potent indirect anti-tumor effects by preserving expansion of innate and EBV antigen-specific adaptive immune effector subsets capable of effective clearance of LCL tumor targets in autologous co-cultures. In an animal model of spontaneous EBV-LPD, silvestrol demonstrated significant therapeutic activity dependent on the presence of CD8-positive T-cells. These findings establish a novel immune-sparing activity of silvestrol, justifying further exploration in patients with EBV-positive malignancies.

  5. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Chitinase Genes LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor Were Successfully Expressed in Escherichia coli and Exhibit Recombinant Chitinase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Rongshu; Diao, Guiping; Fan, Haijuan; Wang, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    The two chitinase genes, LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor, were, respectively, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The intracellular recombinant chitinases, inrCHI31 and inrCHI32, and the extracellular exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 could be produced into E. coli. The exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 can be secreted into extracellular medium. The optimal reaction condition for inrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Mn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.772 U using Alternaria alternata cell wall as substrate. The optimal condition of inrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of Ba2+ at 45°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.792 U using Valsa sordida cell wall as substrate. The optimal reaction condition of exrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Zn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0, and the activity was 0.921 U using the A. alternata cell wall as substrate. Simultaneously, the optimal condition of exrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of K+ at 45°C and pH 5.0, with V. sordida cell wall as the substrate, and the activity was 0.897 U. Furthermore, the activities of extracellular recombinant enzymes on fungal cell walls and compounds were generally higher than those of the intracellular recombinant enzymes. Recombinant exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 have better hydrolytic ability on cell walls of different fungi than synthetic chitins and obviously showed activity against A. alternata. PMID:24385885

  7. Sorbus rufopilosa Extract Exhibits Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT29 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Jin, Soojung; Park, Hyun-Jin; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Sorbus rufopilosa, a tsema rowan, is a species of the small ornamental trees in the genus Sorbus and the family Rosaceae found in East Asia. The bioactivities of S. rufopilosa have not yet been fully determined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer effects of ethanol extract of S. rufopilosa (EESR) and to determine the molecular mechanism of its anticancer activity in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Methods To examine the antioxidant activity of EESR, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay was performed. Inhibitory effect of EESR on cancer cell growth and proliferation was determined by water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. To investigate the mechanism of EESR-mediated cytotoxicity, HT29 cells were treated with various concentrations of EESR and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and Western blot analysis. Results EESR showed significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on HT29 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. EESR induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner by modulating cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK inhibitor p21 expression. EESR-induced apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of p53, a death receptor Fas, and a pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the activation of caspase 3, 8, and 9, resulting in the degradation of PARP. Conclusions EESR possessing antioxidant activity efficiently inhibits proliferation of HT29 cells by inducing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. EESR may be a possible candidate for the anticancer drug development. PMID:28053959

  8. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric, 1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activity in the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigated the cineole's anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineole had inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteins in general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ion removal ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feeding treatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with or without the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineole possessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulation was decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole was found to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolism both in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipid accumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  9. A Novel Three Domains Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Exhibits β-Glucosidase and Exoglucanase Activities: Molecular, Biochemical, and Transglycosylation Potential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Haifa; Ezzine, Aymen; Mlouka, Mohamed Amine Ben; Rihouey, Christophe; Hardouin, Julie; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces a complete set of cellulolytic enzymes. We report here the purification and the biochemical characterization of a new β-glucosidase from S. sclerotiorum which belongs to the family 3 of glycoside hydrolases and that was named as SsBgl3. After two size-exclusion chromatography steps, purified protein bands of 80 and 90 kDa from SDS-PAGE were subjected to a mass spectrometry analysis. The results displayed four peptides from the upper band belonging to a polypeptide of 777 amino acids having a calculated molecular weight of 83.7 kDa. Biochemical analysis has been carried out to determine some properties. We showed that this SsBgl3 protein displayed both β-glucosidase and exoglucanase activities with optimal activity at 55 °C and at pH 5. The transglycosylation activity was investigated using gluco-oligosaccharides TLC analysis. The molecular modeling and comparison with different crystal structures of β-glucosidases showed that SsBgl3 putative protein present three domains. They correspond to an (α/β)8 domain TIM barrel, a five-stranded α/β sandwich domain (both of which are important for active-site organization), and a C-terminal fibronectin type III domain. Enzyme engineering will be soon investigated to identify the key residues for the catalytic reactions.

  10. Nickel(II) Complex of Polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-Thiosemicarbazone Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Transactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Wei; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Phan, Alicia Yi Ling; Wong, Won Fen; Wang, Hao; Paterson, Ian C.; Ea, Chee Kwee; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological properties of thiosemicarbazone have been widely reported. The incorporation of some transition metals such as Fe, Ni and Cu to thiosemicarbazone complexes is known to enhance its biological effects. In this study, we incorporated nickel(II) ions into thiosemicarbazone with N4-substitution groups H3L (H; H3L1, CH3; H3L2, C6H5; H3L3 and C2H5; H3L4) and examined its potential anti-inflammatory activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Four ligands (1–4) and their respective nickel-containing complexes (5–8) were synthesized and characterized. The compounds synthesized were tested for their effects on NF-κB nuclear translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and NF-κB transactivation activity. The active compound was further evaluated on its ability to suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in vivo. A potential binding target of the active compound was also predicted by molecular docking analysis. Conclusions/Significance Among all synthesized compounds tested, we found that complex [Ni(H2L1)(PPh3)]Cl (5) (complex 5), potently inhibited IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as TNFα-stimulated HeLa S3 cells. In addition, complex 5 significantly down-regulated LPS- or TNFα-induced transcription of NF-κB target genes, including genes that encode the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IFNβ and IL6. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that complex 5 inhibited the transactivation activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of complex 5 was also supported by its suppressive effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema formation in wild type C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, molecular docking study showed that complex 5 potentially interact with the active site of IKKβ. Taken together, we suggest complex 5 as a novel NF-κB inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24977407

  11. Tomato cystine-knot miniproteins possessing anti-angiogenic activity exhibit in vitro gastrointestinal stability, intestinal absorption and resistance to food industrial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treggiari, Davide; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Chignola, Roberto; Molesini, Barbara; Minuz, Pietro; Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2017-04-15

    The cystine-knot miniproteins present in tomato fruit (TCMPs) have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting endothelial cell migration and to display resistance to gastrointestinal proteolytic attack. To better define the pharmacological potential of TCMPs, their oral bioavailability and their resistance to industrial processing must be assessed. To explore the intestinal transport of TCMPs we used the differentiated Caco-2 cells model. After 24h incubation, 37.73±9.34% of TCMPs crossed the epithelium, without altering the integrity of the cell layer. To assess the effects of the industrial processing on the biochemical features and the biological activity of TCMPs, we developed a method for purifying the proteins from tomato paste. The tomato-paste purified TCMPs retained the resistance to gastrointestinal digestion and the inhibitory activity towards endothelial cell migration. Our previous and present results collectively demonstrate that TCMPs possess interesting features for drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Diverse Family of Host-Defense Peptides (Piscidins Exhibit Specialized Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Protozoal Activities in Fishes.

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    Scott A Salger

    Full Text Available Conventional antibiotics and other chemical-based drugs are currently one of the most common methods used to control disease-related mortality in animal agriculture. Use of the innate immune system to decrease disease related mortalities is a novel alternative to conventional drugs. One component of the innate immune system is the host-defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Host-defense peptides are typically small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and/or protozoal pathogens. Piscidins are host-defense peptides first discovered in the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, x striped bass, M. saxatilis. In this paper we identify four new piscidin isoforms in the hybrid striped bass and describe their tissue distributions. We also determine the progenitor species of origin of each piscidin (orthology and propose a revised nomenclature for this newly described piscidin family based on a three class system. The Class I piscidins (22 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 1 and piscidin 3 show broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and ciliated protozoans, while the Class III piscidins (55 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 6 and striped bass piscidin 7 primarily show anti-protozoal activity. The Class II piscidins (44-46 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 4 and white bass piscidin 5 have a level of activity against bacteria and protozoans intermediate to Classes I and III. Knowledge of piscidin function and activity may help in the future development of disease-resistant lines of striped bass and white bass that could be used to produce superior hybrids for aquaculture.

  13. PirAB protein from Xenorhabdus nematophila HB310 exhibits a binary toxin with insecticidal activity and cytotoxicity in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Tianhui; Liu, Shen; Song, Ping; Nangong, Ziyan; Wang, Qinying

    2017-09-01

    PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X. nematophila. The pirA, pirB and pirAB genes of X. nematophila HB310 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pET-28a vector. A PirAB-fusion protein (PirAB-F) was constructed by linking the pirA and pirB genes with the flexible linker (Gly)4 DNA encoding sequence and then efficiently expressed in E. coli. The hemocoel and oral insecticidal activities of the recombinant proteins were analyzed against the larvae of Galleria mellonella. The results show that PirA/B alone, PirA/B mixture, co-expressed PirAB protein, and PirAB-F all had no oral insecticidal activity against the second-instar larvae of G. mellonella. Only PirA/B mixture and co-expressed PirAB protein had hemocoel insecticidal activity against G. mellonella fifth-instar larvae, with an LD50 of 2.718μg/larva or 1.566μg/larva, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed that PirAB protein of X. nematophila HB310 is a binary insecticidal toxin. The successful expression and purification of PirAB laid a foundation for further studies on the function, insecticidal mechanism and expression regulation of the binary toxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ADN-1184, a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist action, exhibits activity in animal models of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include apathy, sleep problems, irritability, wandering, elation, agitation/aggression, and mood disorders such as depression and/or anxiety. Elderly patients are usually treated with second-generation antipsychotics; however, they present not enough efficacy against all symptoms observed. Hence, there still is an unmet need for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted BPSD. A novel arylsulfonamide derivative ADN-1184 has been developed that possesses a preclinical profile of activity corresponding to criteria required for treatment of both psychosis and depressive symptoms of BPSD without exacerbating cognitive impairment or inducing motor disturbances. To broaden its pharmacological efficacy toward anxiety symptoms, its anxiolytic properties have been examined in common animal preclinical models in rats and mice. ADN-1184 significantly increased the number of entries into open arms measured in the elevated plus-maze test; however, it simultaneously increased parameters of exploratory activity. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, ADN-1184 dose-dependently and significantly increased the number of shocks accepted and the number of licks. Moreover, in mice, it also had specific anxiolytic-like activity in the four-plate test, and only negligible one at a specific mid-range dose measured in the spontaneous marble burying test. The obtained findings reveal that ADN-1184 displays anxiolytic-like activity in animal models of anxiety which employed punished stimuli. In its unusual combination of some anxiolytic action with already proven antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, and lack of any disruptive impact on learning and memory processes and motor coordination, ADN-1184 displays a profile that would be desired for a novel therapeutic for BPSD.

  15. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Rong Hu

    Full Text Available 6-Shogaol is an active compound isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. In this work, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to caspase activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling. Proteomic analysis revealed that ER stress was accompanied by 6-shogaol-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. 6-shogaol affected the ER stress signaling by regulating unfolded protein response (UPR sensor PERK and its downstream target eIF2α. However, the effect on the other two UPR sensors IRE1 and ATF6 was not obvious. In prolonged ER stress, 6-shogaol inhibited the phosphorylation of eIF2α and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. Salubrinal, an activator of the PERK/eIF2α pathway, strikingly enhanced the phosphorylation of eIF2α in SMMC-7721 cells with no toxicity. However, combined treatment with 6-shogaol and salubrinal resulted in significantly increase of apoptosis and dephosphorylation of eIF2α. Overexpression of eIF2α prevented 6-shogaol-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, whereas inhibition of eIF2α by small interfering RNA markedly enhanced 6-shogaol-mediated cell death. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse SMMC-7721 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, and inactivation of eIF2α. Altogether our results indicate that the PERK/eIF2α pathway plays an important role in 6-shogaol-mediated ER stress and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo

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    Yoon Jung-Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, one of the major catechins in green tea, is a potential chemopreventive agent for various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of EGCG on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs and tumor suppression. Methods Cell colony formation was evaluated by a soft agar assay. Transcriptional activity of HSP70 and HSP90 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. An EGCG-HSPs complex was prepared using EGCG attached to the cyanogen bromide (CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. In vivo effect of EGCG on tumor growth was examined in a xenograft model. Results Treatment with EGCG decreased cell proliferation and colony formation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. EGCG specifically inhibited the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by inhibiting the promoter activity of HSP70 and HSP90. Pretreatment with EGCG increased the stress sensitivity of MCF-7 cells upon heat shock (44°C for 1 h or oxidative stress (H2O2, 500 μM for 24 h. Moreover, treatment with EGCG (10 mg/kg in a xenograft model resulted in delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor size, as well as the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 expression. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that HSP70 and HSP90 are potent molecular targets of EGCG and suggest EGCG as a drug candidate for the treatment of human cancer.

  17. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Peptides derived from the copper-binding region of lysyl oxidase exhibit antiangiogeneic properties by inhibiting enzyme activity: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar, Arun; Renganathan, Bhuvanasundar; Karunakaran, Coral; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Konerirajapuram Natarajan, Sulochana

    2014-11-01

    Despite the rigorous research on abnormal angiogenesis, there is a persistent need for the development of new and efficient therapies against angiogenesis-related diseases. The role of Lysyl oxidase (LOX) in angiogenesis and cancer has been established in prior studies. Copper is known to induce the synthesis of LOX, and hence regulates its activity. Hypoxia-induced metastasis is dependent on LOX expression and activity. It has been believed that the inhibition of LOX would be a therapeutic strategy to inhibit angiogenesis. To explore this, we designed peptides (M peptides) from the copper-binding region of LOX and hypothesized them to modulate LOX. The peptides were characterized, and their copper-binding ability was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The M peptides were found to reduce the levels of intracellular copper when the cells were co-treated with copper. The peptides showed promising effect on aortic LOX, recombinant human LOX and LOX produced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study also explores the effect of these peptides on copper and hypoxia-stimulated angiogenic response in HUVECs. It was found that the M peptides inhibited copper/hypoxia-induced LOX activity and inhibited stimulated HUVEC tube formation and migration. This clearly indicated the potential of M peptides in inhibiting angiogenesis, highlighting their role in the formulation of drugs for the same. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In Vitro Cytochrome P450 Formation of a Mono-Hydroxylated Metabolite of Zearalenone Exhibiting Estrogenic Activities: Possible Occurrence of This Metabolite in Vivo

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    Marcel Delaforge

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN, as well as its reduced metabolites, which belong to the endocrine disruptor bio-molecule family, are substrates for various enzymes involved in steroid metabolism. In addition to its reduction by the steroid dehydrogenase pathway, ZEN also interacts with hepatic detoxification enzymes, which convert it into hydroxylated metabolites (OH-ZEN. Due to their structures to that of estradiol, ZEN and its derived metabolites bind to the estrogen receptors and are involved in endocrinal perturbations and are possibly associated with estrogen-dependent cancers. The primary aim of this present study was to identify the enzymatic cytochrome P450 isoforms responsible for the formation of the most abundant OH-ZEN. We thus studied its in vitro formation using hepatic microsomes in a range of animal model systems including man. OH-ZEN was also recovered in liver and urine of rats treated orally with ZEN. Finally we compared the activity of ZEN and its active metabolites (α-ZAL and OH-ZEN on estrogen receptors using HeLa ER-α and ER-β reporter cell lines as reporters. OH-ZEN estrogenic activities were revealed to be limited and not as significant as those of ZEN or α-ZAL.

  20. Women with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit more activation in association areas following non-traumatic olfactory stimuli: a fMRI study.

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    Ilona Croy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating how women with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM process non-threatening and non-trauma related olfactory stimuli. The focus on olfactory perception is based on the overlap of brain areas often proposed to be affected in CM patients and the projection areas of the olfactory system, including the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula and hippocampus.Twelve women with CM and 10 controls participated in the study. All participants were, or have been, patients in a psychosomatic clinic. Participants underwent a fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with a neutral (coffee and a pleasant (peach odor. Furthermore, odor threshold and odor identification (Sniffin' Sticks were tested.Both groups showed normal activation in the olfactory projection areas. However, in the CM-group we found additionally enhanced activation in multiple, mainly neocortical, areas that are part of those involved in associative networks. These include the precentral frontal lobe, inferior and middle frontal structures, posterior parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and the posterior cingulate cortex.The results indicate that in this group of patients, CM was associated with an altered processing of olfactory stimuli, but not development of a functional olfactory deficit. This complements other studies on CM insofar as we found the observed pattern of enhanced activation in associative and emotional regions even following non-traumatic olfactory cues.

  1. Proanthocyanidins, Isolated from Choerospondias axillaris Fruit Peels, Exhibit Potent Antioxidant Activities in Vitro and a Novel Anti-angiogenic Property in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Xieyi; Dai, Taotao; Liu, Chengmei; Li, Ti; McClements, David Julian; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jiyan

    2016-05-11

    The production of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is an important stage in the growth and spread of cancerous tumors. Anti-angiogenesis is one strategy for controlling tumor progression. This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-angiogenic activities of a proanthocyanidins (PAs) extract from Choerospondias axillaris peels. HPLC-MS analysis revealed that numerous oligomeric forms of the PAs were detected in the PAs extract, including dimers, trimers, tetramers, and flavan-3-ol monomers. The PAs extract possessed appreciable free radical scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH = 164 ± 7 μg/mL, IC50/ABTS = 154 ± 6 μg/mL), potent reducing power (0.930 ± 0.030 g AAE/g), and strong cellular antioxidant activity (EC50 = 10.2 ± 1.4 and 38.9 ± 2.1 μg/mL without or with PBS-wash, respectively). It could also retard various stages of angiogenesis, such as the migration of endothelial cells and the creation of tubes, without causing toxicity to the cells. With regard to intracellular signal transduction, the PAs extract attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and p38MAPK dose-dependently in endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. In transgenic zebrafish embryo, new blood vessel formation was suppressed by PAs extract in a concentration-dependent manner at 72 h post fertilization. Thus, these results suggest that PAs from C. axillaris peels could be a good source of natural inhibitors to target angiogenesis.

  2. Atropisomers of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) exhibit stereoselective effects on activation of nuclear receptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Brenerová, Petra; Svržková, Lucie; Hrubá, Eva; Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Machala, Miroslav

    2017-11-09

    PCB 136 is an environmentally relevant chiral PCB congener, which has been found in vivo to be present in form of rotational isomers (atropisomers). Its atropselective biotransformation or neurotoxic effects linked with sensitization of ryanodine receptor suggest that it might interact also with other intracellular receptors in a stereospecific manner. However, possible atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptor transactivation remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptors controlling endocrine signaling and/or expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone catabolism were investigated. PCB136 atropisomers were found to exert differential effects on estrogen receptor (ER) activation; (+)-PCB 136 was estrogenic, while (-)-PCB 136 was antiestrogenic. In contrast, inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) activity was not stereospecific. Both PCB136 stereoisomers induced the constitutive androgen receptor (CAR)-dependent gene expression; however, no significant stereospecificity of PCB 136 atropisomers was observed. PCB136 was a partial inducer of the pregnane X receptor (PXR)-dependent gene expression. Here, (-)-PCB 136 was a significantly more potent inducer of PXR activity than (+)-PCB 136. Taken together, the present results indicate that at least two nuclear receptors participating in endocrine regulation or metabolism, ER and PXR, could be regulated in an atropselective manner by chiral PCB 136. The enantioselective enrichment of PCB atropisomers in animal and human tissues may thus have significant consequences for endocrine-disrupting effects of chiral ortho-substituted PCB congeners.

  3. Combining a Clostridial enzyme exhibiting unusual active site plasticity with a remarkably facile sigmatropic rearrangement: rapid, stereocontrolled entry into densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Kaushik; Applegate, Gregory A; Malik, Guillaume; Berkowitz, David B

    2015-03-18

    Described is an efficient stereocontrolled route into valuable, densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates that takes advantage of (i) a Clostridial enzyme to set the absolute stereochemistry and (ii) a new [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the thiono-Claisen variety that is among the fastest sigmatropic rearrangements yet reported. Here, a pronounced rate enhancement is achieved by distal fluorination. This rearrangement is completely stereoretentive, parlaying the enzymatically established β-C-O stereochemistry in the substrate into the δ-C-S stereochemistry in the product. The final products are of interest to chemical biology, with a platform for Zn-aminopeptidase A inhibitors being constructed here. The enzyme, Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaADH), recently expressed by our group, reduces a spectrum of γ,δ-unsaturated β-keto-α,α-difluorophosphonate esters (93-99% ee; 10 examples). The resultant β-hydroxy-α,α-difluorophosphonates possess the "L"-stereochemistry, opposite to that previously observed for the CaADH-reduction of ω-keto carboxylate esters ("D"), indicating an unusual active site plasticity. For the thiono-Claisen rearrangement, a notable structure-reactivity relationship is observed. Measured rate constants vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, depending upon thiono-ester structure. Temperature-dependent kinetics reveal an unusually favorable entropy of activation (ΔS(‡) = 14.5 ± 0.6 e.u.). Most notably, a 400-fold rate enhancement is seen upon fluorination of the distal arene ring, arising from favorable enthalpic (ΔΔH(‡) = -2.3 kcal/mol) and entropic (ΔΔS(‡) = 4 e.u., i.e. 1.2 kcal/mol at rt) contributions. The unusual active site plasticity seen here is expected to drive structural biology studies on CaADH, while the exceptionally facile sigmatropic rearrangement is expected to drive computational studies to elucidate its underlying entropic and enthalpic basis.

  4. Gene and protein expressions and metabolomics exhibit activated redox signaling and wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with metabolite dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Dan-Qian Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in plasma concentration of small organic metabolites could be due to their altered production or urinary excretion and changes in their urine concentration may be due to the changes in their filtered load, tubular reabsorption, and/or altered urine volume. Therefore, these factors should be considered in interpretation of the changes observed in plasma or urine of the target metabolite(s. Fasting plasma and urine samples from 180 CKD patients and 120 age-matched healthy controls were determined by UPLC-HDMS-metabolomics and quantitative real-time RT-PCR techniques. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CKD showed activation of NF-κB and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mRNA and protein expression as well as down-regulation of Nrf2-associated anti-oxidant gene mRNA and protein expression, accompanied by activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. 124 plasma and 128 urine metabolites were identified and 40 metabolites were significantly altered in both plasma and urine. Plasma concentration and urine excretion of 25 metabolites were distinctly different between CKD and controls. They were related to amino acid, methylamine, purine and lipid metabolisms. Logistic regression identified four plasma and five urine metabolites. Parts of them were good correlated with eGFR or serum creatinine. 5-Methoxytryptophan and homocystine and citrulline were good correlated with both eGFR and creatinine. Clinical factors were incorporated to establish predictive models. The enhanced metabolite model showed 5-methoxytryptophan, homocystine and citrulline have satisfactory accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for predictive CKD. The dysregulation of CKD was related to amino acid, methylamine, purine and lipid metabolisms. 5-methoxytryptophan, homocystine and citrulline could be considered as additional GFR-associated biomarker candidates and for indicating advanced renal injury. CKD caused dysregulation of the plasma and urine

  5. Methanolic extract of Boswellia serrata exhibits anti-cancer activities by targeting microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbarnejad, Tayebeh; Saidijam, Massoud; Moradkhani, Shirin; Najafi, Rezvan

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer. A proper method to reduce mortality of CRC is chemoprevention to prevent initiation and promotion of intestinal tumorgenesis. One of the promising and developing chemopreventive agents is natural compounds found in plants. Frankincense, the resin extract from the Boswellia specious, has been used in traditional and modern medicine for treating various diseases with very minimal side effects. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of methanolic extract of Boswellia serrata (B. serrata) on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of B. serrata and cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. mRNA expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Apoptosis was evaluated by the proportion of sub-G1 cells. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level and caspase 3 activity were determined by ELISA assay. Tube formation potential and HT-29 cells migration were assessed using three-dimensional vessel formation assay and scratch test. B. serrata extract considerably decreased the expression of mPGES-1, VEGF, CXCR4, MMP-2, MMP-9 and HIF-1. The caspase 3 activity and percent of cells in sub-G1 phase were increased by B. serrata extract. Cell viability, PGE2 generation, in vitro tube formation and cell migration were decreased significantly in B. serrata-treated HT-29 compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that B. serrata extract inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and migration and induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells by inhibiting of mPGES-1 and decreasing the PGE2 level and its downstream targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

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    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  7. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meixia; Singh, Anju; Macri, Kristin; Reynolds, Curt; Singhal, Vandana; Biswal, Shyam; Spannhake, Ernst W

    2011-07-13

    The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils--aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant preparations can effectively reduce inflammation associated with

  8. Radiosensitivity profiles from a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines exhibiting genetic alterations in p53 and disparate DNA-dependent protein kinase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, Gregory T.; Yannone, Steven M.; Langland, Rachel A.; Nakao, Aki; Guan, Yinghui; Long, Sydney B.T.; Vonguyen, Lien; Chen, David J.; Gray, Joe W; Chen, Fanqing

    2009-09-07

    The variability of radiation responses in ovarian tumors and tumor-derived cell lines is poorly understood. Since both DNA repair capacity and p53 status can significantly alter radiation sensitivity, we evaluated these factors along with radiation sensitivity in a panel of sporadic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We observed a gradation of radiation sensitivity among these sixteen lines, with a five-fold difference in the LD50 between the most radiosensitive and the most radioresistant cells. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is essential for the repair of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in human somatic cells. Therefore, we measured gene copy number, expression levels, protein abundance, genomic copy and kinase activity for DNA-PK in all of our cell lines. While there were detectable differences in DNA-PK between the cell lines, there was no clear correlation with any of these differences and radiation sensitivity. In contrast, p53 function as determined by two independent methods, correlated well with radiation sensitivity, indicating p53 mutant ovarian cancer cells are typically radioresistant relative to p53 wild-type lines. These data suggest that the activity of regulatory molecules such as p53 may be better indicators of radiation sensitivity than DNA repair enzymes such as DNAPK in ovarian cancer.

  9. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  10. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-z, an Hsp110 homologue, exhibits independent chaperone activity and interacts with Hsp70-1 in a nucleotide-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zininga, Tawanda; Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Hoppe, Heinrich; Prinsloo, Earl; Dirr, Heini W; Shonhai, Addmore

    2016-05-01

    The role of molecular chaperones, among them heat shock proteins (Hsps), in the development of malaria parasites has been well documented. Hsp70s are molecular chaperones that facilitate protein folding. Hsp70 proteins are composed of an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD), which confers them with ATPase activity and a C-terminal substrate binding domain (SBD). In the ADP-bound state, Hsp70 possesses high affinity for substrate and releases the folded substrate when it is bound to ATP. The two domains are connected by a conserved linker segment. Hsp110 proteins possess an extended lid segment, a feature that distinguishes them from canonical Hsp70s. Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-z (PfHsp70-z) is a member of the Hsp110 family of Hsp70-like proteins. PfHsp70-z is essential for survival of malaria parasites and is thought to play an important role as a molecular chaperone and nucleotide exchange factor of its cytosolic canonical Hsp70 counterpart, PfHsp70-1. Unlike PfHsp70-1 whose functions are fairly well established, the structure-function features of PfHsp70-z remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we established that PfHsp70-z possesses independent chaperone activity. In fact, PfHsp70-z appears to be marginally more effective in suppressing protein aggregation than its cytosol-localized partner, PfHsp70-1. Furthermore, based on coimmunoaffinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analyses, PfHsp70-z associated with PfHsp70-1 in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Our findings suggest that besides serving as a molecular chaperone, PfHsp70-z could facilitate the nucleotide exchange function of PfHsp70-1. These dual functions explain why it is essential for parasite survival.

  12. An aluminum-based rat model for Alzheimer's disease exhibits oxidative damage, inhibition of PP2A activity, hyperphosphorylated tau, and granulovacuolar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2007-09-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative damage leads to the formation of amyloid plaques while low PP2A activity results in hyperphosphorylated tau that polymerizes to form neurofibrillary tangles. We probed these early events, using brain tissue from a rat model for AD that develops memory deterioration and AD-like behaviors in old age after chronically ingesting 1.6 mg aluminum/kg bodyweight/day, equivalent to the high end of the human dietary aluminum range. A control group consumed 0.4 mg aluminum/kg/day. We stained brain sections from the cognitively-damaged rats for evidence of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, aluminum, oxidative damage, and hyperphosphorylated tau. PP2A activity levels measured 238.71+/-17.56 pmol P(i)/microg protein and 580.67+/-111.70 pmol P(i)/microg protein (paluminum-loading occurs in some aged rat neurons as in some aged human neurons; (2) aluminum-loading in rat neurons is accompanied by oxidative damage, hyperphosphorylated tau, neuropil threads, and granulovacuolar degeneration; and (3) amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were absent from all rat brain sections examined. Known species difference can reasonably explain why plaques and tangles are unable to form in brains of genetically-normal rats despite developing the same pathological changes that lead to their formation in human brain. As neuronal aluminum can account for early stages of plaque and tangle formation in an animal model for AD, neuronal aluminum could also initiate plaque and tangle formation in humans with AD.

  13. Combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin exhibits synergistic growth inhibitory activity via apoptosis induction in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231

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    Azimahtol Hawariah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility that the combination of xanthorrhizol and curcumin might show synergistic growth inhibitory effect towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction. The effective dose that produced 50% growth inhibition (GI50 was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-combinations of xanthorrhizol and curcumin generated from the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. The experimental GI50 value was used to determine the synergistic activity of the combination treatment by isobolographic analysis and combination-index method. Further investigation of mode of cell death induced by the combination treatment was conducted in the present study. Results Isobole analysis revealed that substances interaction was synergistic when xanthorrhizol and curcumin were added concurrently to the cultures but merely additive when they were added sequentially. The synergistic combination treatment was then applied to the cultures to investigate the mode of cell death induced by the treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture™ revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, which is one of the hallmark of apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to the treatment. Apoptotic cell death was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay, where internucleosomal excision of DNA was induced upon treatment with xanthorrhizol-curcumin. Conclusion This is the first time the combined cytotoxic effect of xanthorrhizol and curcumin on MDA-MB-231 cells has been documented and our findings provide experimental support to the hypothesis that combined xanthorrhizol-curcumin showed synergistic growth inhibitory activity on

  14. The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes CHD6, CHD7, and CHD8 exhibit distinct nucleosome binding and remodeling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Benjamin J; Yusufzai, Timur

    2017-07-14

    Proper chromatin regulation is central to genome function and maintenance. The group III chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding (CHD) family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes, comprising CHD6, CHD7, CHD8, and CHD9, has well-documented roles in transcription regulation, impacting both organism development and disease etiology. These four enzymes are similar in their constituent domains, but they fill surprisingly non-redundant roles in the cell, with deficiencies in individual enzymes leading to dissimilar disease states such as CHARGE syndrome or autism spectrum disorders. The mechanisms explaining their divergent, non-overlapping functions are unclear. In this study, we performed an in-depth biochemical analysis of purified CHD6, CHD7, and CHD8 and discovered distinct differences in chromatin remodeling specificities and activities among them. We report that CHD6 and CHD7 both bind with high affinity to short linker DNA, whereas CHD8 requires longer DNA for binding. As a result, CHD8 slides nucleosomes into positions with more flanking linker DNA than CHD7. Moreover, we found that, although CHD7 and CHD8 slide nucleosomes, CHD6 disrupts nucleosomes in a distinct non-sliding manner. The different activities of these enzymes likely lead to differences in chromatin structure and, thereby, transcriptional control, at the enhancer and promoter loci where these enzymes bind. Overall, our work provides a mechanistic basis for both the non-redundant roles and the diverse mutant disease states of these enzymes in vivo. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Congenic rats with higher arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity exhibit greater carcinogen-induced mammary tumor susceptibility independent of carcinogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Marcus W; Doll, Mark A; Samuelson, David J; Sanders, Mary Ann G; States, J Christopher; Hein, David W

    2017-03-31

    Recent investigations suggest role(s) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer. Rat NAT2 is orthologous to human NAT1 and the gene products are functional homologs. We conducted in vivo studies using F344.WKY-Nat2 rapid/slow rats, congenic at rat Nat2 for high (rapid) and low (slow) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity, to assess a possible role for rat NAT2 in mammary tumor susceptibility. Mammary carcinogens, methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) neither of which is metabolized by N-acetyltransferase, were administered to assess mammary tumors. MNU was administered at 3 or 8 weeks of age. DMBA was administered at 8 weeks of age. NAT2 enzymatic activity and endogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) levels were measured in tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the congenic rats. Tumor latency was shorter in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats, with statistical significance for MNU administered at 3 and 8 weeks of age (p = 0.009 and 0.050, respectively). Tumor multiplicity and incidence were higher in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats administered MNU or DMBA at 8 weeks of age (MNU, p = 0.050 and 0.035; DMBA, p = 0.004 and 0.027, respectively). Recombinant rat rapid-NAT2, as well as tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts derived from rapid NAT2 rats, catalyzed p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyl transfer and folate-dependent acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) hydrolysis at higher rates than those derived from rat slow-NAT2. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from rapid NAT2 rats displayed lower levels of cellular AcCoA than slow NAT2 rats (p rat NAT2 in mammary cancer was discovered unrelated to carcinogen metabolism, suggesting a role for human NAT1 in breast cancer.

  16. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Karunanidhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Hexane (ASHE and dichloromethane (ASDE extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1% served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw. Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100% in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase (p<0.05 in epithelialization and collagenation in treated groups. The ASHE and ASDE were found to be relatively noncytotoxic and safe to Vero cell line (383.4 μg mL−1; 390.6 μg mL−1, suggesting the extracts as safe topical antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries.

  17. The freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum transformed with ApGSMT-DMT exhibited enhanced salt tolerance and protection to nitrogenase activity, but became halophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Sharma, Naveen K; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2013-03-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmolyte synthesized in response to different abiotic stresses, including salinity. The two known pathways of GB synthesis involve: 1) two step oxidation of choline (choline → betaine aldehyde → GB), generally found in plants, microbes and animals; and 2) three step methylation of glycine (glycine → sarcosine → dimethylglycine → GB), mainly found in halophilic archaea, sulphur bacteria and the cyanobacterium Aphanothece (Ap.) halophytica. Here, we transformed a salt-sensitive freshwater diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (An.) doliolum with N-methyltransferase genes (ApGSMT-DMT) from Ap. halophytica using the triparental conjugation method. The transformed An. doliolum synthesized and accumulated GB in cells, and showed increased salt tolerance and protection to nitrogenase activity. The salt responsiveness of the transformant was also apparent as GB synthesis increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the nutrient solution, and maximal [12.92 µmol (g dry weight)(-1)] in cells growing at 0.5 M NaCl. Therefore, the transformed cyanobacterium has changed its behaviour from preferring freshwater to halophily. This study may have important biotechnological implications for the development of stress tolerant nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria as biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture.

  18. Activity in a premotor cortical nucleus of zebra finches is locally organized and exhibits auditory selectivity in neurons but not in glia.

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    Michael H Graber

    Full Text Available Motor functions are often guided by sensory experience, most convincingly illustrated by complex learned behaviors. Key to sensory guidance in motor areas may be the structural and functional organization of sensory inputs and their evoked responses. We study sensory responses in large populations of neurons and neuron-assistive cells in the songbird motor area HVC, an auditory-vocal brain area involved in sensory learning and in adult song production. HVC spike responses to auditory stimulation display remarkable preference for the bird's own song (BOS compared to other stimuli. Using two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized zebra finches we measure the spatio-temporal structure of baseline activity and of auditory evoked responses in identified populations of HVC cells. We find strong correlations between calcium signal fluctuations in nearby cells of a given type, both in identified neurons and in astroglia. In identified HVC neurons only, auditory stimulation decorrelates ongoing calcium signals, less for BOS than for other sound stimuli. Overall, calcium transients show strong preference for BOS in identified HVC neurons but not in astroglia, showing diversity in local functional organization among identified neuron and astroglia populations.

  19. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth exhibit stromal-derived inducing activity and lead to generation of neural crest cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Tanhaei, Somayyeh; Rabiei, Farzaneh; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Masoudi, Najmeh Sadat; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient structure of early vertebrate embryos that generates neural crest cells (NCCs). These cells can migrate throughout the body and produce a diverse array of mature tissue types. Due to the ethical and technical problems surrounding the isolation of these early human embryo cells, researchers have focused on in vitro studies to produce NCCs and increase their knowledge of neural crest development. In this experimental study, we cultured human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on stromal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) for a two-week period. We used different approaches to characterize these differentiated cells as neural precursor cells (NPCs) and NCCs. In the first co-culture week, hESCs appeared as crater-like structures with marginal rosettes. NPCs derived from these structures expressed the early neural crest marker p75 in addition to numerous other genes associated with neural crest induction such as SNAIL, SLUG, PTX3 and SOX9. Flow cytometry analysis showed 70% of the cells were AP2/P75 positive. Moreover, the cells were able to self-renew, sustain multipotent differentiation potential, and readily form neurospheres in suspension culture. SHED, as an adult stem cell with a neural crest origin, has stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) and can be used as an NCC inducer from hESCs. These cells provide an invaluable resource to study neural crest differentiation in both normal and disordered human neural crest development.

  20. A novel Bifidobacterium infantis-mediated TK/GCV suicide gene therapy system exhibits antitumor activity in a rat model of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yongping

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bladder cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in the world. Successful clinical management remains a challenge. In order To search for novel targeted and efficacious treatment, we sought to investigate anti-tumor activity of BI-TK suicide gene therapy system in a rat model of bladder tumors. We first constructed and tested an anaerobic Bifidobacterium infantis-mediated thymidine kinase (BI-TK suicide gene therapy system. To test the in vivo efficacy of this system, we established a rat model of bladder tumors, which was induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea perfusion. Bifidobacterium infantis containing the HSV-TK (i.e., BI-TK were constructed by transformation of recombinant plasmid pGEX - TK. The engineered BI-TK was injected into tumor-bearing rats via tail vein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of ganciclovir (GCV. Using the rat model of bladder tumors, we found that bladder tumor burdens were significantly lower in the rats treated with BI-TK/GCV group than that treated with normal saline control group (p 0.05. While various degrees of apoptosis of the tumor cells were detected in all groups using in situ TUNEL assay, apoptosis was mostly notable in the BI-TK/GCV treatment group. Immunohistochemical staining further demonstrated that the BI-TK/GCV treatment group had the highest level of caspase3 protein expression than that of the empty plasmid group and normal saline group (p

  1. Type II restriction endonuclease R.Hpy188I belongs to the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily, but exhibits an unusual active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Ichizo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic domains of Type II restriction endonucleases (REases belong to a few unrelated three-dimensional folds. While the PD-(D/EXK fold is most common among these enzymes, crystal structures have been also determined for single representatives of two other folds: PLD (R.BfiI and half-pipe (R.PabI. Bioinformatics analyses supported by mutagenesis experiments suggested that some REases belong to the HNH fold (e.g. R.KpnI, and that a small group represented by R.Eco29kI belongs to the GIY-YIG fold. However, for a large fraction of REases with known sequences, the three-dimensional fold and the architecture of the active site remain unknown, mostly due to extreme sequence divergence that hampers detection of homology to enzymes with known folds. Results R.Hpy188I is a Type II REase with unknown structure. PSI-BLAST searches of the non-redundant protein sequence database reveal only 1 homolog (R.HpyF17I, with nearly identical amino acid sequence and the same DNA sequence specificity. Standard application of state-of-the-art protein fold-recognition methods failed to predict the relationship of R.Hpy188I to proteins with known structure or to other protein families. In order to increase the amount of evolutionary information in the multiple sequence alignment, we have expanded our sequence database searches to include sequences from metagenomics projects. This search resulted in identification of 23 further members of R.Hpy188I family, both from metagenomics and the non-redundant database. Moreover, fold-recognition analysis of the extended R.Hpy188I family revealed its relationship to the GIY-YIG domain and allowed for computational modeling of the R.Hpy188I structure. Analysis of the R.Hpy188I model in the light of sequence conservation among its homologs revealed an unusual variant of the active site, in which the typical Tyr residue of the YIG half-motif had been substituted by a Lys residue. Moreover, some of its homologs

  2. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  4. Exhibition

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    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  6. Exhibition

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    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

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    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  18. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  19. Eμ-BCL10 mice exhibit constitutive activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways generating marginal zone (MZ) B-cell expansion as a precursor to splenic MZ lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Hongsheng; Xue, Liquan; Shin, Dong-Mi; Roopenian, Derry; Xu, Wu; Qi, Chen-Feng; Sangster, Mark Y.; Orihuela, Carlos J.; Tuomanen, Elaine; Rehg, Jerold E.; Cui, Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    BCL10, required for nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation during antigen-driven lymphocyte responses, is aberrantly expressed in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type marginal zone (MZ) lymphomas because of chromosomal translocations. Eμ-driven human BCL10 transgenic (Tg) mice, which we created and characterize here, had expanded populations of MZ B cells and reduced follicular and B1a cells. Splenic B cells from Tg mice exhibited constitutive activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways is associated with increased expression of NF-κB target genes. These genes included Tnfsf13b, which encodes the B-cell activating factor (BAFF). In addition, levels of BAFF were significantly increased in sera from Tg mice. MZ B cells of Tg mice exhibited reduced turnover in vivo and enhanced survival in vitro, indicative of lymphoaccumulation rather than lymphoproliferation as the cause of MZ expansion. In vivo antibody responses to both T-independent, and especially T-dependent, antigens were significantly reduced in Tg mice. Mortality was accelerated in Tg animals, and some mice older than 8 months had histologic and molecular findings indicative of clonal splenic MZ lymphoma. These results suggest that, in addition to constitutive activation of BCL10 in MZ B cells, other genetic factors or environmental influences are required for short latency oncogenic transformation. PMID:19696203

  20. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  1. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  2. Proteins Encoded by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461 rmlA and ugpG Genes, Involved in Gellan Gum Biosynthesis, Exhibit both dTDP- and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elisabete; Marques, Ana Rita; Fialho, Arsénio Mendes; Granja, Ana Teresa; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The commercial gelling agent gellan is a heteropolysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. In this work, we carried out the biochemical characterization of the enzyme encoded by the first gene (rmlA) of the rml 4-gene cluster present in the 18-gene cluster required for gellan biosynthesis (gel cluster). Based on sequence homology, the putative rml operon is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-rhamnose, the sugar necessary for the incorporation of rhamnose in the gellan repeating unit. Heterologous RmlA was purified as a fused His6-RmlA protein from extracts prepared from Escherichia coli IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced cells, and the protein was proven to exhibit dTDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Km of 12.0 μM for dTDP-glucose) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Km of 229.0 μM for UDP-glucose) activities in vitro. The N-terminal region of RmlA exhibits the motif G-X-G-T-R-X2-P-X-T, which is highly conserved among bacterial XDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases. The motif E-E-K-P, with the conserved lysine residue (K163) predicted to be essential for glucose-1-phosphate binding, was observed. The S. elodea ATCC 31461 UgpG protein, encoded by the ugpG gene which maps outside the gel cluster, was previously identified as the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in the formation of UDP-glucose, also required for gellan synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that UgpG also exhibits dTDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in vitro and compare the kinetic parameters of the two proteins for both substrates. DNA sequencing of ugpG gene-adjacent regions and sequence similarity studies suggest that this gene maps with others involved in the formation of sugar nucleotides presumably required for the biosynthesis of another cell polysaccharide(s). PMID:16085866

  3. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  4. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  5. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  6. Phenolics extracted from tartary (Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) buckwheat bran exhibit antioxidant activity, and an antiproliferative effect on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through the p38/MAP kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Yao; Lu, Keke; Yin, Ran; Ming, Jian

    2017-01-25

    Phenolics extracted from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) bran were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The bioactivity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, such as the antioxidant activity, and the inhibition capacity on the growth of cancer cells. The molecular mechanism for the inhibitive effect on cancer cells was explored. Results indicated that tartary buckwheat bran phenolics mainly exist in a free form, and free phenolics were twice as abundant as bound phenolics. Free caffeic acid (119.75 μg per 100 mg DW) and bound rutin (51.66 μg per 100 mg DW) represented the main free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. The free phenolic extract contributed to the major (>90%) antioxidant activities including the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The free phenolic extract exhibited anticancer activity for human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This significant inhibition effect was achieved through the p38/MAP kinase pathway by inducing cell apoptosis (up-regulating p-p38 and p-ASK1 expressions and down-regulating TRAF2 and p-p53 expressions), and negatively regulating the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 to S phase (increased expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of PCNA, cyclin D1 and CDK4). All these results indicated that tartary buckwheat bran could be a rich resource of natural antioxidants and inhibitors for the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  7. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its......Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  8. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  9. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  10. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  12. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  13. The PH domain of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 exhibits a novel, phospho-regulated monomer-dimer equilibrium with important implications for kinase domain activation: single-molecule and ensemble studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Pilling, Carissa; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé; Falke, Joseph J

    2013-07-16

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is an essential master kinase recruited to the plasma membrane by the binding of its C-terminal PH domain to the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Membrane binding leads to PDK1 phospho-activation, but despite the central role of PDK1 in signaling and cancer biology, this activation mechanism remains poorly understood. PDK1 has been shown to exist as a dimer in cells, and one crystal structure of its isolated PH domain exhibits a putative dimer interface. It has been proposed that phosphorylation of PH domain residue T513 (or the phospho-mimetic T513E mutation) may regulate a novel PH domain dimer-monomer equilibrium, thereby converting an inactive PDK1 dimer to an active monomer. However, the oligomeric states of the PH domain on the membrane have not yet been determined, nor whether a negative charge at position 513 is sufficient to regulate its oligomeric state. This study investigates the binding of purified wild-type (WT) and T513E PDK1 PH domains to lipid bilayers containing the PIP3 target lipid, using both single-molecule and ensemble measurements. Single-molecule analysis of the brightness of the fluorescent PH domain shows that the PIP3-bound WT PH domain on membranes is predominantly dimeric while the PIP3-bound T513E PH domain is monomeric, demonstrating that negative charge at the T513 position is sufficient to dissociate the PH domain dimer and is thus likely to play a central role in PDK1 monomerization and activation. Single-molecule analysis of two-dimensional (2D) diffusion of PH domain-PIP3 complexes reveals that the dimeric WT PH domain diffuses at the same rate as a single lipid molecule, indicating that only one of its two PIP3 binding sites is occupied and there is little penetration of the protein into the bilayer as observed for other PH domains. The 2D diffusion of T513E PH domain is slower, suggesting the negative charge disrupts local structure in a way that allows

  14. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  15. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  16. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  17. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-05-01

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (pgold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) β1- and β6-Conglutin Proteins Exhibit Antifungal Activity, Protecting Plants against Necrotrophic Pathogen Induced Damage from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora nicotianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Melser, Su; DeBoer, Kathleen; Thatcher, Louise F; Kamphuis, Lars G; Foley, Rhonda C; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Vicilins (7S globulins) are seed storage proteins and constitute the main protein family in legume seeds, particularly in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.; NLL), where seven vicilin genes, called β1- to β7-conglutin have been identified. Vicilins are involved in germination processes supplying amino acids for seedling growth and plant development, as well as in some cases roles in plant defense and protection against pathogens. The roles of NLL β-conglutins in plant defense are unknown. Here the potential role of five NLL β-conglutin family members in protection against necrotrophic fungal pathogens was investigated and it was demonstrated that recombinant purified 6xHis-tagged β1- and β6-conglutin proteins exhibited the strongest in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a range of necrotrophic fungal pathogens compared to β2, β3, and β4 conglutins. To examine activity in vivo, two representative necrotrophic pathogens, the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae were used. Transient expression of β1- and β6-conglutin proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated in vivo growth suppression of both of these pathogens, resulting in low percentages of hyphal growth and elongation in comparison to control treated leaves. Cellular studies using β1- and β6-GFP fusion proteins showed these conglutins localized to the cell surface including plasmodesmata. Analysis of cellular death following S. sclerotiorum or P. nicotianae revealed both β1- and β6-conglutins suppressed pathogen induced cell death in planta and prevented pathogen induced suppression of the plant oxidative burst as determined by protein oxidation in infected compared to mock-inoculated leaves.

  19. Niflumic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through affecting the expression of ERK1/2 and the activity of MMP2 and MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqun; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Ziyou; Wan, Zheng; Chen, Hua; Liao, Dan; Chen, Chuyan; Li, Huahui; Li, Binbin; Chen, Liyong; Huang, Zunnan; He, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Niflumic acid (NFA) was known to inhibit cell proliferation or migration in several types of cancer. However, the function of NFA in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was not clarified. The proliferation of NPC cell line CNE-2Z cells with NFA treatment was detected using the cell counting kit-8 method and transwell assay was employed to assess the effect of NFA on the CNE-2Z cell migration and invasion. The activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was detected by Gelatin Zymography. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. In vitro pull-down assay, western blot, and computational technique were applied to investigate the NFA regulating signaling pathway. Our results indicated that the growth capacity and colony formation potential of CNE-2Z cells in soft agar were significantly suppressed by treatment with NFA. NFA inhibited the proliferation of CNE-2Z cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. NFA exerted an S phase arrest on the CNE-2Z cells in a concentration-dependent manner, while promoting apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Migration and invasion potential of CNE-2Z cells were decreased by NFA treatment in vitro. In vitro pull-down assay and molecular modeling indicated that NFA directly bound with early respond kinase 1 (ERK1). Finally, the anti-tumor effect of NFA was suggested to be mediated by inhibiting early respond kinases (ERK) expression and the MMP2 and MMP9 activities. NFA has proliferation-inhibiting, invasion-suppressing, cell cycle-blocking and apoptosis-promoting effects on CNE-2Z cells through regulation of ERK/MAPK and our results indicates that NFA may serve as a candidate of anticancer drug for NPC.

  20. 13-methyltetradecanoic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity on T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating p-AKT and activating caspase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cai

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD, a saturated branched-chain fatty acid purified from soy fermentation products, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanism of action of 13-MTD on T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Growth inhibition in response to 13-MTD was evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay in three T-NHL cell lines (Jurkat, Hut78, EL4 cells. Flow cytometry analyses were used to monitor the cell cycle and apoptosis. Proteins involved in 13-MTD-induced apoptosis were examined in Jurkat cells by western blotting. We found that 13-MTD inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of T-NHL cell lines. 13-MTD treatment also induced a concentration-dependent arrest of Jurkat cells in the G1-phase. During 13-MTD-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a caspase enzymolysis product were detected after incubation for 2 h, and increased after extending the incubation time. However, there was no change in the expression of Bcl-2 or c-myc proteins. The appearance of apoptotic Jurkat cells was accompanied by the inhibition of AKT and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, 13-MTD could also effectively inhibit the growth of T-NHL tumors in vivo in a xenograft model. The tumor inhibition rate in the experimental group was 40%. These data indicate that 13-MTD inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation followed by caspase activation, which may provide a new approach for treating T-cell lymphomas.

  1. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  2. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A characteristic chondroitin sulfate trisaccharide unit with a sulfated fucose branch exhibits neurite outgrowth-promoting activity: Novel biological roles of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Miharu; Mikami, Tadahisa; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-03

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a class of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that consist of repeating disaccharide unit composed of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). CS chains are found throughout the pericellular and extracellular spaces and contribute to the formation of functional microenvironments for numerous biological events. However, their structure-function relations remain to be fully characterized. Here, a fucosylated CS (FCS) was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Its promotional effects on neurite outgrowth were assessed by using isolated polysaccharides and the chemically synthesized FCS trisaccharide β-D-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) (1-4)[α-l-fucose (2,4-O-disulfate) (1-3)]-β-D-GlcA. FCS polysaccharides contained the E-type disaccharide unit GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) as a CS major backbone structure and carried distinct sulfated fucose branches. Despite their relatively lower abundance of E unit, FCS polysaccharides exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity comparable to squid cartilage-derived CS-E polysaccharides, which are characterized by their predominant E units, suggesting potential roles of the fucose branch in neurite outgrowth. Indeed, the chemically synthesized FCS trisaccharide was as effective as CS-E tetrasaccharide in stimulating neurite elongation in vitro. In conclusion, FCS trisaccharide units with 2,4-O-disulfated fucose branches may provide new insights into understanding the structure-function relations of CS chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcuma DMSO extracts and curcumin exhibit an anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effect on human intervertebral disc cells, possibly by influencing TLR2 expression and JNK activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background As proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a role in discogenic back pain, substances exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects on intervertebral disc cells may be used as minimal-invasive therapeutics for intradiscal/epidural injection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic potential of curcuma, which has been used in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine to treat multiple ailments for a long time. Methods Human disc cells were treated with IL-1β to induce an inflammatory/catabolic cascade. Different extracts of curcuma as well as curcumin (= a component selected based on results with curcuma extracts and HPLC/MS analysis) were tested for their ability to reduce mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes after 6 hours (real-time RT-PCR), followed by analysis of typical inflammatory signaling mechanisms such as NF-κB (Western Blot, Transcription Factor Assay), MAP kinases (Western Blot) and Toll-like receptors (real-time RT-PCR). Quantitative data was statistically analyzed using a Mann Whitney U test with a significance level of p curcuma DMSO extract significantly reduced levels of IL-6, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13. The DMSO-soluble component curcumin, whose occurrence within the DMSO extract was verified by HPLC/MS, reduced levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13 and both caused an up-regulation of TNF-α. Pathway analysis indicated that curcumin did not show involvement of NF-κB, but down-regulated TLR2 expression and inhibited the MAP kinase JNK while activating p38 and ERK. Conclusions Based on its anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects, intradiscal injection of curcumin may be an attractive treatment alternative. However, whether the anti-inflammatory properties in vitro lead to analgesia in vivo will need to be confirmed in an appropriate animal model. PMID:22909087

  5. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  6. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  7. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  8. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition? With...

  9. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  10. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  11. Arg156 in the AP2-domain exhibits the highest binding activity among the 20 individuals to the GCC box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a mutant ERF transcription factor from Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156, Mu3 (Arg156, and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins.

  12. Arg156 in the AP2-Domain Exhibits the Highest Binding Activity among the 20 Individuals to the GCC Box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a Mutant ERF Transcription Factor from Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jing; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Bei; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156), Mu3 (Arg156), and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins.

  13. Space exhibitions: the science encounters the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coliolo, F.; Menendez, M.

    The widespread dissemination of science has always been one pillar of the development of human knowledge. There are several methods to structure interaction with the public: media, conferences, various written genres, and exhibitions. But: how to attract the public? How to arouse interest among future generation, insatiable for knowledge? In this paper we focus on space exhibitions, whose content combines mystery, discovery and science. The preparation of an exhibition is based on guidelines discussed between an interdisciplinary team and the exhibition project manager, the purpose of which is to find a coherent "strategy" to select information and to choose a concise, efficient, smart and original way to "visualize" the messages. Exhibition visitors are "privileged" because the interactivity is first emotive, then mental and cultural; the audience is universal. The goal of an exhibition is not to explain the content, but to stimulate the audience's curiosity in an attractive environment. We show some photos of ESA exhibitions, and try to understand if the visual impact is the first step towards a "multi-sensory" approach to communication. "A good exhibition can never be replaced by a book, a film or a lecture. A good exhibition creates a thirst for books, film, lectures. A good exhibition changes the visitors"(J. Wagensberg, Modern scientific museology")

  14. Which exhibition attributes create repeat visitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, J.; Webber, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies exhibition attributes deemed important by attendees’ in determining their attendance at the UK biennial MICROSCIENCE 2008 exhibition using a self-administered internet-based questionnaire. Perceived performance of attributes by attendees is also established. Attendees consider meeting specialists as well as gaining product and technical information to be very important attributes for exhibition selection. Application of an Importance Performance Analysis suggests that re...

  15. Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible and spontaneous Cre activities driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter that can be used for the conditional analysis of basal epithelial cells in multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chih-Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cre/loxP-mediated genetic modification is the most widely used conditional genetic approach used in the mouse. Engineered Cre and the mutated ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor fusion recombinase (CreERT allow temporal control of Cre activity. Results In this study, we have generated two distinct transgenic mouse lines expressing CreERT, which show 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT-inducible and spontaneous (4-OHT-independent Cre activities, referred to Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS, respectively. The transgenic construct is driven by the bovine Keratin 5 promoter, which is active in the basal epithelial lineage of stratified and pseudo-stratified epithelium across multiple organs. Despite the difference in 4-OHT dependency, the Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS mouse lines shared similar Cre-mediated recombination among various organs, except for unique mammary epithelial Cre activity in Tg(BK5-CreERTS females. Conclusion These two new transgenic mouse lines for the analysis of basal epithelial function and for the genetic modification have been created allowing the identification of these cell lineages and analysis of their differentiation during embryogenesis, during perinatal development and in adult mice.

  16. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Curcumin analog 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one exhibits enhanced ability on Nrf2 activation and protection against acrolein-induced ARPE-19 cell toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zou, Xuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Yue, Tingting [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Dai, Fang; Zhou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Wuyuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Feng, Zhihui, E-mail: zhfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Jiankang, E-mail: j.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, has received increasing attention for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, application of curcumin has been limited due to its insolubility in water and poor bioavailability both clinically and experimentally. In addition, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin in eye diseases have been poorly studied. In the present study, we synthesized a curcumin analog, 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one (C3), which displayed improved protective effect against acrolein-induced toxicity in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19). At 5 μM, curcumin completely protected against acrolein-induced cell oxidative damage and preserved GSH levels and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, C3 displayed a complete protective effect at 0.5 μM, which was much more efficient than curcumin. Both 0.5 μM C3 and 5 μM curcumin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target genes transcription similarly. Experiments using Nrf2 siRNA showed that the protective effects of curcumin and C3 were eliminated by Nrf2 knockdown. Additionally, both curcumin and C3 activated the PI3/Akt pathway, however, Nrf2 activation was independent of this pathway, and therefore, we hypothesized that both curcumin and C3 activated phase II enzymes via directly disrupting the Nrf2/Keap1 complex and promoting Nrf2's nuclear translocation. Since acrolein challenge of ARPE-19 cells has been used as a model of smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we concluded that the curcumin analog, C3, may be a more promising drug candidate for its potential application for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, such as AMD. - Highlights: • We examine toxicity effects of cigarette smoking component acrolein in retina cells. • We report a more efficient curcumin analog (C3) protecting cellular function. • Mitochondrial function and phase II enzyme activation are the

  18. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local authorizations. (i) A copy of any certificate of public convenience and necessity or similar..., showing towns and communities to be served, and (b) gas producing and storage filed, or other sources of.... (8) Exhibit G-II—Flow diagram data. Exhibits G and G-I shall be accompanied by a statement of...

  19. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.7 Applications: exhibits. Each exhibit must contain a title page..., and substations description including: (i) Conductor size and type; (ii) Type of structures; (iii... existing if applicable) substations or switching stations that will be associated with the proposed new...

  20. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  1. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  2. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  3. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design ...

  4. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition. The media...

  5. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  6. Paolo Gioli: An Exercise in Exhibition Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Camporesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The text is thought as a brief museological and museographical journey of Paolo Gioli’s exhibition “Volti” [“Faces”], that allows the reader to go through the exhibition-making process, discussing, among others, the difficulties that I have encountered.

  7. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  8. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  9. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  10. Minimalist hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model for CXCR4 applied to a small-library of marine natural products led to the identification of phidianidine a as a new CXCR4 ligand exhibiting antagonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Rosa Maria; Gatti, Monica; Carbone, Marianna; Barbieri, Federica; Felicità, Vera; Gavagnin, Margherita; Florio, Tullio; Amodeo, Pietro

    2013-12-20

    Here, we present a minimal hybrid ligand/receptor-based pharmacophore model (PM) for CXCR4, a chemokine receptor deeply involved in several pathologies, such as HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer development/progression, and metastasization. This model, considerably simpler than those thus far proposed for this receptor, has been used to search for new CXCR4 inhibitors in a small marine natural product library available at ICB-CNR Institute (Pozzuoli, NA, Italy), since natural products, with their naturally selected chemical and functional diversity, represent a rich source of bioactive scaffolds; computational approaches allow searching for new scaffolds with a minimal waste of possibly precious natural product samples; and our "stripped-down" model substantially increases the probabilities of identifying potential hits even in small-sized libraries. This search, also validated by a systematic virtual screening of the same library, has led to the identification of a new CXCR4 ligand, phidianidine A (PHIA). Docking studies supported PHIA activity and suggested its possible binding modes to CXCR4. Using the CXCR4-expressing/CXCR7-negative GH4C1 cell line we show that PHIA inhibits CXCL12-induced DNA synthesis, cell migration, and ERK1/2 activation. The specificity of these effects was confirmed by the lack of PHIA activity in GH4C1 cells, in which siRNA highly reduces CXCR4 expression and the lack of cytoxicity of PHIA was also verified. Thus, PHIA represents a promising lead for a new family of CXCR4 modulators with wide margins of improvement in potency and specificity offered by the small and very simple underlying PM.

  11. Fungal CYP51 Inhibitors VT-1161 and VT-1129 Exhibit Strong In Vitro Activity against Candida glabrata and C. krusei Isolates Clinically Resistant to Azole and Echinocandin Antifungal Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W A; Jones, A M; Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Alexander, B D

    2017-03-01

    The in vitro activities of fungal CYP51 inhibitors VT-1161 and VT-1129 were determined for Candida glabrata (n = 34) and C. krusei (n = 50). C. glabrata isolates were screened for FKS gene mutations. All isolates were resistant clinically and/or in vitro to at least one standard antifungal compound. VT-1161 and VT-1129 MICs for all isolates were at least 5-fold below achievable human plasma levels for VT-1161. VT-1161 and VT-1129 are promising for the treatment of resistant C. glabrata and C. krusei infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...... the science centre. Eye-tracking glasses and qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Before entering the PULSE exhibition, one adult in each family group and one child in each school group were asked to wear eye-tracking equipment while interacting with various installations. Primarily adult test...

  13. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  14. HIV-infected individuals with low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective antiretroviral therapy exhibit altered T cell subsets, heightened CD8+ T cell activation, and increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Serrano-Villar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3 is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+ and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-, and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years. After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.

  15. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points...

  16. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  17. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  18. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  19. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  20. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  1. Bougainvillea spectabilis Exhibits Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activities in Experimental Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chauhan, Pratibha; Mahajan, Sunil; Kulshrestha, Archana; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Sharma, Bechan; Goswamy, H. M; Prasad, G. B. K. S

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and on DNA damage, if any, as well...

  2. Aspirin and metformin exhibit antitumor activity in murine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Maoyuan; Wang, Yuyi; Du, Chi; Liu, Yanyang; Zhang, Nan; Luo, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that aspirin and metformin play important roles in chemoprevention and repression of breast cancers, even though the exact mechanism remains unclear. Aspirin is capable of stimulating apoptosis through prostaglandin-dependent or prostaglandin-independent pathways. Metformin inhibits cell growth by enhancing the tumor suppressive function of transforming growth factor (TGF-β). In the present study, we report a new link between aspirin, metformin, TGF-β1 and murine breast cancer inhibition. Specifically, we showed that aspirin and metformin enhanced 4T1 cell apoptosis by inducing secretion of TGF-β1, whereas estradiol weakened the effect.

  3. Keratinolytic activity exhibited in an indigenous non-dermatophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratins are the widely distributed fibrous proteins of our environment. Keratinase are proteolytic enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing insoluble keratin largely produced by microorganisms including fungi. The isolation, identification and characterization of a non-dermatophytic keratinolytic fungal strain of Cochliobolus ...

  4. Human tear lipocalin exhibits antimicrobial activity by scavenging microbial siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckinger, Maria; Haas, Hubertus; Merschak, Petra; Glasgow, Ben J; Redl, Bernhard

    2004-09-01

    Human tear lipocalin (TL; also known as Lcn1) is a secretory protein present in large amounts in fluids that cover epithelial surfaces such as tears and respiratory secretions. It is supposed to act as a physiological scavenger of hydrophobic, potentially harmful molecules, but there is evidence that it also inhibits bacterial growth. In the present study, we reconsidered the possibility that TL might interfere with microbial growth by scavenging of siderophores, as described for human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Indeed, our experiments revealed that TL binds to microbial siderophores with high affinities. In contrast to NGAL, which was shown to have some specificity for bacterial catecholate-type siderophores, TL binds to a broad array of siderophores, including bacterial catecholate-type enterobactin and hydroxamate-type desferrioxamine B, and all major classes of fungal siderophores. By adding exogenous TL, bacterial and fungal growth could be inhibited under iron-limiting conditions. Thus, TL might be a novel member of the innate immune system especially involved in mucosal defense against fungal infections.

  5. Human Tear Lipocalin Exhibits Antimicrobial Activity by Scavenging Microbial Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Fluckinger, Maria; Haas, Hubertus; Merschak, Petra; Glasgow, Ben J.; Redl, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    Human tear lipocalin (TL; also known as Lcn1) is a secretory protein present in large amounts in fluids that cover epithelial surfaces such as tears and respiratory secretions. It is supposed to act as a physiological scavenger of hydrophobic, potentially harmful molecules, but there is evidence that it also inhibits bacterial growth. In the present study, we reconsidered the possibility that TL might interfere with microbial growth by scavenging of siderophores, as described for human neutro...

  6. A Holocaust Exhibit ePortfolio: Actively Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordine, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    California State University, Fresno is currently considering implementing an ePortfolio requirement for all undergraduate students. The ePortfolio requirement would be introduced primarily to engage students in a HIP (high impact practice) but would also be used for assessment purposes. As a faculty member and a member of the CSU Fresno ePortfolio…

  7. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  8. Do cylinders exhibit a cubatic phase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, R.; Frenkel, D.; Mulder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that freely rotating cylinders with an aspect ratio L/D = 0.9 exhibit a cubatic phase similar to the one found for a system of cut spheres. We present theoretical arguments why a cubatic phase might occur in this particular system. Monte Carlo simulations do not

  9. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but ...

  10. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  11. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export..., OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153.8... for the export or the import of natural gas is within the authorized powers of applicant, that...

  12. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  13. Mobile eye-tracking methods in studies of audience learning in health promotion exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Kharlamov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities where a science centre exhibition is a key setting. The primary...... experience technology-enhanced exhibitions....

  14. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  15. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  16. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Blebbishields and mitotic cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Goodwin G; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells. In addition, inhibiting macropinocytosis did not inhibit construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. Thus, although apoptotic cancer stem cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis, macropinocytosis is not essential to generate blebbishields, although it may play other roles in blebbishield biology. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):181-186, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. CERN's new microcosm exhibition is now open

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    After a major revamp in 2015, CERN’s microcosm exhibition is once again open to visitors. The exhibition is free and open to all without reservation and visitors are encouraged to share their #microcosm @CERN experiences on social media. Read more: http://cern.ch/go/7HWC -Producer- CERN Video Productions -Director- Kate Kahle -Camera- indissoluble.com and Julien Ordan -Editor- Julien Ordan -Infography- Daniel Dominguez Noemi Caraban -Music- “Light Years” by Stellardrone http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Ste... You can follow us on: cern.ch youtube.com/cerntv google.com/+CERN facebook.com/cern twitter.com/cern/ linkedin.com/company/cern instagram.com/cern Copyright © 2016 CERN. Terms of use: http://copyright.web.cern.ch/

  19. Craft Generation - Exhibition / Symposium / Workshops / Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    2014 saw a national programme celebrating 25 years of contemporary visual art under the banner of GENERATION.  \\ud \\ud FCA&C (Fife Contemporary Art & Craft) wanted to recognise and celebrate the achievements of Contemporary Scottish Craft practitioners, highlighting creativity, skills, and the career of key individuals as well as and the continuation and renewal of skill and Craftsmanship. \\ud \\ud Established craft artists will exhibited along with artists from the following generation whose ...

  20. PLATE: Product Lifetimes And The Environment Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The PLATE (Product Lifetimes And The Environment) Exhibition explored critical themes related to how long products last in contemporary society. The topic of product longevity is examined in innovative ways through prototypes, objects, artefacts, posters, photographs and films produced by designers, social businesses, artists, researchers, lecturers and students.\\ud \\ud Featuring household products, furniture, lighting, fashion, jewellery and artworks, this collection of visual work embraced ...

  1. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  4. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  5. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  6. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  7. Surface Conductive Graphene-Wrapped Micromotors Exhibiting Enhanced Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Katuri, Jaideep; Zeng, Yongfei; Zhao, Yanli; Sanchez, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Surface-conductive Janus spherical motors are fabricated by wrapping silica particles with reduced graphene oxide capped with a thin Pt layer. These motors exhibit a 100% enhanced velocity as compared to standard SiO2 -Pt motors. Furthermore, the versatility of graphene may open up possibilities for a diverse range of applications from active drug delivery systems to water remediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  9. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...

  10. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  11. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  12. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices.

  13. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  14. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  15. Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)

  16. The Particular Aspects of Science Museum Exhibits That Encourage Students' Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaby, Neta; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Tal, Tali

    2017-06-01

    This research explores learning in science museums through the most common activity in a science museum—interaction with exhibits. The goal of this study was to characterize the learning behaviors exhibited by students as they engage with interactive exhibits in order to draw insight regarding the design of the exhibits. In order to do so, we used a qualitative method of observation as well as the Visitor Engagement Framework (VEF) model, a visitor-based framework for assessing visitors' learning experiences with exhibits in a science center setting. The combined method produced a framework of nine learning behaviors exhibited during the visitors' interaction with the exhibits, grouped into three categories that reflect increasing levels of engagement and depth of the learning experience. Our research participants consisted of a total 1800 students aged 10-12 (4th, 5th, and 6th graders) who came to the museum with their class for a day visit. We observed nine exhibits, each visited by 200 students. Our observations revealed several design elements that contribute to engagement with exhibits in science museums. For example, exhibits that have familiar activation encourage visitors' interaction, exhibits that facilitate social interaction are more likely to increase engagement, and the highest levels of engagement can be found in exhibits that support large groups.

  17. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  18. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Role of the Freelance Curator in an Art Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva VITKAUSKAITĖ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the freelance curator in an art exhibition. The first part of the article conceptualises the notion of the modern curator and surveys the categories of curators. The next part of the article surveys the potential models of curation. There are 7 models of curation distinguished: self- reflexive, “sampling”, traditional, decentralisation curation, virtual curation, art – curator, collaborative – curatorial platform. The third part analyses the activity of a freelance curator in the art exhibition, which is divided into five stages, namely preliminary work, preparation and completion of the organisation plan, realisation, operation, dismantling and evaluation. Each stage is described in great detail specifying what works should be carried out by the curator. The final part of the article analyses the remarks of the curators which are then used to derive the formula of successful curatorship.

  20. Using NLM exhibits and events to engage library users and reach the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Beth; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R; Edwards, Mary E; Stoyan-Rosenzweig, Nina; Daley, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reach out to library users and make the library a more relevant, welcoming place, the University of Florida's Health Science Center Library hosted exhibits from the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Traveling Exhibition Program. From 2010 through 2012, the library hosted four NLM exhibits and created event series for each. Through reflection and use of a participant survey, lessons were learned concerning creating relevant programs, marketing events, and forming new partnerships. Each successive exhibit added events and activities to address different audiences. A survey of libraries that have hosted NLM exhibits highlights lessons learned at those institutions.

  1. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  2. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  3. Exhibiting Good Health: Public Health Exhibitions in London, 1948-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Alex

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the changing nature of public health services and their relationship with the public in post-war Britain by an analysis of the exhibitions mounted by Medical Officers of Health (MOsH) in London. Focusing on the period 1948-71, the article explores a time when public health practice, and the problems it faced, were in flux. A decline in infectious disease and an increase in chronic conditions linked to lifestyle required a new role for public health services. Exhibitions were one of several methods that MOsH used to inform the public about dangers to their health, but also to persuade them to change their behaviour. The exhibition, though, offers a unique insight into the relationship between public health authorities and the public, as exhibitions brought MOsH into direct contact with people. It is suggested that in the MOsH exhibitions we can find signs of a new relationship between public health practitioners and the public. Whilst elements of the pre-war, often moralistic ideology of public health services could still be detected, there is also evidence of a more nuanced, responsive dynamic between practitioners and the people. By the end of the 1960s, 'the public' was increasingly being thought of as a collection of 'publics', including individuals, target groups and vocal respondents.

  4. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well-being of their vis......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......-being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  5. Agitated honeybees exhibit pessimistic cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E; Wright, Geraldine A

    2011-06-21

    Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1-3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4-8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9-11]. Recently, mammals [12-16] and birds [17-20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastric schwannoma exhibiting increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Hiraga, Risako; Furuya, Naoyuki; Akamatsu, Taiji; Uehara, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the first case of gastric schwannoma that exhibited increased accumulation of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The patient was a 60-year-old woman in whom esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal tumor, about 25 mm in size, in the upper body of the stomach, with ulceration at the top of the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a well-defined hypoechoic mass located in the proper muscle layer of the stomach. The specimen taken from the tumor showed only inflammatory degenerative tissue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper body of the stomach. FDG-PET showed FDG uptake (standardized uptake value [SUV] max 5.8) coincident with the tumor. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed initially as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor consisted of spindle cells with large nuclei, and mitosis was absent. The Ki-67 labeling index of the tumor cells was 4%. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed a positive reaction for S-100 protein, whereas they were negative for KIT, CD 34, and alpha-smooth muscle actin protein. The tumor was diagnosed as a benign gastric schwannoma. Gastric schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the stomach with FDG uptake.

  7. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W

    2014-12-03

    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3316533-11$15.00/0.

  8. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-á) in rat livers were evaluated using Western blotting. Results: OFP-EA-extract markedly altered the increased plasma TC, TG, LDL ...

  9. 77 FR 18295 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The...

  10. THE CRM-BASED DIGITAL EXHIBITION SYSTEM FOR CLOTHING INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming-Kuen Chen; Kuo-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Hon Chen

    2014-01-01

    .... Digital exhibition precludes the restrictions of time, location, space and planning on past physical exhibitions, and can demonstrate characteristics of diversity, interaction and low cost, and break...

  11. Effector biology exhibits diversity at every level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao; McDowell, John M

    2017-11-21

    Effector proteins play key roles in the molecular interplay between plants and plant-associated organisms, and effector biology remains one of the most active areas in the research field of molecular plant-microbe Interactions. Using effectors as probes, much has been learned about pathogen virulence and host immunity, which has broad implications in developing disease-resistant crops that are essential for global food security. Thus, the MPMI Editorial Board felt that it is an opportune time to showcase recent progress in this area.

  12. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  16. Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-09-01

    Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; Prunners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Jellyfish Cassiopea Exhibits a Sleep-like State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravi D; Bedbrook, Claire N; Abrams, Michael J; Basinger, Ty; Bois, Justin S; Prober, David A; Sternberg, Paul W; Gradinaru, Viviana; Goentoro, Lea

    2017-10-09

    Do all animals sleep? Sleep has been observed in many vertebrates, and there is a growing body of evidence for sleep-like states in arthropods and nematodes [1-5]. Here we show that sleep is also present in Cnidaria [6-8], an earlier-branching metazoan lineage. Cnidaria and Ctenophora are the first metazoan phyla to evolve tissue-level organization and differentiated cell types, such as neurons and muscle [9-15]. In Cnidaria, neurons are organized into a non-centralized radially symmetric nerve net [11, 13, 15-17] that nevertheless shares fundamental properties with the vertebrate nervous system: action potentials, synaptic transmission, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters [15-20]. It was reported that cnidarian soft corals [21] and box jellyfish [22, 23] exhibit periods of quiescence, a pre-requisite for sleep-like states, prompting us to ask whether sleep is present in Cnidaria. Within Cnidaria, the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea spp. displays a quantifiable pulsing behavior, allowing us to perform long-term behavioral tracking. Monitoring of Cassiopea pulsing activity for consecutive days and nights revealed behavioral quiescence at night that is rapidly reversible, as well as a delayed response to stimulation in the quiescent state. When deprived of nighttime quiescence, Cassiopea exhibited decreased activity and reduced responsiveness to a sensory stimulus during the subsequent day, consistent with homeostatic regulation of the quiescent state. Together, these results indicate that Cassiopea has a sleep-like state, supporting the hypothesis that sleep arose early in the metazoan lineage, prior to the emergence of a centralized nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eYamada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders’ satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality. A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors’ impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  19. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  20. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  1. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  2. 76 FR 52378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``5,000 Years of Chinese Jade..., Smithsonian Institution'' Exhibition ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY: On July 29, 2011, notice was... the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``5,000 Years of Chinese Jade Featuring...

  3. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. 1160.5... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for a domestic exhibition made under these regulations shall cover eligible items from the United States...

  4. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items from...

  5. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as Mathematical Practice in England, 1500-1750,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  6. 33 CFR 20.807 - Exhibits and documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhibits and documents. 20.807 Section 20.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES... Evidence § 20.807 Exhibits and documents. (a) Each exhibit must be numbered and marked for identification...

  7. [Review of the pharmaceutical exhibitions in the Meiji Era (Supplement)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T

    1994-01-01

    The author described (Jpn. J. History Pharm. 16(1), 9-20 (1981) the Review of the Pharmaceutical Exhibitions in the Meiji era. But afterwards the author found there were omissions of three exhibitions. These are the Nagaoka, the Osaka, and the Akita Exhibitions. The Nagaoka Exhibition was organized by the Nagaoka Pharmacists Association in June, 1890. The Osaka Exhibition opened on Jan. 18, 1891 by Osaka Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. The Akita Pharmaceutical Exhibition was held on Sept. 24-26, 1892, as the chief event of the opening ceremony of the Akita Drug-Trader Association, united pharmacists, druggists, and drug-manufacturers throughout Akita Prefecture. It is the most large-scaled of the three. The exhibits were 1,419, and the visitors were above 8,830. The planning originated with a young pharmacist Masayasu Hanyu.

  8. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future....... In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  9. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must...... be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social...... and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species...

  10. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. STEM promotion through museum exhibits on cardiac monitoring & cardiac rhythm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, Jordan D; Dow, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Formal education in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) does not successfully engage all of the students who have potential to become skilled in STEM activities and careers. Museum exhibits may be able to reach and engage a broader range of the public. STEM Exhibits that are both understandable and capture the imagination of viewers may contribute toward increased interest in STEM activities. One such topic for such an exhibit could be cardiac pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillators that sustain life. Although museums have existed for centuries, the available types of exhibit designs has dramatically increased in recent decades due to innovations in technology. Science and technology museums have especially taken advantage of the progression of exhibit design to developed new ways to communicate to their viewers. These novel presentation tools allow museums to more effectively convey to and engage viewers. This paper examines the techniques employed by museums in exhibits and considers the practices of several museums with exhibits related to cardiac monitoring (CM) and cardiac rhythm management (CRM).

  12. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  13. Motion Capture: Drawing and the Moving Image Exhibition, Letterkenny, Donegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Motion Capture Drawing & the Moving Image A GLUCKSMAN exhibition, touring to Regional Cultural Centre, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal, 22 January – 9 March 2013 Supported by a Touring and Dissemination award from the Arts Council of Ireland/An Chomhairle Ealaíon. Motion Capture is an exhibition that explores the relationship of movement in two artistic media: drawing and the moving image. Featuring artworks from the mid-twentieth century through to the present day, the exhibition emphasises the ...

  14. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are... Ereli, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of...

  15. Senescent intervertebral disc cells exhibit perturbed matrix homeostasis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kevin; Patil, Prashanti; McGowan, Sara J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam

    2017-09-01

    Aging greatly increases the risk for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) as a result of proteoglycan loss due to reduced synthesis and enhanced degradation of the disc matrix proteoglycan (PG). How disc matrix PG homeostasis becomes perturbed with age is not known. The goal of this study is to determine whether cellular senescence is a source of this perturbation. We demonstrated that disc cellular senescence is dramatically increased in the DNA repair-deficient Ercc1(-/Δ) mouse model of human progeria. In these accelerated aging mice, increased disc cellular senescence is closely associated with the rapid loss of disc PG. We also directly examine PG homeostasis in oxidative damage-induced senescent human cells using an in vitro cell culture model system. Senescence of human disc cells treated with hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, γH2AX foci, and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human disc cells also exhibited perturbed matrix PG homeostasis as evidenced by their decreased capacity to synthesize new matrix PG and enhanced degradation of aggrecan, a major matrix PG. of the disc. Our in vivo and in vitro findings altogether suggest that disc cellular senescence is an important driver of PG matrix homeostatic perturbation and PG loss. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  18. Making Your Trade Fair Exhibit More Productive and More Interesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Jack

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions for producing a successful exhibit booth include the following: the effectiveness of an exhibit depends on the effectiveness of the people staffing it; avoid games and unrelated giveaway items; demonstrate product in the booth; give special attention to existing customers; and make literature available only from the booth personnel.…

  19. When Places Speak: Developing an Exhibit in Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoulla Hadjiyanni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines the partnership that developed among a faculty member, students, two photographers, University of Minnesota units, and a multitude of community collaborators to develop the When Places Speak exhibit. Featuring places enmeshed in sex trafficking in Minnesota, the exhibit sheds light on the instrumental role partnerships can play in overcoming domination.

  20. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  1. CERN Industrials Exhibitions - Over 30 Years of Tradition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Industrial exhibitions have been part of the CERN landscape for 33 years. At least once each year several companies from the same country come to CERN to present their products and services. Now, a new scheme of one-day visits is giving potential exhibitors at CERN a lighter option. The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present. Four years after joining CERN, Poland inaugurated its first exhibition at CERN in 1995 in the presence of the former Director-General Chris Llewellyn-Smith. Almost all the Member States have held industrial exhibitions at the Organization. May '68 wasn't only revolutionary in Paris. For the very first time, an industrial exhibition took place at CERN. Great Britain was first to come with eight companies and remains until this day the most devoted country to the programme with 17 exhibitions and ...

  2. 78 FR 68479 - Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting AGENCY..., notice is hereby given that one meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions...

  3. 46 CFR 169.805 - Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials. 169.805 Section 169.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.805 Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials. Officers on any vessel...

  4. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  5. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  6. Exhibitions: Connecting Classroom Assessment with Culminating Demonstrations of Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Exhibitions are public demonstrations of mastery that occur at culminating moments, such as at the conclusion of a unit of study, the transition from one level of schooling to the next, and graduation. Exhibitions require students to speak publicly, use evidence, present engaging visual displays, and otherwise demonstrate mastery to educators,…

  7. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  8. 78 FR 21979 - Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting AGENCY..., notice is hereby given that one meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions...

  9. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  10. Using Museum Exhibits: An Innovation in Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa

    2015-01-01

    Museum exhibits can be a tool in experiential learning. While instructors have documented various methods of experiential learning, they have not sufficiently explored such learning from museum exhibits. Museum researchers, however, have long found a satisfying cognitive component to museum visits. This paper narrates the author's design to…

  11. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  12. Cosmic Origins: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Space Science Institute of Boulder, Colorado, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Cosmic Origins, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Cosmic Origins will have three interrelated exhibit areas: Star Formation, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists' use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. Exhibit content will address age-old questions that form the basis of NASA's Origins and Astrobiology programs: Where did we come from? Are we alone? In addition to the exhibit, our project will include workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public Web site that will use a virtual rendering of exhibit content. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in underserved regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005. A second 3-year tour is also planned for 2008. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. Current partners in the Cosmic Origins project include ASTC, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (e.g. PlanetQuest, SIRTF, and Kepler), New York Hall of Science, the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The exhibition is supported by grants from NSF and NASA. This report will focus on the Planet Quest part of the exhibition.

  13. Ape behavior in two alternating environments: comparing exhibit and short-term holding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S R; Wagner, K E; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2010-11-01

    In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species-specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all behavior needs of captive great apes and demonstrate the importance of including all components of the captive enclosure in comprehensive analyses of great ape behavior and welfare. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The sound of Yesteryear on display: Evoking nostalgia through exhibition design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian Hviid; Madsen, Jacob Westergaard

    , because you cannot have several sonic exhibits in the same room as they will interfere with each other. This interference is a fundamental problem when dealing with artefacts of auditive heritage (Mortensen, 2012). However, there are ways of solving this problem through technology and design. Music...... for a form of emotional exhibition design using sound and music, where the visitor is engaged in the exhibition through its auditory appeal. The purpose of this paper is to explore nostalgia induced through music and sound as a strategy for exhibition design at the forthcoming rock museum in Roskilde......, Denmark. This implies actively developing nostalgia in the audience through curation as ‘productive remembering’ (Huyssen, 2000) and exploring the creative potential of ‘reflective nostalgia’ in designing a space for the revisit of time (Boym, 2007a) and for the ‘re-enchantment’ of our rock heritage...

  15. Maine Exhibitions Assessment Project, September 2002-June 2004. Technical Criteria for Including Exhibition Assessments in Comprehensive Local Assessment Systems. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the Maine Department of Education began organizing an Exhibition Assessment Advisory Committee whose purpose it was to consider meaningful ways to include exhibition assessments in comprehensive local assessment systems. School administrators were invited to participate and/or nominate practitioners in their districts to become…

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart C of... - Checklist of Visual Exhibits and Documentation for RRH, RCH, and LH Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RRH, RCH, and LH Proposals C Exhibit C to Subpart C of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the... REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work Pt. 1924, Subpt. C, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart C of... the required information will be sufficient. C. Property Survey Map. A current survey map of the...

  17. Developing Exhibit-based, Interactive Web Sites to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. ASTC, the trade association of science museums, gave its 2000 innovation award to the Exploratorium's Web page rather than a physical exhibit. The increased power of the Web as an informal learning tool is partly the result of technologies (such as Java, Flash and Shockwave) that allow the development of inquiry-based, interactive experiences. Web site visitors can now "learn science by doing science." This report features two online projects funded by NSF and NASA: MarsQuest Online and the Space Weather Center. TERC, the Space Science Institute, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing MarsQuest Online, an interactive, exploration-based Web site that extends the reach and scope of the MarsQuest exhibit. The Space Weather Center Web site is based on the Space Weather Center exhibit that was developed in partnership with scientists and educators at NASA/GSFC. Both exhibits represent a tremendous, collaborative effort by scientists, educators, and designers to communicate the essentials of Mars science and space weather to the public. As such, the graphics, text, and story developed for the exhibits represent a valuable resource that will provide the framework and base content for the public site. Given that framework, the Web sites can then expand both the content and audience of the exhibits in key ways. In particular, the sites will 1) extend the reach of the exhibit by making it available online, 2) extend the scope of the exhibit, linking to the latest imagery and results from ground and space-based missions, and 3) provide support and follow-up for the exhibit education programs, while making materials available to more teachers, parents, and museum educators and docents.

  18. Postmodern Exhibition Discourse: Anthropological Study of an Art Display Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wieczorek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies tendencies in contemporary museum exhibitions and art display trends. While analysing current status quo of art in the museum context, it discusses the limitations of curatorial impact on the audience perception of the displayed objects. The paper presents a case study of a permanent museum exhibition with an added performance element. As argued in the article, such approach allows a stratified narrative and provokes a dialogue between the audience, performers, and curators, fully reflecting postmodern polyphonic tendency. The aim of the article is to comment on postmodern trends in museology, the status of the displayed art (object, and contemporary exhibition identity.

  19. Adipose tissue remodeling in rats exhibiting fructose-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Valiante, Salvatore; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of a fructose-rich diet on morphological and functional changes in white adipose tissue (WAT) that could contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Adult sedentary rats were fed a fructose-rich diet for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance test was carried out together with measurement of plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation. In subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal WAT, number and size of adipocytes together with cellular insulin sensitivity and lipolytic activity were assessed. Rats fed a fructose-rich diet exhibited a significant increase in plasma insulin, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation, together with significantly increased body lipids and epididymal and mesenteric WAT, compared to controls. Mean adipocyte volume in subcutaneous abdominal WAT was significantly lower, while mean adipocyte volume in intra-abdominal WAT was significantly higher, in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. A significant increase in larger adipocytes and a significant decrease in smaller adipocytes were found in intra-abdominal WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. Insulin's ability to inhibit lipolysis was blunted in subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal adipocytes from fructose-fed rats. Accordingly, lower p-Akt/Akt ratio was found in WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. Long-term consumption of high levels of fructose elicits remarkable morphological and functional modifications, particularly in intra-abdominal WAT, that are highly predictive of obesity and insulin resistance and that contribute to the worsening of metabolic alterations peculiar in a fructose-rich, hypolipidic diet.

  20. The Role of the Freelance Curator in an Art Exhibition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ieva Vitkauskaite

    2015-01-01

      This article analyses the role of the freelance curator in an art exhibition. The first part of the article conceptualises the notion of the modern curator and surveys the categories of curators...

  1. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  2. Ballroom Music Spillover into a Beluga Whale Aquarium Exhibit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not uncommon for modern aquaria to be built with special entertainment areas. There are no known measurements of sound spillover from such entertainment areas into underwater animal exhibits. Entertainment organizations typically prefer to play music for events at 95 and 100 dBA in a ballroom at Georgia Aquarium. Concern over the potential effects of the music and noise on animals in adjacent exhibits inspired an initial project to monitor and compare sound levels in the adjacent underwater exhibits against the typical in-air sound levels of the ballroom. Measured underwater noise levels were compared to modeled levels based on finite element analysis and plane wave transmission loss calculations through the acrylic viewing window. Results were compared with the model to determine how, if at all, the ambient noise level in the Cold Water Quest exhibit changed as a result of music played in the ballroom.

  3. Translating land use science to a museum exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Nazario, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    For land use science to engage the general public it must successfully translate its concepts and conclusions and make them public outside of traditional scientific venues. Here we explore science-art exhibits, which blend artistic presentations with specific scientific data or themes, as a possible effective way of communicating scientific information and disrupting misconceptions. We describe the process of producing a science-art exhibit on remote sensing and Puerto Rican landscape history from 1937 to the present, sited at a rural Puerto Rican community museum, and examine the visitor experience and educational outcomes of the museum exhibit through analysis of survey data. The exhibit project engaged undergraduate students from a variety of academic backgrounds, introduced land use science concepts to the public in an engaging format, and was effective at reshaping visitors’ misconceptions of Puerto Rico's landscape change history. PMID:28191029

  4. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  5. Editorial Notes: Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Cymbala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Notes on section relating to submissions from the symposium Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture held October 18-20, 2012 at the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  6. Exhibit celebrates five decades of women in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Karen

    2007-01-01

    "Petticoats and Slide Rules," a historical exhibit on women in engineering from the Society of Women Engineers (SWE), is currently on display in the lobby of Hancock 100 and will remain at Virginia Tech through March of 2007.

  7. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  8. Exhibition “Space. Information. Research.”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darko Šiško

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Space. Information. Research. was opened in ZgForum, premises of the City Office of Strategic Planning and Development of the City of Zagreb for communication with professional and the general public on December 18, 2014...

  9. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... Government Ethics' established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act. ...

  10. Dutch hi-tech companies exhibit at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven Dutch companies will present the state of the art of their technological developments at the industrial exhibition Holland @ CERN from 8 to 11 November. The exhibition is designed to help strengthen the ties between fundamental science and Dutch industry.   The exhibition, supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and organised by the Netherlands National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), in cooperation with the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, and Dutch Scientific, an association of manufacturers of scientific equipment, will be held in the Main Building from 8 to11 November. “The last Holland @ CERN exhibition took place fifteen years ago”, says Robert Klöpping from Nikhef, Dutch Industrial Liaison Officer for CERN and Purchasing Advisor for Grenoble ESRF. “This kind of event is very important for Dutch industry as it allows us to show what Dutch companies c...

  11. [re]connect: Postmodern Documentary Photography Symposium and Traveling Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Park, Min; Soon-Hwa, Oh

    2014-01-01

    The Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition features selected works from leading artists in the field of contemporary documentary photography. Their research focuses on finding new ways to portray 'truth' through photography, exploring new subject matter in unique locations, confronting societal expectations and social norms, and discovering new ways of enhancing documentary photography in the digital age. Min Kim Park, director of Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition, discusse...

  12. Female visualities: exhibitions of womens artists in Brazil and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Corrêa e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most known regenerating means, re-signifying and diffuser of visualities: the museum’s exhibitions. We intend to demonstrate the importance of this type of event in the museum’s context and for the society, from a perspective that integrates sociomuseology and gender. These concepts were applied to a comparative analysis of two new recents exhibitions dedicated to the artist women, seen in cases of Brazil and Portugal.

  13. Poster exhibitions at national conferences: education or farce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzl, Gabriele; Gölder, Stefan; Timmer, Antje; Marienhagen, Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Grossmann, Johannes

    2008-02-01

    The so-called poster exhibition is an established element of medical meetings which often receives little attention. The aim of this study was to analyze the organization, acceptance and value of poster exhibitions. Interview based study conducted during the annual meeting of a German specialist medical conference. A total of 247 attendees, poster authors and "poster chairpersons" were interviewed. Attendance at poster exhibitions was documented, the poster review and award process analyzed, and abstracts assessed for redundancy of presentation. Participation in poster exhibitions was very low. Despite this, their scientific value was esteemed high by young authors and the poster chairpersons. Almost a third (29.4%) of posters had been displayed at other meetings. Several attendees (55.4%) and poster presenters (49.1%) say they would welcome the opportunity for personal one-on-one discussion at the poster in addition to poster viewing. The option of additional personal discussion with the poster presenter may lead to an increase of the rather modest participation of attendees at poster exhibitions. Poster exhibitions are of value in particular for young scientists and poster chairpersons.

  14. Exhibits Recognition System for Combining Online Services and Offline Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve a more convenient and accurate digital museum navigation, we have developed a real–time and online-to-offline museum exhibits recognition system using image recognition method based on deep learning. In this paper, the client and server of the system are separated and connected through the HTTP. Firstly, by using the client app in the Android mobile phone, the user can take pictures and upload them to the server. Secondly, the features of the picture are extracted using the deep learning network in the server. With the help of the features, the pictures user uploaded are classified with a well-trained SVM. Finally, the classification results are sent to the client and the detailed exhibition’s introduction corresponding to the classification results are shown in the client app. Experimental results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy is close to 100% and the computing time from the image uploading to the exhibit information show is less than 1S. By means of exhibition image recognition algorithm, our implemented exhibits recognition system can combine online detailed exhibition information to the user in the offline exhibition hall so as to achieve better digital navigation.

  15. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  16. "Moving in My World": From School PE to Participants-Centered Art Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To address persistent health and physical activity issues, listening to the opinions and needs of a diverse population should be at the forefront of a social justice agenda. This article examines how a participant-centered photo exhibition, as the culmination of a two-year-long visual participatory research project, provided a site of public…

  17. The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of self (via Goffman) is becoming increasingly popular as a means for explaining differences in meaning and activity of online participation. This article argues that self-presentation can be split into performances, which take place in synchronous "situations," and artifacts, which take place in asynchronous "exhibitions." Goffman's…

  18. 7th IGRSM International Remote Sensing & GIS Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    (STRIDE), and sponsored by RFI Technologies Sdn. Bhd. and Aeroflex Inc. Two awards were presented by Dr Noordin Ahmad, Director-General of the National Space Agency during the conference's closing ceremony: Best Paper Award: Dr Rizatus Shofiyati, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development (ICALRD), Indonesia: Indonesian Drought Monitoring from Space. A Report of SAFE Activity: Assessment of Drought Impact on Rice Production in Indonesia by Satellite Remote Sensing and Dissemination with Web-GIS Best Student Paper Award: Rosnani Rahman, Space Science Centre (ANGKASA), Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia: Monitoring the Variability of Precipitable Water Vapor Over the Klang Valley, Malaysia During Flash Flood The success of the IGRSM 2014 was due to commitments of many: authors, keynote speakers, session chairpersons, the organising and technical programme committees, student volunteers from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), and many others of various roles. We acknowledge the sponsors of IGRSM 2014, namely Antaragrafik Systems Sdn. Bhd. and Geospatial Media and Communications Sdn. Bhd. We also thank all exhibitors and contributors: E J Motiwalla, Fajar Saintifik Sdn. Bhd., Bandwork GPS Solutions Sdn. Bhd., Tenaga Nasional Bhd., TSKAY Technology Sdn. Bhd., Geo Spatial Solutions Sdn. Bhd. and Accutac Sdn. Bhd. Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff Chairman 7th IGRSM International Remote Sensing & GIS Conference and Exhibition (IGRSM2014) President Institution of Geospatial and Remote Sensing Malaysia (IGRSM), 2012-2014

  19. How Do Engineering Attitudes Vary by Gender and Motivation? Attractiveness of Outreach Science Exhibitions in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Hannu; Thuneberg, Helena; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    Outreach activities, like mobile science exhibitions, give opportunities to hands-on experiences in an attractive learning environment. We analysed attitudes, motivation and learning during a science exhibition visit, their relations to gender and future educational plans in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Belgium (N = 1210 sixth-graders). Pupils'…

  20. “Accelerating Science” exhibition zooms to Turkey

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    'Accelerating Science', CERN’s travelling science outreach exhibition, has just arrived at the Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey for a four-month stay there. This is the first time it has moved outside the circle of the Member States. The Turkish venue will inaugurate some new exhibits that have recently been developed by CERN’s software developers.   “It’s been a very busy day,” says Bilge Demirkoz, an associate professor of physics at METU and a member of AMS-02, who had been overseeing the unloading of the lorries when we spoke to her. “As the University doesn’t have a specific exhibition space, the CERN exhibits are going to be housed in the covered tennis courts just behind the cultural and congress centre. It’s a beautiful venue, and there are plenty of parking spaces.” The University has sent invitations to the exhibition to high schools and to about 100 ...

  1. Performative exhibition and its different modes of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    The avant-gardes of the late 60s and 70s challenged many conventions associated with the (classical) modernist art exhibition such as: a static timeless display of autonomous objects, the spectator as a disembodied visual receptor, and the personal experience emphasizing the individual and never...... the social. The avant-gardes have not, however, let to the disappearance of a modernist exhibition format but to a proliferation of formats including some that are more performative in its character, which means: more dynamic, developing over time, with a higher degree of bodily and discursive exchange, and......, in some senses more social and contingent. My paper will discuss the performative exhibitions today. With departure in a recent presentation of Antonio Dias’s work Do it yourself: freedom territory (1968) at Istanbul Biennale, 2011, and a number of other examples I will address possible clashes between...

  2. Indoor222Rn concentration in the exhibition and storage rooms of Polish geological museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Krystek, Marcin; Raczyński, Paweł; Głuszek, Ewa; Kietlińska-Michalik, Barbara; Niechwedowicz, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The radon exhaled from radioactive mineral collections exhibited in five Polish geological museums may influence its total indoor concentration. Radon concentrations measured in the exhibition halls do not pose a risk for visitors or museum staff. However, air exceeding the ICRP (2007) action limit for workers (equal to 300Bq/m 3 ) was noted in the storage rooms of two museums. Significant 222 Rn activity concentrations equal to more than ~300kBq/m 3 were measured inside lead containers where radioactive minerals were stored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  4. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how to organize the objects on the tray for the exhibition of their individual features and mutual relationships. Our framework realizes these guidelines by analyzing geometric shapes of the objects and optimizing their arrangement. We demonstrate that the resultant tray designs not only save space, but also highlight the characteristic of each object and the inter-relations between objects. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi-Dong

    2017-06-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. Supported by 973 Programs of China under Grant Nos. 2011CBA00303 and 2013CB328700, Basic Research Foundation of Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList)

  6. Artists’ publications: expanded editions and the challenges of exhibiting them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Picazo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this text, Gloria Picazo reflects on the diffusion and presentation of artists’ books in museums and art centers. The starting point is her experience in this matter, resulting from her term as director of the Centre d’Art la Panera de Lleida. This paper analyzes exhibitions and editorial projects that focus on artists’ publications and their production, exhibition and dissemination, such as those by Francesc Ruiz, Ana García Pineda, Fito Conesa or the Panera on Line project. There, different curators present, in video format, a selection of publications that belong to the funds of the Documentation Center of La Panera.

  7. The staging of a hospice arts and crafts exhibition in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarginson, Andrea

    2005-09-01

    The use of arts in hospices is now well established. However, the voluntary nature of much hospice work in England encourages most regular creative activities to be provided by volunteers with minimal financial support. This article looks at how a successful arts and crafts exhibition for a hospice community was staged by a volunteer arts worker, helped by art and design students from the local university. It was not intended that the exhibition should be a research project; however, it became clear that to learn more about arts practice within a hospice environment, it would need to be appraised in some way. The project leader (and author) adopted an approach which reflected on the responses of people involved in the preparation and staging of the exhibition.

  8. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    2011-01-01

    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  9. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  10. 7 CFR Appendix - Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND...

  11. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... pupils’ attention but also worked well with other design principles to engage the pupils in sustained reflection and discussion. While other contextual factors remain significant in determining visitor responses, this paper argues that the use of design principles can help create visitor experiences...

  12. Exhibition: Fibre optics, the future is at hand

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Until 20 June, the Pont de la Machine in Geneva will host an exhibition on fibre optics, sponsored by SIG. CERN, a major user of this technology, was invited to take part with a presentation of some of its scintillating fibre detectors.   The CERN module, designed for the SIG's fibre optics exhibition. Visitors can discover a cosmic ray detector (on the right) and its oscilloscope (on the left), as well as one of the ALFA detector modules (at the back). The Services industriels genevois (SIG), who are in the process of deploying an optical fibre network in Geneva, have decided to showcase this technology with an exhibition entitled “Fibre optique – Le futur à portée de main.” The exhibition, which will be open to the public from 26 April to 20 June, is being held at the Espace ExpoSIG, at the Pont de la Machine in the centre of Geneva. “CERN’s Physics Department was approached by SIG at the start of this year to ...

  13. The "Gravity-Powered Calculator," a Galilean Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The Gravity-Powered Calculator is an exhibit of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. It is presented by its American creators as an amazing device that extracts the square roots of numbers, using only the force of gravity. But if you analyze his concept construction one can not help but recall the research of Galileo on falling bodies, the inclined…

  14. A new theory of doped manganites exhibiting colossal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    xAxMnO3, exhibit colossal magnetoresistance, metal insulator transitions, competing magnetic, or- bital and charge ordering, and many other interesting but poorly understood phenomena. In this article I outline our recent theory based on the idea ...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information relative...

  16. Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

  17. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Global asymptotic stability and convergence of the sum of the dynamical variables representing the Eulerian state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations. JONAMP ...

  18. Highlights of the inauguration ceremony for the new permanent exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The new “Universe of Particles" permanent exhibition in the Globe was unveiled this week to its first visitors. On Monday, 28 June, in the presence of representatives of the local authorities, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer cut the ribbon; on Tuesday, 29 and Wednesday 30 June the Globe's doors remained open for visits by the CERN personnel.   Cutting the ribbon at the inauguration of the Globe's new permanent exhibition At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremony, the Head of the Education Group, Rolf Landua, expressed his satisfaction: “It's wonderful. We are very happy that it has all turned out so well. Now we look forward to lots of visitors.” The exhibition represents a major addition to the tourist destinations in the region and an important tool for the public awareness of science, which could also be useful for schools. “The purpose of the exhibition is to inspire visitors, to arouse their curiosity about science and to motivate them t...

  19. Exploring Matter: An Interactive, Inexpensive Chemistry Exhibit for Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murov, Steven; Chavez, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Despite its vital importance in our lives, chemistry is inadequately represented in most museums. Issues such as safety, replenishing and disposal of chemicals, supervision required, and cost are constraints that have limited the number and size of chemistry exhibits. Taking into account the constraints, a 21-station interactive and inexpensive…

  20. Personalising content presentation in museum exhibitions: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.S.; Oinonen, K.; Sablatnig, R.; Kampel, M.; Lettner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Museums need to attract more visitors. Personalization of exhibitions is one way to achieve this end. Various options for personalization using information systems have been proposed. A major question is how directive personalization should be. Is visitor satisfaction highest if the system limits