WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhaustible tradeable permit

  1. Tradeable carbon permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The research project on tradeable carbon permits has focused on three elements. First of all, the practical implications of designing a system of tradeable emission permits for reducing CO2 has been studied. In the second part, the consequences of introducing a system of tradeable carbon permits for entry barriers have been considered. Finally, the institutional requirements and welfare effects of coordination of CO2 abatement in a second-best world have been examined

  2. Setting the global thermostat with an exhaustible tradeable permit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.G.; Quinn, K.G.; Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The global warming policy debate has centered largely on near-term objectives such as freezing 1990 CO 2 emissions without regard to long-run implications. A policy of freezing CO 2 emissions is shown to slow but not halt global warming, while requiring expensive near-term adjustments. If the long-run temperature change outcome of the freeze policy is set as the goal of a more graduated control policy, one which allows the market to determine annual emissions, a more cost-effective solution is obtained that reduces the negative adjustment effects on the energy and other affected industries. The most cost-effective emissions time path of a graduated control policy could be achieved by an evaporative marketable CO 2 emissions permit system. This paper provides a preliminary examination of an evaporative permit system used to achieve long-run stabilization of greenhouse-induced temperature change

  3. Tradeable emission permits in Dutch environmental policy. A utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the lack of experience with permits in the Netherlands, and in view of the similarities between various other tradeable permit systems, the functioning of Dutch systems of tradeable fish, milk and manure quotas is discussed. Evaluation of these systems is based on criteria of effectiveness, target-group efficiency and government efficiency. These systems of tradeable permits appear to constitute a successful addition to the Dutch policy of direct regulation. Considering this, and the favorable American experience with the Emissions Trading Program, tradeable emission permits deserve a chance to be implemented in Dutch environmental policy. The question remains, however, whether the Dutch government is ready for such a step. 28 refs

  4. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P; Sliggers, J [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  5. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  6. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    7.1 Introduction
    This study has examined the question of whether a system of tradeable emission permits can contribute to a cost-effective reduction of SO 2 emissions in Europe, taking into account

  7. An economic analysis of tradeable emission permits for sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruitwagen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the analysis of the applicability of tradeable emission permits for cost-effective SO2 reduction in Europe. First, an economic theoretical background is presented based on a literature study. Second, integrated assessment models are presented and compared. One of these models is selected for simulation. Third, a new permit trading systems is developed and analysed by detailed simulations of trading schemes, including their economic and environmental implications. Chapter 2 discusses some general economic aspects of pollution control. Attention is paid to the cost effectiveness of pollution control, to the international dimension of acid rain policy and to the need for cooperation. Some general game theoretic concepts are reviewed. Also attention is paid to the alternative policy instruments for emission control, focusing on tradeable emission permits. The theory of tradeable emission permits is elaborated in Chapter 3. Permit trading for pollutants that are non-uniformly mixing is thoroughly discussed and illustrated by some empirical studies. After discussing both emission permit and deposition permit trading systems, alternative systems of tradeable permits for this kind of pollutants are examined. Two main aspects in examining permit trading systems concern (1) the kind of trading process assumed, involving the distinction between simultaneous multilateral permit trading versus bilateral sequential permit trading, and (2) the initial distribution of emission permits. The thorough discussion on tradeable permits contributes to a better understanding of this policy instrument and sheds light on the implications of permit trading for non-uniformly mixing pollutants. The findings of this chapter indicate that a new permit trading system has to be developed. Chapter 4 describes and compares integrated assessment models for simulation of acid rain control. First, three integrated assessment models for the European acid rain problem

  8. Tradeable emission permits regulations in the presence of imperfectly competitive product markets. Welfare implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartzetakis, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the interaction of a competitive market for emission permits with an oligopolistic product market. It is well known that a competitive permits market achieves the cost minimizing distribution of abatement effort among the polluting firms for a given reduction in emissions. However, when the product market is oligopolistic, it may redistribute production inefficiently among firms. It has been suggested that this inefficiency can outweigh the gains obtained from using emission permits instead of command and control. Although this argument is clearly correct under full information, it is shown in the present paper that it reverses under incomplete information. In particular, it is shown that when tradeable emission permits are specified according to the standard textbook example, they yield higher social welfare than the command and control regulation. 1 fig., 2 appendices, 11 refs

  9. Tradeable CO2 emission permits. A quantitative analysis of a TEP system between Annex I countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.R.; Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1997-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits can be a cost-effective way to achieve emission reductions between countries or firms. In this study, the role of trading CO 2 emission permits between the Annex I countries of the FCCC is analysed. It is assumed that only countries are allowed to trade and that there is a perfect market without transaction costs and strategic behaviour. For several cases, the consequences for abatement costs, before and after trade, the volume of permits traded and emissions per capita are studied. Moreover, the gains from trade are determined. This study was undertaken before the Kyoto conference, therefore as a starting point for the different cases it was assumed that all countries should reduce their emissions with 10%. The cases studied are: a flat rate of 10% for each country; the differentiated EU distribution combined with a 10% reduction for the other OECD countries; and the so-called Triptych approach applied to all OECD countries. Two trading systems are considered, one covering only the OECD countries and one which also covers Middle and Eastern European countries (in a simplified way). Furthermore, two extreme cases are studied for the OECD trading scheme: equal costs (after trade) per unit of GNP and equal emission per capita (before trade). Tradeable emission permits will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will be a net exporter of permits in an OECD trading scheme (without Middle and Eastern Europe), mainly because the low costs possibilities for reduction of CO 2 emissions in Germany and the United Kingdom. 13 refs

  10. Tradeable CO{sub 2} emission permits: initial distribution as a justice problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, S. [Stiftelsen for Samfunns- og Naeringslivsforskning, Oslo (Norway)

    1992-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits are one of the most discussed policy instruments to implement international agreements on CO{sub 2} emission reductions. One characteristic of this instrument is that it separates the questions of efficiency and justice; in an idealised world, efficiency is achieved no matter how the permits are distributed. By assuming separability of inter- and intragenerational justice, the author can discuss the initial distribution of permits as an intragenerational distributive justice problem. In contrast to efficiency, where Pareto Optimality is an overall accepted principle, there is no consensus on a ``best`` equity principle. Different principles lead to different rules for distribution. The framework is to consider what the author believe to be metaprinciples of theories of justice; ethical individualism and presentism, as well as a generally accepted principle of avoiding morally arbitrary components as standards for distribution. Using these principles in an exclusionary way, working with a list of alternative allocation rules, a distribution proportional to population is recommended. Arguments against this rule are discussed, and special attention is paid to political feasibility. Justice and political feasibility may contrast, so also in this case. Even if a distribution based only on population may be politically unacceptable, there may be prospects to use this criterion in combination with other rules, as well as to put more weight on it in the future. 26 refs.

  11. Tradeable CO[sub 2] emission permits: initial distribution as a justice problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, S. (Stiftelsen for Samfunns- og Naeringslivsforskning, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits are one of the most discussed policy instruments to implement international agreements on CO[sub 2] emission reductions. One characteristic of this instrument is that it separates the questions of efficiency and justice; in an idealised world, efficiency is achieved no matter how the permits are distributed. By assuming separability of inter- and intragenerational justice, the author can discuss the initial distribution of permits as an intragenerational distributive justice problem. In contrast to efficiency, where Pareto Optimality is an overall accepted principle, there is no consensus on a ''best'' equity principle. Different principles lead to different rules for distribution. The framework is to consider what the author believe to be metaprinciples of theories of justice; ethical individualism and presentism, as well as a generally accepted principle of avoiding morally arbitrary components as standards for distribution. Using these principles in an exclusionary way, working with a list of alternative allocation rules, a distribution proportional to population is recommended. Arguments against this rule are discussed, and special attention is paid to political feasibility. Justice and political feasibility may contrast, so also in this case. Even if a distribution based only on population may be politically unacceptable, there may be prospects to use this criterion in combination with other rules, as well as to put more weight on it in the future. 26 refs.

  12. Tradeable CO2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO 2 emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    of our workshop series with publication of these proposals was fortuitous, and provided a continuing deliberative thread to our workshops as they unfolded. The formal withdrawal from the Kyoto Process by the US added another dimension which was incorporated into the research agenda. Our brief did not confine us to climate change or indeed to Europe, but inevitably much of our focus was shaped by these developments. In Venice, Egenhofer (2001) provided a very comprehensive 'state of the art' as regards the theory and (especially) the practise of emissions trading, and its links with other policy instruments, notably taxation. As regards the latter, he notes that 'On a practical level, taxation increasingly is used as a stick to convince industry to accept cap and trade emissions trading programmes'. Typically, firms accepting an absolute cap and participation in cap-and-trade programmes are exempted from environmental or carbon taxes as evidenced in the UK where companies accepting to participate in the ET scheme are exempted up to 80% of the UK climate change levy. The criteria applied in the evaluation of emissions trading are typified by the paper by Boemare and Quirion (2001). They assess the Commission's proposal in some detail, and touch on 10 other schemes from a variety of perspectives, including number of participants and spatial coverage and permit allocation. For each theme, they set out the relevant theoretical framework and its implications, and then assess practise. The parts of their template which address competitiveness, co- operation and market power provides a convenient framework into which to incorporate some of the relevant political economy issues that were addressed in the research literature presented at the workshops

  14. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B. [Department of Environmental Studies, University College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-07-01

    occurrence of the initiation of our workshop series with publication of these proposals was fortuitous, and provided a continuing deliberative thread to our workshops as they unfolded. The formal withdrawal from the Kyoto Process by the US added another dimension which was incorporated into the research agenda. Our brief did not confine us to climate change or indeed to Europe, but inevitably much of our focus was shaped by these developments. In Venice, Egenhofer (2001) provided a very comprehensive 'state of the art' as regards the theory and (especially) the practise of emissions trading, and its links with other policy instruments, notably taxation. As regards the latter, he notes that 'On a practical level, taxation increasingly is used as a stick to convince industry to accept cap and trade emissions trading programmes'. Typically, firms accepting an absolute cap and participation in cap-and-trade programmes are exempted from environmental or carbon taxes as evidenced in the UK where companies accepting to participate in the ET scheme are exempted up to 80% of the UK climate change levy. The criteria applied in the evaluation of emissions trading are typified by the paper by Boemare and Quirion (2001). They assess the Commission's proposal in some detail, and touch on 10 other schemes from a variety of perspectives, including number of participants and spatial coverage and permit allocation. For each theme, they set out the relevant theoretical framework and its implications, and then assess practise. The parts of their template which address competitiveness, co- operation and market power provides a convenient framework into which to incorporate some of the relevant political economy issues that were addressed in the research literature presented at the workshops.

  15. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world`s large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, H.C. [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City`s experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs.

  16. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world's large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City's experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  17. Relative convergence in a dual economy with tradeable and non-tradeable goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops a two-country two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by Research done in the (high-tech) tradeable sector. The follower country tends to grow faster the greater the productivity gap from the leader country, but

  18. Carbon dioxide removal and tradeable put options at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Andrew; Coffman, D.’Maris

    2018-05-01

    Options are derivative contracts that give the purchaser the right to buy (call options) or sell (put options) a given underlying asset at a particular price at a future date. The purchaser of a put option may exercise the right to sell the asset to the issuer at any point in the future before the expiration of the contract. These rights may be contracted directly between two parties (i.e. over-the-counter), or may be sold publicly on formal exchanges, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange. If the latter, they are called tradeable put options (TPOs) because they can be bought and sold by third-parties via a secondary market. The World Bank has a Pilot Auction Facility for methane and carbon mediation which uses TPOs in carbon-relevant markets, giving producers (of e.g. forest restoration) a floor price for their product [1]. This enables long-term producer planning. We discuss the potentially broader use of these options contracts in carbon dioxide removal (CDR) markets generally and at scale. We conclude that they can, if priced correctly, encourage rapid investment both in CDR technology and in operational capacity. TPOs could do this without creating the same type of systemic risk associated with other instruments (e.g. long-dated futures). Nevertheless, the widespread use of such instruments potentially creates novel risks. These include the political risk of premature closure [2] (conventionally rendered as ‘counting your chickens before they are hatched’) and the economic risk of overpaying for carbon removal services. These instruments require careful structuring, and do not inoculate the CDR market against regulatory disruption, or political pressure. Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of TPO markets in CDR, but we urge caution in respect of identified risks.

  19. Carbon taxes and tradeable emissions permits: the economic impacts of climate change policies in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, A.; Porter, M. [Tasman Institute (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Examines the potential economic impacts on New Zealand of climate change policy covering carbon taxes, expanding forest areas as carbon sinks (including selling plantation based emission credits to other OECD nations), and emissions quotas. It is concluded that climate change policy appears to offer high short-term economic costs and little prospect of longer-term economic gain, apart from uncertain environmental benefits. If the Government pursues an active policy to stabilise gross emissions of carbon dioxide at 1990 levels, short term losses in national output and real spending power could be around 0.5 to 1% of GDP. Any major intervention by the New Zealand Government to alter energy use patterns would bring about structural changes in the economy. 4 tabs., 12 refs.

  20. Harmonisation between National and International Tradeable Permit Schemes. CATEP Synthesis Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    2003-01-01

    It is technically possible to link national emissions trading schemes with widely divergent designs. Where design differences create potential problems, technical solutions are available. The greater the similarity of their designs, the easier schemes are to link. During the 2005 - 2007 period the EU Directive, if it is adopted, will lead to the establishment of at least 25 national emissions trading schemes. The Directive specifies many of the design features of these schemes, but leaves the allocation of allowances, rules for banking allowances into the commitment period, use of the opt-out provision, and a few other design features to Member States. The resulting differences among Member State schemes are unlikely to undermine the links between the schemes established by the Directive. The Community may enter into agreements with non-members for mutual recognition of allowances between their emissions trading schemes, but few, if any, links of this type are expected prior to 2008 for practical reasons. Beginning in 2008, Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol establishes an international emissions trading scheme that can link the national trading schemes of Annex I Parties. It imposes no requirements for harmonisation on the national emissions trading schemes linked. Some design differences could create technical problems, although solutions are available and at least one of the governments involved has an incentive to solve the problem. Adverse competitiveness impacts due to differences in the distribution of allowances across national schemes may need to be addressed through institutions such as the WTO. Most of the national trading schemes will also be subject to the EU Directive and be subject to greater harmonisation after 2008. The result is likely to be a progressive expansion and integration of greenhouse gas allowance markets over the next decade

  1. Possible administrative structures and procedures (for implementing a tradeable entitlement approach to controlling global warming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietenberg, T.; Victor, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. By August 1994, it had been signed by representatives of some 166 countries; with 93 ratifications. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 was specified as a voluntary target within the Convention. Making this target mandatory was originally supported by the European Union, Japan and most other countries, but opposed by the United States. Following the change of administrations, however, the new United States President announced his support for both the concept of holding emissions at their 1990 levels and the deadline for achieving that target. Limiting greenhouse gas emissions to specific levels now appears to be an internationally recognized objective. In this paper we examine how to implement a tradeable entitlements system for greenhouse-gas emissions, using the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as our point of departure. Using this particular point of departure establishes certain parameters of our inquiry. Currently no mandatory targets for emission reductions have been accepted by the participating States. Furthermore, even the stabilization goal, to the extent it is a factor at all, will be a factor only for the industrialized countries

  2. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  3. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  4. Portable Exhauster Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the tasks that are involved in preparing the ''standby'' portable exhauster to support Interim Stabilization's schedule for saltwell pumping. A standby portable exhaust system will be assigned to any facility scheduled to be saltwell pumped with the exception of 241-S farm, 241-SX farm or 241-T farm. The standby portable exhauster shall be prepared for use and placed in storage. The standby portable exhaust system shall be removed from storage and installed to ventilate tanks being pumped that reach 25% LFL. There are three tasks that are evaluated in this document. Each task shall be completed to support portable exhaust system installation and operation. They are: Pre Installation Task; Portable Exhaust System Storage Task; and Portable Exhaust System Installation and Operation Task

  5. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  6. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  7. Ci PERMIT

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.The 'demande d'attestation de permis Ci' (request for a Ci permit attestation) can be sent to the Mission only through Personnel Division (Administrative Services, Office 33/1-025).Additional information on access by family members of CERN officials to the Swiss labour market are available to you on the Web site of the Relations with the Host States Service (cf. document entitled 'Employment in Switzerland for spouses and children of CERN officials' dated March 1996).Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  8. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  9. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  10. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  11. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.F.A.; Harbour, P.J.; Hotston, E.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  12. Selective gas exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  13. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  14. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  15. Advanced exhaust nozzle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidewell, R J; Warburton, R E

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in turbine engine exhaust nozzle technology include nonaxisymmetric nozzles, thrust reversing, and thrust vectoring. Trade studies have been performed to determine the impact of these developments on the thrust-to-weight ratio and specific fuel consumption of an advanced high performance, augmented turbofan engine. Results are presented in a manner which provides an understanding of the sources and magnitudes of differences in the basic elements of nozzle internal performance and weight as they relate to conventional, axisymmetric nozzle technology. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made with regard to future directions of advanced development and demonstration. 5 refs.

  16. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  17. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  18. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  19. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  20. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  2. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  3. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  4. Device for purifying exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Kiyoshi.

    1973-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the reliability in collection of krypton even on accident in liquidizing distillation tower. Constitution: Exhaust gas flows through active carbon adsorption tower where short half-life rare gas in exhaust gas is separated by adsorption, then through heat exchanger, then continuous distillation tower where krypton 85 is separated, then through batch distillation tower where krypton 85 is condensed, and then flows into storing cylinder. On accident in liquidizing distillation tower, at the first period exhaust gas flows through series connected active carbon adsorption tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to cooling type adsorption tower, at the next period exhaust gas flows through tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to tower. (M. K.)

  5. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  6. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  7. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  8. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  9. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  10. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Current asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  11. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  12. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  13. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  14. Particle collector scoops for improved exhaust in ''axisymmetric'' devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Wolf, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Application of particle collector scoops in front of the pumping ducts of axisymmetric divertor/magnetic limiter configurations is proposed. These scoops should enclose a significant fraction of the recycling particles. The resulting increase in natural particle pressure in front of the pumping ducts leads to an improved exhaust efficiency. This can permit an extension of the operational margin for density control. Alternatively, aiming at a prescribed exhaust flow in reactor-type devices such as INTOR, the pumping ducts could be reduced in aperture, leaving valuable space for other components. The lay-out of the proposed scheme depends on the heat load on the leading edge in front of the scoop and on the deflector in front of the pumping ducts. 14 refs., 5 figs

  15. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  16. Diesel exhaust emissions : health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    Despite modern day ventilation, underground miners are exposed to diesel particulate matter (DPM) composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulphates, metals and ashes. Diesel exhaust contains over 40 air contaminants that have been recognized as toxic, carcinogenic or reproductive and developmental hazards. Nearly all components of diesel exhaust interact with the human body at the bloodstream or tissue level. This presentation discussed the following 4 potential levels of threat posed by the physical and chemical nature of diesel exhaust: (1) cancer of the lungs and bladder, (2) toxins that affect the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune system as well as the liver and kidneys, (3) fine particulate matter that can cause premature death and an increase in respiratory illness, and (4) nitrogen oxides that contribute to increased ozone and smog. Non-cancer health effects from short-term exposure include acute irritation and respiratory symptoms. This presentation also referred to cancer risk assessments of diesel exhaust by national, state, and world health organizations. Particulate exposure standards for Canada, Quebec, Ontario and the United States were listed along with the percentage of DPM samples in excess of various exposure limits in 2008 according to Canadian underground mine data. DPM concentration levels in mines are in the range that environmental agencies would consider high for general population exposure. Solutions for underground mines include pollution control at the source; use of modern engines with certification for underground mining; emissions based maintenance; exhaust treatment; use of clean or alternative fuels such as hydrogen; regular sampling and monitoring; ventilation; training and technology transfer; and regulations. tabs., figs.

  17. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  18. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust. 1065.130 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.130 Engine exhaust. (a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

  20. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  1. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  2. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  3. Permitting issues in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    As background, LG and E Development Corporation (formerly Hadson) has successfully put 16 Qualifying Facilities in the ground over the past 9 years in California, Maine, Virginia, and North Carolina. Each of these qualifying facilities has had some environmental innovative first, so there is no apology for the authors' environmental credentials. In Virginia, there are four identical 60 MW stoker coal cogeneration projects in Southampton County, Altavista, Hopewell, and -lastly-Buena Vista. The Buena Vista cogeneration project becomes the exception that proves the permitting rules. It has been in the permitting process for over 4 years; and despite being the cleanest coal project ever considered east of the Mississippi (design at 0.1 lbs/MMBtu for both So 2 and NO x ), it has suffered serous consequences from permitting delays and BACT ratcheting. As a simple comparison of importance, the Virginia Power Mt. Storm coal power facility emits approximately 150,000 tons of So 2 per year, while the Buena Vista project will actually emit approximately 150 tons of SO 2 per year (not including 1,500' tons of purchased SO 2 offsets). Both are similar distances from the Shenandoah National Park which has been the primary environmental point of concern in Virginia

  4. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  5. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-07-29

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission.

  6. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  7. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  8. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  9. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  10. Pacific Islands Region Fishing Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sustainable Fisheries Division Permits Program issues around 300 permits annually for pelagic longline and troll & handline, bottomfish, crustacean (lobster...

  11. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  12. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  13. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  14. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  15. Vacuum exhaust duct used for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo; Kondo, Mitsuaki; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a vacuum exhaust duct used for a thermonuclear device. A cylindrical metal liners is lined with a gap to the inside of a vacuum exhaust duct main body. Bellows are connected to both ends of the metal liners and the end of the bellows is welded to the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Futher, a heater is mounted to the metal liner on the side of the vacuum exhaust duct main body, and the metal liner is heated by the heater to conduct baking for the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Accordingly, since there is no requirement for elevating the temperature of the vacuum exhaust duct upon conducting baking, the vacuum exhaust duct scarcely suffers substantial deformation due to heat expansion. Further, there is also no substantial deformation for the bellows disposed between the outer circumference of the vacuum vessel and a portion of a vacuum exhaust duct, so that the durability of the bellows is greatly improved. (I.S.)

  16. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  17. Equipment for heating the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in order to improve afterburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki,

    1976-04-15

    The device described here serves to heat exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by heat exchange with hot gases and also, in cold engines, to raise the temperature of the fuel-air mixture drawn in by the engine. The device is installed next to the outlet opening of the engine. It consists of a burner to generate the hot gas, as well as a heat exchanger permitting heat supply to the exhaust gases and a hot-gas line leading to the intake line. Heating of the air is taken in leads to a better atomization of the mixture and thus to improved combustion. Heating of the exhaust gases improves afterburning. The burner generating the hot gas is shut off when the normal operational temperature of the engine is reached. The temperature is controlled by means of a temperature sensor installed in the device.

  18. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  19. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  20. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance

  1. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  2. Diesel exhaust controls and aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubeli, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the safe use of diesel fuels in underground mines, with particular reference to advanced technology engines and system technology options for mines. The use of diesel fuels underground requires well designed diesel engines with an effective preventive maintenance programs utilizing diesel emissions testing. The mines must have a well-engineered ventilation system and an adequate air quality monitoring system. An outline of diesel pollutant formation was included in the presentation. Diesel emission control technologies can address localized air quality problems and control emissions at the source. This presentation summarized the best available diesel emission control technologies for underground mines, namely diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC); diesel particulate filters (DPF); active diesel particulate filters (A-DPF); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); water scrubbers; and fume diluters. An emissions control plan using aftertreatment technology should target the vehicles that are the biggest contributors to diesel exhaust. Low sulphur fuel is a prerequisite for most emission control technologies. The successful control of emissions requires knowledge of the high emitting vehicle groups; an integrated ventilation and emission control technology application plan; ambient and tailpipe emissions testing; and training of operators and mechanics. tabs., figs.

  3. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  4. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  5. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER's nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified

  6. Soundproofed exhaust system; Gegen stoerenden Abgasschall. Akustik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Faerber, M.

    2008-03-15

    Acoustic emissions of heating systems are a nuisance, especially the humming noise of big heating boilers and cogeneration units. Noise reduction measures, e.g. with exhaust sound absorbers, should be considered already in the projecting stage. (orig.)

  7. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  8. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  9. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  10. Noncooperative models of permit markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2011-07-15

    The applicability of some popular and basic permit market theories has been questioned. Drawing on noncooperative equilibrium theory for pure exchange economies, this article adapts several well-established alternative models to permit exchange. Some qualitative properties of the associated equilibria are provided, including two games with equilibria that in a sense coincide. Nevertheless, as there exist quite a few models potentially applicable to emissions trading, with equilibria that range from autarky to Pareto optimality, it seems that economics lacks a broadly accepted basic theory for permit markets. (Author)

  11. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  12. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  13. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (2) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are...) They are installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe...

  14. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  15. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  16. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  17. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  18. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  19. The National Solar Permitting Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar — costs not associated with hardware — remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  20. Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.

  1. 50 CFR 679.4 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, with the exception that an IFQ hired master permit or a CDQ hired master permit need not... program permit or card type is: Permit is in effect from issue date through the end of: For more... section (C) Halibut & sablefish hired master permits Specified fishing year Paragraph (d)(2) of this...

  2. Baking exhaustion device in thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Mitsunori.

    1987-02-02

    Purpose: To rapidly remove tritium and impurity from the vacuum region in the access port of the baking exhaustion device in a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Each of the gaps at the boundary between a fixed shielding member and a blanket module and at the boundary between the blanket and a divertor is made extremely small so as to minimize the neutron streaming from plasmas. Accordingly, in the case of evacuating the vacuum region in the access port, the gap conductance is extremely poor and the exhaustion speed is low. Then, baking pipeways for flowing high temperature fluids are embedded to the surface layer at the position facing to the vacuum region and the plasma evacuation duct and the vacuum region are connected with an evacuation duct of the access port. By flowing high temperature fluids in the pipeways and conducting evacuation, baking exhaustion can be carried out rapidly. (Kamimura, M.).

  3. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  4. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  5. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314 ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  6. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  7. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  8. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  9. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  10. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  11. Exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to an exhaust gas afterburner for internal combustion engines, with an auxiliary fuel device arranged upstream from the afterburner proper and controlled by the rotational speed of the engine, which is additionally controlled by an oxygen or carbon monoxide sensor. The catalytic part of the afterburner, together with a rotochamber, is a separate unit.

  12. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...

  13. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  14. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  15. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of Massachusetts was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (see 74 Fed. Reg. No. 233, pages 64074 - 64075).

  16. 50 CFR 660.25 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change and the reasons for the request. If the permit requested to be changed to the base permit is..., vessel owner, or permit owner for any reason. The sablefish at-sea processing exemption will expire upon... ownership. (G) For a request to change a permit's ownership that is necessitated by divorce, the individual...

  17. 10 CFR 50.23 - Construction permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction permits. 50.23 Section 50.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Description of Licenses § 50.23 Construction permits. A construction permit for the construction of a... part 52 of this chapter, the construction permit and operating license are deemed to be combined in a...

  18. Children's Exhaustive Readings of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Alexandre; Tieu, Lyn; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Questions, just like plain declarative sentences, can give rise to multiple interpretations. As discussed by Spector & Egré (2015), among others, questions embedded under know are ambiguous between "weakly exhaustive" (WE), "intermediate exhaustive" (IE), and "strongly exhaustive" (SE) interpretations (for…

  19. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  20. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  1. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  2. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  3. On Gas Dynamics of Exhaust Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Winroth, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    With increasing effects of global warming, efforts are made to make transportation in general more fuel efficient. When it comes to internal combustion engines, the most common way to improve fuel efficiency is through ‘downsizing’. Downsizing means that a smaller engine (with lower losses and less weight) performs the task of a larger engine. This is accomplished by fitting the smaller engine with a turbocharger, to recover some of the energy in the hot exhaust gases. Such engine systems nee...

  4. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  5. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  6. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  7. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Particle and Power Exhaust in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Ding, Fang; Yu, Yaowei; Gan, Kaifu; Liang, Yunfeng; Xu, Guosheng; Xiao, Bingjia; Sun, Youwen; Luo, Guangnan; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiangang; Wan, Baonian; Maingi, Rajesh; Guo, Houyang; Garofalo, Andrea; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    A total power injection up to 0.3GJ has been achieved in EAST long pulse USN operation with ITER-like water-cooling W-monoblock divertor, which has steady-state power exhaust capability of 10 MWm-2. The peak temperature of W target saturated at t = 12 s to the value T 500oC and a heat flux 3MWm-2was maintained. Great efforts to reduce heat flux and accommodate particle exhaust simultaneously have been made towards long pulse of 102s time scale. By exploiting the observation of Pfirsch-Schlüter flow direction in the SOL, the Bt direction with Bx ∇B away from the W divertor (more particles favor outer target in USN) was adopted along with optimizing the strike point location near the pumping slot, to facilitate particle and impurity exhaust with the top cryo-pump. By tailoring the 3D divertor footprint through edge magnetic topology change, the heat load was dispersed widely and thus peak heat flux and W sputtering was well controlled. Active feedback control of total radiative power with neon seeding was achieved within frad = 17-35%, exhibiting further potential for heat flux reduction with divertor and edge radiation. Other heat flux handling techniques, including quasi snowflake configuration, will also be presented.

  9. Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

  10. NPDES permits and water analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by P. L. 92-500, including an explanation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and EPA's criteria for the analysis of pollutants are discussed. The need for a revision of current restrictive variance procedures is pointed out. References for the comparison of analytical methods for water pollutants under permits, including radioactive parameters, are tabulated. (U.S.)

  11. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, M; Eguchi, N

    1975-01-07

    An exhaust gas recirculation device to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from internal combustion engines is described. The recirculation is achieved by employing a tube connecting between the exhaust pipe and intake tube. A throttle valve is installed within the exhaust pipe between the muffler and recirculation tube, and regulated by exhaust gas temperature. Whenever the gas temperature is high, the valve closes and increases the gas flow to the intake tube. A temperature sensor is installed within the exhaust pipe and controls a solenoid or magnetic air valve linking to the throttle valve through a relay. The recirculation tube can be cooled by a fan to improve the engine power.

  12. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  13. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  14. Monitoring of diesel engine combustions based on the acoustic source characterisation of the exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Gu, F.; Gennish, R.; Moore, D. J.; Harris, G.; Ball, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic methods are among the most useful techniques for monitoring the condition of machines. However, the influence of background noise is a major issue in implementing this method. This paper introduces an effective monitoring approach to diesel engine combustion based on acoustic one-port source theory and exhaust acoustic measurements. It has been found that the strength, in terms of pressure, of the engine acoustic source is able to provide a more accurate representation of the engine combustion because it is obtained by minimising the reflection effects in the exhaust system. A multi-load acoustic method was then developed to determine the pressure signal when a four-cylinder diesel engine was tested with faults in the fuel injector and exhaust valve. From the experimental results, it is shown that a two-load acoustic method is sufficient to permit the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the pressure signal, caused by the faults. This then provides a novel and yet reliable method to achieve condition monitoring of diesel engines even if they operate in high noise environments such as standby power stations and vessel chambers.

  15. Prehistory and state of catalytic exhaust gas detoxification of vehicle engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischinger, F

    1985-01-01

    The application of catalyst techniques to exhaust gas detoxification of car engines has a prehistory of about 60 years. There were important attempts at further development in the 1940's and 1950's in connection with efforts to comply with the legal measures in California caused by the smog problem in Los Angeles. The technical difficulties had been overcome by the mid-1970's, so that catalytic converters could be introduced into mass production of cars in the USA. Their function was first mainly limited to oxidation of noxious substances in the exhaust gas. Catalysts were first used to reduce nitrogen oxide emission in 1977. The 3 way catalyst now used in mass production in the USA permits the simultaneous reduction of all three important types of noxious substances emitted from petrol engines. In order to ensure the most favourable composition of the exhaust gas for this purpose, the 3 way catalyst is combined with electronic control of the formation of the mixture. The catalytic converter for cars represents by far the most economically important industrial application of catalyst techniques today. There is not other alternative for achieving the low emission of noxious substances which can be reached by this technique. (HW).

  16. Forest Products Industry Permitting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Exhaust gas cleaning system for handling radioactive fission and activation gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.

    1975-01-01

    An exhaust gas cleaning system utilizing the principle of delaying radioactive gases to permit their radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere, comprising an adsorbent for adsorbing radioactive gas and a container for containing the adsorbent and for constraining gas to flow through the adsorbent, the adsorbent and the container forming simultaneously an adsorptive delay section and a mechanical delay section, by means of a predetermined ratio of volume of voids in the adsorbent to total volume of the container containing the adsorbent, for delaying radioactive gas to permit its radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is described. A method of using an adsorbent for cleaning a radioactive gas containing an isotope which is adsorbed by the adsorbent and containing an isotope whose adsorption by the adsorbent is low as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed and which is short-lived as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed, comprising constraining the gas to flow through the adsorbent with the retention time for the isotope which is adsorbed being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere and with the retention time for the isotope of relatively low adsorption and relatively short life being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is also described. (U.S.)

  18. 5 CFR 734.202 - Permitted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Permitted Activities § 734.202 Permitted activities. Employees may take an active part in political activities, including political management and political campaigns, to the extent not expressly prohibited by law and this part. ...

  19. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  20. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  1. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  2. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  3. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  4. Air permitting of IGCC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitikela, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    The IGCC process is, currently, the preferred choice over conventional thermal power production in regard to cleanup of fuel and significantly reduced contaminant emissions. The air permitting requirements include the review of: feed preparation and PM emissions; feed gasification and contaminant emissions; elemental sulfur recovery and SO{sub 2} emissions; options for carbon-dioxide recovery; syngas characteristics for combustion; CT design and combustion mechanisms; air contaminant emissions of CT; controlled CT emissions of nitrogen-oxides and carbon-monoxide gases using the SCR and oxidation catalysts, respectively; and, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, the IGCC processes are being rigorously reviewed for the system integration and reliability, and significant reduction of air contaminant emissions (including the greenhouse gases). This paper included a review of IGCC air contaminant emission rates, and various applicable regulatory requirements, such as NSR (New Source Review), NSPS (New Source Performance Standards), and MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The IGCC facility's NOX, CO, SO{sub 2}, PM, VOCs, and HAPs emission rates would be significantly low. Thus, effective, construction and installation, and operation air permits would be necessary for IGCC facilities.

  5. 7 CFR 319.75-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Port Operations, Permit Unit... article may be imported only after issuance of a written permit by Plant Protection and Quarantine. (b) An application for a written permit should be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

  6. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  7. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 70.5(d) of this part. (B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those... corrective actions or preventive measures taken. The permitting authority shall define “prompt” in relation... and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit...

  8. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  9. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  10. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  11. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  12. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  13. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  14. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  15. Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekavčnik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katrašnik, T.; Rodman-Oprešnik, S.

    2012-06-01

    Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

  16. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  17. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  18. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.500 - Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits? 102-74.500 Section 102-74.500 Public Contracts and... cancel issued permits? Yes, Federal agencies may disapprove any permit application or cancel an issued...

  20. Removing method for radon gas exhausted from nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    A centrifugal separator is disposed in the midway of an exhaustion pipe of a nuclear fuel handling facility, and exhausted gases are sent into a rotational cylinder of the separator. Radon gases in the midway of exhaustion are separated from the exhaustion gases by the centrifugal force of the separator and caused to stagnate at the periphery of the circumferential wall of the rotational cylinder. At the same time, the exhaustion gases having the radon gases separated therefrom are exhausted from the periphery of a rotational shaft of the rotational cylinder. Then, the radon gases stagnated in the rotational cylinder are decayed depending on the half-decay time. With such procedures, the radon gases can be removed continuously without discharging them to the outside. Further, it is preferred that an exhaustion blower or the like for putting the inside of the nuclear fuel handing facility to a negative pressure is disposed as in a conventional case. Further, a plurality of centrifugal separators may be disposed to exhaustion pipes, to remove radon gases in the exhaust gases by a multi stage way. Radon gases can be removed in a saved space with no requirement for exchange of adsorbents or temperature control. (T.M.)

  1. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  2. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    INFO (1980 to July 2015; articles in English and published articles only), and bibliographies. Information on aim, study design, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessment methods of psychological risk factors, and results of crude and adjusted regression analyses were abstracted independently......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  3. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  4. Research on the Efficiency of Side Exhausters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Tetsman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the relevant technology of environmental protection which includes an effective collection, disposal and control of aerosol and gases contaminants removed from the evaporating surfaces of electroplating tanks. The task of the paper is to help with finding the new ways of collecting and disposing aerosol pollution and to reduce the quantity of equipment and service costs. The article also discusses pollution formation and sorts and performance of side draft and slot hoods for vapour capture. Besides, the paper deals with the formation of vapour over the tank and the features of benefit that depend on absorber‘s shape. Exhaust velocity and its dependencies are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  5. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    In this article we investigate how the long-term unemployed react to the threat of running out of unemployment insurance (UI) in a system in which other social benefits are available. The empirical analysis is based on very precise administrative records of unemployment spells in Denmark...... risk model to estimate the conditional probability of leaving unemployment to enter employment or receive other social benefits. We restrict our analysis to men aged 25-44 in 1998. Our results show that even for men having an initial UI entitlement for 4 years the threat of running out of UI indeed....... To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  6. Reduction method of exhaust gas quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y.; Morishita, K.

    1975-02-08

    A cleaning method for automobile exhaust through contact with sintered oxide semiconductors consisting of tin, antimony, manganese, and palladium oxides is discussed. This device has a much higher efficiency and lasts longer than any similar device developed previously consisting of oxides of iron, manganese cobalt, nickel, aluminum, and other rare earth metals. This sintered oxide semiconductor device is composed of: tin oxide: 30 wt ratio, tin hydrogen oxide: 30 wt ratio, antimony oxide: 2 wt ratio, manganese chloride: 2 wt ratio, palladium chloride: 1 wt ratio, carbon powder: 4 wt ratio, and ammonium carbonate: 10 wt ratio, for example. This device converts 100 percent of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide at 350 C. This compound provides oxygen to CO at higher temperatures and absorbs oxygen from air at normal temperatures. There is no effect on efficiency.

  7. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty...... association between burnout level and working memory performance was found, however, our findings indicate that frontostriatal neural responses related to working memory were modulated by burnout severity. We suggest that patients with high levels of burnout need to recruit additional cognitive resources...... to uphold task performance. Following cognitive training, increased neural activation was observed during 3-back in working memory-related regions, including the striatum, however, low sample size limits any firm conclusions....

  8. Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7. PMID:22754710

  9. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  10. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  11. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  12. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  14. Perceived social support and emotional exhaustion in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counsellors have been identified as a group of professionals at elevated risk of burnout in general and emotional exhaustion in particular. Considering the nature of the illness, ... the quality of the services they provide. Key words: Emotional exhaustion, perceived social support, burnout syndrome, demographic variables.

  15. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  16. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (see § 36.23(b)(2)). (3) In lieu of a space-place flame arrester, an exhaust-gas cooling box or... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for measuring the total back pressure in the system. The connection also shall be suitable for temporary attachment...

  17. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Experimental studies of impact of exhaust gas recirculation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the problem of reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions in exhaust gases (EG) of diesel engine by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Based on the carried out study the influence of EGR on technical-and-economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine was found as well as main directions of ...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust sample in sampling solution, µg/ml. (vii) VAE = Volume of sampling solution for dilute exhaust... sampling solution, µg/ml. (xiii) VAA = Volume of sampling solution for dilution air formaldehyde sample, ml... paragraph (d)(3) of this section): Wet concentration = Kw × dry concentration. Where: (1)(i) For English...

  1. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine... methane) is a satisfactory substitute for pure methane in these tests. (c) Coupling or adapter. The...

  2. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of leaflets and leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight of Vinca rosea and Ruellia tuberosa were studied. The treatment of exhaust pollutants produced significant effects on root, shoot growth, number of leaflet and leaf ...

  3. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  4. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  5. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  6. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  7. Infrared thermography application on predictive maintenance for exhaust fan motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Wayan Widiana; Jakaria; Artadi Heru; Mulyono

    2013-01-01

    To determine the condition of the exhaust fan motor in terms of heat dissipation, predictive maintenance needs to be done. One way is to use infrared thermography. The method used is an infrared thermography with qualitative technique which the analysis focused on the distribution patterns of heat captured by the infrared camera. From measurement results expected to be obtained data of the heat distribution occurs in the motor exhaust fan so it can be given treatment or further improvements recommendations to avoid failure of the operation. Results of measurements on the motor exhaust fan 9 and the motor exhaust fan 10 indicates that there is excessive heat dissipation (over heating). The recommendation given is increasing the motor capacity of 11 kW to 18 kW with a consideration of the addition load on exhaust fan system and age of motor more than 22 years. (author)

  8. Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation control systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Keating, Edward J.

    2018-05-01

    An engine control system of a vehicle includes a fuel control module that controls fuel injection of a first cylinder of an engine based on a first target air/fuel ratio that is fuel lean relative to a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and that controls fuel injection of a second cylinder of the engine based on a second target air/fuel ratio that is fuel rich relative to stoichiometry. The first cylinder outputs exhaust to a first three way catalyst (TWC), and the second cylinder outputs exhaust to an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. An EGR control module controls opening of the EGR valve to: (i) a second TWC that reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust and outputs ammonia to a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst; and (ii) a conduit that recirculates exhaust back to an intake system of the engine.

  9. Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Bermúdez, V.; Guardiola, C.

    2004-06-01

    In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.

  10. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  11. Services tradeability, trade liberalization and foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.J. Stibora (Joachim); A. Vaal, de (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe article analyzes a two-country general equilibrium model to examine the role played by services in the world economy. Services play an increasingly important role in the world economy, as observed, for instance, by the growing share in employment, production, exports and foreign

  12. 40 CFR 71.6 - Permit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 71.5(d). (B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those attributable to... prompt or otherwise specifies a time frame for reporting deviations, that definition or time frame shall... and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit...

  13. 40 CFR 71.25 - Permit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such reports; and (ii) Prompt reporting of any deviations from permit requirements, including those... “prompt” in the permit for each situation and will do so in relation to the degree and type of deviation... reasonable times any facilities, equipment (including monitoring and air pollution control equipment...

  14. Review and revision of overload permit classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) allows trucks that exceed their legal loads to cross : bridges if they apply and are approved for a permit. More than 30,000 permits have been processed each : year since 2002, providing a vital servic...

  15. 7 CFR 330.208 - Courtesy permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Courtesy permits. 330.208 Section 330.208 Agriculture... PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.208 Courtesy permits. The Deputy Administrator may issue... subject to regulation under the Plant Protection Actor any other act, as a courtesy to facilitate movement...

  16. 32 CFR 552.90 - Permit office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit office. 552.90 Section 552.90 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.90 Permit office... non-training acess to the range complex. The office is open 0700-1900 hours, seven days a week, for...

  17. 50 CFR 21.31 - Rehabilitation permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., foster parenting, research projects, or other permitted activities with persons permitted or otherwise... Response Coordinator or other designated Service representative and obtain permission from the On-Scene Coordinator. All activities within the location of the spill are subject to the authority of the On-Scene...

  18. 77 FR 10183 - Reissuance of Nationwide Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Civil Works Program (Engineer Circular 1165- 2-211). The current Engineer Circular applies to Corps..., Corps of Engineers Reissuance of Nationwide Permits; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 34..., Corps of Engineers RIN 0710-AA71 Reissuance of Nationwide Permits AGENCY: Army Corps of Engineers, DoD...

  19. 40 CFR 233.21 - General permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ensure compliance with existing permit conditions an any reporting monitoring, or prenotification... apply for an individual permit. This discretionary authority will be based on concerns for the aquatic environment including compliance with paragraph (b) of this section and the 404(b)(1) Guidelines (40 CFR part...

  20. 75 FR 2560 - Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-IA-2010-N006] [96300-1671-0000-P5] Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits..., 2009 PH.D, Department of 16, 2009. Cardiology Children's Hospital. Dated: January 8, 2010. Brenda Tapia...

  1. 50 CFR 21.41 - Depredation permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.41... control purposes. No permit is required merely to scare or herd depredating migratory birds other than... other means of concealment, decoys, duck calls, or other devices to lure or entice birds within gun...

  2. EPA Region 2 Discharge Pipes for Facilites with NPDES Permits from the Permit Compliance GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Permit and Compliance System (PCS) contains data on the National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit-holding facilities. This includes...

  3. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  4. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of automobile exhaust pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Furr, A.K.; Adair, D.J.; Parkinson, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    An approximation of the distribution of lead particulate from vehicular exhausts is given. Soil and grass (Poa trivialis) samples were collected at five-foot intervals from the roadside out to 300 feet, at ten-foot intervals from 300 to 350 feet, and at 25-foot intervals from 350 to 600 feet. All samples were irradiated twice: once for a brief period of from 10 to 120 seconds and later for periods of from 6 to 8 hours. The short irradiations were at a thermal neutron flux of 1.2x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 (decay time=1 min, counting time=8 min). The long irradiations were at a thermal neutron flux of 1.3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 , and the samples counted twice at decay intervals of two days and twelve days. The counting intervals were one hour. The spectra were stored on magnetic tape for processing by an IBM 370/158 computer. This initial neutron-activation analysis study has shown that there is an extremely detailed pattern of the effluent from vehicular highway traffic which is strongly affected by micrometeorological conditions. In order to detect these patterns it is necessary to use a very compact sample grid with every possible precaution taken to ensure sample homogeneity and cleanliness. A possibility of elevated levels of pollution may exist at considerable distances from the highway, perhaps even greater than at the immediate roadside. (T.G.)

  6. Annual Hanford Site environmental permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The information contained and/or referenced in this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report (Status Report) addresses the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) of 1971 and Condition II.W. of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion (DW Portion). Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies the Permittees are responsible for all other applicable federal, state, and local permits for the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W. of the RCRA Permit specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of permit condition, 'best efforts' means submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies. This Status Report includes information on all existing and anticipated environmental permitting. Environmental permitting required by RCRA, the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, and non-RCRA permitting (solid waste handling, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987, Washington State waste discharge, and onsite sewage system) is addressed. Information on RCRA and non-RCRA is current as of July 31, 1998. For the purposes of RCRA and the State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976 [as administered through the Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Active Code (WAC) 173-303], the Hanford Facility is considered a single facility. As such, the Hanford Facility has been issued one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/State Identification Number (WA7890008967). This EPA/State identification number encompasses over 60 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) units. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has been delegated authority by the EPA to administer the RCRA, including mixed waste authority. The RCRA permitting approach for

  7. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  8. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  9. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... with rotating wind turbines. Permit Duration and Transferability In February 2011, we published draft... permit applicants, because of the known risk to eagles from collisions with wind turbines and electric... change does not affect the tenure of any other migratory bird or eagle permit type. DATES: Electronic...

  10. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  11. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  12. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  13. Permit to Work System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Azwafarina Zarmira Aznan; Md Derus Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Permit-To-Work System is an essential part of the job risk assessment process. An effective Permit-To-Work System would help to prevent accident that usually involves maintenance and construction activities. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Radiation Safety and Health Division (BKS) has been given the responsibility to implement the system in order to fulfill the requirement of providing a safe and healthy workplace and environment for its employees as pledged in the Occupational Safety, Health and Environmental Policy. This paper presents the roles and functions of Permit-To-Work System, together with the process flow and challenges ahead. (author)

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  15. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  16. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  17. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering

  18. Effect Effects of Auricularia auricula Polysaccharides on Exhaustive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exhaustive Swimming Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice. Haitao Hao .... of the College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang. University ..... The delicate physiological balance between oxidative ... This work was supported by funds from.

  19. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  20. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  1. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of .... single cylinders with cooling system of air dry. The frequency is 50 .... and reproduction along CO2 gradients. Nonlinear.

  2. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  3. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  4. A system recovering heat from exhaust gases. Abgasenergie-Rueckgewinnungseinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, E; Hultsch, H; Brendorp, W

    1990-08-16

    The proposed exhaust gas heat recovery system is provided with a hydraulic clutch (8) which is located between a gas tubine (2) to be driven by the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine (20) and a drive unit (18) of the internal combustion engine (20). A mechanical blocking device (6) prevents the turbine from running at explosion speed when the hydraulic clutch (8) is emptied or when the oil pressure of the hydraulic clutch drops below a certain minimum.

  5. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  6. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  7. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  8. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  9. 78 FR 36822 - Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... lithium battery that exceeds the net quantity weight restriction when transported by motor vehicle and... Dassault Falcon Jet Corp. Little Ferry, NJ May 13, 2013. To modify the special permit to add an additional...

  10. 32 CFR 935.11 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be issued under other authority that is inconsistent with this part. The Commander may issue.... (b) To the extent it is not inconsistent with this part, any permit or registration issued pursuant...

  11. Storm Water General Permit 2 for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #2 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Construction Activities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  12. 50 CFR 660.707 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or downloaded from the Southwest Region home page (http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/permits.htm) to apply for... the vessel is fishing for, taking, retaining, possessing, or landing HMS shoreward of the outer...

  13. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... the logistical and cost concerns regarding the ability of the railroad industry to comply with the... incorporating the applicable GRL Special Permits into the HMR (and FRA's subsequent approval notice) those...

  14. Web Air Permits (WAP R7)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for Web Air Permits in Region 7 (WAP R7), a Lotus Notes application that once tracked comment...

  15. 2013 EPA Vessels General Permit (VGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information for any vessel that submitted a Notice of Intent (NOI), Notice of Termination (NOT), or annual report under EPA's 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP)....

  16. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Gear Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual vessel gear characterization of permit holders shrimp vessel. Data includes net type, TED type, BRD type, etc.

  17. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  18. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  19. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized... exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or (iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the...

  20. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous waste... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits...

  1. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of this...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  3. 9 CFR 78.2 - Handling of certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... âSâ brand permits for interstate movement of animals. 78.2 Section 78.2 Animals and Animal Products... certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals. (a) Any certificate, permit, or “S” brand permit required by this part for the interstate movement of animals shall be delivered...

  4. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... following permit requests. Applicant Permit No. TE-78622A Applicant: William J. Mautz, Hilo, Hawaii The...-179036 Applicant: Cullen A. Wilkerson, Richmond, California The applicant requests a permit renewal to...

  5. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  6. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements

  7. IFQ Halibut/Sablefish and CDQ Halibut Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Under the IFQ Halibut/Sablefish Permit Program and CDQ Halibut Permit Program permits are issued for harvesting and receiving/processing halibut, and non-trawl...

  8. Banking and back-loading emission permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaton, Corinne; Creti, Anna; Peluchon, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on the so-called back-loading policy adopted by the European Commission to increase the carbon market price. This environmental measure consists of removing a share of the allowances allocated for a given period in order to reallocate some or all of them later on. To analyze the impact of the permits back-loading, we determine the CO 2 price equilibrium with and without the policy measure, considering not only the market for permits but also the output market of regulated sectors. We propose a two-period model, where the market for permits is perfectly competitive, and the output market can be either competitive or oligopolistic. First, we define the condition under which banking from one period to another is optimal. This condition, that is the absence of arbitrage opportunities (AOA), depends not only from the period initial allocation but also on production market fundamentals. When this condition is satisfied, the market for emission is shown intertemporally efficient. Second, we point out that the back-loading measure may create inefficiencies or leave unaffected the permits price, if it alters the AOA. -- Highlights: •Relationship between the market for permits and the output market of regulated sectors. •Analysis of CO 2 prices and banking. •Impact of a recent environmental policy measure (backloading) on CO 2 prices

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF A GASOLINE ENGINE EXHAUST GAS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The engine exhaust gas behaviour is strongly influencing the engine performance. This paper presents the modelling and analysis of four stroke - gasoline engine exhaust gas systems. An automotive example is considered whereby the pulsating exhausts gas flow through an exhaust pipe and silencer are considered over a wide range of speeds. Analytical procedures are outlined enabling the general analysis and modelling of vehicle engine exhaust gas systems also in this paper present...

  10. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Da; Qiu Zhijun; Lu Rongrong; Qiu Huiyuan; Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analytical sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust of Shanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its corresponding x-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There are many kinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harmful to people, such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. The authors found that the lead concentration was 6820 μg/g and the bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leaded gasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. The authors have also detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its content varies from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highest reached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while the leaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to the human beings

  11. Variation of particle exhaust with changes in divertor magnetic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e. the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null or double-null (DN) and (2) the direction of the of B x ∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the B x ∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of B x ∇B and E x B ion particle drifts in the scrape-off layer and divertor(s) play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density. These results have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  12. Design and experimental study on desulphurization process of ship exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Hao, Shan; Zhou, Junbo; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    This desulfurization process involves removing sulfur oxides with seawater or alkaline aqueous solutions and then treating the effluent by aeration and pH adjustment before discharging it into the ocean. In the desulfurization system, the spray tower is the key equipment and the venturi tubes are the pretreatment device. The two stages of plates are designed to fully absorb sulfur oxides in exhaust gases. The spiral nozzles atomize and evenly spray the desulfurizers into the tower. This study experimentally investigated the effectiveness of this desulfurization process and the factors influencing it under laboratory conditions, with a diesel engine exhaust used to represent ship exhaust. The experimental results show that this process can effectively absorb the SO2 in the exhaust. When the exhaust flow rate was 25 m3/h and the desulfurizer flow rate was 4 L/min, the sulfur removal efficiency (SRE) reached 99.7%. The flow rate, alkalinity, and temperature of seawater were found to have significant effects on the SRE. Adjusting seawater flow rate (SWR) and alkalinity within certain ranges can substantially improve the SRE.

  13. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  14. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  15. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document

  16. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  17. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  18. Vacuum exhaustion system for thermonuclear reactor and cryopump thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-01-01

    An impurity removing device is connected to a gas exhaust side of a plasma vacuum vessel by way of a gate valve, a cryopump is connected to the exit side of the device by way of an exit valve, a fuel transfer line is disposed for transferring fuels to a fuel purification system and a vacuum pump line is disposed to an exhaust gas line. Further, a tritium monitor is disposed to an exhaustion line and the line on the side of the exit of the monitor is branched into two ways, in which a tritium transfer pipe is disposed to one of them and an atmosphere release pipe is disposed on the other of them by way of an atmosphere releasing valve. Further, a condensation shebron is disposed for flowing in and out fuel isotope gases discharged from the plasma vacuum vessel, and a funnel discharge pipe is disposed for discharging a liquefied and condensed fluid. Since the gases to be exhausted are liquefied and condensed without coagulation or coagulation products are removed while operating the pump, the exhaust gases are processed continuously to reduce tritium inventory and make the regeneration step unnecessary and remarkably improve the heat efficiency. (N.H.)

  19. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains ''umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit

  20. 75 FR 19987 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... applied for scientific research permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the...) within Arizona. Permit TE-178778 Applicant: Marks Lab of Aquatic Ecology, Flagstaff, Arizona. Applicant...

  1. Economic analysis of gradual "social exhaustion" of waste management capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Hideo; Nakayama, Hirofumi

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes to analyze the quantitative effects of a gradual physical and "social" exhaustion of a landfill site on an equilibrium waste management service. A gradual social exhaustion of a landfill is defined here as an upward shift of a "subjective factor" associated with the amount of waste, based on the plausible hypothesis that an individual will not accept excessive presence of landfilled waste. Physical exhaustion occurs when the absolute capacity of a landfill site decreases. The paper shows some numerical examples using specific functions and parameters, and proposes appropriate directions for three policy objectives: to decrease the equilibrium waste disposal, to increase the economic surplus of the individual and/or the waste management firm, and to lower the equilibrium collection fee. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  3. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant.

  4. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  5. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document

  6. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  7. Device for the elimination of noxious components of exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, A

    1975-04-24

    A device for the removal of noxious components from the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine is described. It consists of a chemical reactor installed in the tail-pipe. Behind the reactor, in the flow direction of the exhaust gases, there is a catalytic temperature sensor whose electrical output is transmitted to an analyzer which provides a signal if the reactor fails. The temperature sensor is situated directly in the waste gas duct or in a branch of the tail-pipe which is supplied with air. There is also another, catalytically inactive, temperature sensor. A failure is signalled (a) if the chemical reactor has failed, and (b) if there is not enough oxygen in the exhaust gas to keep up a chemical reaction.

  8. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the population stock and the marine ecosystem. In determining whether to issue a public display permit... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER...

  9. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  10. Noise Radiation Of A Strongly Pulsating Tailpipe Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peizi, Li; Genhua, Dai; Zhichi, Zhu

    1993-11-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve the problem of the propagation of a strongly pulsating flow in an exhaust system tailpipe. For a strongly pulsating exhaust, the flow may shock at the pipe's open end at some point in a pulsating where the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. The method fails if one insists on setting the flow pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure as the pipe end boundary condition. To solve the problem, we set the Mach number equal to 1 as the boundary condition when the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. For a strongly pulsating flow, the fluctuations of flow variables may be much higher than their respective time averages. Therefore, the acoustic radiation method would fail in the computation of the noise radiation from the pipe's open end. We simulate the exhaust flow out of the open end as a simple sound source to compute the noise radiation, which has been successfully applied in reference [1]. The simple sound source strength is proportional to the volume acceleration of exhaust gas. Also computed is the noise radiation from the turbulence of the exhaust flow, as was done in reference [1]. Noise from a reciprocating valve simulator has been treated in detail. The radiation efficiency is very low for the pressure range considered and is about 10 -5. The radiation efficiency coefficient increases with the square of the frequency. Computation of the pipe length dependence of the noise radiation and mass flux allows us to design a suitable length for an aerodynamic noise generator or a reciprocating internal combustion engine. For the former, powerful noise radiation is preferable. For the latter, maximum mass flux is desired because a freer exhaust is preferable.

  11. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  12. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  13. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...... induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...

  14. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  15. Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Siting Work Group

    2002-08-01

    This handbook has been written for individuals and groups involved in evaluating wind projects: decision-makers and agency staff at all levels of government, wind developers, interested parties and the public. Its purpose is to help stakeholders make permitting wind facility decisions in a manner which assures necessary environmental protection and responds to public needs.

  16. 27 CFR 19.157 - Operating permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.157... file an application for registration under § 19.151 shall make application for and obtain an operating permit before commencing any of the following operations: (1) Distilling for industrial use. (2...

  17. 75 FR 54649 - Endangered Wildlife; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-02997A Applicant: University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii. The applicant requests a permit to take (capture...-listed Drosophila species on the island of Kauai in the State of Hawaii for the purpose of enhancing its... in the State of Hawaii: Astelia waialealae (painiu), Canavalia napaliensis (awikiwiki), Chamaesyce...

  18. 15 CFR 5.4 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards relating to appearance, safety, sanitation, maintenance, and efficiency of operation. Due regard... the Government and prospective patrons of the stand. (f) The permit shall describe the location of the stand proper and the location of any vending machines which are operated in conjunction with it. ...

  19. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address of...

  20. 19 CFR 12.107 - Importations permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.107 Importations permitted. Pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural for which... sculpture or mural, in a form acceptable to the Secretary, certifying that such exportation was not in...

  1. 78 FR 43268 - Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... an amount qualifying as hazardous material. (modes 1, 2, 3, 4) 15860-N......... Apple Inc. 49 CFR To... strength stiffness. 13581-M......... Bengal Products 49 CFR To modify the Inc. Baton 173.306(a)(3). special............ Carleton 49 CFR 173.302a To modify the Technologies special permit to Inc. (Former change a drawing Grantee...

  2. 50 CFR 648.4 - Vessel permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying passengers for hire. (8) Atlantic bluefish vessels. (i) Commercial. Any vessel of the United... lands Atlantic bluefish in or from the EEZ in excess of the recreational possession limit specified at § 648.164 must have been issued and carry on board a valid commercial bluefish vessel permit. (ii) Party...

  3. 40 CFR 70.5 - Permit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish. Where an existing part 70 permit would prohibit such construction or change in operation, the... information only if it is related to the proposed change. Information required under paragraph (c) of this... part shall state that, based on information and belief formed after reasonable inquiry, the statements...

  4. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit is...

  5. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  6. 40 CFR 144.51 - Conditions applicable to all permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Permit Conditions § 144.51 Conditions applicable... permit. Any permit noncompliance constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds... denial of a permit renewal application; except that the permittee need not comply with the provisions of...

  7. 50 CFR 21.21 - Import and export permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import and export permits. 21.21 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.21 Import and export... must have a permit to import or export migratory birds, their parts, nests, or eggs. You must meet the...

  8. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  9. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken

  10. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in 7 CFR part 400, subpart J. Administrative remedies through the appeal process must be exhausted prior to any action for judicial review. The approved APH yield determined as a result of the appeal process will be the yield applicable to the crop year. ...

  11. Exhaustive Weakly Wandering Sequences and Alpha-type Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Eigen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing sequence of integers, $\\mathbb{B}$, is given for which there exists a family of ergodic, infinite measure preserving transformations $T_\\alpha$, $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ so that (1 $T_\\alpha$ is of $\\alpha$-type and (2 $\\mathbb{B}$ is an exhaustive weakly wandering sequence for each $T_\\alpha$.

  12. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim...... location is less important for the case studied. The choice of sampling strategy to obtain a representative background concentration is essential as substantial differences on direct capture efficiency are found. Recommendations are given......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  13. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over F2; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive-search technique, our

  14. Fast exhaustive search for polynomial systems in F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillaguet, C.; Chen, H.-C.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.; Shamir, A.; Yang, B.Y.; Mangard, S.; Standaert, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: We analyze how fast we can solve general systems of multivariate equations of various low degrees over $F_2$; this is a well known hard problem which is important both in itself and as part of many types of algebraic cryptanalysis. Compared to the standard exhaustive search technique, our

  15. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  16. Herpes viruses, cytokines, and altered hemostasis in vital exhaustion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Diest, R. van; Hamulyak, K.; Maes, M.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Appels, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections with herpes viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that vital exhaustion (VE) is associated with multiple herpesvirus infections, such as herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and

  17. Exhaustible-resource theory and the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.L.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaustible-resource theory has been developed rapidly by economists since the OPEC shocks of 1973-1974 and the theory now provides a framework for analyzing the optimal production pattern for resource commodities. However, applications of the theory to particular markets, such as crude oil, have not provided accurate predictions due no doubt to theoretical problems in explaining exploration and discovery events, market organization changes, and uncertainty. This thesis investigated the uranium market in an effort to determine how well the exhaustible-resource theory explains the past price and quantity time paths of this energy resource, and what might be expected in the future. The exhaustible-resource theory was first developed in a form appropriate to an application to the uranium market. An econometric simulation model that combines the history of uranium price formation and the exhaustible-resource theory was developed to forecast future uranium prices. The model was designed not only to reflect the physical processes of drilling activities, changing reserves, production, and prices of uranium through individual equations, but also to account for the interaction of all these interrelationships at the same time

  18. Exhaustive Search for Sparse Variable Selection in Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Hikaru; Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Uemura, Makoto; Ikeda, Shiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-04-01

    We propose a K-sparse exhaustive search (ES-K) method and a K-sparse approximate exhaustive search method (AES-K) for selecting variables in linear regression. With these methods, K-sparse combinations of variables are tested exhaustively assuming that the optimal combination of explanatory variables is K-sparse. By collecting the results of exhaustively computing ES-K, various approximate methods for selecting sparse variables can be summarized as density of states. With this density of states, we can compare different methods for selecting sparse variables such as relaxation and sampling. For large problems where the combinatorial explosion of explanatory variables is crucial, the AES-K method enables density of states to be effectively reconstructed by using the replica-exchange Monte Carlo method and the multiple histogram method. Applying the ES-K and AES-K methods to type Ia supernova data, we confirmed the conventional understanding in astronomy when an appropriate K is given beforehand. However, we found the difficulty to determine K from the data. Using virtual measurement and analysis, we argue that this is caused by data shortage.

  19. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  20. The isotopic composition of CO in vehicle exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, S.; Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the isotopic composition of CO in the exhaust of individual vehicles. Additionally, the CO 2 isotopes, and the CO:CO 2 , CH 4 :CO 2 and H 2 :CO gas ratios were measured. This was done under idling and revving conditions, and for three vehicles in a full driving cycle on a testbench.

  1. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  2. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1 : Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using

  3. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Technique for radiation treatment of exhaust gas due to combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1978-01-01

    As the Japanese unique research in the field of preservation of environment, the technique to remove simultaneously sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas using electron beam irradiation is noteworthy. This research was started by the experiment in the central research laboratory of Ebara Manufacturing Co., Ltd., in which it was found that the sulphur dioxide of initial concentration of 1,000 ppm was almost completely vanished when the exhaust gas of heavy oil combustion in a batch type vessel was irradiated for 9 minutes by electron beam. Based on this experiment, JAERI installed a continuous irradiation equipment with a large accelerator, and has investigated the effect of various parameters such as dose rate, irradiation temperature, total dose and agitation. This resulted in the remarkable finding that nitrogen oxides were also completely removed as well as sulphur dioxide when the exhaust gas containing both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides was irradiated for a few seconds. In this case, if water of about 0.3% is added, removal rate of sulphur dioxide is greatly increased. The research group of University of Tokyo obtained other findings concerning removal rates. Then, after the pilot plant stage in Ebara Manufacturing Co., Ltd. from 1974, the test plant of exhaust gas treatment for a sintering machine, having the capacity of 3,000 Nm 3 /hr, has been constructed in Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corp. This is now operating properly. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  6. Psychic and moral exhaustion in primary care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Brandão Bacci Pegoraro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To report the experience of developing a workshop proposal to assist local managers with the identification, management and prevention of primary care workers' psychic and moral exhaustion. METHOD The workshop was developed through a literature review performed between November 2014 and June 2015. The temporal cut considered studies of the ten previous years. The selection included studies describing collective interventions for situations generating psychic and moral exhaustion, preferably in primary care services. RESULTS Thirty-five articles were analyzed. The workshop provides five meetings with an average duration of one hour. The themes are: awareness; recognizing personal stress; dealing with personal stress; recognizing team stress; and dealing with team stress. The workshop is based on five key principles: detection and coping; attention to interpersonal relationships; communication; self-knowledge and mindfulness. CONCLUSION Psychic and moral exhaustion may reflect negatively on workers' health, the care, and the organization. The proposal of measures to recognize, deal with and prevent psychic and moral exhaustion is relevant and strategic in the constant search for improvement of satisfaction and quality.

  7. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  8. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  9. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  10. Neuropsychological sequelae of work-stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Skogsliden, Sofia; Karlson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess long-term cognitive performance after substantial recovery from work-stress-related exhaustion, in relation to subjective cognitive complaints and return to active work. In total, 54 patients previously diagnosed with work-stress-related exhaustion participated in a neuropsychological examination ∼2 years after initial sick leave. Most participants were substantially recovered at follow-up, with only 13% still meeting the criteria for exhaustion disorder suggested by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. When participants' scores on 14 neuropsychological tests were compared to a matched group of 50 controls, the former patient group showed lower performance mainly on attention tests of the reaction time type, but also slightly lower scores on visuo-spatial constructional ability. However, the former patient group performed better than controls on two memory tests and, in part, on a test of simultaneous capacity. Self-ratings of everyday cognitive problems remained significantly higher in the former patient group than among controls, but the extent of self-rated cognitive problems was generally unrelated to performance on the neuropsychological tests. No relationship between performance on these tests and the extent of work resumption was observed. In summary, persons with previous work-stress-related exhaustion showed persistent signs of a minor attention deficit, despite considerable general recovery and return to work.

  11. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  12. Heat exhaustion in a deep underground metalliferous mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J; Bates, G P

    2000-03-01

    To examine the incidence, clinical state, personal risk factors, haematology, and biochemistry of heat exhaustion occurring at a deep underground metalliferous mine. To describe the underground thermal conditions associated with the occurrence of heat exhaustion. A 1 year prospective case series of acute heat exhaustion was undertaken. A history was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Pulse rate, blood pressure, tympanic temperature, and specific gravity of urine were measured before treatment. Venous blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical variables, during the acute presentation and after recovery. Body mass index (BMI) and maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) were measured after recovery. Psychrometric wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and air velocity were measured at the underground sites where heat exhaustion had occurred. Air cooling power and psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature were derived from these data. 106 Cases were studied. The incidence of heat exhaustion during the year was 43.0 cases/million man-hours. In February it was 147 cases/million man-hours. The incidence rate ratio for mines operating below 1200 m compared with those operating above 1200 m was 3.17. Mean estimated fluid intake was 0.64 l/h (SD 0.29, range 0.08-1.50). The following data were increased in acute presentation compared with recovery (p value, % of acute cases above the normal clinical range): neutrophils (p air velocity was 0.54 m/s (SD 0.57, range 0.00-4.00). Mean air cooling power was 148 W/m2 (SD 49, range 33-290) Mean psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature was 31.5 degrees C (SD 2.0, range 25.2-35.3). Few cases (air velocity > 1.56 m/s, air cooling power > 248 W/m2, or psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature air cooling power > 250 W/m2 at all underground work sites.

  13. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  14. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  15. Should advertising by aesthetic surgeons be permitted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Nagpal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic, aesthetic and cutaneous surgical procedures require qualified specialists trained in the various procedures and competent to handle complications. However, it also requires huge investments in terms of infrastructure, trained staff and equipment. To be viable advertising is essential to any establishment which provides cosmetic and aesthetic procedures. Business men with deep pockets establish beauty chains which also provide these services and advertise heavily to sway public opinion in their favour. However, these saloons and spas lack basic medical facilities in terms of staff or equipment to handle any complication or medical emergency. To have a level playing field ethical advertising should be permitted to qualified aesthetic surgeons as is permitted in the US and UK by their respective organisations.

  16. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  17. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study

  18. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  19. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ''regulated'' pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ''criteria'' pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ''Hazardous'' Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995

  20. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  1. Experiment and CFD simulation of exhaust tube in highvoltage circuit breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high-voltage circuit breaker, the exhaust tube connects the arc zone with the exhaust volume. During the arc interruption process, the exhaust tube transports the hot gas from the arc interruption zone to the exhaust volume through its distributed holes. The design of a high performance exhaust tube in the circuit breaker development aims for well controlled hot gas evacuation mass flow and pressure waves. In this paper, the exhaust tube behaviour is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. To verify the CFD simulation, a basic experimental study with pressure measurements at different positions of the exhaust tube is performed. Further, the design parameters influencing the exhaust tube behaviour and circuit breaker performance are investigated and discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  3. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  4. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.; Keller, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  6. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... probe may not be greater than 0.10 cm. The fitting that attaches the probe to the exhaust pipe must be... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  7. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The... sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC analyzer and the NOX analyzer must be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  8. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not be greater than 0.10 cm. The fitting that attaches the probe to the exhaust pipe shall be as... internally to the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  9. Permit processes for nuclear power. International lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaahlin, Emil; Nilsson, Isabelle; Pettersson, Maria; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of this report is to analyze and compare the legal permitting and planning process for (first and foremost) new nuclear power stations in a number of selected countries. In this way the report provides relevant knowledge that could form the basis for discussing the efficiency of various national licensing processes (include the Swedish one). The study builds heavily on the analysis of legal documents and regulations, and addresses both the formal requirements for licensing and territorial planning procedures as well as the issues of public participation and access to justice in the respective countries. In addition to this legal approach, however, we also adopt an investor's perspective on the legislation, i.e., an analysis of the legal rules can influence investment decisions in practice. Furthermore, the study relies largely on a synthesis of previous studies as well as interviews with researchers, electricity companies and government officials in Sweden and abroad. The countries that are compared include Sweden, Finland, France, Canada, Switzerland, Great Britain, USA and South Korea. These include those that currently invest in new nuclear power as well as those who have recently reformed their plant permitting processes. The analysis highlights important differences among the various countries, including issues such as the political influence on the licensing process, the allocation of political power between the national and local levels, means of interacting with regular citizens, and the overall transparency and predictability of the legislation. Some selected practical experiences of the current legislation are also presented. The report first provides a short background to the role and the status of nuclear power in the global energy system, and we then present a rather comprehensive comparison of the permitting processes in the above countries. Each country section comprises a short background, a presentation of the existing

  10. Can neuromuscular fatigue threshold bedetermined by short and non-exhaustive bouts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p254 The present study determined the neuromuscular fatigue threshold (NFT using four different time-periods of analysis of the electromyographic signal and compared these estimations with critical power (CP. Fifteen healthy young men (73.6 ± 5.1 kg, 177.8 ± 7.0 cm, 23.4 ± 5.2 years performed 3-4 different severe constant workload trials until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with simultaneous SEMG signals acquisition. The obtained data permitted NFT estimation with four different periods of analysis as follows: initial 30s (T30, 1min (T1, 2min (T2 and total time (TT, as well as CP. T30 and T1 were significantly higher than TT and CP and, T2 and TT did not differ between each other, and both were significantly higher than CP. In addition, TT was significantly correlated to CP (0.72; P < 0.05 and to T2 (0.58; P < 0.05. We conclude that NFT overestimates CP, independent of the time-period analysis used for its determination.

  11. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Egedal, J.; Ng, J.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma

  12. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Egedal, J. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Ng, J. [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Scudder, J. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma.

  13. ATR prohibits replication catastrophe by preventing global exhaustion of RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt; Lukas, Claudia; Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Povlsen, Lou Klitgaard; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Bartek, Jiri; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-11-21

    ATR, activated by replication stress, protects replication forks locally and suppresses origin firing globally. Here, we show that these functions of ATR are mechanistically coupled. Although initially stable, stalled forks in ATR-deficient cells undergo nucleus-wide breakage after unscheduled origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells commonly feature intrinsically high replication stress, this study also provides a molecular rationale for their hypersensitivity to ATR inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Animals afflicted with lead poisoning from motor exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel-Thomsen, A

    1956-01-01

    Three cases of dogs treated for ulcerous conditions of the oral cavity and a trembling of the limbs, which were eventually discovered to be lead poisoning derived from constant exposure to gasoline and automotive exhaust, are reported. The first case, typical of all three, was first treated in April 1951. The lesions healed after a stay in the hospital but recurred after he returned home. The dog was also asymptomatic when at the owner's summer home for any length of time. It was discovered that at his winter home the dog spent much of his time around a large automobile garage. After treatment with Antoxol (dimercaprol) and benzyl benzoate, he recovered and had no more symptoms of lead poisoning until his death from cancer several years later. Each of the three involved an animal whose daily activities exposed him to the continual presence of gasolines and exhaust fumes containing tetraethyl lead.

  15. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  16. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  17. PIXE analysis of exhaust gas from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hirosi; Michijima, Masami; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujitani, Tatsuya.

    1986-01-01

    The variation of elemental concentrations in exhaust gas of a Diesel engine with the outputs was studied. Particulates in high temperature gas were collected on silica fiber filters and analyzed by PIXE method. Concentrations of S and V were nearly proportional to particulate masses and fuel consumption rates per discharging rates of exhaust gas respectively. While, concentrations of Fe and Mn were markedly increased together with engine outputs, and Mn/Fe ratios were nearly equal to those of the material of piston rings and the cylinder liner. Concentrations of the elements contained in lubricant, such as Ca and Mo, were also conspicuously increased with the outputs. It was shown that PIXE analysis is a useful tool for engine diagonostics owing to its high sensitive multi-elemental availability without chemical treatments. (author)

  18. Design and Optimisation of Electrostatic Precipitator for Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivaas, A.; Sathian, Samanyu; Ramesh, Arjun

    2018-02-01

    The principle of an industrially used emission reduction technique is employed in automotive diesel exhaust to reduce the diesel particulate emission. As the Emission regulation are becoming more stringent legislations have been formulated, due to the hazardous increase in the air quality index in major cities. Initially electrostatic precipitation principle and working was investigated. The High voltage requirement in an Electrostatic precipitator is obtained by designing an appropriate circuit in MATLAB -SIMULINK. Mechanical structural design of the new model after treatment device for the specific diesel exhaust was done. Fluid flow analysis of the ESP model was carried out using ANSYS CFX for optimized fluid with a reduced back pressure. Design reconsideration was done in accordance with fluid flow analysis. Accordingly, a new design is developed by considering diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter design to ESP model.

  19. Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C.; Haas, G.

    1995-01-01

    Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges

  20. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site's 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF's exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls

  1. Mixed graphite cast iron for automotive exhaust component applications

    OpenAIRE

    De-lin Li

    2017-01-01

    Both spheroidal graphite iron and compacted graphite iron are used in the automotive industry. A recently proposed mixed graphite iron exhibits a microstructure between the conventional spheroidal graphite iron and compacted graphite iron. Evaluation results clearly indicate the suitability and benefits of mixed graphite iron for exhaust component applications with respect to casting, machining, mechanical, thermophysical, oxidation, and thermal fatigue properties. A new ASTM standard speci...

  2. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  3. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  4. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  5. Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

    2008-10-01

    Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust.

  6. Gravimetric Measurements of Filtering Facepiece Respirators Challenged With Diesel Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Swathi; Swanson, Jacob J; Xiao, Kai; Viner, Andrew S; Kittelson, David B; Pui, David Y H

    2017-07-01

    Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals. The objective of this study was to measure the penetration of DPM through NIOSH-certified R95 and P95 electret respirators to verify this result. Gravimetric-based penetration measurements conducted using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP) filters were compared with penetration measurements made with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, TSI Inc.), which measures the particle size distribution. Gravimetric measurements using PP filters were variable compared to SMPS measurements and biased high due to adsorption of gas phase organic material. Relatively inert PTFE filters adsorbed less gas phase organic material resulting in measurements that were more accurate. To attempt to correct for artifacts associated with adsorption of gas phase organic material, primary and secondary filters were used in series upstream and downstream of the FFR. Correcting for adsorption by subtracting the secondary mass from the primary mass improved the result for both PTFE and PP filters but this correction is subject to 'equilibrium' conditions that depend on sampling time and the concentration of particles and gas phase hydrocarbons. Overall, the results demonstrate that the use of filters to determine filtration efficiency of FFRs challenged with diesel exhaust produces erroneous results due to the presence of gas phase hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust and the tendency of filters to adsorb organic material. Published by

  7. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  8. Heat-pipe assisted thermoelectric generators for exhaust gas applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, L. M.; Martins, Jorge; Antunes, Joaquim; Rocha, Romeu; Brito, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of hybrid cars are already running on our roads with the purpose of reducing fossil fuel dependence. One of their main advantages is the recovery of wasted energy, namely by brake recovery. However, there are other sources of wasted energy in a car powered by an internal combustion engine, such as the heat lost through the cooling system, lubrication system (oil coolers) and in the exhaust system. These energies can be recuperated by the use of thermoelectric generators (TEG) based o...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the dilute wet-basis CO to dilute dry-basis values. An assumption that the percent of water by volume in the sample bag is 2 percent is acceptable. For example: Dilute dry CO=(dilute wet CO)/(1.00-0.02) (6) Calculate the raw dry-basis CO values by: Raw dry CO=(DF) (dilute dry CO) (c) If the raw exhaust...

  10. Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa [Kocaeli University, Technical Education Faculty, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Erdil, Ahmet [Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale University, Engineering Faculty, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the applicabilities of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been investigated for the performance and exhaust-emission values of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesels from different feedstocks and petroleum diesel fuels. The engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel-fuels (No. 1 and No. 2), biodiesels (from soybean oil and yellow grease), and their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were used as experimental results. The fuels were tested at full load (100%) at 1400-rpm engine speed, where the engine torque was 257.6Nm. To train the network, the average molecular weight, net heat of combustion, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, C/H ratio and cetane number of each fuel are used as the input layer, while outputs are the brake specific fuel-consumption, exhaust temperature, and exhaust emissions. The back-propagation learning algorithm with three different variants, single layer, and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. By using weights in the network, formulations have been given for each output. The network has yielded R{sup 2} values of 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 4.2 for the training data, while the R{sup 2} values are about 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 5.5 for the test data. The performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, using biodiesel blends with No. 2 diesel fuel up to 20%, have been predicted using the ANN model. sing the ANN model. (author)

  11. Adsorbent cartridge for the exhaust of diazo process machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michlin, N.; Thies, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A disposable cartridge filled with a chemical composition that acts as an adsorbent for ammonia vapor is adapted to be used in connection with a diazo process printing machine having a vacuum exhausted chamber. Exhaust from the chamber is passed through the cartridge to remove the noxious ammonia vapors and then is vented into the atmosphere. The cartridge is housed in an elongated rectangular cardboard box having three end flaps formed at each of its opposed open ends. Two opposed flaps of each set are formed with central holes and a plastic screen section adhered between these flaps to retain and allow access to the center section of the box which contains the adsorbent chemical. The center end flaps have knock-outs or tear strips that allow holes to be formed in their centers. These center end flaps cover the screens during shipment and when the cartridge is ready for use the center sections of these end flaps are knocked-out to allow the machine exhaust to be vented into and out of the cartridge

  12. Thermal analysis on x-ray tube for exhaust process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rao Ratnala, Srinivas; Veeresh Kumar, G. B.; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    It is great importance in the use of X-rays for medical purposes that the dose given to both the patient and the operator is carefully controlled. There are many types of the X- ray tubes used for different applications based on their capacity and power supplied. In present thesis maxi ray 165 tube is analysed for thermal exhaust processes with ±5% accuracy. Exhaust process is usually done to remove all the air particles and to degasify the insert under high vacuum at 2e-05Torr. The tube glass is made up of Pyrex material, 95%Tungsten and 5%rhenium is used as target material for which the melting point temperature is 3350°C. Various materials are used for various parts; during the operation of X- ray tube these waste gases are released due to high temperature which in turn disturbs the flow of electrons. Thus, before using the X-ray tube for practical applications it has to undergo exhaust processes. Initially we build MX 165 model to carry out thermal analysis, and then we simulate the bearing temperature profiles with FE model to match with test results with ±5%accuracy. At last implement the critical protocols required for manufacturing processes like MF Heating, E-beam, Seasoning and FT.

  13. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S P; Waitz, I A [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R C; Brown, R C; Anderson, M R [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W N [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  14. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  15. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  16. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  17. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Particle exhaust studies in Tore Supra with a pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Haste, G.R.; Horton, L.D.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chatelier, M.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.; Watkins, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The results presented here were obtained with the horizontal module only. This module was equipped with two titanium pumps with a total pumping speed of 100000 L/s. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyzer, Langmuir probes, a spectrometer viewing the neutralizer plate for H α and impurity measurements, and water calorimeters. All diagnostics have been commissioned and are operational. Initial results were obtained in low-density discharges, with no gas puffing during the shot. While only a modest effect on the plasma density was observed, large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter. The most likely source of this gas was outgassing of the graphite walls. Straightforward particle balance between the plasma efflux and the pump limiter exhaust, as applied in previous pump limiter experiments, did not apply. The core plasma and the edge plasma seemed to be largely decoupled and a multi-layer model is being developed to explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  19. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  20. Dislocation Starvation and Exhaustion Hardening in Mo-alloy Nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Claire [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Lowry, M. B. [University of California, Berkeley; Oh, Jason [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Asif, S.A. Syed [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Warren, O. [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Shan, Zhiwei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China & Hysitron, Inc., MN; George, Easo P [ORNL; Minor, Andrew [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of defects in Mo alloy nanofibers with initial dislocation densities ranging from 0 to 1.6 1014 m2 were studied using an in situ push-to-pull device in conjunction with a nanoindenter in a transmission electron microscope. Digital image correlation was used to determine stress and strain in local areas of deformation. When they had no initial dislocations the Mo alloy nanofibers suffered sudden catastrophic elongation following elastic deformation to ultrahigh stresses. At the other extreme fibers with a high dislocation density underwent sustained homogeneous deformation after yielding at much lower stresses. Between these two extremes nanofibers with intermediate dislocation densities demonstrated a clear exhaustion hardening behavior, where the progressive exhaustion of dislocations and dislocation sources increases the stress required to drive plasticity. This is consistent with the idea that mechanical size effects ( smaller is stronger ) are due to the fact that nanostructures usually have fewer defects that can operate at lower stresses. By monitoring the evolution of stress locally we find that exhaustion hardening causes the stress in the nanofibers to surpass the critical stress predicted for self-multiplication, supporting a plasticity mechanism that has been hypothesized to account for the rapid strain softening observed in nanoscale bcc materials at high stresses.

  1. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  2. Waste-to-energy permitting sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, D.; Wegrecki, A.; Williams, D.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental issues, regulatory processes and approvals important in obtaining a permit to construct and/or operate a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility are identified and discussed. Environmental issues include: (1) air emission levels, their control and potential impacts, (2) ash leachability, treatment, and disposal, (3) potential health risks from emissions, and (4) other issues such as need/benefit and public perception of WTE. Laws, regulations and approvals that can affect project development are identified and listed, and potential regulatory trends are discussed. A general permit acquisition plan is also presented. An analysis of environmental and regulatory data obtained from the literature, regulatory agencies, and specific projects is presented. California and Massachusetts, both with regulations generally more stringent than federal regulations and considered environmentally conservative, were selected for detailed state regulatory review. Two project case histories (Commerce Refuse-to-Energy (RTE) Project in California and SEMASS WTE Project in Massachusetts) were selected to illustrate: (1) how regulations are actually applied to a project, (2) project-specific permit and operating conditions, and (3) project-specific environmental issues. Modern WTE plots employ state-of-the-art air emission control technologies and strategies to reduce air emission is to levels below regulatory requirements and to reduce estimated health risks to within EPA's acceptable risk range. WTE ash leachate can exhibit hazardous waste characteristics, primarily lead and cadmium. However, modern landfills utilize liners and leachate collection systems to prevent infiltration of leachate into the groundwater supply. Modern WTE plants employ dry systems and have zero process wastewater discharge

  3. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  4. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  5. PSD Permit for the Marblehead Lime Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Honda Permits to Install 1 Year Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. 75 FR 27814 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... permit to export one female captive bred giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) born at the zoo in 2005 and... education. The permit numbers and animals are: 070854, Bimbo Jr.; 079868, Vickie; 079870, Jenny; 079871...

  8. A Framework for Building Efficient Environmental Permitting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ulibarri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as a tool for protecting air and water quality, and for mitigating impacts to protected species and ecosystems, the environmental permitting process is widely recognized to be inefficient and marked by delays. This article draws on a literature review and interviews with permitting practitioners to identify factors that contribute to delayed permit decisions. The sociopolitical context, projects that are complex or use novel technology, a fragmented and bureaucratic regulatory regime, serial permit applications and reviews, and applicant and permitting agency knowledge and resources each contribute to permitting inefficiency when they foster uncertainty, increase transaction costs, and allow divergent interests to multiply, yet remain unresolved. We then use the interviews to consider the potential of a collaborative dialogue between permitting agencies and applicants to mitigate these challenges, and argue that collaboration is well positioned to lessen permitting inefficiency.

  9. 34 CFR 395.35 - Terms of permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., periodicals, publications, confections, tobacco products, foods, beverages, chances for any lottery authorized... PROPERTY Federal Property Management § 395.35 Terms of permit. Every permit shall describe the location of...

  10. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... purpose of enhancing the species' survival. Permit No. TE-99477A Applicant: Benjamin S. Wallace, Fairfield...-99473A Applicant: Joseph D. Henry, San Diego, California The applicant requests a permit to take (capture...

  11. 76 FR 75897 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ...: EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Lewisville, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for... atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE-37047A Applicant: Sea World Parks and Entertainment, San Antonio, Texas...

  12. 76 FR 35235 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... chub (Gila intermedia), Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis), humpback chub (Gila... intermedia) within Arizona. Permit TE-43777A Applicant: Sea Life US, LLC, Grapevine, Texas. Applicant...), and Gila chub (Gila intermedia) within Arizona. Permit TE-118414 Applicant: Cherokee Nation, Tahlequah...

  13. Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Blanc, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

  14. Remediation General Permit (RGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Remediation Activity Discharges – the Remediation General Permit in MA (MAG910000) and NH (NHG910000).

  15. Physical characterization of diesel exhaust nucleation mode particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahde, T.

    2013-11-01

    An increasing concern of the adverse health effects of aerosol particles is forcing the combustion engine industry to develop engines with lower particle emissions. The industry has put most of their efforts into soot control and has achieved a significant reduction in diesel exhaust particle mass. Nevertheless, it is not clear that the large particles, dominating the mass, cause the harmfulness of the exhaust particles in the biological interaction. Nowadays, the harmful potential of diesel exhaust particles often connects with the particle surface area, and the view has turned to particle number below 100 nm size range. Unfortunately, the achieved low exhaust particle mass does not necessarily imply a low particle number. This text focuses on the physical characteristics of diesel exhaust nucleation model particles. The volatility characteristics and the electrical charge state of the particles are studied first. Second, the relation between the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions and the soot, the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions and the engine parameters are covered. The nucleation mode particles had distinctively different physical characteristics with different after-treatment systems. The nucleation mode was volatile and electrically neutral with a diesel particle filter after-treatment system. Without an after-treatment system or with an after-treatment system with low particle removal efficiency, the nucleation mode was partly nonvolatile and included an electrical charge. The difference suggests different formation routes for the nucleation particles with different after-treatment systems. The existence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particles also affected the soot mode charge state. The soot charge state was positively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was detected but slightly negatively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was absent. The nonvolatile nucleation mode was always negatively biased. This electrical charge

  16. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gasoline reformulation to reduce exhaust emissions in Finnish conditions. Influence of sulphur and benzene contents of gasoline on exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoe, M.; Aakko, P.; Lappi, M.

    1994-01-01

    At earlier stages of the study it was found that the exhaust emissions from cars are reduced when using fuels with no more than 4 wt% of oxygen. At this stage of the study the work focused on impacts of the sulphur and benzene content of gasoline on exhaust emissions in Finland. Sulphur in gasoline retards the operation of the catalyst, and consequently the exhaust emissions of catalyst cars increase if the sulphur content of the fuel increases. In the present study, evaporation during refuelling were measured for fuels with varying vapour pressures and benzene contents of gasoline. The total hydrocarbon evaporation was reduced by 22 % (10 g) when the vapour pressure of gasoline was reduced from 85 kPa to 65 kPa. Correspondingly, benzene evaporation during refuelling was reduced to a third when the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from the level of 3 wt% to 1 wt%. The reduction of the sulphur content of gasoline from 500 ppm to 100 ppm affected regulated exhaust emissions from the catalyst car at +22 deg C as follows: CO emission was reduced on average by 14 % (0.175 g/km), CH emission by 7 % (0.010 g/km) and NO x emission by 9 % (0.011 g/km). At-7 deg C the percentual changes were smaller. When the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from 3 wt% to 1 wt%, the benzene emission from the catalyst cars was reduced by 20-30 % and from the non-catalyst cars on average by 30 % both at +22 deg C and -7 deg C. The benzene emission ranged 3-22 mg/km for the catalyst cars and 40-90 mg/km for the non-catalyst cars at +22 deg C in the FTP test

  18. The Use of Transferable Permits in Transport Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raux, Charles

    2004-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2004.01.001; International audience; This paper considers potential use of domestic transferable, or tradable, permit systems for the purposes of travel management, especially reducing environmental nuisances. The main arguments for and against the use of permits are analyzed. Secondly two case studies of existing permit systems are examined. The main conclusions are that tradable permits can address greenhouse gas and regional atmospheric pollutant emissions, ...

  19. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  20. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  1. Are LMFBR permits unconstitutional. [German Feferal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H; Ziegler, E

    1977-12-01

    The August 18, 1977 decision by the Muenster Higher Administrative Court to have the Federal Constitutional Court investigate the constitutionality of permits granted for fast breeder power plants has aroused much attention, both in the FRG and in other countries. This is the first time that the German Atomic Energy Act is being questioned with respect to the separation of powers between legislative and executive authorities and also with respect to the principle of a constitutional state. As a result of their analysis of the first information available about the court decision the authors have some doubts as to whether the views held by the court about the consequences of the development of fast breeder reactors and of the permit granted for the SNR 300 demonstration nuclear power station are essentially correct. In view of the wording of and the official comments on the incriminated Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act and the large number of subsequent leading decisions by the Federal Diet about fast breeder reactors also the concern about the constitutionality of that reactor line appears to be unfounded.

  2. The run permit protection system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A Run Permit system has been designed for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The system implements mode-dependent software interlocks to ensure proper operation of the accelerator, enabling the ion source extractor and RF systems when proper conditions are met. The system is implemented using the GTA control system; thus all information available to the control system is also available for use in interlock logic. The logic is defined in terms of control system channels, which reflect accelerator parameters such as actuator positions, power supply values, temperatures, etc. A mode switch in the control room selects the accelerator operating mode, for example i njector only . The Run Permit software selects interlock logic as appropriate operating mode. This implementation easily accommodates logic changes as requirements evolve. To ensure reliable operation of a software-based system, a special circuit with a watch-dog timer is employed to produce the system's output signals. The software must periodically address the circuit, or the output signals are forced to a disabled state. For additional protection, there are self-test provisions for detecting and reacting to failures of the control system. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  3. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constitutents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 Appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  4. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  5. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  6. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  7. Work plan for new SY tank farm exhauster, on-site fabrication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement SY tank farm exhauster unit is a new piece of equipment, designed to replace the existing SY tank farm K1 Ventilation System exhauster unit. This work plan describes the shop fabrication activities associated with the receiving, assembly, repair, modification, and testing of the new SY tank farm primary exhauster. A general list of these activities include, but are not limited to: repair all shipping damages, including procurement of replacement parts; fabricate hardware needed to install exhauster in the field (e.g., Vent duct tie-in, duct concrete footings/hangers, stack concrete footings, etc.); incorporate equipment modification as provided by WHC Engineering (e.g., Rewire the Alarm Annunciator Cabinet as fail-safe, connections between the exhauster and stack sample cabinet, etc.); test the entire exhauster unit, to the extent possible, prior to field installation; and prepare exhauster unit for transfer to and installation at SY tank farm

  8. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E L; Holopainen, J; Kaerenlampi, L [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  9. A Low Cost Ferritic Stainless Steel Microalloyed by Higher Nb for Automotive Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Erhu; Wang, Xuelin; Shang, Chengjia

    Automotive engine exhaust gas after combustion of fuel, and the gas will be liquefied in the rear of automotive exhaust system. A lot of corrosive anions existing in the condensate make corrosion of the exhaust system materials. Therefore, once pitting perforation, automotive exhaust system will fail directly. In 1980s, automotive exhaust manifold was made of Si-Mo ductile iron, mufflers and the tail pipe were made of carbon steel or aluminized steel. But with higher emission standards carried out, the improvement of engine performance and the higher exhaust temperature as well as the needs of the automotive light-weighting, we need the higher corrosion resistance of the material for automotive exhaust systems to meet the requirements.

  10. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The...

  11. 75 FR 20622 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    .... Permit No. TE-02997A Applicant: University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii. The applicant requests a permit to... scientific research including genetic, morphological and behavioral research on the island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii for the purpose of enhancing its survival. The applicant also requests a permit to take...

  12. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.56 Geological and geophysical permits. Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  13. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56... FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.56 Geological and geophysical permits. (a) Permits to conduct geological and geophysical operations on Indian lands which do not...

  14. 40 CFR 270.65 - Research, development, and demonstration permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research, development, and... Special Forms of Permits § 270.65 Research, development, and demonstration permits. (a) The Administrator may issue a research, development, and demonstration permit for any hazardous waste treatment facility...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2184 - Operating permits for minor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating permits for minor sources. 52... permits for minor sources. Emission limitations and related provisions established in South Dakota minor... right to deem permit conditions not federally enforceable. Such a determination will be made according...

  16. 77 FR 34061 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  17. 78 FR 27255 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  18. 78 FR 56922 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  19. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available for review upon... photography on 12 cetacean species had been submitted by the above-named applicant. The requested permit has...

  20. 78 FR 24305 - Actions on Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... special permit Lincoln, NE. to authorize an alternative fire protection system. 11624-M Clean Harbors 49... Special Permit Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on Special Permit Applications. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 96.323 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.323 Section 96.323 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... the permitting authority, as necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit...

  2. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  3. 50 CFR 20.64 - Foreign export permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign export permits. 20.64 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.64 Foreign export permits. No... such birds are accompanied by export permits, tags, or other documentation required by applicable...

  4. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  5. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  6. 75 FR 47583 - Application to Rescind Presidential Permit; Joint Application for Presidential Permit; British...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Presidential Permit No. PP-22, as amended, to BC Hydro. The application requested that the Department of Energy... the transmission of electric energy between the United States and a foreign country is prohibited in... law pursuant to British Columbia's Clean Energy Act. Since restructuring of the electric power...

  7. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit. 108.12 Section 108.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... General Provisions § 108.12 Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a...

  8. Regulatory Review of Early Site Permit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and is reviewing three applications for early site permits (ESPs). The ESP process allows early resolution of site-related issues affecting possible construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant. The nuclear industry views a successful and predictable ESP process as an important step in assessing whether to seek authorization to construct and operate a new generation of nuclear power reactors in the United States. Because consideration of ESP applications is a first-of-a-kind activity, a number of issues have emerged prior to and during the reviews of the first three applications. Issues have included the need for design information at the ESP stage, accident analyses, quality assurance, and seismic analyses. The NRC has been working to resolve identified issues to support a Commission decision on whether to issue an ESP approximately 33-37 months after receipt of each ESP application. (authors)

  9. Requirements for permitting a mixed waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichon, M.; Feldman, J.; Serne, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The consideration, design, selection and operation of any incinerator depends primarily on characteristic quality (ultimate and proximate analyses) and quantity to the waste to be incinerated. In the case of burning any combination of mixed hazardous, biomedical and radioactive low level waste, specific federal and generic state environmental regulatory requirements are outlined. Combustion chamber temperature and waste residence time requirements will provide the rest of the envelope for consideration. Performance requirements must be balanced between the effects of time and temperature on destruction of the organic waste and the vaporization and possible emission of the inorganic waste components (e.g., toxic metals, radioactive inorganics) as operating conditions and emission levels will be set in state and federal regulatory permits. To this end the complete characterization of the subject waste stream must be determined if an accurate assessment of incineration effectiveness and impact are to be performed

  10. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  12. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  14. Exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelil, Abdellali; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible. Here, we describe a strategy, called DALEL, for the exhaustive search of linear sequence information encoded in proteins that bind to a common partner. We applied DALEL to explore binding specificity of SH3 domains in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using only the polypeptide sequences of SH3 domain binding proteins, we succeeded in identifying the majority of known SH3 binding sites previously discovered either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, we discovered a number of sites with both non-canonical sequences and distinct properties that may serve ancillary roles in peptide recognition. We compared DALEL to a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in the blind identification of known binding sites of the human Grb2 SH3 domain. We also benchmarked DALEL on curated biological motifs derived from the ELM database to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing the enrichment of the motifs. Our strategy can be applied in conjunction with experimental data of proteins interacting with a common partner to identify binding sites among them. Yet, our strategy can also be applied to any group of proteins of interest to identify enriched linear motifs or to exhaustively explore the space of linear information encoded in a polypeptide sequence. Finally, we have developed a webserver located at http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca/dalel, offering user-friendly interface and providing different scenarios utilizing DALEL.

  15. Frequency band analysis of muscle activation during cycling to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diefenthaeler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p243 Lower limb muscles activation was assessed during cycling to exhaustion using frequency band analysis. Nine cyclists were evaluated in two days. On the first day, cyclists performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise to measure peak power output, which was used on the second day to define the workload for a constant load time to exhaustion cycling exercise (maximal aerobic power output from day 1. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL, long head of biceps femoris (BF, lateral head of gastrocnemius (GL, and tibialis anterior (TA from the right lower limb was recorded during the time to exhaustion cycling exercise. A series of nine band-pass Butterworth digital filters was used to analyze muscle activity amplitude for each band. The overall amplitude of activation and the high and low frequency components were defined to assess the magnitude of fatigue effects on muscle activity via effect sizes. The profile of the overall muscle activation during the test was analyzed using a second order polynomial, and the variability of the overall bands was analyzed by the coefficient of variation for each muscle in each instant of the test. Substantial reduction in the high frequency components of VL and BF activation was observed. The overall and low frequency bands presented trivial to small changes for all muscles. High relationship between the second order polynomial fitting and muscle activity was found (R2 > 0.89 for all muscles. High variability (~25% was found for muscle activation at the four instants of the fatigue test. Changes in the spectral properties of the EMG signal were only substantial when extreme changes in fatigue state were induced.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Zheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the incremental (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR. • Proposed one-step equations for transient/steady-state gas concentration estimation. • Defined an in-cylinder excess-air ratio to account for the recycled oxygen with EGR. • Demonstrated the use of intake oxygen as a reliable measure of EGR effectiveness. • Demonstrated the impact of engine load and intake pressure on EGR effectiveness. - Abstract: Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet NOx targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR

  17. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  18. Mixed graphite cast iron for automotive exhaust component applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-lin Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both spheroidal graphite iron and compacted graphite iron are used in the automotive industry. A recently proposed mixed graphite iron exhibits a microstructure between the conventional spheroidal graphite iron and compacted graphite iron. Evaluation results clearly indicate the suitability and benefits of mixed graphite iron for exhaust component applications with respect to casting, machining, mechanical, thermophysical, oxidation, and thermal fatigue properties. A new ASTM standard specification (A1095 has been created for compacted, mixed, and spheroidal graphite silicon-molybdenum iron castings. This paper attempts to outline the latest progress in mixed graphite iron published.

  19. Nickel removal from exhausted electroplatting baths by using vegetable wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, María del Rosario; Villaescusa Gil, Isabel; Fiol Santalo, Núria; Miralles Esteban, Núria; Florido Pérez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    During the last years our research group has been studying the use of industrial vegetable wastes as grape stalks and exhausted coffee to remove metals ions such as Ni(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in aqueous solution from the point of view to use these wastes as biosorbents in a low cost alternative to activated carbon for wastewater treatment. The optimal experimental conditions for the removal of each of these metal ions in synthetic solutions by using both bio...

  20. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  1. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    . Challenges with this technology include dosing the appropriate amount of urea to reach sufficient NOx conversion, while at the same time keeping NH3- slip from the exhaust system below the legislation. This requires efficient control algorithms. The focus of this thesis is modelling and control of the SCR...... parameters were estimated using bench-scale monolith isothermal data. Validation was done by simulating the out-put from a full-scale SCR monolith that was treating real engine gases from the European Transient Cycle (ETC). Results showed that the models were successfully calibrated, and that some......, and simulating the system....

  2. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  3. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed...... background air distribution at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. The use of the device showed a great potential in reducing the concentration of exhaled air in the room to the level measured under mixing ventilation alone at 12 ACH. The high potential to capture exhaled air, makes the wearable PV applicable as an efficient...

  4. TASKA-M exhaust system and its main components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.W.; Mueller, R.A.; Schramm, K.

    1985-01-01

    TASKA-M is a study for a mirror based D-T plasma device for fusion technology tests. Mature technology was applied whereever possible. The axial confinement time is relatively short, resulting in a large gas throughput compared to the fusion power level of 6.8 MW. The technological requirements of the exhaust system will not cause undue development problems in either of the two major areas: highly loaded dumps for the conversion of the escaping particle and plasma streams to thermal gas; vacuum pumping facilities. (orig.)

  5. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  6. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop......Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  7. Fault tree analysis of Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, E.V.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust Systems, is a $177 million project with the purpose of upgrading the Exhaust Systems for both F and H Canyon Facilities. This upgrade will replace major portions of the F and H-Canyon exhaust systems, downstream of their respective sand filters with higher capacity and more reliable systems. Because of the high cost, DOE requested Program Control ampersand Integration (PC ampersand I) to examine specific deletions to the project. PC ampersand I requested Nuclear Processes Safety Research (NPSR) to perform an analysis to compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed exhaust system and specific proposed exhaust system alternatives. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis and compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed project exhaust system and proposed project alternatives. Based on fault tree analysis, two conclusions are made. First, D ampersand D activities can be eliminated from the project with no significant decrease to exhaust system safety. Deletion of D ampersand D activities would result in a cost savings of $29 million. Second, deletion of DOE Order 6430.1A requirements regarding DBAs would decrease exhaust system safety by a factor of 12

  8. Numerical calculation on infrared characteristics of the special vehicle exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Li, Xiao-xia; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    For mastery of infrared radiation characteristics and flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, first, a physical model of the special vehicle exhaust system is established with the Gambit, and the mathematical model of flow field is determined. Secondly, software Fluent6.3 is used to simulated the 3-D exterior flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, and the datum of flow field, such as temperature, pressure and density, are obtained. Thirdly, based on the plume temperature, the special vehicle exhaust space is divided. The exhaust is equivalent to a gray-body. A calculating model of the vehicle exhaust infrared radiation is established, and the exhaust infrared radiation characteristics are calculated by the software MATLAB, then the spatial distribution curves are drawn. Finally, the numerical results are analyzing, and the basic laws of the special vehicle exhaust infrared radiation are explored. The results show that with the increase of the engine speed, the temperature of the exhaust pipe wall of the special vehicle increases, and the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas flow field increase, which leads to the enhancement of the infrared radiation intensity

  9. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  10. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2003-11-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O{sub 2} concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O{sub 2}) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO{sub x} gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO{sub x} but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  11. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  12. 40 CFR 92.129 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Data records from any one or a combination of analyzers may be stored as chart recorder records. (c) Software zero and span. (1) The use of “software” zero and span is permitted. The process of software zero and span refers to the technique of initially adjusting the analyzer zero and span responses to the...

  13. Coping with EPA's new petroleum industry storm water permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veal, S.C.; Whitescarver, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has just released for public comment its so-called multi-sector industry specific storm water permit. This permit -- developed in response to the 730 group storm water permit applications submitted in 1992 to EPA -- proposes the establishment of specific runoff sampling and facility design requirements for at least two petroleum industry sectors. This proposed permit establishes specific conditions for the oil and gas extraction section (SIC group 13) and for lubricant manufacturers (SIC 2992). Permit conditions are also established for allied industrial sectors such as the chemical, transportation and asphalt materials industries. By most standards, the proposed permit is much tougher than EPA's baseline general permit for storm water discharges which was released in September of 1992. For example, under the proposal, most industries are required to perform periodic storm water sampling. EPA has also established storm water effluent and performance standards for several industrial categories. This paper will discuss the petroleum industry specific conditions of the new permit. The paper will also discuss the results of the industry-wide storm water sampling efforts undertaken by more than 300 oil patch facilities across the country. In particular, sampling results will be discussed in the context to the permit conditions proposed by EPA. The paper will also discuss strategies for dealing with the new permits

  14. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Power exhaust by impurity seeding in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias; Kallenbach, Arne; Dux, Ralph; Wischmeier, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Reimold, Felix [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK, Juelich (Germany); Lipschultz, Bruce [University of York, York Plasma Institute, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-07-01

    Power exhaust is one of the big challenges for future fusion reactors. The power load at the divertor targets, the primary plasma-wall interaction zone, would exceed material limits and, thus, must be reduced. Therefore, 90% of the exhaust power needs to be dissipated and the divertor is anticipated to be in the detached regime, where the interaction of the plasma with the wall is significantly reduced. Radiation is the dominant dissipation process and is increased by impurity seeding. The radiation distribution can be tailored by using different seed impurities (N for radiation outside, Ne and Ar for radiation at the edge of and Kr for radiation inside the confined region). The tailoring of the radiation profile is required in order to maximize the radiated power and at the same time minimize the impact on the energy confinement. Recent experiments with intense impurity seeding at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak demonstrate operation at highest heat fluxes and detached divertor targets at radiated power fractions of up to 90%. In these scenarios the radiation originates predominantly from the confined region and leads to an unexpectedly small confinement reduction.

  16. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  17. Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

  18. The incorporation of exhauster powder mass in ceramics atomised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, W.R.; Valentina, L. Dalla; Folgueiras, M.V.; Semptikovski, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    Inside the context of alternative search for the use of industrial waste as natural raw for the industrial ceramic, this work had the objective to evaluate the possibility of the use of exhauster powder generated in the foundry process. The characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis, noting that it is a powder with a high content of fine and compatible with the composition of ceramic bodies. Formulations were prepared with different exhauster powder content. The sintered materials at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C were characterized according technological properties as water absorption, linear shrinkage, bulk density and apparent density. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that it is possible to use the waste. It was observed that the waste increase the density in sintering process, and with high levels of waste occurs an increase of the porosity and intensification in the color of the new material. (author)

  19. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  20. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  1. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  2. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10 31 H 2 O and H 2 molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10 29 exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0 + ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described

  3. TCV experiments towards the development of a plasma exhaust solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B. P.; Harrison, J. R.; Labit, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Lunt, T.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Verhaegh, K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Innocente, P.; Maurizio, R.; Pericoli, V.; Sheikh, U.; Spolare, M.; Vianello, N.; the TCV Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-12-01

    Research towards a plasma exhaust solution for a fusion power plant aims at validating edge physics models, strengthening predictive capabilities and improving the divertor configuration. The TCV tokamak is extensively used to investigate the extent that geometric configuration modifications can affect plasma exhaust performance. Recent TCV experiments continue previous detachment studies of Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in standard single-null configurations, benefitting from a range of improved diagnostic capabilities. Studies were extended to nitrogen seeding and an entire suite of alternative magnetic configurations, including flux flaring towards the target (X divertor), increasing the outer target radius (Super-X) and movement of a secondary x-point inside the vessel (X-point target) as well as the entire range of snowflake configurations. Nitrogen seeding into a snowflake minus configuration demonstrated a regime with strong radiation in the large region between the two x-points, confirming EMC3-Eirene simulations, and opening a promising path towards highly radiating regimes with limited adverse effects on core performance.

  4. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Investing exhaustible resource rents and the path of consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.; Hartwick, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a brief analysis of the concept of maintaining capital intact in an economy with 2 capital goods: one produced, and one an exhaustible oil stock. Oil stock supplies a vital input flow to the economy every day. The authors characterized dollar-valued national wealth and income. The magnitude of net investment has become pivotal in measuring the sustainability of an economy. This study linked the investment of exhaustible resource rents to growth in a model with energy consumption varying through time, as in a model of optimal savings. Dollar-valued net national product was set out for the economy with the essential, but wasting oil stock. The study applied the principle of maintaining capital intact and locally unchanging consumption. The percentage change in net investment or genuine savings, relative to the market rate of interest, determines whether current consumption is rising, constant, or declining. In the case of utility discount rates, it was observed that at a point of locally unchanging consumption, the net investment equals the prevailing market rate of interest, and the level of net investment is negative. The consumption increases when the percentage change in net investment is lower than the market rate of interest, and the reverse is true when consumption decreases. The connection between zero net investment and constant consumption was clarified. The sign of current net investment was found to be a good indicator of the direction of national wealth and income. 15 refs

  6. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-05

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from 98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners.

  7. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  8. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  9. Will you thrive under pressure or burn out? Linking anxiety motivation and emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Lopes, Paulo N; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Can individual differences in the tendency to use anxiety as a source of motivation explain emotional exhaustion? We examined the effects of using anxiety as a source of energy or as a source of information (viewed here as two forms of anxiety motivation) on emotional exhaustion. In Study 1, the use of anxiety as a source of energy predicted decreased emotional exhaustion one year later. Moreover, both forms of anxiety motivation buffered people from the detrimental effects of trait anxiety on later emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, an experiment, participants who were instructed to use anxiety as a source of energy reported lower emotional exhaustion following a stressful task, compared to those instructed to focus on the task or to simply do their best. These findings suggest that using anxiety as a source of motivation may protect people against emotional exhaustion.

  10. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  11. 14C-labeled diesel exhaust particles: chemical characteristics and bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Dutcher, J.S.; Brooks, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Little is known about the deposition, retention and biological fate of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust particles. In the studies reported here, a one-cylinder diesel engine was operated on diesel fuel spiked with 14 C-benzene, 14 C-hexadecane or 14 C-dotriacontane to generate 14 C-labeled diesel exhaust. Approximately 1% of the exhaust radioactivity was associated with the particulate phase of diesel exhaust. Chemical fractionation of the particle extract showed the 14 C to be present in each of the various chemical class fractions collected. Serum removed approx. 60% of the dichloromethane extractable radioactivity from these diesel particles while saline removed only approx. 6%. This suggested that the organic compounds may be removed from diesel particles in vivo. Future inhalation exposures of rodents to 14 C-labeled diesel exhausts are planned to gain additional information on the health risk of human exposure to diesel exhaust

  12. Watershed-based point sources permitting strategy and dynamic permit-trading analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2007-09-01

    Permit-trading policy in a total maximum daily load (TMDL) program may provide an additional avenue to produce environmental benefit, which closely approximates what would be achieved through a command and control approach, with relatively lower costs. One of the important considerations that might affect the effective trading mechanism is to determine the dynamic transaction prices and trading ratios in response to seasonal changes of assimilative capacity in the river. Advanced studies associated with multi-temporal spatially varied trading ratios among point sources to manage water pollution hold considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper aims to present an integrated simulation and optimization analysis for generating spatially varied trading ratios and evaluating seasonal transaction prices accordingly. It is designed to configure a permit-trading structure basin-wide and provide decision makers with a wealth of cost-effective, technology-oriented, risk-informed, and community-based management strategies. The case study, seamlessly integrating a QUAL2E simulation model with an optimal waste load allocation (WLA) scheme in a designated TMDL study area, helps understand the complexity of varying environmental resources values over space and time. The pollutants of concern in this region, which are eligible for trading, mainly include both biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The problem solution, as a consequence, suggests an array of waste load reduction targets in a well-defined WLA scheme and exhibits a dynamic permit-trading framework among different sub-watersheds in the study area. Research findings gained in this paper may extend to any transferable dynamic-discharge permit (TDDP) program worldwide.

  13. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    backpressure can decrease engine power by ~1% per inch Hg.27 A specific exhaust heat exchanger design would need to take this effect into account...Materials. 2009;39:2142–2148. 4. Sprouse III C, Depcik C. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery...Adams TG. Effect of exhaust system design on engine performance. 1980. SAE Technical Paper No. 800319. 16 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL

  14. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  15. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  16. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used

  17. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  18. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively...

  19. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.

    1982-01-07

    The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.

  1. A Hybrid approach for aeroacoustic analysis of the engine exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana, Y; Munjal, ML

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid approach for prediction of noise radiation from engine exhaust systems. It couples the time domain analysis of the engine and the frequency domain analysis of the muffler, and has the advantages of both. In this approach, cylinder/cavity is analyzed in the time domain to calculate the exhaust mass flux history at the exhaust valve by means of the method of characteristics, avoiding the tedious procedure of interpolation at every mesh point and solving a number...

  2. Conference report : PERM-IT '97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.; Yeabsley, A.

    1997-01-01

    The PERM-IT conference (Physics Engineering Radiation Medicine with a special emphasis on Information Technology) which was held in Adelaide with an attendance of about 250, was the joint annual meeting of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society, the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, the College of Biomedical Engineers of the Institution of Engineers Australia and the Society for Medical and Biological Engineering. The program was organised with three parallel sessions running most of the time, with plenary sessions for items of particular interest featuring keynote speakers from around the world. Attendance at this conference allowed the opportunity to meet with colleagues in other regulatory agencies, and Australia has a number of these. But what should be done about radioactive waste? A universal groan is raised by radiation protection regulatory authority staff at this question. Plans are afoot to develop a whole of Australia radioactive waste repository with both burial and above ground facilities. An announcement on the suitability of various sites in order of preference is expected, but in the meantime, facilities are fragemented. Discussions were held with staff from the radiation standards section of the Australian Radiation Laboratory who face similar problems to NRL including reducing funding, the move to cost recovery, and working towards quality managment accreditation. Plans for a further intercomparison between the Australian and NZ primary standards are being made. (author)

  3. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report

  4. Moral concerns on tradable pollution permits in international environmental agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Johan [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel - HUB, Stormstraat 2, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studien Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kverndokk, Snorre [Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate how moral concerns about permit trading affect an endogenous pollution permit trading equilibrium, where governments choose non-cooperatively the amount of permits they allocate to domestic industries. Politicians may feel reluctant to allow permit trading and/or may prefer that abatement is undertaken domestically because of moral concerns. This will have an effect on the initial permit allocations, and, therefore, on global emissions. The impact on global emissions depends on the precise formulation of the moral concerns, but under reasonable assumptions, we show that global emissions may increase. Thus, doing what is perceived as good does not always yield the desired outcome. However, this can be offset by restrictions on permit trading when governments have moral concerns about this trade. (author)

  5. Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the project "Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy". The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operationbetween Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager...... for a tradable CO_2 permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable SO_2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. Topresent an overview of price estimates of CO_2 and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading...... to the different outcomes. Furthermore, the special role of backstop technologies in relation to permit prices isanalysed. To analyse the connection between CO_2 permit prices and technology choice in the energy sector in the medium and longer term (i.e., 2010 and 2020) with a special emphasis on combined heat...

  6. Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of marketable permits for pollution control has become evident in recent years. Concern regarding their performance still remains because empirical evidence has shown transaction costs and uncertainty to be significant in past and existing marketable permits programs. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical models that include transaction costs and uncertainty (in trade approval) to show their effects on market performance (i.e., equilibrium price of permits and trading volume) and aggregate control costs. We also show that in the presence of transaction costs and uncertainty the initial allocation of permits may not be neutral in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, using a numerical model for a hypothetical NO x trading program in which participants have discrete control technology choices, we find that aggregate control costs and the equilibrium price of permits are sensitive to the initial allocation of permits, even for constant marginal transaction costs and certainty

  7. Moral concerns on tradable pollution permits in international environmental agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Johan; Kverndokk, Snorre

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how moral concerns about permit trading affect an endogenous pollution permit trading equilibrium, where governments choose non-cooperatively the amount of permits they allocate to domestic industries. Politicians may feel reluctant to allow permit trading and/or may prefer that abatement is undertaken domestically because of moral concerns. This will have an effect on the initial permit allocations, and, therefore, on global emissions. The impact on global emissions depends on the precise formulation of the moral concerns, but under reasonable assumptions, we show that global emissions may increase. Thus, doing what is perceived as good does not always yield the desired outcome. However, this can be offset by restrictions on permit trading when governments have moral concerns about this trade. (author)

  8. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  9. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees’ emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees’ emotional exhaustion.

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11.   Exhaustion of Rights and Common Principles of European Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    of Market Integration. On the basis of case law on the concept of "consent" from the Trade Marks-Directive a Common Principle is then established. According to this, the legal framework for understanding the exhaustion rules is IPR and not national contract law. The Principle would seem to have horizontal......This article discusses whether or not Common Principles exist in EU law regarding exhaustion of rights ("first sale"). Traditionally, the law of the EU-countries conceptualized exhaustion in two different ways: Either "Contract" (e.g. UK law) or "Principle of exhaustion" (e.g. German law).  Whereas...

  12. Software configuration plan for the 1,000 CFM portable exhauster's small logic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the formal documentation for maintaining the control system associated with the 1,000 CFM portable exhauster's. The objective of the software configuration control plan is to provide assurances that the portable exhauster's control system will be operable for the duration of 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 operations (project 320). The design was based upon the criteria documented in the portable exhauster functional design criteria (HNF-SD-WM-DB-035) and procurement specification (HNF-S-0490) for the exhauster interlock systems

  13. Toxicity of power vehicles exhaust gases using bio fuels of different composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, I.; Berjoza, D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to state the influence of different bio fuels on the surrounding environment using them in diesel motors. The work summarises information on the composition of toxic components in vehicle exhaust gases, their influence on the surrounding environment. Characteristic features of different biofuels are summarised as well as their application possibilities in diesel motors. Measuring devices and measuring methods of toxic components of exhaust gases have been classified. Different measuring regimes of diesel motor exhaust gases have been described. Research in automobile Renault, equipped with diesel motor, exhaust gas smokiness using different biofuels has been carried out (author)

  14. Determination of the radioiodine species in the exhaust air of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the selective I 2 sorption materials DSM 10 and DSM 11 measurements were performed with radioiodine species samplers in the exhaust air of a research reactor and of several nuclear power stations (BWR, PWR). The radioiodine species samplers were used upstream and downstream of iodine filters (containment exhaust air stand-by filter, shutoff room exhaust air filter) as well as in the exhaust air of the stack. The results obtained by use of DSM 10 and DSM 11 generally agreed. The percentage of aerosol iodine was low in all cases ( [de

  15. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-pipe Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H.; Wcislo, Chester R.; Dexter, Howard E.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were made to develop a simplified method for designing exhaust-pipe shrouds to provide desired or maximum cooling of exhaust installations. Analysis of heat exchange and pressure drop of an adequate exhaust-pipe shroud system requires equations for predicting design temperatures and pressure drop on cooling air side of system. Present experiments derive such equations for usual straight annular exhaust-pipe shroud systems for both parallel flow and counter flow. Equations and methods presented are believed to be applicable under certain conditions to the design of shrouds for tail pipes of jet engines.

  16. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees' Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Petridou, Eugenia; Krouklidou, Theodora

    2015-11-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees' emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees' emotional exhaustion.

  17. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  18. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  19. Proposed Issuance of NPDES Permit for NTUA Kayenta WWTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Notice of proposed Issuance of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (NPDES No. NN0020281) for Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (“NTUA”) Kayenta Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  20. 75 FR 66123 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... enhancing their survival. Permit No. TE-24582A Applicant: Russell C. Croel, Folsom, California. The..., Contra Costa, Fresno, Glenn, Kings, Merced, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Solano, Stanislaus...

  1. 78 FR 9067 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... County, Alabama. Permit Application Number: TE-91366A Applicant: Dr. Paul Stewart, Troy, Alabama...: TE-91373A Applicant: Jonathan Miller, Troy, Alabama. Applicant requests authorization to take...

  2. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  3. Guide to Permitting Hydrogen Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    The purpose of this guide is to assist project developers, permitting officials, code enforcement officials, and other parties involved in developing permit applications and approving the implementation of hydrogen motor fuel dispensing facilities. The guide facilitates the identification of the elements to be addressed in the permitting of a project as it progresses through the approval process; the specific requirements associated with those elements; and the applicable (or potentially applicable) codes and standards by which to determine whether the specific requirements have been met. The guide attempts to identify all applicable codes and standards relevant to the permitting requirements.

  4. Ion-ion Recombination and Chemiion Concentrations In Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    Jet aircraft emit large quantities of ultrafine volatile aerosols, as well as soot parti- cles, into the environment. To determine the long-term effects of these emissions, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control particle formation and evolution is needed, including the number and size dispersion. A recent explanation for aerosol nucleation in a jet wake involves the condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, and cer- tain organic compounds, onto charged molecular clusters (chemiions) generated in the engine combustors (Yu and Turco, 1997). Massive charged aggregates, along with sulfuric acid and organic precursor vapors, have been detected in jet plumes under cruise conditions. In developing the chemiion nucleation theory, Yu and Turco noted that ion-ion recombination in the engine train and jet core should limit the chemiion emission index to 1017/kg-fuel. This value is consistent with ion-ion recombination coefficients of 1×10-7 cm3/s over time scales of 10-2 s. However, the evolution of the ions through the engine has not been adequately studied. The conditions at the combustor exit are extreme-temperatures approach 1500 K, and pressures can reach 30 atmospheres. In this presentation, we show that as the combustion gases expand and cool, two- and three-body ion-ion recombination processes control the chemiion concentration. The concepts of mutual neutralization and Thomson recombination are first summarized, and appropriate temperature and pressure dependent recombination rate coefficients are derived for the aircraft problem. A model for ion losses in jet exhaust is then formulated using an "invariance" principle discussed by Turco and Yu (1997) in the context of a coagulating aerosol in an expanding plume. This recombina- tion model is applied to estimate chemiion emission indices for a range of operational engine conditions. The predicted ion emission rates are found to be consistent with observations. We discuss the sources of variance in chemiion

  5. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T; Gerz, T; Doernbrack, A [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  6. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Hospital Discharge Register to detect registrations with type 2 diabetes until 2014. Results: A high degree of VE was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in both substudies. In the first substudy, the OR for developing type 2 diabetes was 2.56 (95% CI, 1.53; 4,29, P ...Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...... investigate whether VE is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a Danish population. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1991–1993). The degree of VE was measured among 9075 participants without type 1 or 2 diabetes at baseline. To detect type 2...

  7. Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour.

  8. Human skeletal muscle glycogen utilization in exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2011-01-01

    Although glycogen is known to be heterogeneously distributed within skeletal muscle cells, there is presently little information available about the role of fibre types, utilization and resynthesis during and after exercise with respect to glycogen localization. Here, we tested the hypothesis...... to be influenced by fibre type prior to exercise, as well as carbohydrate availability during the subsequent period of recovery. These findings provide insight into the significance of fibre type-specific compartmentalization of glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle during exercise and subsequent recovery. ....... that utilization of glycogen with different subcellular localizations during exhaustive arm and leg exercise differs and examined the influence of fibre type and carbohydrate availability on its subsequent resynthesis. When 10 elite endurance athletes (22 ± 1 years, VO2 max = 68 ± 5 ml kg-1 min-1, mean ± SD...

  9. Exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.; Dommes, W.; Gerwig, W.

    1982-01-21

    The invention aimes at the heat protection of a turbocharger for internal combustion engines. The turbine is feeded with exhaust gas and drives the shaft of a compressor. For resolving this problem a thermal shield has been installed on the backside of the turbine. The shaft is sealed with an elastic gasket ring. This gasket avoids the deposition of dust and dirt. As a consequence of this constructive measure a growth of tinder and oxides can be avoided as well as the deposition of dirt. A constant reflection factor is ensured. The thermal shield can be manufactured of thin sheet with a nickel surface and can fastened with distance pieces on the backside of the turbine case. Furthermore it is possible to use a ceramic heat shield.

  10. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T.; Gerz, T.; Doernbrack, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  11. A multilayer model to simulate rocket exhaust clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the MSDEF (Modelo Simulador da Dispersão de Efluentes de Foguetes, in Portuguese model, which represents the solution for time-dependent advection-diffusion equation applying the Laplace transform considering the Atmospheric Boundary Layer as a multilayer system. This solution allows a time evolution description of the concentration field emitted from a source during a release lasting time tr , and it takes into account deposition velocity, first-order chemical reaction, gravitational settling, precipitation scavenging, and plume rise effect. This solution is suitable for describing critical events relative to accidental release of toxic, flammable, or explosive substances. A qualitative evaluation of the model to simulate rocket exhaust clouds is showed.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  13. SNM holdup assessment of Los Alamos exhaust ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    Fissile material holdup in glovebox and fume hood exhaust ducting has been quantified for all Los Alamos duct systems. Gamma-based, nondestructive measurements were used to quantify holdup. The measurements were performed during three measurement campaigns. The first campaign, Phase I, provided foot-by-foot, semiquantitative measurement data on all ducting. These data were used to identify ducting that required more accurate (quantitative) measurement. Of the 280 duct systems receiving Phase I measurements, 262 indicated less than 50 g of fissile holdup and 19 indicated fissile holdup of 50 or more grams. Seven duct systems were measured in a second campaign, called Series 1, Phase II. Holdup estimates on these ducts ranged from 421 g of 235 U in a duct servicing a shut-down uranium-machining facility to 39 g of 239 Pu in a duct servicing an active plutonium-processing facility. Measurements performed in the second campaign proved excessively laborious, so a third campaign was initiated that used more efficient instrumentation at some sacrifice in measurement quality. Holdup estimates for the 12 duct systems measured during this third campaign ranged from 70 g of 235 U in a duct servicing analytical laboratories to 1 g of 235 U and 1 g of 239 Pu in a duct carrying exhaust air to a remote filter building. These quantitative holdup estimates support the conclusion made at the completion of the Phase I measurements that only ducts servicing shut-down uranium operations contain about 400 g of fissile holdup. No ventilation ducts at Los Alamos contain sufficient fissile material holdup to present a criticality safety concern

  14. Exhaust catalysis studies using in-situ positron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkeman, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the kinetics of noble metal catalysts with a formulation related to that of commercial automotive exhaust catalysts, have been examined. The application of a new radioisotope tracer technique in studies of catalyst kinetics is described. Reactant and product molecules were pulsed over a catalyst under conditions such, that the reaction rates were kinetically controlled. Labelling of the reacting molecules enables the in-situ measurement of transient phenomena in a reactor as a function of time and position, if a tomograph is used as detection system. Integral reactor profiles are measured, by which concentration gradients occurring in the reactor can be studied. The large amount of data obtained during each experiment were used to quantify the kinetics. To this end, a refined mathematical model of the kinetics based on the elementary steps of adsorption, desorption and surface reaction was used to simulate the experiments. The experimental conditions in this study were representative for the cold start of a car, when the catalyst is heating up. By applying small catalyst particles and high linear velocities the influence of transport phenomena was excluded so that the experiments were carried out in the kinetically controlled regime. Reaction kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen and nitrogen oxide were studied. Experimental data obtained with surface science techniques were very useful in constructing the kinetic model. By simulating the experiments, the relevant kinetic parameters could be quantified and information on the elementary reaction steps was obtained. Since carbon dioxide adsorbs strongly to the catalyst carrier; 10% carbon dioxide was added to the gas phase (in actual automotive exhaust gas the concentration of carbon dioxide is 10 - 15%). This enabled the determination of the transients due to the interaction of gas components with the catalytically active compounds of the catalyst. (author). 446 refs.; 57 figs.; 21 tabs

  15. Holdup measurements of plutonium in glove box exhausts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, J.B.; Haas, F.X.; McKamy, J.N.; Garrett, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    A new measurement technique has been developed to quantify plutonium in process glove box exhausts. The technique implemented at Rocky Flats Plant utiltizes a shielded, collimated 0.5in. x 0.5in. bismuth germanate (BGO) gamma-ray detector. Pairs of measurements are made at one foot intervals along the duct. One measurement is made with the detector viewing the bottom of the duct with the detector crystal approximately 2 inches from the duct surface. The second measurement is made on the top of the exhaust pipe with the detector crystal 2 inches from the top of the duct. When the detector is placed in the bottom assay position, the area of the holdup material is assumed to extend beyond the detector field of view. The concentration of plutonium in g/cm 2 is obtained from this bottom measurement. The deposit width is determined from a model developed to relate the deposit width to the ratio of the count rates measured at the two positions, above and below the duct. Once a deposit width has been calculated, it is multiplied by the concentration determined from the bottom measurement to yield a mass- per-unit-length at the duct location. Total plutonium mass is then determined by multiplying the duct length by the average of the mass- per-unit length assays performed along the duct. The applicability of the technique is presented in a comparison of field measurement data to analysis results on material removed from the ducts. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  17. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  18. Organic Rankine cycle for power recovery of exhaust flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Cong; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Lijun; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of different working fluids on the performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC), three working fluids, a mixture that matches with heat source, a mixture that matches with heat sink and a pure working fluid, are selected in this paper. Thermodynamic models were built in Matlab together with REFPROP, with which, the physical properties of the selected working fluids can be acquired. Heat source of the ORC system is the exhaust flue gas of boiler in a 240 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Some indicators such as thermal efficiency, inlet temperature of expander, superheat degree, mass flow, volumetric flow, and exergy destruction distribution, as well as the influence of recuperator are studied. The analytical results show that the mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency and the mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. The rate of heat exchanged in recuperator to that in evaporator has a maximum value with evaporating pressure. There exists no optimal working fluid for all indicators (thermal efficiency, heat exchanger area, mass flow and volumetric flow etc.). An appropriate working fluid should be chosen by taking both investment cost and power generating benefits into account. The cost-benefit ratio of the proposed ORC plant was evaluated either. - Highlights: • Three types of working fluids are selected for ORC using exhaust flue gas. • The mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency. • The mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. • There does not exist a working fluid that satisfies all the indicators

  19. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  20. Hazardous waste incinerator permitting in Texas from inception to operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, M.D.; McDonnell, R.G. III

    1991-01-01

    The regulatory permitting process for hazardous waste incinerators i a long and arduous proposition requiring a well-developed overall strategy. In Texas, RCRA permits for the operation of hazardous waste incinerator facilities are issued through the federally delegated Texas Water Commission (TWC). While the TWC has primacy in the issuance of RCRA permits for hazardous waste incinerators, the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) provides a significant portion of the Part B application review and provides much of the permit language. In addition to dealing with regulatory agencies, RCRA permitting provides by significant public involvement. Often the lack of public support becomes a major roadblock for an incinerator project. In order to establish an effective strategy which addresses the concerns of regulatory agencies and the public, it is important to have an understanding of the steps involved in obtaining a permit. A permit applicant seeking to construct a new hazardous waste incinerator can expect to go through a preapplication meeting with government regulators, a site selection process, file an application, respond to calls for additional technical information from both the TACB and the TWC, defend the application in a hearing, have a recommendation from a TWC hearing examiner and, finally, receive a determination from the TWC's Commissioners. Presuming a favorable response from the Commission, the permittee will be granted a trial burn permit and may proceed with the construction, certification and execution of a trial burn at the facility. Subsequent to publication of the trial burn results and approval by the TWC, the permittee will possess an operational hazardous waste incinerator permit. The paper describes the major steps required to receive an operational permit for a hazardous waste incinerator in the State of Texas. Important issues involved in each step will be discussed including insights gained from recent incinerator permitting efforts