Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines
Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ike, M.; Akiyama, K. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Otsuka, K.; Ito, K. (Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1991-07-01
Any exhaust manifold is exposed to the severer thermal cycle condition by exhasut gas of the maximum temperature reaching near 1273K and therefore the thermal resistance reliability should be improved. A new cast heat resistant steel for the exhaust manifold which had better thermal fatigue resistance and oxidation resistance than conventional Ni-resist cast iron was developed this time. The developed material was based on the 18Cr ferritic heat resistant steel of low coefficent of thermal expansion and the oxidation resistance was improved, and further the thermal fatigue life was improved by aiming at the structural stability through elevating the transformation point to the upper limit of service temperature or more. These requirements were achieved by grasping the above mentioned characteristics of the part material and by studying the effect of main composing elements, C, N, Cr, Nb, Mo, on these characteristics. The cheaper exhaust manifold of higher thermal resistant reliability than conventional one could be put into practical use by using a newly developed casting process in addition to the use of this developed material. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.
Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine
Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D [Laramie, WY
2011-01-11
A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.
Material and technique of S i-Mo heatresistant vermicular iron exhaust manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Yong-xi
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Si-Mo vermicular iron is an ideal material for exhaust manifold that works in high temperature and therm alcycle conditions because its properties oftherm alfatigue resistance and thermal distortion resistance are significantly better than that of gray cast iron and nodular iron. This paper explains that the verm icularity of Si-Mo verm icular iron is better to be controlled approxim ately to 50% for the applications of exhaust manifold castings, and generalizes the successful experience ofverm icularizing technique thatuses sandwich(pouroverprocess combining with cored-wire injection in trough process together,and uses rare earths-magnesium-silicon as verm icularizing alloy in Disa high speed molding line and autom atic plug rod airpressure pouring furnace. In addition, this paper also describes the method to solve the shrinkage hole and porosity defects in the exhaustm anifold production.
Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold
Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao
2014-11-01
The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.
A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naeimi Hessamedin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.
Sinha, Rajnikant
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to the theory of smooth manifolds, helping students to familiarize themselves with the tools they will need for mathematical research on smooth manifolds and differential geometry. The book primarily focuses on topics concerning differential manifolds, tangent spaces, multivariable differential calculus, topological properties of smooth manifolds, embedded submanifolds, Sard’s theorem and Whitney embedding theorem. It is clearly structured, amply illustrated and includes solved examples for all concepts discussed. Several difficult theorems have been broken into many lemmas and notes (equivalent to sub-lemmas) to enhance the readability of the book. Further, once a concept has been introduced, it reoccurs throughout the book to ensure comprehension. Rank theorem, a vital aspect of smooth manifolds theory, occurs in many manifestations, including rank theorem for Euclidean space and global rank theorem. Though primarily intended for graduate students of mathematics, the book ...
Hempel, John
2004-01-01
A careful and systematic development of the theory of the topology of 3-manifolds, focusing on the critical role of the fundamental group in determining the topological structure of a 3-manifold … self-contained … one can learn the subject from it … would be very appropriate as a text for an advanced graduate course or as a basis for a working seminar. -Mathematical Reviews For many years, John Hempel's book has been a standard text on the topology of 3-manifolds. Even though the field has grown tremendously, the book remains one of the best and most popular introductions to the subject. The t
Kosinski, Antoni A
2007-01-01
The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pąk Karol
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Let us recall that a topological space M is a topological manifold if M is second-countable Hausdorff and locally Euclidean, i.e. each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open ball of E n for some n. However, if we would like to consider a topological manifold with a boundary, we have to extend this definition. Therefore, we introduce here the concept of a locally Euclidean space that covers both cases (with and without a boundary, i.e. where each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to a closed ball of En for some n.
Morrow, James
2006-01-01
This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic
Introduction to differentiable manifolds
Auslander, Louis
2009-01-01
The first book to treat manifold theory at an introductory level, this text surveys basic concepts in the modern approach to differential geometry. The first six chapters define and illustrate differentiable manifolds, and the final four chapters investigate the roles of differential structures in a variety of situations.Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary diff
Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.
2009-05-01
The paper concerns intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) method suggested in [Maas U, Pope SB. Simplifying chemical kinetics: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds in composition space, combustion and flame 1992;88:239-64] for dimension reduction of models describing kinetic processes. It has been shown in a number of publications [Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. Comparative analysis of two asymptotic approaches based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2004;69:353-74; Kaper HG, Kaper TJ, Asymptotic analysis of two reduction methods for systems of chemical reactions. Phys D 2002;165(1-2):66-93; Rhodes C, Morari M, Wiggins S. Identification of the low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope. Chaos 1999;9(1):108-23] that the ILDM-method works successfully and the intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds belong to a small vicinity of invariant slow manifolds. The ILDM-method has a number of disadvantages. One of them is appearance of so-called "ghost"-manifolds, which do not have connection to the system dynamics [Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. "Ghost" ILDM - manifolds and their discrimination. In: Twentieth Annual Symposium of the Israel Section of the Combustion Institute, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2004. p. 55-7; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. About non-coincidence of invariant manifolds and intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds (ILDM). CNSNS 2008;71:1029-38; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. In: Gorban AN, Kazantzis N, Kevrekidis YG, Ottinger HC, Theodoropoulos C, editors. "Ghost" ILDM-manifolds and their identification: model reduction and coarse-graining approaches for multiscale phenomena. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer; 2006. p. 55-80; Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V. On a modified version of ILDM method and its asymptotic analysis. IJPAM 2008; 44(1): 125-50; Bykov V, Goldfarb I, Gol'dshtein V, Maas U. On a modified version of ILDM approach: asymptotic analysis based on integral manifolds. IMA J Appl Math 2006
Nonlinear analysis on manifolds
Hebey, Emmanuel
2000-01-01
This volume offers an expanded version of lectures given at the Courant Institute on the theory of Sobolev spaces on Riemannian manifolds. "Several surprising phenomena appear when studying Sobolev spaces on manifolds," according to the author. "Questions that are elementary for Euclidean space become challenging and give rise to sophisticated mathematics, where the geometry of the manifold plays a central role." The volume is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to differential and Riemannian geometry. Chapter 2 deals with the general theory of Sobolev spaces fo
Bishop, Richard L
2001-01-01
First published in 1964, this book served as a text on differential geometry to several generations of graduate students all over the world. The first half of the book (Chapters 1-6) presents basics of the theory of manifolds, vector bundles, differential forms, and Lie groups, with a special emphasis on the theory of linear and affine connections. The second half of the book (Chapters 7-11) is devoted to Riemannian geometry. Following the definition and main properties of Riemannian manifolds, the authors discuss the theory of geodesics, complete Riemannian manifolds, and curvature. Next, the
Wang, McKenzie
1999-01-01
This is the sixth volume in a series providing surveys of differential geometry. It addresses: Einstein manifolds with zero Ricci curvature; rigidity and compactness of Einstein metrics; general relativity; the stability of Minkowski space-time; and more.
Fintushel, R; Fintushel, Ronald; Stern, Ronald J.
1997-01-01
In this paper we introduce a technique, called rim surgery, which can change a smooth embedding of an orientable surface of positive genus and nonnegative self-intersection in a smooth 4-manifold while leaving the topological embedding unchanged.
Locally conformal symplectic manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Izu Vaisman
1985-01-01
Full Text Available A locally conformal symplectic (l. c. s. manifold is a pair (M2n,Ω where M2n(n>1 is a connected differentiable manifold, and Ω a nondegenerate 2-form on M such that M=⋃αUα (Uα- open subsets. Ω/Uα=eσαΩα, σα:Uα→ℝ, dΩα=0. Equivalently, dΩ=ω∧Ω for some closed 1-form ω. L. c. s. manifolds can be seen as generalized phase spaces of Hamiltonian dynamical systems since the form of the Hamilton equations is, in fact, preserved by homothetic canonical transformations. The paper discusses first Hamiltonian vector fields, and infinitesimal automorphisms (i. a. on l. c. s. manifolds. If (M,Ω has an i. a. X such that ω(X≠0, we say that M is of the first kind and Ω assumes the particular form Ω=dθ−ω∧θ. Such an M is a 2-contact manifold with the structure forms (ω,θ, and it has a vertical 2-dimensional foliation V. If V is regular, we can give a fibration theorem which shows that M is a T2-principal bundle over a symplectic manifold. Particularly, V is regular for some homogeneous l. c. s, manifolds, and this leads to a general construction of compact homogeneous l. c. s, manifolds. Various related geometric results, including reductivity theorems for Lie algebras of i. a. are also given. Most of the proofs are adaptations of corresponding proofs in symplectic and contact geometry. The paper ends with an Appendix which states an analogous fibration theorem in Riemannian geometry.
Manifolds, sheaves, and cohomology
Wedhorn, Torsten
2016-01-01
This book explains techniques that are essential in almost all branches of modern geometry such as algebraic geometry, complex geometry, or non-archimedian geometry. It uses the most accessible case, real and complex manifolds, as a model. The author especially emphasizes the difference between local and global questions. Cohomology theory of sheaves is introduced and its usage is illustrated by many examples. Content Topological Preliminaries - Algebraic Topological Preliminaries - Sheaves - Manifolds - Local Theory of Manifolds - Lie Groups - Torsors and Non-abelian Cech Cohomology - Bundles - Soft Sheaves - Cohomology of Complexes of Sheaves - Cohomology of Sheaves of Locally Constant Functions - Appendix: Basic Topology, The Language of Categories, Basic Algebra, Homological Algebra, Local Analysis Readership Graduate Students in Mathematics / Master of Science in Mathematics About the Author Prof. Dr. Torsten Wedhorn, Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
Adams, Scot
2001-01-01
Within the general framework of the dynamics of "large" groups on geometric spaces, the focus is on the types of groups that can act in complicated ways on Lorentz manifolds, and on the structure of the resulting manifolds and actions. This particular area of dynamics is an active one, and not all the results are in their final form. However, at this point, a great deal can be said about the particular Lie groups that come up in this context. It is impressive that, even assuming very weak recurrence of the action, the list of possible groups is quite restricted. For the most complicated of the
Djordjevic, A.
1982-07-08
A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.
Maps between Grassmann manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad
Maps between Grassmann manifolds. Parameswaran Sankaran. Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in. Indian Academy of Sciences. Platinum Jubilee Meeting. Hyderabad. 2nd July, 2009. Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in.
Cohen, R L
1982-05-01
This paper outlines a proof of the conjecture that every compact, differentiable, n-dimensional manifold immerses in Euclidean space of dimension 2n - alpha(n), where alpha(n) is the number of ones in the dyadic expansion of n.
Manifold Insulation for Solar Collectors
1982-01-01
Results of computer analysis of effects of various manifold insulation detailed in 23-page report show that if fluid is distributed to and gathered from array of solar collectors by external rather than internal manifold, effectiveness of manifold insulation has major influence on efficiency. Report describes required input data and presents equations that govern computer model. Provides graphs comparing collector efficiencies for representative manifold sizes and insulations.
Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Hence, in order to meet the envi- ronmental legislations, it is highly desirable to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas. 275 .... (i) Hot EGR: Exhaust gas is recirculated without being cooled, resulting in increased intake ... is mounted on the inlet pipe between the air filter and the inlet manifold of the engine as shown in ...
Two Categories of Dirac Manifolds
Milburn, Brett
2007-01-01
We define two categories of Dirac manifolds, i.e. manifolds with complex Dirac structures. The first notion of maps I call \\emph{Dirac maps}, and the category of Dirac manifolds is seen to contain the categories of Poisson and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The second notion, \\emph{dual-Dirac maps}, defines a \\emph{dual-Dirac category} which contains presymplectic and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The dual-Dirac maps are stable under B-transformations. In particular we ge...
Daverman, Robert J
2007-01-01
Decomposition theory studies decompositions, or partitions, of manifolds into simple pieces, usually cell-like sets. Since its inception in 1929, the subject has become an important tool in geometric topology. The main goal of the book is to help students interested in geometric topology to bridge the gap between entry-level graduate courses and research at the frontier as well as to demonstrate interrelations of decomposition theory with other parts of geometric topology. With numerous exercises and problems, many of them quite challenging, the book continues to be strongly recommended to eve
Analysis, manifolds and physics
Choquet-Bruhat, Y
2000-01-01
Twelve problems have been added to the first edition; four of them are supplements to problems in the first edition. The others deal with issues that have become important, since the first edition of Volume II, in recent developments of various areas of physics. All the problems have their foundations in volume 1 of the 2-Volume set Analysis, Manifolds and Physics. It would have been prohibitively expensive to insert the new problems at their respective places. They are grouped together at the end of this volume, their logical place is indicated by a number of parenthesis following the title.
Smooth maps of a foliated manifold in a symplectic manifold
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Let be a smooth manifold with a regular foliation F and a 2-form which induces closed forms on the leaves of F in the leaf topology. A smooth map f : ( M , F ) ⟶ ( N , ) in a symplectic manifold ( N , ) is called a foliated symplectic immersion if restricts to an immersion on each leaf of the foliation and further, the ...
Cobordism independence of Grassmann manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Introduction. This paper is a continuation of the ongoing study of cobordism of Grassmann manifolds. Let. F denote one of the division rings R of reals, C of complex numbers, or H of quaternions. Let t = dimRF. Then the Grassmannian manifold Gk(Fn+k) is defined to be the set of all k-dimensional (left) subspaces of Fn+k.
Manifold statistics for essential matrices
Dubbelman, G.; Dorst, L.; Pijls, H.
2012-01-01
Riemannian geometry allows for the generalization of statistics designed for Euclidean vector spaces to Riemannian manifolds. It has recently gained popularity within computer vision as many relevant parameter spaces have such a Riemannian manifold structure. Approaches which exploit this have been
Diffeomorphisms of elliptic 3-manifolds
Hong, Sungbok; McCullough, Darryl; Rubinstein, J Hyam
2012-01-01
This work concerns the diffeomorphism groups of 3-manifolds, in particular of elliptic 3-manifolds. These are the closed 3-manifolds that admit a Riemannian metric of constant positive curvature, now known to be exactly the closed 3-manifolds that have a finite fundamental group. The (Generalized) Smale Conjecture asserts that for any elliptic 3-manifold M, the inclusion from the isometry group of M to its diffeomorphism group is a homotopy equivalence. The original Smale Conjecture, for the 3-sphere, was proven by J. Cerf and A. Hatcher, and N. Ivanov proved the generalized conjecture for many of the elliptic 3-manifolds that contain a geometrically incompressible Klein bottle. The main results establish the Smale Conjecture for all elliptic 3-manifolds containing geometrically incompressible Klein bottles, and for all lens spaces L(m,q) with m at least 3. Additional results imply that for a Haken Seifert-fibered 3 manifold V, the space of Seifert fiberings has contractible components, and apart from a small...
Continuous Optimization on Constraint Manifolds
Dean, Edwin B.
1988-01-01
This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.
Fintushel, R; Fintushel, Ronald; Stern, Ronald J.
1996-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationship between isotopy classes of knots and links in S^3 and the diffeomorphism types of homeomorphic smooth 4-manifolds. As a corollary of this initial investigation, we begin to uncover the surprisingly rich structure of diffeomorphism types of manifolds homeomorphic to the K3 surface.
Smooth maps of a foliated manifold in a symplectic manifold
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Let M be a smooth manifold with a regular foliation F and a 2-form ω which induces closed forms on the leaves of F in the leaf topology. A smooth map f : (M, F) −→ (N,σ) in a symplectic manifold (N,σ) is called a foliated symplectic immersion if f restricts to an immersion on each leaf of the foliation and further, the.
An introduction to differential manifolds
Lafontaine, Jacques
2015-01-01
This book is an introduction to differential manifolds. It gives solid preliminaries for more advanced topics: Riemannian manifolds, differential topology, Lie theory. It presupposes little background: the reader is only expected to master basic differential calculus, and a little point-set topology. The book covers the main topics of differential geometry: manifolds, tangent space, vector fields, differential forms, Lie groups, and a few more sophisticated topics such as de Rham cohomology, degree theory and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for surfaces. Its ambition is to give solid foundations. In particular, the introduction of “abstract” notions such as manifolds or differential forms is motivated via questions and examples from mathematics or theoretical physics. More than 150 exercises, some of them easy and classical, some others more sophisticated, will help the beginner as well as the more expert reader. Solutions are provided for most of them. The book should be of interest to various readers: undergra...
On invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Absos Ali Shaikh
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The object of the present paper is to study the invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. We study semiparallel and 2-semiparallel invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. Among others we study 3-dimensional invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. It is shown that every 3-dimensional invariant submanifold of a (LCSn-manifold is totally geodesic.
A versatile algorithm for computing invariant manifolds
Broer, H. W.; Hagen, A.; Vegter, G.; Gorban, AN; Kazantzis, NK; Kevrekidis, IG; Ottinger, HC; Theodoropoulos, C
2006-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical computation of invariant manifolds using a method of discretizing global manifolds. It provides a geometrically natural algorithm that converges regardless of the restricted dynamics. Common examples of such manifolds include limit sets, co-dimension 1 manifolds
Stein Manifolds and Holomorphic Mappings
Forstneric, Franc
2011-01-01
The main theme of this book is the homotopy principle for holomorphic mappings from Stein manifolds to the newly introduced class of Oka manifolds. This book contains the first complete account of Oka-Grauert theory and its modern extensions, initiated by Mikhail Gromov and developed in the last decade by the author and his collaborators. Included is the first systematic presentation of the theory of holomorphic automorphisms of complex Euclidean spaces, a survey on Stein neighborhoods, connections between the geometry of Stein surfaces and Seiberg-Witten theory, and a wide variety of applicat
Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauberg, Søren
2015-01-01
from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...
Hypersurfaces in nearly Kaehler manifold
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biaogui Yang
2017-08-08
Aug 8, 2017 ... Nearly Kaehler manifold; contact hypersurface; contact metric structure; minimal hypersurface; shape operator; conformal vector field. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 53C40; 53C15; 53C25; 53D15. 1. Introduction. It is known that the six-dimensional unit sphere S6 has a nearly Kaehler structure (J ...
Cobordism independence of Grassmann manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This note proves that, for F = R , C or H , the bordism classes of all non-bounding Grassmannian manifolds G k ( F n + k ) , with < and having real dimension , constitute a linearly independent set in the unoriented bordism group N d regarded as a Z 2 -vector space.
On complexifications of real manifolds.
Kulkarni, R S
1975-11-01
This paper studies the problem of obtaining complexifications of a differentiable manifold which have desirable analytic or algebraic properties and which are minimal in the sense described below. It is seen that there is a significant difference between analytic and algebraic complexifications.
De Rham cohomology and homotopy Frobenius manifolds
Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.
2015-01-01
We endow the de Rham cohomology of any Poisson or Jacobi manifold with a natural homotopy Frobenius manifold structure. This result relies on a minimal model theorem for multicomplexes and a new kind of a Hodge degeneration condition.
Riemannian geometry of contact and symplectic manifolds
Blair, David E
2002-01-01
This monograph deals with the Riemannian geometry of both symplectic and contact manifolds, with particular emphasis on the latter The text is carefully presented Topics unfold systematically from Chapter 1, which examines the general theory of symplectic manifolds Principal circle bundles (Chapter 2) are then discussed as a prelude to the Boothby--Wang fibration of a compact regular contact manifold in Chapter 3, which deals with the general theory of contact manifolds Chapter 4 focuses on the general setting of Riemannian metrics associated with both symplectic and contact structures, and Chapter 5 is devoted to integral submanifolds of the contact subbundle Topics treated in the subsequent chapters include Sasakian manifolds, the important study of the curvature of contact metric manifolds, submanifold theory in both the K"hler and Sasakian settings, tangent sphere bundles, curvature functionals, complex contact manifolds and 3-Sasakian manifolds The book serves both as a general reference for mathematicia...
Invariant manifolds near hyperbolic fixed points
Homburg, A.J.
2006-01-01
Abstract: In these notes, we discuss obstructions to the existence of local invariant manifolds of some smoothness class, near hyperbolic fixed points of diffeomorphisms. We present an elementary construction for continuously differentiable invariant manifolds that are not necessarily normally
Fluid delivery manifolds and microfluidic systems
Renzi, Ronald F.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.; Claudnic, Mark R.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Van de Vreugde, James L.
2017-02-28
Embodiments of fluid distribution manifolds, cartridges, and microfluidic systems are described herein. Fluid distribution manifolds may include an insert member and a manifold base and may define a substantially closed channel within the manifold when the insert member is press-fit into the base. Cartridges described herein may allow for simultaneous electrical and fluidic interconnection with an electrical multiplex board and may be held in place using magnetic attraction.
Numerical Approximation of Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Manifolds
Broer, Henk; Hagen, Aaron; Vegter, Gert
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical continuation of invariant manifolds, regardless of the restricted dynamics. Typically, invariant manifolds make up the skeleton of the dynamics of phase space. Examples include limit sets, co-dimension 1 manifolds separating basins of attraction (separatrices),
Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2008-01-01
For a given combinatorial graph $G$ a {\\it geometrization} $(G, g)$ of the graph is obtained by considering each edge of the graph as a $1-$dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$. In this paper we are concerned with {\\it minimal isometric immersions} of geometrized graphs $(G, g......)$ into Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which...... are of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the divergence...
Invariance for Single Curved Manifold
Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de
2012-08-01
Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.
Effective forcing with Cantor manifolds
Kihara, Takayuki
2017-01-01
A set $A$ of integers is called total if there is an algorithm which, given an enumeration of $A$, enumerates the complement of $A$, and called cototal if there is an algorithm which, given an enumeration of the complement of $A$, enumerates $A$. Many variants of totality and cototality have been studied in computability theory. In this note, by an effective forcing construction with strongly infinite dimensional Cantor manifolds, which can be viewed as an effectivization of Zapletal's "half-...
Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack
Collins, William P.
1988-01-01
The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.
Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds
Kühnel, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so
Perelman's collapsing theorem for 3-manifolds
Cao, Jianguo; Ge, Jian
2009-01-01
We will simplify the earlier proofs of Perelman's collapsing theorem of 3-manifolds given by Shioya-Yamaguchi and Morgan-Tian. Among other things, we use Perelman's semi-convex analysis of distance functions to construct the desired local Seifert fibration structure on collapsed 3-manifolds. The verification of Perelman's collapsing theorem is the last step of Perelman's proof of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture on the classification of 3-manifolds. Our proof of Perelman's collapsing theo...
Minimal genera of open 4-manifolds
Gompf, Robert E.
2013-01-01
We study exotic smoothings of open 4-manifolds using the minimal genus function and its analog for end homology. While traditional techniques in open 4-manifold smoothing theory give no control of minimal genera, we make progress by using the adjunction inequality for Stein surfaces. Smoothings can be constructed with much more control of these genus functions than the compact setting seems to allow. As an application, we expand the range of 4-manifolds known to have exotic smoothings (up to ...
Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas
Wu, Ko -Jen
2015-09-15
According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.
On the manifold-mapping optimization technique
D. Echeverria (David); P.W. Hemker (Piet)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, we study in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced in an earlier paper. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise require many evaluations of time-expensive cost functions. We give a proof of convergence for
Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MS received 28 May 2013; revised 12 November 2013 ... The known examples of harmonic manifolds include flat ... periodic functions. Finally, using the characteristic property of an almost periodic function we prove that M is Ricci flat. In view of this, it is natural to ask: Can one affirm that harmonic manifolds with mini-.
Classical BV theories on manifolds with boundary
Cattaneo, A.S.; Mnev, P.; Reshetikhin, N.
2014-01-01
In this paper we extend the classical BV framework to gauge theories on spacetime manifolds with boundary. In particular, we connect the BV construction in the bulk with the BFV construction on the boundary and we develop its extension to strata of higher codimension in the case of manifolds with
Classification of framed links in 3-manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
manifolds, Preprint Series Univ. of Ljubljana 41 (2003) 906. [CRS2] Cencelj M, Repovš D and Skopenkov M, Classification of framed links in 3- manifolds, preprint, arXiv:math-gt/0705.4166v1. [Du] Dufraine E, Classes d'homotopie de champs de vecteurs Morse-Smale sans singular- ite sur les fibres de Seifert, Enseign.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper is concerned with the problem of the geometry of Norden manifolds. Some properties of Riemannian curvature tensors and curvature scalars of Kähler–Norden manifolds using the theory of Tachibana operators is presented. Author Affiliations. M Iscan1 A A Salimov1. Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of ...
Metric Ricci Curvature for PL Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Xianfeng Gu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a metric notion of Ricci curvature for PL manifolds and study its convergence properties. We also prove a fitting version of the Bonnet-Myers theorem, for surfaces as well as for a large class of higher dimensional manifolds.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E-mail: miscan@atauni.edu.tr; asalimov@atauni.edu.tr. MS received 7 September 2007; revised 4 October 2007. Abstract. This paper is concerned with the problem of the geometry of Norden manifolds. Some properties of Riemannian curvature tensors and curvature scalars of. Kähler–Norden manifolds using the theory of ...
Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David V. Svintradze
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
Function theory on symplectic manifolds
Polterovich, Leonid
2014-01-01
This is a book on symplectic topology, a rapidly developing field of mathematics which originated as a geometric tool for problems of classical mechanics. Since the 1980s, powerful methods such as Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves and Morse-Floer theory on loop spaces gave rise to the discovery of unexpected symplectic phenomena. The present book focuses on function spaces associated with a symplectic manifold. A number of recent advances show that these spaces exhibit intriguing properties and structures, giving rise to an alternative intuition and new tools in symplectic topology. The book provides an essentially self-contained introduction into these developments along with applications to symplectic topology, algebra and geometry of symplectomorphism groups, Hamiltonian dynamics and quantum mechanics. It will appeal to researchers and students from the graduate level onwards. I like the spirit of this book. It formulates concepts clearly and explains the relationship between them. The subject matter is i...
Static traversable wormholes in Lyra manifold
Jahromi, A. Sayahian; Moradpour, H.
At first, considering the Einstein framework, we introduce some new static traversable wormholes and study the effects of a dark energy-like source on them. Thereinafter, a brief review on Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold is presented, and we address some static traversable wormholes in the Lyra manifold which satisfy the energy conditions. It is also shown that solutions introduced in the Einstein framework may also meet the energy conditions in the Lyra manifold. Finally, we focus on vacuum Lyra manifold and find some traversable asymptotically flat wormholes. In summary, our study shows that it is theoretically possible to find a Lyra displacement vector field in a manner in which traversable wormholes satisfy the energy conditions in a Lyra manifold.
Discriminative sparse coding on multi-manifolds
Wang, J.J.-Y.
2013-09-26
Sparse coding has been popularly used as an effective data representation method in various applications, such as computer vision, medical imaging and bioinformatics. However, the conventional sparse coding algorithms and their manifold-regularized variants (graph sparse coding and Laplacian sparse coding), learn codebooks and codes in an unsupervised manner and neglect class information that is available in the training set. To address this problem, we propose a novel discriminative sparse coding method based on multi-manifolds, that learns discriminative class-conditioned codebooks and sparse codes from both data feature spaces and class labels. First, the entire training set is partitioned into multiple manifolds according to the class labels. Then, we formulate the sparse coding as a manifold-manifold matching problem and learn class-conditioned codebooks and codes to maximize the manifold margins of different classes. Lastly, we present a data sample-manifold matching-based strategy to classify the unlabeled data samples. Experimental results on somatic mutations identification and breast tumor classification based on ultrasonic images demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed data representation and classification approach. 2013 The Authors. All rights reserved.
Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V
2004-12-16
Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.
Neural Manifolds for the Control of Movement.
Gallego, Juan A; Perich, Matthew G; Miller, Lee E; Solla, Sara A
2017-06-07
The analysis of neural dynamics in several brain cortices has consistently uncovered low-dimensional manifolds that capture a significant fraction of neural variability. These neural manifolds are spanned by specific patterns of correlated neural activity, the "neural modes." We discuss a model for neural control of movement in which the time-dependent activation of these neural modes is the generator of motor behavior. This manifold-based view of motor cortex may lead to a better understanding of how the brain controls movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Space time manifolds and contact structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. L. Duggal
1990-01-01
Full Text Available A new class of contact manifolds (carring a global non-vanishing timelike vector field is introduced to establish a relation between spacetime manifolds and contact structures. We show that odd dimensional strongly causal (in particular, globally hyperbolic spacetimes can carry a regular contact structure. As examples, we present a causal spacetime with a non regular contact structure and a physical model [Gödel Universe] of Homogeneous contact manifold. Finally, we construct a model of 4-dimensional spacetime of general relativity as a contact CR-submanifold.
Polynomial chaos representation of databases on manifolds
Soize, C.; Ghanem, R.
2017-04-01
Characterizing the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a vector-valued random variable with probability distribution concentrated on a manifold is a relevant problem in data-driven settings. The probability distribution of such random vectors is multimodal in general, leading to potentially very slow convergence of the PCE. In this paper, we build on a recent development for estimating and sampling from probabilities concentrated on a diffusion manifold. The proposed methodology constructs a PCE of the random vector together with an associated generator that samples from the target probability distribution which is estimated from data concentrated in the neighborhood of the manifold. The method is robust and remains efficient for high dimension and large datasets. The resulting polynomial chaos construction on manifolds permits the adaptation of many uncertainty quantification and statistical tools to emerging questions motivated by data-driven queries.
Averaging of Legendrian submanifolds of contact manifolds
Zambon, Marco
2004-01-01
We give a procedure to ``average'' canonically $C^1$-close Legendrian submanifolds of contact manifolds. As a corollary we obtain that, whenever a compact group action leaves a Legendrian submanifold almost invariant, there is an invariant Legendrian submanifold nearby.
Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds
Benedetti, Riccardo
1997-01-01
This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.
Polynomial chaos representation of databases on manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi-Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-La-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Ghanem, R., E-mail: ghanem@usc.edu [University of Southern California, 210 KAP Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)
2017-04-15
Characterizing the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a vector-valued random variable with probability distribution concentrated on a manifold is a relevant problem in data-driven settings. The probability distribution of such random vectors is multimodal in general, leading to potentially very slow convergence of the PCE. In this paper, we build on a recent development for estimating and sampling from probabilities concentrated on a diffusion manifold. The proposed methodology constructs a PCE of the random vector together with an associated generator that samples from the target probability distribution which is estimated from data concentrated in the neighborhood of the manifold. The method is robust and remains efficient for high dimension and large datasets. The resulting polynomial chaos construction on manifolds permits the adaptation of many uncertainty quantification and statistical tools to emerging questions motivated by data-driven queries.
Hessian equations on closed Hermitian manifolds
Zhang, Dekai
2015-01-01
In this paper, using the technical tools in \\cite{TW5}, we solve the complex Hessian equation on closed Hermitian manifolds, which generalizes the the K\\"ahler case results in \\cite{HMW} and \\cite{DK}.
megaman: Manifold Learning for Millions of Points
McQueen, James; Meila, Marina; VanderPlas, Jacob; Zhang, Zhongyue
2017-11-01
megaman is a scalable manifold learning package implemented in python. It has a front-end API designed to be familiar to scikit-learn but harnesses the C++ Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) and the Sparse Symmetric Positive Definite (SSPD) solver Locally Optimal Block Precodition Gradient (LOBPCG) method to scale manifold learning algorithms to large data sets. It is designed for researchers and as such caches intermediary steps and indices to allow for fast re-computation with new parameters.
Exponential estimates of symplectic slow manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Wulff, C.
2016-01-01
In this paper we prove the existence of an almost invariant symplectic slow manifold for analytic Hamiltonian slow-fast systems with finitely many slow degrees of freedom for which the error field is exponentially small. We allow for infinitely many fast degrees of freedom. The method we use...... is motivated by a paper of MacKay from 2004. The method does not notice resonances, and therefore we do not pose any restrictions on the motion normal to the slow manifold other than it being fast and analytic. We also present a stability result and obtain a generalization of a result of Gelfreich and Lerman...... on an invariant slow manifold to (finitely) many fast degrees of freedom....
Affine Flag Manifolds and Principal Bundles
Schmitt, Alexander HW
2010-01-01
Affine flag manifolds are infinite dimensional versions of familiar objects such as Gramann varieties. The book features lecture notes, survey articles, and research notes - based on workshops held in Berlin, Essen, and Madrid - explaining the significance of these and related objects (such as double affine Hecke algebras and affine Springer fibers) in representation theory (e.g., the theory of symmetric polynomials), arithmetic geometry (e.g., the fundamental lemma in the Langlands program), and algebraic geometry (e.g., affine flag manifolds as parameter spaces for principal bundles). Novel
Periodic orbits near a bifurcating slow manifold
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall
2015-01-01
(\\epsilon^{1/3})$-distance from the union of the normally elliptic slow manifolds that occur as a result of the bifurcation. Here $\\epsilon\\ll 1$ measures the time scale separation. These periodic orbits are predominantly unstable. The proof is based on averaging of two blowup systems, allowing one to estimate...... the effect of the singularity, combined with results on asymptotics of the second Painleve equation. The stable orbits of smallest amplitude that are {persistently} obtained by these methods remain slightly further away from the slow manifold being distant by an order $\\mathcal O(\\epsilon^{1/3}\\ln^{1/2}\\ln...
Projections and residues on manifolds with boundary
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaarde, Anders Borg
2008-01-01
It is a well-known result that the noncommutative residue of a pseudodifferential projection is zero on a compact manifold without boundary. Equivalently, the value of the zeta-function of P at zero, ¿¿(P, 0), is independent of ¿ for any elliptic operator P. Here ¿ denotes the angle of a ray where...... the resolvent of P has minimal growth. In this thesis, we consider the analogous questions on a compact manifold with boundary. We show that the noncommutative residue is zero for any projection in Boutet de Monvel’s calculus of pseudodifferential boundary problems. For an elliptic boundary problem {P+ + G, T...
Foliations and the geometry of 3-manifolds
Calegari, Danny
2014-01-01
This unique reference, aimed at research topologists, gives an exposition of the 'pseudo-Anosov' theory of foliations of 3-manifolds. This theory generalizes Thurston's theory of surface automorphisms and reveals an intimate connection between dynamics, geometry and topology in 3 dimensions.
Study of Multi-Cylinder Engine Manifolds
1944-10-31
volumetria ef. ficiency. .4- PART 1. I.TI 1. !i.: s This part of the report has two purposes; the first purpose is to give a thorcuah discussion of... volumetria efficiencies to be obtained at high speeds. In order to study the effects of vibrations it was neo- essary to deain nany of the manifolds to give
Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...
Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization
Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini
2008-03-01
Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.
Nonsmoothable involutions on spin 4-manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nonsmoothable involutions on spin 4-manifolds. CHANGTAO XUE and XIMIN LIU. ∗. School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, .... For our application, we also need their equivariant handle construction. Let B0 be a unit ball in C2, on which Z2 acts by multiplication of ±1. Take a Z2-.
Algorithms for computing normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds
Broer, H.W.; Osinga, H.M.; Vegter, G.
An effcient algorithm is developed for the numerical computation of normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds, based on the graph transform and Newton's method. It fits in the perturbation theory of discrete dynamical systems and therefore allows application to the setting of continuation. A
Compact integral manifolds of differential systems
Gorbuzov, V. N.
2010-01-01
The boundedness tests for the number of compact integral manifolds of autonomous ordinary differential systems, of autonomous total differential systems, of linear systems of partial differential equations, of Pfaff systems of equations, and of systems of exterior differential equations are proved.
Erratum On Kahler-Norden manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Erratum. (Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.), Vol. 119, No. 1, February 2009, pp. 71–80). On Kahler-Norden manifolds. M ISCAN and A A SALIMOV. Corollary 1 is not correct, we claim that the integrability of the structure ϕ is equivalent to the condition φϕg = 0 which is not true. This condition only implies integrability and.
Four-manifolds, geometries and knots
Hillman, Jonathan A
2007-01-01
The goal of this book is to characterize algebraically the closed 4-manifolds that fibre nontrivially or admit geometries in the sense of Thurston, or which are obtained by surgery on 2-knots, and to provide a reference for the topology of such manifolds and knots. The first chapter is purely algebraic. The rest of the book may be divided into three parts: general results on homotopy and surgery (Chapters 2-6), geometries and geometric decompositions (Chapters 7-13), and 2-knots (Chapters 14-18). In many cases the Euler characteristic, fundamental group and Stiefel-Whitney classes together form a complete system of invariants for the homotopy type of such manifolds, and the possible values of the invariants can be described explicitly. The strongest results are characterizations of manifolds which fibre homotopically over S^1 or an aspherical surface (up to homotopy equivalence) and infrasolvmanifolds (up to homeomorphism). As a consequence 2-knots whose groups are poly-Z are determined up to Gluck reconstruc...
Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chuen-Sen Lin
2008-12-31
Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data
The structure of some classes of K-contact manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We study projective curvature tensor in K-contact and Sasakian manifolds. We prove that (1) if a K-contact manifold is quasi projectively flat then it is Einstein and (2) a K-contact manifold is ξ-projectively flat if and only if it is Einstein Sasakian. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a K-contact manifold to be quasi ...
Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Design Using Optimization Under Uncertainty
Sarangi, S; Bodla, K. K.; Garimella, Suresh V; Murthy, J. Y.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical model is developed and validated to study the effect of geometric parameters such as microchannel depth and width, manifold depth, and manifold inlet and outlet lengths on the performance of a manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sink. The manifold arrangement used to distribute the flow through alternating inlet and outlet pairs greatly reduces the pressure drop incurred in conventional fluid supply arrangements due to its shorter flow paths, while simultaneously en...
Active contours on statistical manifolds and texture segmentaiton
Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Neil A. Clark; Philip A. Araman
2005-01-01
A new approach to active contours on statistical manifolds is presented. The statistical manifolds are 2- dimensional Riemannian manifolds that are statistically defined by maps that transform a parameter domain onto-a set of probability density functions. In this novel framework, color or texture features are measured at each Image point and their statistical...
Active contours on statistical manifolds and texture segmentation
Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Neil A. Clark; Philip A. Araman
2005-01-01
A new approach to active contours on statistical manifolds is presented. The statistical manifolds are 2- dimensional Riemannian manifolds that are statistically defined by maps that transform a parameter domain onto a set of probability density functions. In this novel framework, color or texture features are measured at each image point and their statistical...
Wave equations on anti self dual (ASD) manifolds
Bashingwa, Jean-Juste; Kara, A. H.
2017-11-01
In this paper, we study and perform analyses of the wave equation on some manifolds with non diagonal metric g_{ij} which are of neutral signatures. These include the invariance properties, variational symmetries and conservation laws. In the recent past, wave equations on the standard (space time) Lorentzian manifolds have been performed but not on the manifolds from metrics of neutral signatures.
Examples and counter-examples of log-symplectic manifolds
Cavalcanti, Gil R.
We study topological properties of log-symplectic structures and produce examples of compact manifolds with such structures. Notably, we show that several symplectic manifolds do not admit bona fide log-symplectic structures and several bona fide log-symplectic manifolds do not admit symplectic
Moves for standard skeleta of 3-manifolds with marked boundary
Amendola, Gennaro
2008-01-01
We prove that the classical set of moves for standard spines of 3-manifolds (i.e. the MP-move and the V-move) does not suffice to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of a 3-manifold with marked boundary. We also describe a condition on the 3-manifold with marked boundary that tells whether the generalised set of moves, made up of the MP-move and the L-move, suffices to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of the 3-manifold with marked boundary. For the 3-manifolds with mark...
Exhaustion from prolonged gambling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatimah Lateef
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.
Adaptive graph construction for Isomap manifold learning
Tran, Loc; Zheng, Zezhong; Zhou, Guoqing; Li, Jiang
2015-03-01
Isomap is a classical manifold learning approach that preserves geodesic distance of nonlinear data sets. One of the main drawbacks of this method is that it is susceptible to leaking, where a shortcut appears between normally separated portions of a manifold. We propose an adaptive graph construction approach that is based upon the sparsity property of the l1 norm. The l1 enhanced graph construction method replaces k-nearest neighbors in the classical approach. The proposed algorithm is first tested on the data sets from the UCI data base repository which showed that the proposed approach performs better than the classical approach. Next, the proposed approach is applied to two image data sets and achieved improved performances over standard Isomap.
Lattes-type mappings on compact manifolds
Astola, Laura; Kangaslampi, Riikka; Peltonen, Kirsi
A uniformly quasiregular mapping acting on a compact Riemannian manifold distorts the metric by a bounded amount, independently of the number of iterates. Such maps are rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure and there is a Fatou-Julia type theory associated with the dynamical system obtained by iterating these mappings. We study a rich subclass of uniformly quasiregular mappings that can be produced using an analogy of classical Lattes' construction of chaotic rational functions acting on the extended plane bar{C} . We show that there is a plenitude of compact manifolds that support these mappings. Moreover, we find that in some cases there are alternative ways to construct this type of mapping with different Julia sets.
Saliency detection based on manifold learning
Yang, Zhi; Li, DeHua; Wang, Jie; Li, Xuan
2013-10-01
Visual saliency has recently attracted lots of research interest in the computer vision community. In this paper, we propose a novel computational model for bottom-up saliency detection based on manifold learning. A typical graphbased manifold learning algorithm, namely the diffusion map, is adopted for establishing our saliency model. In the proposed method, firstly, a graph is constructed using low-level image features. Then, the diffusion map algorithm is performed to learn the diffusion distances, which are utilized to derive the saliency measure. Compared to existing saliency models, our method has the advantage of being able to capture the intrinsic nonlinear structures in the original feature space. Moreover, due to the inherent characteristics of the diffusion map algorithm, our method can deal with the multi-scale issue effectively, which is crucial to any saliency model. Experimental results on publicly available data demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art saliency models, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
New spinor fields on Lorentzian 7-manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Rocha, Roldão da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC,Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André (Brazil)
2016-01-21
This paper deals with the classification of spinor fields according to the bilinear covariants in 7 dimensions. The previously investigated Riemannian case is characterized by either one spinor field class, in the real case of Majorana spinors, or three non-trivial classes in the most general complex case. In this paper we show that by imposing appropriate conditions on spinor fields in 7d manifolds with Lorentzian metric, the formerly obtained obstructions for new classes of spinor fields can be circumvented. New spinor fields classes are then explicitly constructed. In particular, on 7-manifolds with asymptotically flat black hole background, these spinors can define a generalized current density which further defines a time Killing vector at the spatial infinity.
Positively invariant manifolds: concept and applications
Sazhin, Sergei S.; Shchepakina, Elena; Sobolev, Vladimir
2017-02-01
In many applications of the system order reduction models, including those focused on spray ignition and combustion processes, it is assumed that all functions in corresponding differential equations are Lipschitzian. This assumption has not been checked in most cases and the cases when these functions were non-Lipschitzian have sometimes been overlooked. This allows us to question the results of application of the conventional theory of integral manifolds to some such systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that even in the case of singular perturbed systems with non-Lipschitzian nonlinearities the order reduction can be performed, using a new concept of positively invariant manifolds. This is illustrated by several examples including the problem of heating, evaporation, ignition and combustion of Diesel fuel sprays.
Dynamical systems on 2- and 3-manifolds
Grines, Viacheslav Z; Pochinka, Olga V
2016-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the topological classification of smooth structurally stable diffeomorphisms on closed orientable 2- and 3-manifolds.The topological classification is one of the main problems of the theory of dynamical systems and the results presented in this book are mostly for dynamical systems satisfying Smale's Axiom A. The main results on the topological classification of discrete dynamical systems are widely scattered among many papers and surveys. This book presents these results fluidly, systematically, and for the first time in one publication. Additionally, this book discusses the recent results on the topological classification of Axiom A diffeomorphisms focusing on the nontrivial effects of the dynamical systems on 2- and 3-manifolds. The classical methods and approaches which are considered to be promising for the further research are also discussed. < The reader needs to be familiar with the basic concepts of the qualitative theory of dynamical systems which are present...
Kernel Methods on Riemannian Manifolds with Gaussian RBF Kernels.
Jayasumana, Sadeep; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu; Li, Hongdong; Harandi, Mehrtash
2015-12-01
In this paper, we develop an approach to exploiting kernel methods with manifold-valued data. In many computer vision problems, the data can be naturally represented as points on a Riemannian manifold. Due to the non-Euclidean geometry of Riemannian manifolds, usual Euclidean computer vision and machine learning algorithms yield inferior results on such data. In this paper, we define Gaussian radial basis function (RBF)-based positive definite kernels on manifolds that permit us to embed a given manifold with a corresponding metric in a high dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space. These kernels make it possible to utilize algorithms developed for linear spaces on nonlinear manifold-valued data. Since the Gaussian RBF defined with any given metric is not always positive definite, we present a unified framework for analyzing the positive definiteness of the Gaussian RBF on a generic metric space. We then use the proposed framework to identify positive definite kernels on two specific manifolds commonly encountered in computer vision: the Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definite matrices and the Grassmann manifold, i.e., the Riemannian manifold of linear subspaces of a Euclidean space. We show that many popular algorithms designed for Euclidean spaces, such as support vector machines, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis can be generalized to Riemannian manifolds with the help of such positive definite Gaussian kernels.
Fuel Manifold Resists Embrittlement by Hydrogen
Adams, T.
1986-01-01
Completely-cast hydrogen-compatible alloy preferable to protective plating. Complexity of plating, welding, and brazing unnecessary if hydrogen-compatible alloy used for entire casting instead of protective overlay. Parts exposed to high-pressure hydrogen made immune to hydrogen embrittlement if fabricated from new alloy, Incoly 903 (or equivalent). Material strong and compatible with hydrogen at all temperatures and adapted for outlet manifold of Space Shuttle main combustion chamber.
Manifold learning in machine vision and robotics
Bernstein, Alexander
2017-02-01
Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision and Robotics to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. Nowadays, Machine learning is an essential and ubiquitous tool to automate extraction patterns or regularities from data (images in Machine vision; camera, laser, and sonar sensors data in Robotics) in order to solve various subject-oriented tasks such as understanding and classification of images content, navigation of mobile autonomous robot in uncertain environments, robot manipulation in medical robotics and computer-assisted surgery, and other. Usually such data have high dimensionality, however, due to various dependencies between their components and constraints caused by physical reasons, all "feasible and usable data" occupy only a very small part in high dimensional "observation space" with smaller intrinsic dimensionality. Generally accepted model of such data is manifold model in accordance with which the data lie on or near an unknown manifold (surface) of lower dimensionality embedded in an ambient high dimensional observation space; real-world high-dimensional data obtained from "natural" sources meet, as a rule, this model. The use of Manifold learning technique in Machine vision and Robotics, which discovers a low-dimensional structure of high dimensional data and results in effective algorithms for solving of a large number of various subject-oriented tasks, is the content of the conference plenary speech some topics of which are in the paper.
Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.
Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta
2014-12-01
Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.
Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...
Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.
Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F
2016-07-01
Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Generalized Calabi-Yau manifolds and the mirror of a rigid manifold
Candelas, Philip; Parkes, L
1993-01-01
We describe the mirror of the Z orbifold as a representation of a class of generalized Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be realized as manifolds of dimension five and seven. Despite their dimension these correspond to superconformal theories with $c=9$ and so are perfectly good for compactifying the heterotic string to the four dimensions of space-time. As a check of mirror symmetry we compute the structure of the space of complex structures of the mirror and check that this reproduces the known results for the Yukawa couplings and metric appropriate to the Kahler class parameters on the Z orbifold together with their instanton corrections.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korczewski Zbigniew
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.
Soft Manifold Dynamics behind Negative Thermal Expansion
Schlesinger, Z.; Rosen, J. A.; Hancock, J. N.; Ramirez, A. P.
2008-07-01
Minimal models are developed to examine the origin of large negative thermal expansion in underconstrained systems. The dynamics of these models reveals how underconstraint can organize a thermodynamically extensive manifold of low-energy modes which not only drives negative thermal expansion but extends across the Brillioun zone. Mixing of twist and translation in the eigenvectors of these modes, for which in ZrW2O8 there is evidence from infrared and neutron scattering measurements, emerges naturally in our model as a signature of the dynamics of underconstraint.
Path Integrals on Manifolds with Boundary
Ludewig, Matthias
2017-09-01
We give time-slicing path integral formulas for solutions to the heat equation corresponding to a self-adjoint Laplace type operator acting on sections of a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. More specifically, we show that such a solution can be approximated by integrals over finite-dimensional path spaces of piecewise geodesics subordinated to increasingly fine partitions of the time interval. We consider a subclass of mixed boundary conditions which includes standard Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.
Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
. In this talk we will mainly be concerned with {\\em{minimal}} isometric immersions of such geometrized approximations $(G, g)$ of $X$ into Riemannian manifolds $N$ with bounded curvature. When such an immersion exists, we will call it an $X$-web in $N$. Such webs admit a natural 'geometric' extension...... of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....
Frobenius manifolds, quantum cohomology, and moduli spaces
Manin, Yuri I
1999-01-01
This is the first monograph dedicated to the systematic exposition of the whole variety of topics related to quantum cohomology. The subject first originated in theoretical physics (quantum string theory) and has continued to develop extensively over the last decade. The author's approach to quantum cohomology is based on the notion of the Frobenius manifold. The first part of the book is devoted to this notion and its extensive interconnections with algebraic formalism of operads, differential equations, perturbations, and geometry. In the second part of the book, the author describes the con
Dean, Edwin B.
1990-01-01
Design-to-cost is a popular technique for controlling costs. Although qualitative techniques exist for implementing design to cost, quantitative methods are sparse. In the launch vehicle and spacecraft engineering process, the question whether to minimize mass is usually an issue. The lack of quantification in this issue leads to arguments on both sides. This paper presents a mathematical technique which both quantifies the design-to-cost process and the mass/complexity issue. Parametric cost analysis generates and applies mathematical formulas called cost estimating relationships. In their most common forms, they are continuous and differentiable. This property permits the application of the mathematics of differentiable manifolds. Although the terminology sounds formidable, the application of the techniques requires only a knowledge of linear algebra and ordinary differential equations, common subjects in undergraduate scientific and engineering curricula. When the cost c is expressed as a differentiable function of n system metrics, setting the cost c to be a constant generates an n-1 dimensional subspace of the space of system metrics such that any set of metric values in that space satisfies the constant design-to-cost criterion. This space is a differentiable manifold upon which all mathematical properties of a differentiable manifold may be applied. One important property is that an easily implemented system of ordinary differential equations exists which permits optimization of any function of the system metrics, mass for example, over the design-to-cost manifold. A dual set of equations defines the directions of maximum and minimum cost change. A simplified approximation of the PRICE H(TM) production-production cost is used to generate this set of differential equations over [mass, complexity] space. The equations are solved in closed form to obtain the one dimensional design-to-cost trade and design-for-cost spaces. Preliminary results indicate that cost
Fixed point indices and manifolds with collars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Henry Gottlieb
2006-05-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns a formula which relates the Lefschetz number L(f for a map f:MÃ¢Â†Â’MÃ¢Â€Â² to the fixed point index I(f summed with the fixed point index of a derived map on part of the boundary of Ã¢ÂˆÂ‚M. Here M is a compact manifold and MÃ¢Â€Â² is M with a collar attached.
Semi-invariant submanifolds of (g, F-manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novac-Claudiu Chiriac
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We introduce (g,F-manifolds and initiate a study of their semi-invariant submanifolds. These submanifolds are generalizations of CR-submanifolds of Kaehler manifolds. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of distributions on a semi-invariant submanifold and study the geometry of foliations defined by these distributions. In particular, for a large class of (g,F-manifolds we prove the existence of a natural foliation on their semi-invariant submanifolds.
LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...
Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang
2017-01-01
Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032
Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due
2015-01-01
This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...
Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sanchez‐Fueyo, A; Markmann, J. F
2016-01-01
Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated...
The "parity" anomaly on an unorientable manifold
Witten, Edward
2016-11-01
The "parity" anomaly—more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry—arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. This anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we give a full description of the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in 2 +1 dimensions on a possibly unorientable spacetime. We consider an application to topological superconductors and another application to M theory. The application to topological superconductors involves using knowledge of the "parity" anomaly as an ingredient in constructing gapped boundary states of these systems and in particular in gapping the boundary of a ν =16 system in a topologically trivial fashion. The application to M theory involves showing the consistency of the path integral of an M theory membrane on a possibly unorientable worldvolume. In the past, this has been done only in the orientable case.
Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment
Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.
1980-01-01
A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.
Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.
Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba
2015-01-01
The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.
Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Babaeian
Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.
Smooth manifold structure for extreme channels
Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger
2018-01-01
A quantum channel from a system A of dimension dA to a system B of dimension dB is a completely positive trace-preserving map from complex dA × dA to dB × dB matrices, and the set of all such maps with Kraus rank r has the structure of a smooth manifold. We describe this set in two ways. First, as a quotient space of (a subset of) the rdB × dA dimensional Stiefel manifold. Second, as the set of all Choi-states of a fixed rank r. These two descriptions are topologically equivalent. This allows us to show that the set of all Choi-states corresponding to extreme channels from system A to system B of a fixed Kraus rank r is a smooth submanifold of dimension 2 r dAdB-dA2-r2 of the set of all Choi-states of rank r. As an application, we derive a lower bound on the number of parameters required for a quantum circuit topology to be able to approximate all extreme channels from A to B arbitrarily well.
Lagrangian descriptors of driven chemical reaction manifolds
Craven, Galen T.; Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2017-08-01
The persistence of a transition state structure in systems driven by time-dependent environments allows the application of modern reaction rate theories to solution-phase and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. However, identifying this structure is problematic in driven systems and has been limited by theories built on series expansion about a saddle point. Recently, it has been shown that to obtain formally exact rates for reactions in thermal environments, a transition state trajectory must be constructed. Here, using optimized Lagrangian descriptors [G. T. Craven and R. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 148301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.148301], we obtain this so-called distinguished trajectory and the associated moving reaction manifolds on model energy surfaces subject to various driving and dissipative conditions. In particular, we demonstrate that this is exact for harmonic barriers in one dimension and this verification gives impetus to the application of Lagrangian descriptor-based methods in diverse classes of chemical reactions. The development of these objects is paramount in the theory of reaction dynamics as the transition state structure and its underlying network of manifolds directly dictate reactivity and selectivity.
Spectral invariants of operators of Dirac type on partitioned manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Bleecker, D.
2004-01-01
We review the concepts of the index of a Fredholm operator, the spectral flow of a curve of self-adjoint Fredholm operators, the Maslov index of a curve of Lagrangian subspaces in symplectic Hilbert space, and the eta invariant of operators of Dirac type on closed manifolds and manifolds...
Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique
Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107--136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures that otherwise
Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique
D. Echeverria (David); P.W. Hemker (Piet)
2008-01-01
textabstractIn this paper, we analyze in some detail the manifold-mapping optimization technique introduced recently [Echeverría and Hemker in space mapping and defect correction. Comput Methods Appl Math 5(2): 107-–136, 2005]. Manifold mapping aims at accelerating optimal design procedures
Growth of fundamental group for Finsler manifolds with integral Ricci ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Finsler manifold; fundamental group; integral Ricci curvature; uniformity constant; reversibility. Abstract. In this paper, an upper bound on the growth of fundamental group for a class of Finsler manifolds with integral Ricci curvature bound is given. This generalizes the corresponding results with pointwise Ricci ...
Erratum to the paper: Compact hyperkaehler manifolds: basic results
Huybrechts, Daniel
2001-01-01
This is an Erratum to the paper: Compact hyperkaehler manifolds: basic results. (alg-geom/9705025, Inv. math. 135). We give a correct proof of the projectivity criterion for hyperkaehler manifolds. We use a recent result of Demailly and Paun math.AG/0105176.
Slant Riemannian maps from almost hermitian manifolds | Sahin ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
As a generalization of holomorphic submersions, anti-invariant submersions and slant submersions, we introduce slant Riemannian maps from almost Hermitian manifolds to Riemannian manifolds. We give examples, obtain the existence conditions of slant Riemannian maps and investigate harmonicity of such maps.
Harmonic Riemannian maps on locally conformal Kaehler manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We study harmonic Riemannian maps on locally conformal Kaehler mani- folds (lcK manifolds). We show that if a Riemannian holomorphic map between lcK manifolds is harmonic, then the Lee vector field of the domain belongs to the kernel of the Riemannian map under a condition. When the domain is Kaehler, ...
The spectral length of a map between Riemannian manifolds
Cornelissen, G.L.M.; de Jong, J.W.W.
2012-01-01
To a closed Riemannian manifold, we associate a set of (special values of) a family of Dirichlet series, indexed by functions on the manifold. We study the meaning of equality of two such families of spectral Dirichlet series under pullback along a map. This allows us to give a spectral
4-manifolds and intersection forms with local coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frøyshov, Kim Anders
2012-01-01
We extend Donaldson's diagonalization theorem to intersection forms with certain local coefficients, under some constraints. This provides new examples of non-smoothable topological 4-manifolds.......We extend Donaldson's diagonalization theorem to intersection forms with certain local coefficients, under some constraints. This provides new examples of non-smoothable topological 4-manifolds....
An Underlying Geometrical Manifold for Hamiltonian Mechanics
Horwitz, L P; Levitan, J; Lewkowicz, M
2015-01-01
We show that there exists an underlying manifold with a conformal metric and compatible connection form, and a metric type Hamiltonian (which we call the geometrical picture) that can be put into correspondence with the usual Hamilton-Lagrange mechanics. The requirement of dynamical equivalence of the two types of Hamiltonians, that the momenta generated by the two pictures be equal for all times, is sufficient to determine an expansion of the conformal factor, defined on the geometrical coordinate representation, in its domain of analyticity with coefficients to all orders determined by functions of the potential of the Hamilton-Lagrange picture, defined on the Hamilton-Lagrange coordinate representation, and its derivatives. Conversely, if the conformal function is known, the potential of a Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be determined in a similar way. We show that arbitrary local variations of the orbits in the Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be generated by variations along geodesics in the geometrical pictu...
Evolutionary global optimization, manifolds and applications
Aguiar e Oliveira Junior, Hime
2016-01-01
This book presents powerful techniques for solving global optimization problems on manifolds by means of evolutionary algorithms, and shows in practice how these techniques can be applied to solve real-world problems. It describes recent findings and well-known key facts in general and differential topology, revisiting them all in the context of application to current optimization problems. Special emphasis is put on game theory problems. Here, these problems are reformulated as constrained global optimization tasks and solved with the help of Fuzzy ASA. In addition, more abstract examples, including minimizations of well-known functions, are also included. Although the Fuzzy ASA approach has been chosen as the main optimizing paradigm, the book suggests that other metaheuristic methods could be used as well. Some of them are introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages. Readers should possess some knowledge of linear algebra, and of basic concepts of numerical analysis and probability theory....
Double field theory on group manifolds
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Hassler, Falk; Lüst, Dieter
2015-02-01
A new version of double field theory (DFT) is derived for the exactly solvable background of an in general left-right asymmetric WZW model in the large level limit. This generalizes the original DFT that was derived via expanding closed string field theory on a torus up to cubic order. The action and gauge transformations are derived for fluctuations around the generalized group manifold background up to cubic order, revealing the appearance of a generalized Lie derivative and a corresponding C-bracket upon invoking a new version of the strong constraint. In all these quantities a background dependent covariant derivative appears reducing to the partial derivative for a toroidal background. This approach sheds some new light on the conceptual status of DFT, its background (in-)dependence and the up-lift of non-geometric Scherk-Schwarz reductions.
Convex functions and optimization methods on Riemannian manifolds
Udrişte, Constantin
1994-01-01
This unique monograph discusses the interaction between Riemannian geometry, convex programming, numerical analysis, dynamical systems and mathematical modelling. The book is the first account of the development of this subject as it emerged at the beginning of the 'seventies. A unified theory of convexity of functions, dynamical systems and optimization methods on Riemannian manifolds is also presented. Topics covered include geodesics and completeness of Riemannian manifolds, variations of the p-energy of a curve and Jacobi fields, convex programs on Riemannian manifolds, geometrical constructions of convex functions, flows and energies, applications of convexity, descent algorithms on Riemannian manifolds, TC and TP programs for calculations and plots, all allowing the user to explore and experiment interactively with real life problems in the language of Riemannian geometry. An appendix is devoted to convexity and completeness in Finsler manifolds. For students and researchers in such diverse fields as pu...
Model Transport: Towards Scalable Transfer Learning on Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Black, Michael J.
2014-01-01
ordinary Rn-transfer learning ideas, the manifold structure prevents it. We overcome this by basing our method on inner-product-preserving parallel transport, a well-known tool widely used in other problems of statistics on manifolds in computer vision. At first, this straightforward idea seems to suffer......We consider the intersection of two research fields: transfer learning and statistics on manifolds. In particular, we consider, for manifold-valued data, transfer learning of tangent-space models such as Gaussians distributions, PCA, regression, or classifiers. Though one would hope to simply use...... “commutes” with learning. Consequently, our compact framework, applicable to a large class of manifolds, is not restricted by the size of either the training or test sets. We demonstrate the approach by transferring PCA and logistic-regression models of real-world data involving 3D shapes and image...
Extrinsic local regression on manifold-valued data
Lin, Lizhen; St Thomas, Brian; Zhu, Hongtu; Dunson, David B.
2017-01-01
We propose an extrinsic regression framework for modeling data with manifold valued responses and Euclidean predictors. Regression with manifold responses has wide applications in shape analysis, neuroscience, medical imaging and many other areas. Our approach embeds the manifold where the responses lie onto a higher dimensional Euclidean space, obtains a local regression estimate in that space, and then projects this estimate back onto the image of the manifold. Outside the regression setting both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches have been proposed for modeling i.i.d manifold-valued data. However, to our knowledge our work is the first to take an extrinsic approach to the regression problem. The proposed extrinsic regression framework is general, computationally efficient and theoretically appealing. Asymptotic distributions and convergence rates of the extrinsic regression estimates are derived and a large class of examples are considered indicating the wide applicability of our approach. PMID:29225385
Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
difference quotient is bounded away from zero on every compact set. A convex function ϕ is said to be locally non-constant if it is not constant on any open set of M. Clearly, every strictly convex function is automatically locally non-constant. We call convex function. ϕ : M → R exhaustion if ϕ. −1. (−∞,a] is compact for all a ...
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke ICE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogorevc, T.; Sekavcnik, M. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Lab. for Heat and Power; Katrasnik, T. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Lab. for Internal Combustion Engines; Zun, I. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Lab. for Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics
2009-09-15
In this paper an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder fourstroke ICE, including the entire exhaust manifold is described. Guidelines for the implementation of the full threedimensional model of the discussed process are included. The simulation involves the time-dependent flow of exhaust gases through the exhaust valve and the flow dynamics within the 2.2-m-long, straight exhaust pipe during the period when the valve is closed. Also the intake port with the intake valve is being coupled during the valves' overlap period. The model geometry corresponds exactly to the actual engine geometry. The movement of the mesh follows the measured kinematics of the piston and the valves. The data obtained from the experimental environment was used for both the initialization and the validation of the computations. It was found that the phenomena affecting the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely three-dimensional and should be treated as such. In particular, the flow through the exhaust valve and the heat transfer along the exhaust pipe were influenced greatly by the effects of cold, fresh air breaking into the exhaust pipe in the period after the EVC. The presented study is the basis for future three-dimensional investigations of the entropy-generation rate along the exhaust system, including the exhaust valve. (orig.)
Arabadjis, Dimitris; Rousopoulos, Panayiotis; Papaodysseus, Constantin; Exarhos, Michalis; Panagopoulos, Michail; Papazoglou-Manioudaki, Lena
2011-11-01
In this paper, a general methodology is introduced for the determination of potential prototype curves used for the drawing of prehistoric wall paintings. The approach includes 1) preprocessing of the wall-paintings contours to properly partition them, according to their curvature, 2) choice of prototype curves families, 3) analysis and optimization in 4-manifold for a first estimation of the form of these prototypes, 4) clustering of the contour parts and the prototypes to determine a minimal number of potential guides, and 5) further optimization in 4-manifold, applied to each cluster separately, in order to determine the exact functional form of the potential guides, together with the corresponding drawn contour parts. The methodology introduced simultaneously deals with two problems: 1) the arbitrariness in data-points orientation and 2) the determination of one proper form for a prototype curve that optimally fits the corresponding contour data. Arbitrariness in orientation has been dealt with a novel curvature based error, while the proper forms of curve prototypes have been exhaustively determined by embedding curvature deformations of the prototypes into 4-manifolds. Application of this methodology to celebrated wall paintings excavated at Tyrins, Greece, and the Greek island of Thera manifests that it is highly probable that these wall paintings were drawn by means of geometric guides that correspond to linear spirals and hyperbolae. These geometric forms fit the drawings’ lines with an exceptionally low average error, less than 0.39 mm. Hence, the approach suggests the existence of accurate realizations of complicated geometric entities more than 1,000 years before their axiomatic formulation in the Classical Ages.
Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hyldgård, Carl-Erik
In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...
Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery
Reynolds, Michael G.
2015-09-22
An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.
Heat recovery from Diesel exhausts by means of a fluidized bed heat exchanger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlomagno, G.M.; Festa, R.; Massimilla, L.
1983-01-01
A fluidized bed heat exchanger, equipped with a specially designed manifold gas distributor, is conveniently used to recover heat from exhausts of a 60 kW Diesel engine. The sensitivity of the bed to tube heat transfer coefficient to soot fouling and the sensitivity of the exchanger efficiency to variations of such coefficients are analyzed. Procedures for in-operation tube defouling are described.
Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst
2017-01-01
processes to the manifold. Defining the data distribution as the transition distribution of the mapped stochastic process, parameters of the model, the non-linear analogue of design matrix and intercept, are found via maximum likelihood. The model is intrinsically related to the geometry encoded......We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion...
Scientific data interpolation with low dimensional manifold model
Zhu, Wei; Wang, Bao; Barnard, Richard; Hauck, Cory D.; Jenko, Frank; Osher, Stanley
2018-01-01
We propose to apply a low dimensional manifold model to scientific data interpolation from regular and irregular samplings with a significant amount of missing information. The low dimensionality of the patch manifold for general scientific data sets has been used as a regularizer in a variational formulation. The problem is solved via alternating minimization with respect to the manifold and the data set, and the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the Euler-Lagrange equation is discretized using the weighted graph Laplacian. Various scientific data sets from different fields of study are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm on data compression and interpolation from both regular and irregular samplings.
Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst
2017-01-01
We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion proce...... in the connection of the manifold. We propose an estimation procedure which applies the Laplace approximation of the likelihood function. A simulation study of the performance of the model is performed and the model is applied to a real dataset of Corpus Callosum shapes....
Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medeiros, Paul de [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger,4036 Stavanger (Norway); Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea [Maxwell Institute and School of Mathematics, The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2016-06-20
We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of ℤ-graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds whose associated Killing superalgebras are precisely the filtered deformations we classify in this paper.
On the Scalar Manifold of Exceptional Supergravity
Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio
2012-01-01
We construct two parametrizations of the non compact exceptional Lie group G=E7(-25), based on a fibration which has the maximal compact subgroup K=(E6 x U(1))/Z_3 as a fiber. It is well known that G plays an important role in the N=2 d=4 magic exceptional supergravity, where it describes the U-duality of the theory and where the symmetric space M=G/K gives the vector multiplets' scalar manifold. First, by making use of the exponential map, we compute a realization of G/K, that is based on the E6 invariant d-tensor, and hence exhibits the maximal possible manifest [(E6 x U(1))/Z_3]-covariance. This provides a basis for the corresponding supergravity theory, which is the analogue of the Calabi-Vesentini coordinates. Then we study the Iwasawa decomposition. Its main feature is that it is SO(8)-covariant and therefore it highlights the role of triality. Along the way we analyze the relevant chain of maximal embeddings which leads to SO(8). It is worth noticing that being based on the properties of a "mixed" Freu...
Manifold learning based feature extraction for classification of hyperspectral data
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lunga, D
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Interest in manifold learning for representing the topology of large, high dimensional nonlinear data sets in lower, but still meaningful dimensions for visualization and classification has grown rapidly over the past decade, and particularly...
Spatial context driven manifold learning for hyperspectral image classification
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, Y
2014-06-01
Full Text Available learning methods. Empirically, the study reveals that use of spatial contextual information has a bearing on the structure of the graph Laplacian that in turn links image pixel observations to their manifold spaces. Further experimental results demonstrate...
Monopole classes and Perelman's invariant of four-manifolds
Kotschick, D.
2006-01-01
We calculate Perelman's invariant for compact complex surfaces and a few other smooth four-manifolds. We also prove some results concerning the dependence of Perelman's invariant on the smooth structure.
A survey on the Convergence of Manifolds with Boundary
Perales, Raquel
2013-01-01
This survey reviews precompactness theorems for classes of Riemannian manifolds with boundary. We begin with the works of Kodani, Anderson-Katsuda-Kurylev-Lassas-Taylor and Wong. We then present new results of Knox and the author with Sormani.
Flat coordinates for Saito Frobenius manifolds and string theory
Belavin, A. A.; Gepner, D.; Kononov, Ya. A.
2016-12-01
We investigate the connection between the models of topological conformal theory and noncritical string theory with Saito Frobenius manifolds. For this, we propose a new direct way to calculate the flat coordinates using the integral representation for solutions of the Gauss-Manin system connected with a given Saito Frobenius manifold. We present explicit calculations in the case of a singularity of type A n . We also discuss a possible generalization of our proposed approach to SU( N) k /( SU( N) k+1 × U(1)) Kazama-Suzuki theories. We prove a theorem that the potential connected with these models is an isolated singularity, which is a condition for the Frobenius manifold structure to emerge on its deformation manifold. This fact allows using the Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde approach to solve similar Kazama-Suzuki models.
Some functional inequalities on non-reversible Finsler manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SHIN-ICHI OHTA
2017-11-13
Riemannian Finsler manifold of weighted Ricci curvature bounded below satisfies the curvature-dimension condition (in the naturally extended form to asymmetric distances), but the Rieman- nian curvature-dimension condition never ...
q-oscillators, (non-)Kaehler manifolds and constrained dynamics
Shabanov, Sergey V.
1994-01-01
It is shown that q-deformed quantum mechanics (systems with q-deformed Heisenberg commutation relations) can be interpreted as an ordinary quantum mechanics on Kaehler manifolds, or as a quantum theory with second (or first)- class constraints.
The Identification of Convex Function on Riemannian Manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The necessary and sufficient condition of convex function is significant in nonlinear convex programming. This paper presents the identification of convex function on Riemannian manifold by use of Penot generalized directional derivative and the Clarke generalized gradient. This paper also presents a method for judging whether a point is the global minimum point in the inequality constraints. Our objective here is to extend the content and proof the necessary and sufficient condition of convex function to Riemannian manifolds.
A simple proof of Perelman's collapsing theorem for 3-manifolds
Cao, Jianguo; Ge, Jian
2010-01-01
We will simplify earlier proofs of Perelman's collapsing theorem for 3-manifolds given by Shioya-Yamaguchi and Morgan-Tian. Among other things, we use Perelman's critical point theory (e.g., multiple conic singularity theory and his fibration theory) for Alexandrov spaces to construct the desired local Seifert fibration structure on collapsed 3-manifolds. The verification of Perelman's collapsing theorem is the last step of Perelman's proof of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture on the class...
Humanoid posture generation on non-Euclidean manifolds
Brossette, Stanislas; Escande, Adrien; Duchemin, Grégoire; Chrétien, Benjamin; Kheddar, Abderrahmane
2015-01-01
International audience; We present a reformulation of the posture generation problem that encompasses non-Euclidean manifolds. Such a formulation allows a more elegant mathematical description of the constraints, which we exemplify through some scenarios in the simulation results section. In our previous work, the posture generation problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization program with constraints expressed only through Euclidean manifolds; we solve the latter problem using on-the-s...
Visual tracking with L1-Grassmann manifold modeling
Chachlakis, Dimitris G.; Markopoulos, Panos P.; Muchhala, Raj J.; Savakis, Andreas
2017-05-01
We present a novel method for robust tracking in video frame sequences via L1-Grassmann manifolds. The proposed method represents adaptively the target as a point on the Grassmann manifold, calculated by means of L1-norm Principal-Component Analysis (L1-PCA). For this purpose, an efficient algorithm for adaptive L1-PCA is presented. Our experimental studies illustrate that the presented tracking method, leveraging the outlier resistance of L1-PCA, demonstrates robustness against target occlusions and illumination variations.
Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Using Envelope Manifold Demodulation
Weigang Wen; Gao, Robert X.; Weidong Cheng
2016-01-01
The important issue in planetary gear fault diagnosis is to extract the dependable fault characteristics from the noisy vibration signal of planetary gearbox. To address this critical problem, an envelope manifold demodulation method is proposed for planetary gear fault detection in the paper. This method combines complex wavelet, manifold learning, and frequency spectrogram to implement planetary gear fault characteristic extraction. The vibration signal of planetary gear is demodulated by w...
Dimensionality reduction of collective motion by principal manifolds
Gajamannage, Kelum; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio; Bollt, Erik M.
2015-01-01
While the existence of low-dimensional embedding manifolds has been shown in patterns of collective motion, the current battery of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods is not amenable to the analysis of such manifolds. This is mainly due to the necessary spectral decomposition step, which limits control over the mapping from the original high-dimensional space to the embedding space. Here, we propose an alternative approach that demands a two-dimensional embedding which topologically summarizes the high-dimensional data. In this sense, our approach is closely related to the construction of one-dimensional principal curves that minimize orthogonal error to data points subject to smoothness constraints. Specifically, we construct a two-dimensional principal manifold directly in the high-dimensional space using cubic smoothing splines, and define the embedding coordinates in terms of geodesic distances. Thus, the mapping from the high-dimensional data to the manifold is defined in terms of local coordinates. Through representative examples, we show that compared to existing nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the principal manifold retains the original structure even in noisy and sparse datasets. The principal manifold finding algorithm is applied to configurations obtained from a dynamical system of multiple agents simulating a complex maneuver called predator mobbing, and the resulting two-dimensional embedding is compared with that of a well-established nonlinear dimensionality reduction method.
Chekroun, Mickaël D; Wang, Shouhong
2015-01-01
In this second volume, a general approach is developed to provide approximate parameterizations of the "small" scales by the "large" ones for a broad class of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). This is accomplished via the concept of parameterizing manifolds (PMs), which are stochastic manifolds that improve, for a given realization of the noise, in mean square error the partial knowledge of the full SPDE solution when compared to its projection onto some resolved modes. Backward-forward systems are designed to give access to such PMs in practice. The key idea consists of representing the modes with high wave numbers as a pullback limit depending on the time-history of the modes with low wave numbers. Non-Markovian stochastic reduced systems are then derived based on such a PM approach. The reduced systems take the form of stochastic differential equations involving random coefficients that convey memory effects. The theory is illustrated on a stochastic Burgers-type equation.
LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...
Modeling of EGR Mixing in an Engine Intake Manifold Using LES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakowitz A.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate the mixing process of exhaust gases with fresh air in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE. For this purpose, the flow in an inlet manifold of a six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine is computed using compressible Large Eddy Simulations (LES. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR concentration is modeled as a passive scalar. The results are validated by on-engine measurements of the EGR concentration using COZ probes. The boundary conditions for the highly pulsating flow are taken partly from one-dimensional simulations, partly from pressure measurements on the engine. In order to assess the sensitivity to the boundary conditions, changes are applied to the base-line case. The mixing quality is evaluated in terms of cylinder-to-cylinder distribution and the spatial RMS over the outlet cross- sections. Different averaging techniques are applied. It was found that the temporal and spatial EGR distribution is different among the cylinders. The EGR distribution within the cylinder inlet is non-uniform. These factors imply that one should not use a time-averaged EGR value as indicator for the EGR content. Furthermore, it was found that the flow pulsations at the EGR inlet have a large influence on the EGR distribution. By comparing the LES results with measurements, it was shown that LES gives a better and deeper insight into the mixing in such turbulent, pulsating flow situations.
Quasi-Newton Exploration of Implicitly Constrained Manifolds
Tang, Chengcheng
2011-08-01
A family of methods for the efficient update of second order approximations of a constraint manifold is proposed in this thesis. The concept of such a constraint manifold corresponds to an abstract space prescribed by implicit nonlinear constraints, which can be a set of objects satisfying certain desired properties. This concept has a variety of applications, and it has been successfully introduced to fabrication-aware architectural design as a shape space consisting of all the implementable designs. The local approximation of such a manifold can be first order, in the tangent space, or second order, in the osculating surface, with higher precision. For a nonlinearly constrained manifold with rather high dimension and codimension, the computation of second order approximants (osculants) is time consuming. In this thesis, a type of so-called quasi-Newton manifold exploration methods which approximate the new osculants by updating the ones of a neighbor point by 1st-order information is introduced. The procedures are discussed in detail and the examples implemented to visually verify the methods are illustrated.
Smooth Approximation of Lipschitz Functions on Finsler Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Garrido
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the smooth approximation of Lipschitz functions on Finsler manifolds, keeping control on the corresponding Lipschitz constants. We prove that, given a Lipschitz function f:M→ℝ defined on a connected, second countable Finsler manifold M, for each positive continuous function ε:M→(0,∞ and each r>0, there exists a C1-smooth Lipschitz function g:M→ℝ such that |f(x-g(x|≤ε(x, for every x∈M, and Lip(g≤Lip(f+r. As a consequence, we derive a completeness criterium in the class of what we call quasi-reversible Finsler manifolds. Finally, considering the normed algebra Cb1(M of all C1 functions with bounded derivative on a complete quasi-reversible Finsler manifold M, we obtain a characterization of algebra isomorphisms T:Cb1(N→Cb1(M as composition operators. From this we obtain a variant of Myers-Nakai Theorem in the context of complete reversible Finsler manifolds.
Hyperbolic normal forms and invariant manifolds: Astronomical applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efthymiopoulos C.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the dynamics induced by the invariant manifolds of unstable periodic orbits in nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamical systems has led to a number of applications in celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy. Two applications of main current interest are i space manifold dynamics, i.e. the use of the manifolds in space mission design, and, in a quite different context, ii the study of spiral structure in galaxies. At present, most approaches to the computation of orbits associated with manifold dynamics (i.e. periodic or asymptotic orbits rely either on the use of the so-called Poincaré - Lindstedt method, or on purely numerical methods. In the present article we briefly review an analytic method of computation of invariant manifolds, first introduced by Moser (1958, and developed in the canonical framework by Giorgilli (2001. We use a simple example to demonstrate how hyperbolic normal form computations can be performed, and we refer to the analytic continuation method of Ozorio de Almeida and co-workers, by which we can considerably extend the initial domain of convergence of Moser’s normal form.
Compactifications of IIA supergravity on SU(2)-structure manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spanjaard, B.
2008-07-15
In this thesis, we study compactifications of type IIA supergravity on six-dimensional manifolds with an SU(2)-structure. A general study of six-dimensional manifolds with SU(2)-structure shows that IIA supergravity compactified on such a manifold should yield a four-dimensional gauged N=4 supergravity. We explicitly derive the bosonic spectrum, gauge transformations and action for IIA supergravity compactified on two different manifolds with SU(2)-structure, one of which also has an H{sup (3)}{sub 10}-flux, and confirm that the resulting four-dimensional theories are indeed N=4 gauged supergravities. In the second chapter, we study an explicit construction of a set of SU(2)-structure manifolds. This construction involves a Scherk-Schwarz duality twist reduction of the half-maximal six-dimensional supergravity obtained by compactifying IIA supergravity on a K3. This reduction results in a gauged N=4 four-dimensional supergravity, where the gaugings can be divided into three classes of parameters. We relate two of the classes to parameters we found before, and argue that the third class of parameters could be interpreted as a mirror flux. (orig.)
Trajectory design using periapse maps and invariant manifolds
Haapala, Amanda F.
The invariant manifolds associated with periodic orbits in the vicinity of the collinear libration points in the planar CR3BP have been previously demonstrated as mechanisms for transport. Trajectories that pass between adjoining regions within the zero-velocity curves pass through the invariant manifold tubes. In particular, the invariant manifolds associated with the unstable L1 and L2 periodic libration point orbits may be exploited to construct transit orbits between the interior and exterior regions associated with the zero-velocity curves. In this investigation, periapse Poincare maps are used to display the manifolds and to distinguish regions of escape and, conversely, regions of long-term capture. Manifold periapse structures are employed as a design tool to construct planar trajectories with predetermined characteristics. The strategies that are developed are demonstrated by producing planar trajectories with predetermined behaviors, namely, long-term capture orbits and transit trajectories, as well as heteroclinic and homoclinic connections. Additionally, path approximations are generated for four Jupiter family comets that experience temporary satellite capture. Periapse Poincare maps are also employed to design three-dimensional transit trajectories in the spatial circular restricted three-body problem.
Light transport on path-space manifolds
Jakob, Wenzel Alban
-stepping limitations of the theory, they often suffer from unusably slow convergence; improvements to this situation have been hampered by the lack of a thorough theoretical understanding. We address these problems by developing a new theory of path-space light transport which, for the first time, cleanly incorporates specular scattering into the standard framework. Most of the results obtained in the analysis of the ideally smooth case can also be generalized to rendering of glossy materials and volumetric scattering so that this dissertation also provides a powerful new set of tools for dealing with them. The basis of our approach is that each specular material interaction locally collapses the dimension of the space of light paths so that all relevant paths lie on a submanifold of path space. We analyze the high-dimensional differential geometry of this submanifold and use the resulting information to construct an algorithm that is able to "walk" around on it using a simple and efficient equation-solving iteration. This manifold walking algorithm then constitutes the key operation of a new type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) rendering method that computes lighting through very general families of paths that can involve arbitrary combinations of specular, near-specular, glossy, and diffuse surface interactions as well as isotropic or highly anisotropic volume scattering. We demonstrate our implementation on a range of challenging scenes and evaluate it against previous methods.
Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)
2017-01-15
Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.
Schoen manifold with line bundles as resolved magnetized orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-12-15
We give an alternative description of the Schoen manifold as the blow-up of a Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold in which one Z{sub 2} factor acts as a roto-translation. Since for this orbifold the fixed tori are only identified in pairs but not orbifolded, four-dimensional chirality can never be obtained using standard techniques alone. However, chirality is recovered when its tori become magnetized. To exemplify this, we construct an SU(5) GUT on the Schoen manifold with Abelian gauge fluxes, which becomes an MSSM with three generations after an appropriate Wilson line is associated to its freely acting involution. We reproduce this model as a standard orbifold CFT of the (partially) blown down Schoen manifold with a magnetic flux. Finally, in analogy to a proposal for non-perturbative heterotic models by Aldazabal et al. we suggest modifications to the heterotic orbifold spectrum formulae in the presence of magnetized tori.
Weyl-Euler-Lagrange Equations of Motion on Flat Manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeki Kasap
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations of motion on flat manifold. It is well known that a Riemannian manifold is said to be flat if its curvature is everywhere zero. Furthermore, a flat manifold is one Euclidean space in terms of distances. Weyl introduced a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory in 1918. Classical mechanics is one of the major subfields of mechanics. Also, one way of solving problems in classical mechanics occurs with the help of the Euler-Lagrange equations. In this study, partial differential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the symbolic Algebra software. Additionally, the improvements, obtained in this study, will be presented.
Total Variation Regularization for Functions with Values in a Manifold
Lellmann, Jan
2013-12-01
While total variation is among the most popular regularizers for variational problems, its extension to functions with values in a manifold is an open problem. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm to solve such problems which applies to arbitrary Riemannian manifolds. The key idea is to reformulate the variational problem as a multilabel optimization problem with an infinite number of labels. This leads to a hard optimization problem which can be approximately solved using convex relaxation techniques. The framework can be easily adapted to different manifolds including spheres and three-dimensional rotations, and allows to obtain accurate solutions even with a relatively coarse discretization. With numerous examples we demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to variational models that incorporate chromaticity values, normal fields, or camera trajectories. © 2013 IEEE.
Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Using Envelope Manifold Demodulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weigang Wen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The important issue in planetary gear fault diagnosis is to extract the dependable fault characteristics from the noisy vibration signal of planetary gearbox. To address this critical problem, an envelope manifold demodulation method is proposed for planetary gear fault detection in the paper. This method combines complex wavelet, manifold learning, and frequency spectrogram to implement planetary gear fault characteristic extraction. The vibration signal of planetary gear is demodulated by wavelet enveloping. The envelope energy is adopted as an indicator to select meshing frequency band. Manifold learning is utilized to reduce the effect of noise within meshing frequency band. The fault characteristic frequency of the planetary gear is shown by spectrogram. The planetary gearbox model and test rig are established and experiments with planet gear faults are conducted for verification. All results of experiment analysis demonstrate its effectiveness and reliability.
Extended Hamiltonian learning on Riemannian manifolds: numerical aspects.
Fiori, Simone
2012-01-01
This paper is the second part of a study initiated with the paper S. Fiori, "Extended Hamiltonian learning on Riemannian manifolds: Theoretical aspects," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 687-700, May 2011, which aimed at introducing a general framework to develop a theory of learning on differentiable manifolds by extended Hamiltonian stationary-action principle. This paper discusses the numerical implementation of the extended Hamiltonian learning paradigm by making use of notions from geometric numerical integration to numerically solve differential equations on manifolds. The general-purpose integration schemes and the discussion of several cases of interest show that the implementation of the dynamical learning equations exhibits a rich structure. The behavior of the discussed learning paradigm is illustrated via several numerical examples and discussions of case studies. The numerical examples confirm the theoretical developments presented in this paper as well as in its first part.
Nonlinear damped oscillators on Riemannian manifolds: Numerical simulation
Fiori, Simone
2017-06-01
Nonlinear oscillators are ubiquitous in sciences, being able to model the behavior of complex nonlinear phenomena, as well as in engineering, being able to generate repeating (i.e., periodic) or non-repeating (i.e., chaotic) reference signals. The state of the classical oscillators known from the literature evolves in the space Rn , typically with n = 1 (e.g., the famous van der Pol vacuum-tube model), n = 2 (e.g., the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of spiking neurons) or n = 3 (e.g., the Lorenz simplified model of turbulence). The aim of the current paper is to present a general scheme for the numerical differential-geometry-based integration of a general second-order, nonlinear oscillator model on Riemannian manifolds and to present several instances of such model on manifolds of interest in sciences and engineering, such as the Stiefel manifold and the space of symmetric, positive-definite matrices.
Adaptive Sampling for Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction Based on Manifold Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf; Goertz, Stefan
2017-01-01
We make use of the non-intrusive dimensionality reduction method Isomap in order to emulate nonlinear parametric flow problems that are governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isomap is a manifold learning approach that provides a low-dimensional embedding space that is approxi......We make use of the non-intrusive dimensionality reduction method Isomap in order to emulate nonlinear parametric flow problems that are governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isomap is a manifold learning approach that provides a low-dimensional embedding space...... that is approximately isometric to the manifold that is assumed to be formed by the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes flow solutions under smooth variations of the inflow conditions. The focus of the work at hand is the adaptive construction and refinement of the Isomap emulator: We exploit the non-Euclidean Isomap metric...
Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models
Transtrum, Mark K
2016-01-01
We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...
Postoperative 3D spine reconstruction by navigating partitioning manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Labelle, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.labelle@recherche-ste-justine.qc.ca; Parent, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.parent@umontreal.ca [CHU Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec H3T 1C5 (Canada)
2016-03-15
Purpose: The postoperative evaluation of scoliosis patients undergoing corrective treatment is an important task to assess the strategy of the spinal surgery. Using accurate 3D geometric models of the patient’s spine is essential to measure longitudinal changes in the patient’s anatomy. On the other hand, reconstructing the spine in 3D from postoperative radiographs is a challenging problem due to the presence of instrumentation (metallic rods and screws) occluding vertebrae on the spine. Methods: This paper describes the reconstruction problem by searching for the optimal model within a manifold space of articulated spines learned from a training dataset of pathological cases who underwent surgery. The manifold structure is implemented based on a multilevel manifold ensemble to structure the data, incorporating connections between nodes within a single manifold, in addition to connections between different multilevel manifolds, representing subregions with similar characteristics. Results: The reconstruction pipeline was evaluated on x-ray datasets from both preoperative patients and patients with spinal surgery. By comparing the method to ground-truth models, a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 2.24 ± 0.90 mm was obtained from 30 postoperative scoliotic patients, while handling patients with highly deformed spines. Conclusions: This paper illustrates how this manifold model can accurately identify similar spine models by navigating in the low-dimensional space, as well as computing nonlinear charts within local neighborhoods of the embedded space during the testing phase. This technique allows postoperative follow-ups of spinal surgery using personalized 3D spine models and assess surgical strategies for spinal deformities.
Scars of Invariant Manifolds in Interacting Few-Body Systems
Papenbrock, T; Weidenmüller, H A
1997-01-01
We present a novel extension of the concept of scars for the wave functions of classically chaotic few--body systems of identical particles with rotation and permutation symmetry. Generically there exist manifolds in classical phase space which are invariant under the action of a common subgroup of these two symmetries. Such manifolds are associated with highly symmetric configurations and, if sufficiently stable, support quantum resonances. Although not directly associated to individual periodic orbits, the resonances nevertheless cause scars which signify collective motion on the quantum level and which should be experimentally observable.
The Persistence of a Slow Manifold with Bifurcation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Palmer, P.; Robert, M.
2012-01-01
his paper considers the persistence of a slow manifold with bifurcation in a slow-fast two degree of freedom Hamiltonian system. In particular, we consider a system with a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation in the fast space which is unfolded by the slow coordinate. The model system is motivated...... by tethered satellites. It is shown that an almost full measure subset of a neighborhood of the slow manifold's normally elliptic branches persists in an adiabatic sense. We prove this using averaging and a blow-up near the bifurcation....
Great sphere foliations and manifolds with curvature bounded above
Rovenskii, V Y; Rovenskii, Vladimir Y.; Toponogov, Victor A.
1996-01-01
The survey is devoted to Toponogov's conjecture, that {\\it if a complete simply connected Riemannian manifold with sectional curvature $\\le 4$ and injectivity radius $\\ge \\pi/2$ has extremal diameter $\\pi/2$, then it is isometric to CROSS}. In Section 1 the relations of problem with geodesic foliations of a round sphere are considered, but the proof of conjecture on this way is not complete. In Section 2 the proof based on recent results and methods for topology and volume of Blaschke manifolds is given.
Integral Manifolds of the Charged Three-Body Problem
Zaman, Mohammad
2017-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to the study of the In- tegral Manifolds of the Charged Three-Body Problem. My aim is to give a mathematical analysis of the physical mechanical system that consists of three charged particles moving in space and interacting via a Coulomb potential. The system is
Curvature Properties of Lorentzian Manifolds with Large Isometry Groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batat, Wafaa [Ecole Normale Superieure de L' Enseignement Technique d' Oran, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique (Algeria)], E-mail: wafa.batat@enset-oran.dz; Calvaruso, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.calvaruso@unile.it; Leo, Barbara De [University of Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica ' E. De Giorgi' (Italy)], E-mail: barbara.deleo@unile.it
2009-08-15
The curvature of Lorentzian manifolds (M{sup n},g), admitting a group of isometries of dimension at least 1/2n(n - 1) + 1, is completely described. Interesting behaviours are found, in particular as concerns local symmetry, local homogeneity and conformal flatness.
Attraction properties of the Ginzburg-Landau manifold
Eckhaus, W.; Shepeleva, A.
1994-01-01
We consider solutions of weakly unstable PDE on an unbounded spatial domain. It has been shown earlier by the first author that the set of modulated solutions (called "Ginzburg-Landau manifold") is attracting. We seek to understand "how big" is the domain of attraction. Starting with general initial
Valve and Manifold considerations for Efficient Digital Hydraulic Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roemer, Daniel Beck; Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller
2016-01-01
This paper seeks to shed light on the topic of design and sizing of switching valves and connecting manifolds found in large digital hydraulic motors, also known commercially as Digital Displacement Motors. These motors promise very high operation efficiencies with broad operation ranges, which set...
Two new variants of the manifold-mapping technique
D. Echeverria (David)
2006-01-01
htmlabstractManifold-mapping is an efficient surrogate-based optimization technique aimed at the acceleration of very time-consuming design problems. In this paper we present two new variants of the original algorithm that make it applicable to a broader range of optimization scenarios. The first
AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling
2017-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS $3$-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for their volume. We give natu...
Global Identification from the equilibrium Manifold under Incomplete markets
Carvajal, Andreas; Riascos, Alvaro
2004-01-01
We show that, even under incomplete markets, the equilibrium manifold identifies individual demands everywhere in their domains. For this, we assume conditions of smoothness, interiority and regularity, and avoid observational requirements at the individual level. It is crucial that there be date-zero consumption. As a by-product, we develop some duality theory under incomplete markets.
Coisotropic Displacement and Small Subsets of a Symplectic Manifold
Ziltener, Fabian; Swoboda, J.
2012-01-01
We prove a coisotropic intersection result and deduce the following: Lower bounds on the displacement energy of a subset of a symplectic manifold, in particular a sharp stable energy-Gromov-width inequality. A stable non-squeezing result for neighborhoods of products of unit spheres. Existence of a
On conformal minimal 2-spheres in complex Grassmann manifold G ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For a harmonic map from a Riemann surface into a complex Grassmann manifold, Chern and Wolfson [4] constructed new harmonic maps and ¯ f through the fundamental collineations and ¯ respectively. In this paper ... Some examples are given to show that the hypotheses in our theorems are reasonable.
Convexity of spheres in a manifold without conjugate points
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. For a non-compact, complete and simply connected manifold M without conjugate points, we prove that if the determinant of the second fundamental form of the geodesic spheres in M is a radial function, then the geodesic spheres are convex. We also show that if M is two or three dimensional and without ...
An algorithmic approach to construct crystallizations of 3-manifolds ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We have defined the weight of the pair (〈S | R〉, R) for a given presen- tation 〈S | R〉 of a group, where the number of generators is equal to the number of relations. We present an algorithm to construct crystallizations of 3-manifolds whose fundamental group has a presentation with two generators and two relations ...
Airfoil optimization by using the Manifold Mapping method
M. van der Jagt (Martin)
2007-01-01
textabstractIn this report it is investigated if the Manifold Mapping method can be used in airfoil optimization. Before the method can be implemented, a suitable airfoil parametrization must be chosen. Furthermore a coarse and fine model must be assigned. These models are the key to success for the
Energy identity for harmonic maps into standard stationary Lorentzian manifolds
Han, Xiaoli; Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Miaomiao
2017-04-01
For a harmonic map from a closed Riemann surface into a standard stationary Lorentzian manifold, we prove that its Hopf differential is holomorphic. Moreover, we prove that for a sequence of such maps with their energy uniformly bounded, the Lorentzian energy identity holds during the blow-up process.
Gauge theory and the topology of four-manifolds
Friedman, Robert Marc
1998-01-01
The lectures in this volume provide a perspective on how 4-manifold theory was studied before the discovery of modern-day Seiberg-Witten theory. One reason the progress using the Seiberg-Witten invariants was so spectacular was that those studying SU(2)-gauge theory had more than ten years' experience with the subject. The tools had been honed, the correct questions formulated, and the basic strategies well understood. The knowledge immediately bore fruit in the technically simpler environment of the Seiberg-Witten theory. Gauge theory long predates Donaldson's applications of the subject to 4-manifold topology, where the central concern was the geometry of the moduli space. One reason for the interest in this study is the connection between the gauge theory moduli spaces of a Kähler manifold and the algebro-geometric moduli space of stable holomorphic bundles over the manifold. The extra geometric richness of the SU(2)-moduli spaces may one day be important for purposes beyond the algebraic invariants that ...
Cost-effective and detailed modelling of compressor manifold vibrations
Eijk, A.; Egas, G.; Smeulers, J.P.M.
1996-01-01
In systems with large reciprocating compressors, so-called compressor manifold vibrations can contribute to fatigue failure of the pipe system. These vibrations are excited by pulsation-induced forces and by forces generated by the compressor. This paper describes an advanced and accurate method for
Emergence and bifurcations of Lyapunov manifolds in nonlinear wave equations
Bakri, Taoufik; Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Verhulst, Ferdinand
2009-01-01
Persistence and bifurcations of Lyapunov manifolds can be studied by a combination of averaging-normalization and numerical bifurcation methods. This can be extended to infinite-dimensional cases when using suitable averaging theorems. The theory is applied to the case of a parametrically excited
Growth of fundamental group for Finsler manifolds with integral Ricci ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, an upper bound on the growth of fundamental group for a class of Finsler manifolds with integral Ricci curvature bound is given. The result generalizes the corresponding results with pointwise Ricci curvature in the literature. The maximal and minimal volume forms (see §2 for the definition) are used throughout ...
Flow and Pressure Distribution in Fuel Cell Manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebæk, Jesper; Bang, Mads; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2010-01-01
differential pressure gauges, the flow distribution is mapped for several geometrical and operating conditions. Special attention is given to the inlet conditions of the manifold. Here, a diffuser design was constructed in order to replace the conventional circular inlet design. The diffuser design showed...
Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.
Manifold learning based feature extraction for classification of hyper-spectral data
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lunga, D
2013-08-01
Full Text Available of remotely sensed data. Challenges and opportunities remain for future research in manifold learning, including joint exploitation of advantages of global and local structures in dynamic, multi-temporal environments, multiscale manifolds, and integration...
Formation of a Chern-Simons cylindrical wormhole during evolution of manifolds
Sepehri, Alireza; Ghaffary, Tooraj; Naimi, Yaghoob; Ghaforyan, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Majid
In this paper, the formation of cylindrical wormhole during evolution of manifolds is studied. It is shown that this type of wormholes may be produced at two stages and then disappeared very fast at the third stage. First, one N-dimensional is formed by joining point-like manifolds. Then, this manifold is torn and two child manifolds plus one Chern-Simons manifold appeared. Our universe is born on one of the child manifolds and connected to the other one by Chern-Simons manifold. At the third stage, this Chern-Simons manifold-which plays the role of cylindrical wormhole, dissolves into universes and gives its energy to them and causes inflation. Thus, the Chern-Simons cylindrical wormhole is unstable and dissolves in our four-dimensional universes and another universe very fast.
Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sethuraman Panchanathan
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1Ã¢ÂˆÂ˜. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2Ã¢ÂˆÂ˜ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.
21 CFR 870.4290 - Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold... Devices § 870.4290 Cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass adaptor, stopcock, manifold, or fitting is a device used in cardiovascular diagnostic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang Hua
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A polynomial rooting direction of arrival (DOA algorithm for multiple plane waves incident on an arbitrary array structure that combines the multipolynomial resultants and matrix computations is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new auxiliary-variable manifold separation technique (AV-MST is used to model the steering vector of arbitrary array structure as the product of a sampling matrix (dependent only on the array structure and two Vandermonde-structured wavefield coefficient vectors (dependent on the wavefield. Then the propagator operator is calculated and used to form a system of bivariate polynomial equations. Finally, the automatically paired azimuth and elevation estimates are derived by polynomial rooting. The presented algorithm employs the concept of auxiliary-variable manifold separation technique which requires no sector by sector array interpolation and thus does not suffer from any mapping errors. In addition, the new algorithm does not need any eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix and exhausted search over the two-dimensional parameter space. Moreover, the algorithm gives automatically paired estimates, thus avoiding the complex pairing procedure. Therefore, the proposed algorithm shows low computational complexity and high robustness performance. Simulation results are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
EHMS: Exhaust Heat Management System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strauss, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinbrenner, M.; Geskes, P. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)
2006-07-01
Pollutant concentrations in diesel engines are reduced by cooling of the recirculated exhaust. This reduces emissions and particulate matter. The cooler technology can also be used for heating the passenger compartment faster and more economically. The authors present a model ready for seral production, including an exhaust flap for bypass control for use as auxiliary heating system. Further applications in gasoline engines are pointed out. (orig.)
Classification and equivariant cohomology of circle actions on 3d manifolds
He, Chen
2017-10-01
The classification of Seifert manifolds was given in terms of numeric data by Seifert (1933), and then generalized by Raymond (1968) and Orlik and Raymond (1968) to circle actions on closed 3d manifolds. In this paper, we further generalize the classification to circle actions on 3d manifolds with boundaries by adding a numeric parameter and a graph of cycles. Then, we describe the rational equivariant cohomology of 3d manifolds with circle actions in terms of ring, module and vector-space structures. We also compute equivariant Betti numbers and Poincaré series for these manifolds and discuss the equivariant formality.
Laplacian manifold regularization method for fluorescence molecular tomography
He, Xuelei; Wang, Xiaodong; Yi, Huangjian; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Jingjing; He, Xiaowei
2017-04-01
Sparse regularization methods have been widely used in fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) for stable three-dimensional reconstruction. Generally, ℓ1-regularization-based methods allow for utilizing the sparsity nature of the target distribution. However, in addition to sparsity, the spatial structure information should be exploited as well. A joint ℓ1 and Laplacian manifold regularization model is proposed to improve the reconstruction performance, and two algorithms (with and without Barzilai-Borwein strategy) are presented to solve the regularization model. Numerical studies and in vivo experiment demonstrate that the proposed Gradient projection-resolved Laplacian manifold regularization method for the joint model performed better than the comparative algorithm for ℓ1 minimization method in both spatial aggregation and location accuracy.
Determination of a Riemannian manifold from the distance difference functions
Lassas, Matti; Saksala, Teemu
2015-01-01
Let $(N,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold with the distance function $d(x,y)$ and an open subset $M\\subset N$. For $x\\in M$ we denote by $D_x$ the distance difference function $D_x:F\\times F\\to \\mathbb R$, given by $D_x(z_1,z_2)=d(x,z_1)-d(x,z_2)$, $z_1,z_2\\in F=N\\setminus M$. We consider the inverse problem of determining the topological and the differentiable structure of the manifold $M$ and the metric $g|_M$ on it when we are given the distance difference data, that is, the set $F$, the metric...
A supermembrane with central charges on a G2 manifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belhaj, A; Segui, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 12, Pedro Cerbuna, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Moral, M P Garcia del [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN-Sezione di Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Restuccia, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Muelenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Veiro, J P [Departamento de Matematicas Puras y Aplicadas, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: belhaj@unizar.es, E-mail: garcia@to.infn.it, E-mail: restucci@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: arestu@usb.ve, E-mail: segui@unizar.es, E-mail: pierre@ma.usb.ve
2009-08-14
We construct an 11D supermembrane with topological central charges induced through an irreducible winding on a G2 manifold realized from the T{sup 7}/Z{sup 3}{sub 2} orbifold construction. The Hamiltonian H of the theory on a T{sup 7} target has a discrete spectrum. Within the discrete symmetries of H associated with large diffeomorphisms, the Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} group of automorphisms of the quaternionic subspaces preserving the octonionic structure is relevant. By performing the corresponding identification on the target space, the supermembrane may be formulated on a G2 manifold, preserving the discreteness of its supersymmetric spectrum. The corresponding 4D low energy effective field theory has N = 1 supersymmetry.
46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...
49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...
A Lagrangian for Hamiltonian vector fields on singular Poisson manifolds
Turki, Yahya
2015-04-01
On a manifold equipped with a bivector field, we introduce for every Hamiltonian a Lagrangian on paths valued in the cotangent space whose stationary points project onto Hamiltonian vector fields. We show that the remaining components of those stationary points tell whether the bivector field is Poisson or at least defines an integrable distribution-a class of bivector fields generalizing twisted Poisson structures that we study in detail.
An algorithmic approach to construct crystallizations of 3-manifolds ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
As an application, we have constructed some new crystallizations of 3-manifolds. We have generalized our algorithm for presentations with three generators and a certain class of relations. For m ≥ 3 and m ≥ n ≥ k ≥ 2 , our generalized algorithm gives a 2 ( 2 m + 2 n + 2 k − 6 + δ n 2 + δ k 2 ) -vertex crystallization of the ...
Amplifying vibrational circular dichroism by manipulation of the electronic manifold.
Domingos, Sérgio R; Panman, Matthijs R; Bakker, Bert H; Hartl, Frantisek; Buma, Wybren J; Woutersen, Sander
2012-01-11
Vibrational circular dichroism is a powerful technique to study the stereochemistry of chiral molecules, but often suffers from small signal intensities. Electrochemical modulation of the energies of the electronically excited state manifold is now demonstrated to lead to an order of magnitude enhancement of the differential absorption. Quantum-chemical calculations show that increased mixing between ground and excited states is at the origin of this amplification. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
Evaluation of human dynamic balance in Grassmann manifold
Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wereszczyński, Kamil; Mucha, Romualda; Świtoński, Adam; Josiński, Henryk; Wojciechowski, Konrad
2017-07-01
The authors present an application of Grassmann manifold to the evaluation of human dynamic balance based on the time series representing movements of hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes. Time series were extracted from gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland using the Vicon system.
Integral foliated simplicial volume of hyperbolic 3-manifolds
Löh, Clara; Pagliantini, Cristina
2016-01-01
Integral foliated simplicial volume is a version of simplicial volume combining the rigidity of integral coewefficients with the flexibility of measure spaces. In this article, using the language of measure equivalence of groups we prove a proportionality principle for integral foliated simplicial volume for aspherical manifolds and give refined upper bounds of integral foliated simplicial volume in terms of stable integral simplicial volume. This allows us to compute the integral foliated si...
The topology of certain 3-Sasakian 7-manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Hepworth, Richard
2007-01-01
We calculate the integer cohomology ring and stable tangent bundle of a family of compact, 3-Sasakian 7-manifolds constructed by Boyer, Galicki, Mann, and Rees. Previously only the rational cohomology ring was known. The most important part of the cohomology ring is a torsion group that we describe...... explicitly and whose order we compute. There is a surprising connection with the combinatorics of trees....
Groups and manifolds lectures for physicists with examples in Mathematica
Fré, Pietro Giuseppe
2018-01-01
Groups and Manifolds is an introduction to the mathematics of symmetry with a variety of examples for physicists. It covers both classical symmetry as seen in crystallography as well as the mathematical concepts used in super-symmetric field theories. After a basic introduction of group theory, Lie algebras and a basic notion of differential geometry are discussed. Group-theoretical constructions are done using Mathematica.
Optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations along manifolds
Jones, Drew R.; Schaub, Hanspeter
2013-02-01
Coulomb formations refer to swarms of closely flying spacecraft, in which the net electric charge of each vehicle is controlled. Active charge control is central to this concept and enables a propulsion system with highly desirable characteristics, albeit with limited controllability. Numerous Coulomb formation equilibria have been derived, but to maintain and maneuver these configurations, some inertial thrust is required to supplement the nearly propellant-less charge control. In this work, invariant manifold theory is applied to two-craft Coulomb equilibria, which are admitted in a linearized two-body gravity model. The manifolds associated with these systems are analyzed for the first time, and are then utilized as part of a general procedure for formulating optimal reconfigurations. Specifically, uncontrolled flows along the manifolds are sought which provide near continuous transfers from one equilibrium to another. Control is then introduced to match continuity, while minimizing inertial thrusting. This methodology aims to exploit uncontrolled motions and charge control to realize the shape-changing ability of these formations, without large inertial control efforts. Some variations in formulating and parameterizing the optimal transfers are discussed, and analytical expressions are derived to aid in establishing control parameter limits, under certain assumptions. Numerical results are provided, as demonstrative examples of the optimization procedure, using relatively simple control approximations. Finally, Particle Swarm Optimization, a novel stochastic method, is used with considerable success to solve the numerically difficult parameter optimization problems.
Hyperspherical Manifold for EEG Signals of Epileptic Seizures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahir Ahmad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical modelling of EEG signals of epileptic seizures presents a challenge as seizure data is erratic, often with no visible trend. Limitations in existing models indicate a need for a generalized model that can be used to analyze seizures without the need for apriori information, whilst minimizing the loss of signal data due to smoothing. This paper utilizes measure theory to design a discrete probability measure that reformats EEG data without altering its geometric structure. An analysis of EEG data from three patients experiencing epileptic seizures is made using the developed measure, resulting in successful identification of increased potential difference in portions of the brain that correspond to physical symptoms demonstrated by the patients. A mapping then is devised to transport the measure data onto the surface of a high-dimensional manifold, enabling the analysis of seizures using directional statistics and manifold theory. The subset of seizure signals on the manifold is shown to be a topological space, verifying Ahmad's approach to use topological modelling.
Computing unstable manifolds of periodic orbits in delay differential equations
Krauskopf, B
2003-01-01
We present the first algorithm for computing unstable manifolds of saddle-type periodic orbits with one unstable Floquet multiplier in systems of autonomous delay differential equations (DDEs) with one fixed delay. Specifically, we grow the one-dimensional unstable manifold W sup u (q) of an associated saddle fixed point q of a Poincare map defined by a suitable Poincare section SIGMA. Starting close to q along the linear approximation to W sup u (q) given by the associated eigenfunction, our algorithm grows the manifold as a sequence of points, where the distance between points is governed by the curvature of the one-dimensional intersection curve W sup u (q intersection SIGMA of W sup u (q) with SIGMA. Our algorithm makes it possible to study global bifurcations in DDEs. We illustrate this with the break-up of an invariant torus and a subsequent crisis bifurcation to chaos in a DDE model of a semiconductor laser with phase-conjugate feedback.
Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on Nambu-Poisson manifolds
de León, M.; Sardón, C.
2017-03-01
The Hamilton-Jacobi theory is a formulation of classical mechanics equivalent to other formulations as Newtonian, Lagrangian, or Hamiltonian mechanics. The primordial observation of a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory is that if a Hamiltonian vector field XH can be projected into the configuration manifold by means of a 1-form dW, then the integral curves of the projected vector field XHd Wcan be transformed into integral curves of XH provided that W is a solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our aim is to derive a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for physical systems that are compatible with a Nambu-Poisson structure. For it, we study Lagrangian submanifolds of a Nambu-Poisson manifold and obtain explicitly an expression for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation on such a manifold. We apply our results to two interesting examples in the physics literature: the third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations and a system of n copies of a first-order differential Riccati equation. From the first example, we retrieve the original Nambu bracket in three dimensions and from the second example, we retrieve Takhtajan's generalization of the Nambu bracket to n dimensions.
Canonical Correlation Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds and Its Applications.
Kim, Hyunwoo J; Adluru, Nagesh; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C; Vemuri, Baba C; Singh, Vikas
2014-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a widely used statistical technique to capture correlations between two sets of multi-variate random variables and has found a multitude of applications in computer vision, medical imaging and machine learning. The classical formulation assumes that the data live in a pair of vector spaces which makes its use in certain important scientific domains problematic. For instance, the set of symmetric positive definite matrices (SPD), rotations and probability distributions, all belong to certain curved Riemannian manifolds where vector-space operations are in general not applicable. Analyzing the space of such data via the classical versions of inference models is rather sub-optimal. But perhaps more importantly, since the algorithms do not respect the underlying geometry of the data space, it is hard to provide statistical guarantees (if any) on the results. Using the space of SPD matrices as a concrete example, this paper gives a principled generalization of the well known CCA to the Riemannian setting. Our CCA algorithm operates on the product Riemannian manifold representing SPD matrix-valued fields to identify meaningful statistical relationships on the product Riemannian manifold. As a proof of principle, we present results on an Alzheimer's disease (AD) study where the analysis task involves identifying correlations across diffusion tensor images (DTI) and Cauchy deformation tensor fields derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images.
Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide.
Routley, Virginia
2007-01-01
In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures aimed at restricting this method of suicide. The prevention measures identified were catalytic converters (introduced to reduce carbon monoxide for environmental reasons); in-cabin sensors; exhaust pipe modification; automatic idling stops; and helpline signage at suicide "hotspots." Catalytic converters are now in 90% of new vehicles worldwide and literature supports them being associated with a reduction in exhaust-gassing suicides. There remain, however, accounts of exhaust-gas fatalities in modern vehicles, whether accidentally or by suicide. These deaths and also crashes from fatigue could potentially be prevented by in-cabin multi-gas sensors, these having been developed to the prototype stage. Helpline signage at an exhaust-gassing suicide "hotspot" had some success in reducing suicides. The evidence on method substitution and whether a reduction in MVEG suicides causes a reduction in total suicides is inconsistent.
Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management
Sherer, Michael J
2005-01-01
Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...
Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P
2015-09-01
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.
Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent
2011-11-01
10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels
Ship exhaust gas plume cooling
Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.
2004-01-01
The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be
Dictionary Pair Learning on Grassmann Manifolds for Image Denoising.
Zeng, Xianhua; Bian, Wei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng
2015-11-01
Image denoising is a fundamental problem in computer vision and image processing that holds considerable practical importance for real-world applications. The traditional patch-based and sparse coding-driven image denoising methods convert 2D image patches into 1D vectors for further processing. Thus, these methods inevitably break down the inherent 2D geometric structure of natural images. To overcome this limitation pertaining to the previous image denoising methods, we propose a 2D image denoising model, namely, the dictionary pair learning (DPL) model, and we design a corresponding algorithm called the DPL on the Grassmann-manifold (DPLG) algorithm. The DPLG algorithm first learns an initial dictionary pair (i.e., the left and right dictionaries) by employing a subspace partition technique on the Grassmann manifold, wherein the refined dictionary pair is obtained through a sub-dictionary pair merging. The DPLG obtains a sparse representation by encoding each image patch only with the selected sub-dictionary pair. The non-zero elements of the sparse representation are further smoothed by the graph Laplacian operator to remove the noise. Consequently, the DPLG algorithm not only preserves the inherent 2D geometric structure of natural images but also performs manifold smoothing in the 2D sparse coding space. We demonstrate that the DPLG algorithm also improves the structural SIMilarity values of the perceptual visual quality for denoised images using the experimental evaluations on the benchmark images and Berkeley segmentation data sets. Moreover, the DPLG also produces the competitive peak signal-to-noise ratio values from popular image denoising algorithms.
Towards Optimal Manifold Hashing via Discrete Locally Linear Embedding.
Ji, Rongrong; Liu, Hong; Cao, Liujuan; Liu, Di; Wu, Yongjian; Huang, Feiyue
2017-08-02
Binary code learning, a.k.a. hashing, has received increasing attention in large-scale visual search. By transforming high-dimensional features to binary codes, the original Euclidean distance is approximated via Hamming distance. More recently, it is advocated that it is the manifold distance, rather than the Euclidean distance, that should be preserved in the Hamming space. However, it retains as an open problem to directly preserve the manifold structure by hashing. In particular, it needs first to build the local linear embedding in the original feature space, and then quantize such embedding to binary codes. Such a twostep coding is problematic and less optimized. Besides, the offline learning is extremely time and memory consuming, which needs to calculate the similarity matrix of the original data. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing algorithm, termed Discrete Locality Linear Embedding Hashing (DLLH), which well addresses the above challenges. DLLH directly reconstructs the manifold structure in the Hamming space, which learns optimal hash codes to maintain the local linear relationship of data points. To learn Discrete Locally Linear Embedding (DLLE) codes, we further propose a discrete optimization algorithm with an iterative parameters updating scheme. Moreover, an anchor-based acceleration scheme, termed Anchor-DLLH (ADLLH), is further introduced, which approximates the large similarity matrix by the product of two low rank matrices. Experimental results on three widely used benchmark datasets, i.e. CIFAR10, NUS-WIDE, and Youtube Face, have shown superior performance of the proposed DLLH over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Manifolds in random media: beyond the variational approximation
Goldschmidt, Yadin Y.
1994-01-01
In this paper we give a closed form expression for the 1/d corrections to the selfenergy characterizing the correlation function of a manifold in random media. This amounts to the first confection beyond the variational approximation. At this time we were able to evaluate these corrections in the high temperature "phase" of the notorious toy-model describing a classical particle subject to the influence of both a harmonic potential and a random potential. Although in this phase the correct solution is replica symmetric the calculation is non-trivial. The outcome is compared with previous analytical and numerical results. The corrections diverge at the "transition" temperature.
Bures metric over thermal state manifolds and quantum criticality
Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Giorda, Paolo
2007-12-01
We analyze the Bures metric over the manifold of thermal density matrices for systems featuring a zero temperature quantum phase transition. We show that the quantum critical region can be characterized in terms of the temperature scaling behavior of the metric tensor itself. Furthermore, the analysis of the metric tensor when both temperature and an external field are varied, allows one to complement the understanding of the phase diagram including crossover regions which are not characterized by any singular behavior. These results provide a further extension of the scope of the metric approach to quantum criticality.
Manifolds, tensors and, forms an introduction for mathematicians and physicists
Renteln, Paul
2014-01-01
Providing a succinct yet comprehensive treatment of the essentials of modern differential geometry and topology, this book's clear prose and informal style make it accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and the physical sciences. The text covers the basics of multilinear algebra, differentiation and integration on manifolds, Lie groups and Lie algebras, homotopy and de Rham cohomology, homology, vector bundles, Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometry, and degree theory. It also features over 250 detailed exercises, and a variety of applications revealing fundamental connections to classical mechanics, electromagnetism (including circuit theory), general relativity and gauge theory. Solutions to the problems are available for instructors at www.cambridge.org/9781107042193.
New hyper-K{umlt a}hler manifolds by fixing monopoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Houghton, C.J. [DAMTP, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (United Kingdom)
1997-07-01
The construction of new hyper-K{umlt a}hler manifolds by taking the infinite monopole mass limit of certain Bogomol{close_quote}nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopole moduli spaces is considered. The one-parameter family of hyper-K{umlt a}hler manifolds due to Dancer is shown to be an example of such manifolds. A new family of fixed monopole spaces is constructed. They are the moduli spaces of four SU{sub 4} monopoles, in the infinite mass limit of two of the monopoles. These manifolds are shown to be nonsingular when the fixed monopole positions are distinct. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Heat shield manifold system for a midframe case of a gas turbine engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, Clinton A.; Eng, Jesse; Schopf, Cheryl A.
2017-07-25
A heat shield manifold system for an inner casing between a compressor and turbine assembly is disclosed. The heat shield manifold system protects the outer case from high temperature compressor discharge air, thereby enabling the outer case extending between a compressor and a turbine assembly to be formed from less expensive materials than otherwise would be required. In addition, the heat shield manifold system may be configured such that compressor bleed air is passed from the compressor into the heat shield manifold system without passing through a conventional flange to flange joint that is susceptible to leakage.
The Origin of Chern-Simons Modified Gravity from an 11 + 3-Dimensional Manifold
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J. A. Helayël-Neto
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It is our aim to show that the Chern-Simons terms of modified gravity can be understood as generated by the addition of a 3-dimensional algebraic manifold to an initial 11-dimensional space-time manifold; this builds up an 11+3-dimensional space-time. In this system, firstly, some fields living in the bulk join the fields that live on the 11-dimensional manifold, so that the rank of the gauge fields exceeds the dimension of the algebra; consequently, there emerges an anomaly. To solve this problem, another 11-dimensional manifold is included in the 11+3-dimensional space-time, and it interacts with the initial manifold by exchanging Chern-Simon fields. This mechanism is able to remove the anomaly. Chern-Simons terms actually produce an extra manifold in the pair of 11-dimensional manifolds of the 11+3-space-time. Summing up the topology of both the 11-dimensional manifolds and the topology of the exchanged Chern-Simons manifold in the bulk, we conclude that the total topology shrinks to one, which is in agreement with the main idea of the Big Bang theory.
Geometrical interpretation of electromagnetism in a 5-dimensional manifold
Kim, TaeHun; Kim, Hyunbyuk
2017-08-01
In this paper, Kaluza-Klein theory is revisited and its implications are elaborated. We show that electromagnetic 4-potential can be considered as a shearing-like deformation of a 5-dimensional (5D) manifold along the fifth (5th) axis. The charge-to-mass ratio has a physical meaning of the ratio between the movement along the direction of the 5th axis and the movement in the 4D space-time. In order to have a 5D matter which is consistent with the construction of the 5D manifold, a notion of particle-thread is suggested. Examinations on the compatibility of reference frames reveal a covariance breaking of the 5th dimension. The field equations which extend Einstein’s field equations give the total energy-momentum tensor as a sum of that of matter, electromagnetic field, and the interaction between electric current and electromagnetic potential. Finally, the experimental implications are calculated for the weak potential case.
Data assimilation on the exponentially accurate slow manifold.
Cotter, Colin
2013-05-28
I describe an approach to data assimilation making use of an explicit map that defines a coordinate system on the slow manifold in the semi-geostrophic scaling in Lagrangian coordinates, and apply the approach to a simple toy system that has previously been proposed as a low-dimensional model for the semi-geostrophic scaling. The method can be extended to Lagrangian particle methods such as Hamiltonian particle-mesh and smooth-particle hydrodynamics applied to the rotating shallow-water equations, and many of the properties will remain for more general Eulerian methods. Making use of Hamiltonian normal-form theory, it has previously been shown that, if initial conditions for the system are chosen as image points of the map, then the fast components of the system have exponentially small magnitude for exponentially long times as ε→0, and this property is preserved if one uses a symplectic integrator for the numerical time stepping. The map may then be used to parametrize initial conditions near the slow manifold, allowing data assimilation to be performed without introducing any fast degrees of motion (more generally, the precise amount of fast motion can be selected).
Rigid supersymmetry on 5-dimensional Riemannian manifolds and contact geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yiwen [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,Stony Brook, NY, 11790 (United States)
2014-05-12
In this note we generalize the methods of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2012)141, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2013)072 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)017 to 5-dimensional Riemannian manifolds M. We study the relations between the geometry of M and the number of solutions to a generalized Killing spinor equation obtained from a 5-dimensional supergravity. The existence of 1 pair of solutions is related to almost contact metric structures. We also discuss special cases related to M=S{sup 1}×M{sub 4}, which leads to M being foliated by submanifolds with special properties, such as Quaternion-Kähler. When there are 2 pairs of solutions, the closure of the isometry sub-algebra generated by the solutions requires M to be S{sup 3} or T{sup 3}-fibration over a Riemann surface. 4 pairs of solutions pin down the geometry of M to very few possibilities. Finally, we propose a new supersymmetric theory for N=1 vector multiplet on K-contact manifold admitting solutions to the Killing spinor equation.
Attracting manifolds for attitude estimation in flatland and otherlands
Akella, Maruthi R.; Seo, Dongeun; Zanetti, Renato
2006-12-01
Non-convex and non-affine parameterizations of uncertainty are intrinsic within every attitude estimation problem given the fact that minimal and/or nonsingular representations of the attitude matrix are invariably nonlinear functions of the unknown attitude variables. Of course, this fact remains true for rotation matrices both in the 2-D plane (flatland) and in higher dimensional spaces (otherlands). Therefore, estimation problems involving minimal nonsingular representations of unknown attitude matrices bring significant challenges to the adaptive estimation community. This paper develops a novel algorithm for attitude estimation. The proposed algorithm relies upon the design of an adaptive update law for the attitude estimate while preserving its inherent orthogonal structure. The underlying approach borrows from the classical Poisson differential equation in rigid-body rotational kinematics and endows certain manifold attractivity features within the adaptive estimation algorithm. Consequently, we are not only able to efficiently handle the non-affine and non-convex nature of the parameter uncertainty, but are also ensured of estimation algorithm stability and robustness under bounded measurement noise. In addition to a rigorous discussion on the overall methodology, the paper provides example simulations that help demonstrate the effectiveness of the attracting manifolds design.
Manifold regularized multitask feature learning for multimodality disease classification.
Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang
2015-02-01
Multimodality based methods have shown great advantages in classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, multitask feature selection methods are typically used for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. However, one disadvantage of existing multimodality based methods is that they ignore the useful data distribution information in each modality, which is essential for subsequent classification. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a manifold regularized multitask feature learning method to preserve both the intrinsic relatedness among multiple modalities of data and the data distribution information in each modality. Specifically, we denote the feature learning on each modality as a single task, and use group-sparsity regularizer to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities) and jointly select the common features from multiple tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a new manifold-based Laplacian regularizer to preserve the data distribution information from each task. Finally, we use the multikernel support vector machine method to fuse multimodality data for eventual classification. Conversely, we also extend our method to the semisupervised setting, where only partial data are labeled. We evaluate our method using the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data of subjects from AD neuroimaging initiative database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can not only achieve improved classification performance, but also help to discover the disease-related brain regions useful for disease diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Black-Box Optimization Using Geodesics in Statistical Manifolds
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Jérémy Bensadon
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Information geometric optimization (IGO is a general framework for stochastic optimization problems aiming at limiting the influence of arbitrary parametrization choices: the initial problem is transformed into the optimization of a smooth function on a Riemannian manifold, defining a parametrization-invariant first order differential equation and, thus, yielding an approximately parametrization-invariant algorithm (up to second order in the step size. We define the geodesic IGO update, a fully parametrization-invariant algorithm using the Riemannian structure, and we compute it for the manifold of Gaussians, thanks to Noether’s theorem. However, in similar algorithms, such as CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation - Evolution Strategy and xNES (exponential Natural Evolution Strategy, the time steps for the mean and the covariance are decoupled. We suggest two ways of doing so: twisted geodesic IGO (GIGO and blockwise GIGO. Finally, we show that while the xNES algorithm is not GIGO, it is an instance of blockwise GIGO applied to the mean and covariance matrix separately. Therefore, xNES has an almost parametrization-invariant description.
On nondegenerate umbilical affine hypersurfaces in recurrent affine manifolds
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Zbigniew Olszak
2004-05-01
Full Text Available Let $widetilde{M}$ be a differentiable manifold of dimension $geqslant 5$, which is endowed with a (torsion-free affine connection $widetildeabla$ of recurrent curvature. Let $M$ be a nondegenerate umbilical affine hypersurface in $widetilde{M}$, whose shape operator does not vanish at every point of $M$. Denote by $abla$ and $h$, respectively, the affine connection and the affine metric induced on $M$ from the ambient manifold. Under the additional assumption that the induced connection $abla$ is related to the Levi-Civita connection $abla^{ast}$ of $h$ by the formula [ abla_XY = abla_X^{ast}Y + varphi(XY + varphi(YX + h(X,YE, ] $varphi$ being a $1$-form and $E$ a vector field on $M$, it is proved that the affine metric $h$ is conformally flat. Relations to totally umbilical pseudo-Riemannian hypersurfaces are also discussed. In this paper, certain ideas from my unpublished report [14] (cf. also [15] are generalized.
Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.
Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well......-suited for industrial ventilation purposes. With the REEXS principle it is possible to create a flow pattern in front of the exhaust opening which will have a considerable influence on the general flow in a given room....
High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev
of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...
Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise
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MA Babaee Bigi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.
Geography of Spin Symplectic Four-Manifolds With Abelian Fundamental Group
Torres, Rafael
2011-01-01
We study the geography and botany of symplectic spin four-manifolds with abelian fundamental group. By building on the constructions of J. Park and of B. D. Park and Szabó, we can give alternative proofs and extend several results on the geography of simply connected four-manifolds to the nonsimply connected realm.
Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold
Bellucci, Stefano
2011-01-01
State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...
Gauge theory of gravity and supergravity on a group manifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ne' eman, Y.; Regge, T.
1977-12-01
The natural arena for the physics of gravity, supergravity and their enlargements appears to be the group manifold of the Poincare group P, the graded Poincare group GP of supersymmetry, and the corresponding enlargements. The dynamics of these theories correspond to geometrical algorithms in P and GP. Differential geometry on Lie groups is reviewed and results applied to P and GP. Curvature, gauge transformations and factorization are introduced. Also reviewed is the general coordinate transformation group and a hybrid gauge transformation, the anholonomized G.C.T. gauge. A study is made of the construction of an action, including the introduction of a set of special 2 forms, the ''pseudo curvatures.'' The possibilities of factorization in supersymmetry are analyzed. The version of supergravity is present which has now become a completely geometrical theory.
Numerical Manifold Method with Endochronic Theory for Elastoplasticity Analysis
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Wei Zeng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical manifold method (NMM was originally developed based on linear elastic constitutive model. For many problems it is difficult to obtain accurate results without elastoplasticity analysis, and an elastoplasticity version of NMM is needed. In this paper, the incremental endochronic theory is extended into NMM analysis and an endochronic NMM algorithm is proposed for elastoplasticity analysis. It is well known that endochronic theory is one of the widely used elastoplasticity theories which can deal with elastoplasticity problems without a yield surface and loading or unloading judgments. Numerical tests show that the proposed algorithm of endochronic NMM possesses a good accuracy. The proposed algorithm is also applied to analyze a crack problem and a soft clay foundation under traffic loading problem. Results demonstrate the convenience of the endochronic NMM in analyzing elastoplasticity discontinuous problems.
RELATIVE CAMERA POSE ESTIMATION METHOD USING OPTIMIZATION ON THE MANIFOLD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Cheng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available To solve the problem of relative camera pose estimation, a method using optimization with respect to the manifold is proposed. Firstly from maximum-a-posteriori (MAP model to nonlinear least squares (NLS model, the general state estimation model using optimization is derived. Then the camera pose estimation model is applied to the general state estimation model, while the parameterization of rigid body transformation is represented by Lie group/algebra. The jacobian of point-pose model with respect to Lie group/algebra is derived in detail and thus the optimization model of rigid body transformation is established. Experimental results show that compared with the original algorithms, the approaches with optimization can obtain higher accuracy both in rotation and translation, while avoiding the singularity of Euler angle parameterization of rotation. Thus the proposed method can estimate relative camera pose with high accuracy and robustness.
[Anomaly Detection of Multivariate Time Series Based on Riemannian Manifolds].
Xu, Yonghong; Hou, Xiaoying; Li Shuting; Cui, Jie
2015-06-01
Multivariate time series problems widely exist in production and life in the society. Anomaly detection has provided people with a lot of valuable information in financial, hydrological, meteorological fields, and the research areas of earthquake, video surveillance, medicine and others. In order to quickly and efficiently find exceptions in time sequence so that it can be presented in front of people in an intuitive way, we in this study combined the Riemannian manifold with statistical process control charts, based on sliding window, with a description of the covariance matrix as the time sequence, to achieve the multivariate time series of anomaly detection and its visualization. We made MA analog data flow and abnormal electrocardiogram data from MIT-BIH as experimental objects, and verified the anomaly detection method. The results showed that the method was reasonable and effective.
System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.
Brockett, R. W.
1972-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.
Symplectic manifolds with no Kähler structure
Tralle, Aleksy
1997-01-01
This is a research monograph covering the majority of known results on the problem of constructing compact symplectic manifolds with no Kaehler structure with an emphasis on the use of rational homotopy theory. In recent years, some new and stimulating conjectures and problems have been formulated due to an influx of homotopical ideas. Examples include the Lupton-Oprea conjecture, the Benson-Gordon conjecture, both of which are in the spirit of some older and still unsolved problems (e.g. Thurston's conjecture and Sullivan's problem). Our explicit aim is to clarify the interrelations between certain aspects of symplectic geometry and homotopy theory in the framework of the problems mentioned above. We expect that the reader is aware of the basics of differential geometry and algebraic topology at graduate level.
Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold for Chemical Kinetics.
Kooshkbaghi, Mahdi; Frouzakis, Christos E; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Karlin, Iliya V
2016-05-26
The Spectral Quasi-Equilibrium Manifold (SQEM) method is a model reduction technique for chemical kinetics based on entropy maximization under constraints built by the slowest eigenvectors at equilibrium. The method is revisited here and discussed and validated through the Michaelis-Menten kinetic scheme, and the quality of the reduction is related to the temporal evolution and the gap between eigenvalues. SQEM is then applied to detailed reaction mechanisms for the homogeneous combustion of hydrogen, syngas, and methane mixtures with air in adiabatic constant pressure reactors. The system states computed using SQEM are compared with those obtained by direct integration of the detailed mechanism, and good agreement between the reduced and the detailed descriptions is demonstrated. The SQEM reduced model of hydrogen/air combustion is also compared with another similar technique, the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE). For the same number of representative variables, SQEM is found to provide a more accurate description.
Face recognition based on LDA in manifold subspace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hung Phuoc Truong
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Although LDA has many successes in dimensionality reduction and data separation, it also has disadvantages, especially the small sample size problem in training data because the "within-class scatter" matrix may not be accurately estimated. Moreover, this algorithm can only operate correctly with labeled data in supervised learning. In practice, data collection is very huge and labeling data requires high-cost, thus the combination of a part of labeled data and unlabeled data for this algorithm in Manifold subspace is a novelty research. This paper reports a study that propose a semi-supervised method called DSLM, which aims at overcoming all these limitations. The proposed method ensures that the discriminative information of labeled data and the intrinsic geometric structure of data are mapped to new optimal subspace. Results are obtained from the experiments and compared to several related methods showing the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Space Manifold Dynamics Novel Spaceways for Science and Exploration
Perozzi, Ettore
2010-01-01
This book presents an overview of the outcomes resulting from applying the dynamical systems approach to space mission design, a topic referred to as "Space Manifold Dynamics" (SMD). It is a natural follow-on to the international workshop "Novel Spaceways for Scientific and Exploration Missions," which was held in October 2007 at the Telespazio Fucino Space Centre (Italy) under the auspices of the Space OPS Academy. The benefits and drawbacks of using the Lagrangian points and the associated trajectories for present and future space missions are discussed. The related methods and algorithms are also described in detail. Each topic is presented in articles that were written as far as possible to be self consistent; the use of introductory sections and of extended explanations is included in order to address the different communities potentially interested in SMD: space science, the aerospace industry, manned and unmanned exploration, celestial mechanics, and flight dynamics.
Balanced metrics for vector bundles and polarised manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia Fernandez, Mario; Ross, Julius
2012-01-01
We consider a notion of balanced metrics for triples (X, L, E) which depend on a parameter α, where X is smooth complex manifold with an ample line bundle L and E is a holomorphic vector bundle over X. For generic choice of α, we prove that the limit of a convergent sequence of balanced metrics...... leads to a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a constant scalar curvature Kähler metric in c_1(L). For special values of α, limits of balanced metrics are solutions of a system of coupled equations relating a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a Kähler metric in c1(L). For this, we compute the top two...
Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold
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Shoubin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance matrix as a descriptor of the time sequence. Riemannian distance is used as the similarity measure and the statistical process control diagram is applied to detect the abnormity of multivariate time series. And the visualization of the covariance matrix distribution is used to detect the abnormity of mechanical equipment, leading to realize the fault diagnosis. With wind turbine gearbox faults as the experiment object, the fault diagnosis method is verified and the results show that the method is reasonable and effective.
Nearly pseudo-Kähler manifolds and related special holonomies
Schäfer, Lars
2017-01-01
Developing and providing an overview of recent results on nearly Kähler geometry on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds, this monograph emphasizes the differences with the classical Riemannian geometry setting. The focal objects of the text are related to special holonomy and Killing spinors and have applications in high energy physics, such as supergravity and string theory. Before starting into the field, a self-contained introduction to the subject is given, aimed at students with a solid background in differential geometry. The book will therefore be accessible to masters and Ph.D. students who are beginning work on nearly Kähler geometry in pseudo-Riemannian signature, and also to non-experts interested in gaining an overview of the subject. Moreover, a number of results and techniques are provided which will be helpful for differential geometers as well as for high energy physicists interested in the mathematical background of the geometric objects they need.
Notions of the ergodic hierarchy for curved statistical manifolds
Gomez, Ignacio S.
2017-10-01
We present an extension of the ergodic, mixing, and Bernoulli levels of the ergodic hierarchy for statistical models on curved manifolds, making use of elements of the information geometry. This extension focuses on the notion of statistical independence between the microscopical variables of the system. Moreover, we establish an intimately relationship between statistical models and families of probability distributions belonging to the canonical ensemble, which for the case of the quadratic Hamiltonian systems provides a closed form for the correlations between the microvariables in terms of the temperature of the heat bath as a power law. From this, we obtain an information geometric method for studying Hamiltonian dynamics in the canonical ensemble. We illustrate the results with two examples: a pair of interacting harmonic oscillators presenting phase transitions and the 2 × 2 Gaussian ensembles. In both examples the scalar curvature results a global indicator of the dynamics.
Manifold regularized discriminative nonnegative matrix factorization with fast gradient descent.
Guan, Naiyang; Tao, Dacheng; Luo, Zhigang; Yuan, Bo
2011-07-01
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become a popular data-representation method and has been widely used in image processing and pattern-recognition problems. This is because the learned bases can be interpreted as a natural parts-based representation of data and this interpretation is consistent with the psychological intuition of combining parts to form a whole. For practical classification tasks, however, NMF ignores both the local geometry of data and the discriminative information of different classes. In addition, existing research results show that the learned basis is unnecessarily parts-based because there is neither explicit nor implicit constraint to ensure the representation parts-based. In this paper, we introduce the manifold regularization and the margin maximization to NMF and obtain the manifold regularized discriminative NMF (MD-NMF) to overcome the aforementioned problems. The multiplicative update rule (MUR) can be applied to optimizing MD-NMF, but it converges slowly. In this paper, we propose a fast gradient descent (FGD) to optimize MD-NMF. FGD contains a Newton method that searches the optimal step length, and thus, FGD converges much faster than MUR. In addition, FGD includes MUR as a special case and can be applied to optimizing NMF and its variants. For a problem with 165 samples in R(1600), FGD converges in 28 s, while MUR requires 282 s. We also apply FGD in a variant of MD-NMF and experimental results confirm its efficiency. Experimental results on several face image datasets suggest the effectiveness of MD-NMF.
Whale, Ben E; 10.1016/j.geomphys.2010.12.013
2011-01-01
We present a one-to-one correspondence between equivalence classes of embeddings of a manifold (into a larger manifold of the same dimension) and equivalence classes of certain distances on the manifold. This correspondence allows us to use the Abstract Boundary to describe the structure of the `edge' of our manifold without resorting to structures external to the manifold itself. This is particularly important in the study of singularities within General Relativity where singularities lie on this `edge'. The ability to talk about the same objects, e.g., singularities, via different structures provides alternative routes for investigation which can be invaluable in the pursuit of physically motivated problems where certain types of information are unavailable or difficult to use.
Flow bench testing of prototype intake manifolds for ultralight aircraft engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swiatek Piotr
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes the research on the intake manifold for ultralight aircraft engine Vaxell 100i. It presents the actual and new redesigned manifold construction and points out the design requirements. The results of previously made numerical simulation of air flow inside the manifold are discussed. Computer analysis confirmed the appropriateness of internal guide vanes usage to improve the uniform air distribution between cylinders. For verification, a flow bench test stand was made for multicylinder intake manifold testing. A prototype manifold was built with the possibility of guide vane adjustment. The best variant had almost 5 times better uniformity of air distribution comparing to variant without the guide vane. Flow bench results confirmed the conclusions from numerical simulations.
Computation of Lickorish's Three Manifold Invariant Using Chern-Simons Theory
Ramadevi, P.; Naik, Swatee
It is well known that any three-manifold can be obtained by surgery on a framed link in S3. Lickorish gave an elementary proof for the existence of the three-manifold invariant of Witten using a framed link description of the manifold and the formalisation of the bracket polynomial as the Temperley-Lieb Algebra. Kaul determined a three-manifold invariant from link polynomials in SU(2) Chern-Simons theory. Lickorish's formula for the invariant involves computation of bracket polynomials of several cables of the link. We describe an easier way of obtaining the bracket polynomial of a cable using representation theory of composite braiding in SU(2) Chern-Simons theory. We prove that the cabling corresponds to taking tensor products of fundamental representations of SU(2). This enables us to verify that the two apparently distinct three-manifold invariants are equivalent for a specific relation of the polynomial variables.
20 CFR 636.5 - Exhaustion of grantee level procedure.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. 636.5..., INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.5 Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. (a) Exhaustion required. No... have been exhausted. (b) Exhaustion exceptions. Complainants who have not exhausted the procedures at...
T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds and non-Kähler manifolds in string theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai Lin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We construct a geometric model of eight-dimensional manifolds and realize them in the context of type II string theory. These eight-manifolds are constructed by non-trivial T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds. These give rise to eight-dimensional non-Kähler Hermitian manifolds with SU(4 structure. The eight-manifold is also a circle fibration over a seven-dimensional G2 manifold with skew torsion. The eight-manifolds of this type appear as internal manifolds with SU(4 structure in type IIB string theory with F3 and F7 fluxes. These manifolds have generalized calibrated cycles in the presence of fluxes.
T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections
Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.
2015-01-01
Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767
Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.
1981-01-01
The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.
Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners? work
Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitk?l?, K.H.
2015-01-01
Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners? (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding ...
King, Nathan D.; Ruuth, Steven J.
2017-05-01
Maps from a source manifold M to a target manifold N appear in liquid crystals, color image enhancement, texture mapping, brain mapping, and many other areas. A numerical framework to solve variational problems and partial differential equations (PDEs) that map between manifolds is introduced within this paper. Our approach, the closest point method for manifold mapping, reduces the problem of solving a constrained PDE between manifolds M and N to the simpler problems of solving a PDE on M and projecting to the closest points on N. In our approach, an embedding PDE is formulated in the embedding space using closest point representations of M and N. This enables the use of standard Cartesian numerics for general manifolds that are open or closed, with or without orientation, and of any codimension. An algorithm is presented for the important example of harmonic maps and generalized to a broader class of PDEs, which includes p-harmonic maps. Improved efficiency and robustness are observed in convergence studies relative to the level set embedding methods. Harmonic and p-harmonic maps are computed for a variety of numerical examples. In these examples, we denoise texture maps, diffuse random maps between general manifolds, and enhance color images.
Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator
Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan
2012-09-04
A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.
T cell exhaustion and immune-mediated disease-the potential for therapeutic exhaustion.
McKinney, Eoin F; Smith, Kenneth Gc
2016-12-01
T cell exhaustion represents a continuous spectrum of cellular dysfunction induced during chronic viral infection, facilitating viral persistence and associating with poor clinical outcome. Modulation of T cell exhaustion can restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells, promoting viral clearance. Exhaustion has also been implicated as playing an important role in anti-tumour responses, whereby exhausted tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes fail to control tumour progression. More recently exhaustion has been linked to long-term clinical outcome in multiple autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to cancer or infection, it is associated with a favourable clinical outcome characterised by fewer relapses. An increasing understanding of key inhibitory signals promoting exhaustion has led to advances in therapy for chronic infection and cancer. An increasing understanding of this biology may facilitate novel treatment approaches for autoimmunity through the therapeutic induction of exhaustion. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Skew semi-invariant submanifolds of generalized quasi-Sasakian manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. D. Siddiqi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we study a new class of submanifolds of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold, called skew semi-invariant submanifold. We obtain integrability conditions of the distributions on a skew semi-invariant submanifold and also find the condition for a skew semi-invariant submanifold of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold to be mixed totally geodesic. Also it is shown that a skew semi-invariant submanifold of a generalized Quasi-Sasakian manifold will be anti-invariant if and only if $A_{\\xi}=0$; and the submanifold will be skew semi-invariant submanifold if $\
On the Moduli Space of non-BPS Attractors for N=2 Symmetric Manifolds
Ferrara, Sergio
2007-01-01
We study the ``flat'' directions of non-BPS extremal black hole attractors for N=2, d=4 supergravities whose vector multiplets' scalar manifold is endowed with homogeneous symmetric special Kahler geometry. The non-BPS attractors with non-vanishing central charge have a moduli space described by real special geometry (and thus related to the d=5 parent theory), whereas the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors with vanishing central charge are certain Kahler homogeneous symmetric manifolds. The moduli spaces of the non-BPS attractors of the corresponding N=2, d=5 theories are also indicated, and shown to be rank-1 homogeneous symmetric manifolds.
The parameterization method for invariant manifolds from rigorous results to effective computations
Haro, Àlex; Figueras, Jordi-Lluis; Luque, Alejandro; Mondelo, Josep Maria
2016-01-01
This monograph presents some theoretical and computational aspects of the parameterization method for invariant manifolds, focusing on the following contexts: invariant manifolds associated with fixed points, invariant tori in quasi-periodically forced systems, invariant tori in Hamiltonian systems and normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds. This book provides algorithms of computation and some practical details of their implementation. The methodology is illustrated with 12 detailed examples, many of them well known in the literature of numerical computation in dynamical systems. A public version of the software used for some of the examples is available online. The book is aimed at mathematicians, scientists and engineers interested in the theory and applications of computational dynamical systems.
From Stein to Weinstein and back symplectic geometry of affine complex manifolds
Cieliebak, Kai
2013-01-01
A beautiful and comprehensive introduction to this important field. -Dusa McDuff, Barnard College, Columbia University This excellent book gives a detailed, clear, and wonderfully written treatment of the interplay between the world of Stein manifolds and the more topological and flexible world of Weinstein manifolds. Devoted to this subject with a long history, the book serves as a superb introduction to this area and also contains the authors' new results. -Tomasz Mrowka, MIT This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine co
de Hoop, Maarten V.; Ilmavirta, Joonas
2017-12-01
We study ray transforms on spherically symmetric manifolds with a piecewise C1, 1 metric. Assuming the Herglotz condition, the x-ray transform is injective on the space of L 2 functions on such manifolds. We also prove injectivity results for broken ray transforms (with and without periodicity) on such manifolds with a C1, 1 metric. To make these problems tractable in low regularity, we introduce and study a class of generalized Abel transforms and study their properties. This low regularity setting is relevant for geophysical applications.
Applications of lagrangian coherent structures to expression of invariant manifolds in astrodynamics
Qi, Rui; Xu, Shi Jie
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the relationship between invariant manifold and Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) in dynamical systems. LCS is defined as the ridge of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field, and is proving to be excellent platform for studies of stable and unstable manifold in flows with arbitrary time dependence. In this study, the LCS tool is applied to autonomous systems, simple pendulum and planar circular restricted three-body problem (PCR3BP), and also non-autonomous ones, double-gyre flow and bicircular problem (BCP). A comparison between LCS and invariant manifold is presented.
Yin, Aijun; Gou, Yanli; Ran, Hongbin; Li, Jiang
2017-08-01
Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) has been extensively used for detection and evaluation of conductive material defect, in that spatial-transient-stage thermography implies crucial information about material properties. This paper presents a material state evaluation method using multidimensional manifold space projection and similarity measurement of principal curves to characterize and track the variation of material properties. The mathematical theories about manifold space projection and principal curves extraction have been introduced and the corresponding physical models are established. The simulations and real experiments are conducted to validate the proposed method. The combination of manifold learning method with ECPT has shown promising potential in characterizing and tracking material properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tauzia, Xavier; Maiboom, Alain; Shah, Samiur Rahman [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Internal Combustion Engine Team, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, BP 92101, 44321 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)
2010-09-15
This paper describes an experimental study conducted on a modern high speed common-rail automotive Diesel engine in order to evaluate the effects on combustion and pollutant emissions of water injected as a fine mist in the inlet manifold. First, a literature survey describing the several ways to introduce water in an internal combustion engine and reporting the main results from previous studies is presented. It is followed by a short description of the engine and experimental set-up. After that, various results are presented. A special focus is made on water injection (WI) cooling effect. Then, the influence of WI on ignition delay, rate of heat release, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and engine efficiency is analysed, for various engine operating conditions (speed and load) and various amount of water (up to 4 times the amount of fuel injected). A comparison is made with exhaust gas recirculation to evaluate the potential of inlet WI as an in-cylinder emissions reduction device for automotive application. (author)
Covariant Schrödinger semigroups on Riemannian manifolds
Güneysu, Batu
2017-01-01
This monograph discusses covariant Schrödinger operators and their heat semigroups on noncompact Riemannian manifolds and aims to fill a gap in the literature, given the fact that the existing literature on Schrödinger operators has mainly focused on scalar Schrödinger operators on Euclidean spaces so far. In particular, the book studies operators that act on sections of vector bundles. In addition, these operators are allowed to have unbounded potential terms, possibly with strong local singularities. The results presented here provide the first systematic study of such operators that is sufficiently general to simultaneously treat the natural operators from quantum mechanics, such as magnetic Schrödinger operators with singular electric potentials, and those from geometry, such as squares of Dirac operators that have smooth but endomorphism-valued and possibly unbounded potentials. The book is largely self-contained, making it accessible for graduate and postgraduate students alike. Since it also inc...
Noise reduction in intracranial pressure signal using causal shape manifolds.
Rajagopal, Abhejit; Hamilton, Robert B; Scalzo, Fabien
2016-07-01
We present the Iterative/Causal Subspace Tracking framework (I/CST) for reducing noise in continuously monitored quasi-periodic biosignals. Signal reconstruction of the basic segments of the noisy signal (e.g. beats) is achieved by projection to a reduced space on which probabilistic tracking is performed. The attractiveness of the presented method lies in the fact that the subspace, or manifold, is learned by incorporating temporal, morphological, and signal elevation constraints, so that segment samples with similar shapes, and that are close in time and elevation, are also close in the subspace representation. Evaluation of the algorithm's effectiveness on the intracranial pressure (ICP) signal serves as a practical illustration of how it can operate in clinical conditions on routinely acquired biosignals. The reconstruction accuracy of the system is evaluated on an idealized 20-min ICP recording established from the average ICP of patients monitored for various ICP related conditions. The reconstruction accuracy of the ground truth signal is tested in presence of varying levels of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Poisson noise processes, and measures significant increases of 758% and 396% in the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Geng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally, the pixel with larger modified local contrast is selected into the fused image. The presented scheme outperforms the guided filter method in spatial domain, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based method, nonsubsampled contourlet transform-based method, and four classic fusion methods in terms of visual quality. Furthermore, the mutual information values by the presented method are averagely 55%, 41%, and 62% higher than the three methods and those values of edge based similarity measure by the presented method are averagely 13%, 33%, and 14% higher than the three methods for the six pairs of source images.
Inertial Manifold and Large Deviations Approach to Reduced PDE Dynamics
Cardin, Franco; Favretti, Marco; Lovison, Alberto
2017-09-01
In this paper a certain type of reaction-diffusion equation—similar to the Allen-Cahn equation—is the starting point for setting up a genuine thermodynamic reduction i.e. involving a finite number of parameters or collective variables of the initial system. We firstly operate a finite Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction of the cited reaction-diffusion equation when reformulated as a variational problem. In this way we gain a finite-dimensional ODE description of the initial system which preserves the gradient structure of the original one and that is exact for the static case and only approximate for the dynamic case. Our main concern is how to deal with this approximate reduced description of the initial PDE. To start with, we note that our approximate reduced ODE is similar to the approximate inertial manifold introduced by Temam and coworkers for Navier-Stokes equations. As a second approach, we take into account the uncertainty (loss of information) introduced with the above mentioned approximate reduction by considering the stochastic version of the ODE. We study this reduced stochastic system using classical tools from large deviations, viscosity solutions and weak KAM Hamilton-Jacobi theory. In the last part we suggest a possible use of a result of our approach in the comprehensive treatment non equilibrium thermodynamics given by Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory.
Topological field theories on manifolds with Wu structures
Monnier, Samuel
We construct invertible field theories generalizing abelian prequantum spin Chern-Simons theory to manifolds of dimension 4ℓ + 3 endowed with a Wu structure of degree 2ℓ + 2. After analyzing the anomalies of a certain discrete symmetry, we gauge it, producing topological field theories whose path integral reduces to a finite sum, akin to Dijkgraaf-Witten theories. We take a general point of view where the Chern-Simons gauge group and its couplings are encoded in a local system of integral lattices. The Lagrangian of these theories has to be interpreted as a class in a generalized cohomology theory in order to obtain a gauge invariant action. We develop a computationally friendly cochain model for this generalized cohomology and use it in a detailed study of the properties of the Wu Chern-Simons action. In the 3-dimensional spin case, the latter provides a definition of the “fermionic correction” introduced recently in the literature on fermionic symmetry protected topological phases. In order to construct the state space of the gauged theories, we develop an analogue of geometric quantization for finite abelian groups endowed with a skew-symmetric pairing. The physical motivation for this work comes from the fact that in the ℓ = 1 case, the gauged 7-dimensional topological field theories constructed here are essentially the anomaly field theories of the 6-dimensional conformal field theories with (2, 0) supersymmetry, as will be discussed elsewhere.
Indoor localization using unsupervised manifold alignment with geometry perturbation
Majeed, Khaqan
2014-04-01
The main limitation of deploying/updating Received Signal Strength (RSS) based indoor localization is the construction of fingerprinted radio map, which is quite a hectic and time-consuming process especially when the indoor area is enormous and/or dynamic. Different approaches have been undertaken to reduce such deployment/update efforts, but the performance degrades when the fingerprinting load is reduced below a certain level. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization scheme that requires as low as 1% fingerprinting load. This scheme employs unsupervised manifold alignment that takes crowd sourced RSS readings and localization requests as source data set and the environment\\'s plan coordinates as destination data set. The 1% fingerprinting load is only used to perturb the local geometries in the destination data set. Our proposed algorithm was shown to achieve less than 5 m mean localization error with 1% fingerprinting load and a limited number of crowd sourced readings, when other learning based localization schemes pass the 10 m mean error with the same information.
Descriptor Learning via Supervised Manifold Regularization for Multioutput Regression.
Zhen, Xiantong; Yu, Mengyang; Islam, Ali; Bhaduri, Mousumi; Chan, Ian; Li, Shuo
2017-09-01
Multioutput regression has recently shown great ability to solve challenging problems in both computer vision and medical image analysis. However, due to the huge image variability and ambiguity, it is fundamentally challenging to handle the highly complex input-target relationship of multioutput regression, especially with indiscriminate high-dimensional representations. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised descriptor learning (SDL) algorithm for multioutput regression, which can establish discriminative and compact feature representations to improve the multivariate estimation performance. The SDL is formulated as generalized low-rank approximations of matrices with a supervised manifold regularization. The SDL is able to simultaneously extract discriminative features closely related to multivariate targets and remove irrelevant and redundant information by transforming raw features into a new low-dimensional space aligned to targets. The achieved discriminative while compact descriptor largely reduces the variability and ambiguity for multioutput regression, which enables more accurate and efficient multivariate estimation. We conduct extensive evaluation of the proposed SDL on both synthetic data and real-world multioutput regression tasks for both computer vision and medical image analysis. Experimental results have shown that the proposed SDL can achieve high multivariate estimation accuracy on all tasks and largely outperforms the algorithms in the state of the arts. Our method establishes a novel SDL framework for multioutput regression, which can be widely used to boost the performance in different applications.
Type IIA orientifolds on SU(2)-structure manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danckaert, Thomas
2010-11-15
We investigate the possible supersymmetry-preserving orientifold projections of type IIA string theory on a six-dimensional background with SU(2)-structure. We find two categories of projections which preserve half of the low-energy supersymmetry, reducing the effective theory from an N=4 supergravity theory, to an N=2 supergravity. For these two cases, we impose the projection on the low-energy spectrum and reduce the effective N=4 supergravity action accordingly. We can identify the resulting gauged N=2 supergravity theory and bring the action into canonical form. We compute the scalar moduli spaces and characterize the gauged symmetries in terms of the geometry of these moduli spaces. Due to their origin in N=4 supergravity, which is a highly constrained theory, the moduli spaces are of a very simple form. We find that, for suitable background manifolds, isometries in all scalar sectors can become gauged. The obtained gaugings share many features with those of N=2 supergravities obtained previously from other G-structure compactifications. (orig.)
Hyperspectral image filtering with adaptive manifold for classification
Xie, Weiying; Li, Yunsong; Zhou, Weiping
2017-05-01
Hyperspectral image (HSI) is a three-dimensional data cube containing two spatial information dimensions and one spectral information dimension. The spectral vectors of different classes may have similar tendency and value that may bring about negative influences on classification. It is, therefore, important to introduce signal preprocessing techniques in the spatial domain to improve classification accuracy of HSIs. Assuming that local pixels in HSI have some correlations with each other, this paper proposes a spatial filtering model based on adaptive manifold (AM) for HSI. The AM for spatial filtering emphasizes the similar neighboring pixels and is robust to resist the noisy points with fast speed. The rich information in the filtered data is effective for improving the performance of the subsequent classification. The filtered data are classified by an extreme learning machine (ELM). The experimental results indicate that the framework built based on AM and ELM provides competitive performance. Specifically, by classifying the filtered data, the average accuracy of ELM can be improved as high as 30.54%, while performing tens to hundreds times faster than those state-of-the-art classifiers.
Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas
This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....
Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva
2005-01-01
Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...
49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...
Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance.
Grimditch, G K; Barnard, R J; Duncan, H W
1981-11-01
Several investigators have reported ultrastructural changes in hearts of animals exercised to exhaustion. The present study was designed to determine whether functional changes occur in the intact heart at exhaustion. Adult mongrel dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented to measure cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, +dP/dtmax, and -dP/dtmax. After recovery, the dogs were run to exhaustion at a constant work load, eliciting approximately 70% of maximum heart rate. The exhaustive bouts were terminated when the animals either refused or were unable to continue running, at which time their rectal temperatures approaches 42.2 degree C. The mean exhaustion time was 76.7 +/- 11.8 min. All parameters increased from rest to steady state with the exception of stroke volume (23.2 +/- 4.9 vs. 20.5 +/- 1.6 ml), which remained constant. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only +dP/dtmax (6,652 +/- 291 vs. 7,689 +/- 479 Torr/s) and -dP/dtmax (4,110 +/- 227 vs. 4,890 +/- 215 Torr/s) increased significantly; all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, when maximum cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after exhaustion, no significant changes were found. These data show that cardiac contractile function is not depressed in dogs as a result of exhaustive exercise.
Pseudo-Reimannian manifolds endowed with an almost para f-structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladislav V. Goldberg
1985-01-01
Full Text Available Let M˜(U,Ω˜,η˜,ξ,g˜ be a pseudo-Riemannian manifold of signature (n+1,n. One defines on M˜ an almost cosymplectic para f-structure and proves that a manifold M˜ endowed with such a structure is ξ-Ricci flat and is foliated by minimal hypersurfaces normal to ξ, which are of Otsuki's type. Further one considers on M˜ a 2(n−1-dimensional involutive distribution P⊥ and a recurrent vector field V˜. It is proved that the maximal integral manifold M⊥ of P⊥ has V as the mean curvature vector (up to 1/2(n−1. If the complimentary orthogonal distribution P of P⊥ is also involutive, then the whole manifold M˜ is foliate. Different other properties regarding the vector field V˜ are discussed.
Deep Manifold Learning Combined With Convolutional Neural Networks for Action Recognition.
Chen, Xin; Weng, Jian; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Weng, Jiasi
2017-09-15
Learning deep representations have been applied in action recognition widely. However, there have been a few investigations on how to utilize the structural manifold information among different action videos to enhance the recognition accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the manifold of training samples into deep learning, which is defined as deep manifold learning (DML). The proposed DML framework can be adapted to most existing deep networks to learn more discriminative features for action recognition. When applied to a convolutional neural network, DML embeds the previous convolutional layer's manifold into the next convolutional layer; thus, the discriminative capacity of the next layer can be promoted. We also apply the DML on a restricted Boltzmann machine, which can alleviate the overfitting problem. Experimental results on four standard action databases (i.e., UCF101, HMDB51, KTH, and UCF sports) show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Qi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.
Towards representation of a perceptual color manifold using associative memory for color constancy.
Seow, Ming-Jung; Asari, Vijayan K
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose the concept of a manifold of color perception through empirical observation that the center-surround properties of images in a perceptually similar environment define a manifold in the high dimensional space. Such a manifold representation can be learned using a novel recurrent neural network based learning algorithm. Unlike the conventional recurrent neural network model in which the memory is stored in an attractive fixed point at discrete locations in the state space, the dynamics of the proposed learning algorithm represent memory as a nonlinear line of attraction. The region of convergence around the nonlinear line is defined by the statistical characteristics of the training data. This learned manifold can then be used as a basis for color correction of the images having different color perception to the learned color perception. Experimental results show that the proposed recurrent neural network learning algorithm is capable of color balance the lighting variations in images captured in different environments successfully.
Proximal subgradient and a characterization of Lipschitz function on Riemannian manifolds
Ferreira, Orizon P.
2006-01-01
A characterization of Lipschitz behavior of functions defined on Riemannian manifolds is given in this paper. First, it is extended the concept of proximal subgradient and some results of proximal analysis from Hilbert space to Riemannian manifold setting. A technique introduced by Clarke, Stern and Wolenski [F.H. Clarke, R.J. Stern, P.R. Wolenski, Subgradient criteria for monotonicity, the Lipschitz condition, and convexity, Canad. J. Math. 45 (1993) 1167-1183], for generating proximal subgradients of functions defined on a Hilbert spaces, is also extended to Riemannian manifolds in order to provide that characterization. A number of examples of Lipschitz functions are presented so as to show that the Lipschitz behavior of functions defined on Riemannian manifolds depends on the Riemannian metric.
30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?
2010-07-01
... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... abrasiveness of drilling fluids and well fluids that you may encounter. (b) Choke manifold components must have...
High-order parameterization of (un)stable manifolds for hybrid maps: Implementation and applications
Naudot, Vincent; Mireles James, J. D.; Lu, Qiuying
2017-12-01
In this work we study, from a numerical point of view, the (un)stable manifolds of a certain class of dynamical systems called hybrid maps. The dynamics of these systems are generated by a two stage procedure: the first stage is continuous time advection under a given vector field, the second stage is discrete time advection under a given diffeomorphism. Such hybrid systems model physical processes where a differential equation is occasionally kicked by a strong disturbance. We propose a numerical method for computing local (un)stable manifolds, which leads to high order polynomial parameterization of the embedding. The parameterization of the invariant manifold is not the graph of a function and can follow folds in the embedding. Moreover we obtain a representation of the dynamics on the manifold in terms of a simple conjugacy relation. We illustrate the utility of the method by studying a planar example system.
Compactifications of heterotic theory on non-Kaehler complex manifolds, I
Becker, K; Das-Gupta, K; Green, P S
2003-01-01
We study new compactifications of the SO(32) heterotic string theory on compact complex non-Kaehler manifolds. These manifolds have many interesting features like fewer moduli, torsional constraints, vanishing Euler character and vanishing first Chern class, which make the four-dimensional theory phenomenologically attractive. We take a particular compact example studied earlier and determine various geometrical properties of it. In particular we calculate the warp factor and study the sigma model description of strings propagating on these backgrounds. The anomaly cancellation condition and enhanced gauge symmetry are shown to arise naturally in this framework, if one considers the effect of singularities carefully. We then give a detailed mathematical analysis of these manifolds and construct a large class of them. The existence of a holomorphic (3,0) form is important for the construction. We clarify some of the topological properties of these manifolds and evaluate the Betti numbers. We also determine the...
CERN Library
2014-01-01
Tuesday 25 March 2014 at 4 p.m. in the Library, bldg. 52-1-052 "Differential manifolds: a basic approach for experimental physicists" by Paul Baillon, World Scientific, 2013, ISBN 978-981-4449-56-4. Differential manifold is the framework of particle physics and astrophysics nowadays. It is important for all research physicists to be accustomed to it, and even experimental physicists should be able to manipulate equations and expressions in this framework. This book gives a comprehensive description of the basics of differential manifold with a full proof of elements. A large part of the book is devoted to the basic mathematical concepts, which are all necessary for the development of the differential manifold. This book is self-consistent; it starts from first principles. The mathematical framework is the set theory with its axioms and its formal logic. No special knowledge is needed. Coffee will be served from 3.30 p.m.
Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Shock Motion Based on Equilibrium Manifold Linearization Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cui Tao Yu Daren Bao Wen Yang Yongbin
2007-01-01
The equilibrium manifold linearization model of nonlinear shock motion is of higher accuracy and lower complexity over other models such as the small perturbation model and the piecewise-linear model...
Method for removing soot from exhaust gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.
2018-01-16
A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).
The Twisted Photon Associated to Hyper-Hermitian Four-Manifolds
Dunajski, Maciej
1998-01-01
The Lax formulation of the hyper-Hermiticity condition in four dimensions is used to derive a potential that generalises Plebanski's second heavenly equation for hyper-Kahler 4-manifolds. A class of examples of hyper-Hermitian metrics which depend on two arbitrary functions of two complex variables is given. The twistor theory of four-dimensional hyper-Hermitian manifolds is formulated as a combination of the Nonlinear Graviton Construction with the Ward transform for anti-self-dual Maxwell f...
Global Regularity for the ∂-b-Equation on CR Manifolds of Arbitrary Codimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaban Khidr
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Let M be a C∞ compact CR manifold of CR-codimension l≥1 and CR-dimension n-l in a complex manifold X of complex dimension n≥3. In this paper, assuming that M satisfies condition Y(s for some s with 1≤s≤n-l-1, we prove an L2-existence theorem and global regularity for the solutions of the tangential Cauchy-Riemann equation for (0,s-forms on M.
A New Entropy Formula and Gradient Estimates for the Linear Heat Equation on Static Manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abimbola Abolarinwa
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we prove a new monotonicity formula for the heat equation via a generalized family of entropy functionals. This family of entropy formulas generalizes both Perelman’s entropy for evolving metric and Ni’s entropy on static manifold. We show that this entropy satisfies a pointwise differential inequality for heat kernel. The consequences of which are various gradient and Harnack estimates for all positive solutions to the heat equation on compact manifold.
On the geometry of Riemannian manifolds with a Lie structure at infinity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernd Ammann
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We study a generalization of the geodesic spray and give conditions for noncomapct manifolds with a Lie structure at infinity to have positive injectivity radius. We also prove that the geometric operators are generated by the given Lie algebra of vector fields. This is the first one in a series of papers devoted to the study of the analysis of geometric differential operators on manifolds with Lie structure at infinity.
Some cosmological implications and restrictions from geometry and topology of 3 and 4 manifolds
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten; Król, Jerzy
2013-02-01
We show that the requirement of contractability and smoothness of certain 4-manifolds representing the cosmic evolution restricts the possible spatial models. In particular certain models like the Poincare sphere are excluded. Turning to the case of a fake S3×R it is argued that the inflation can be explained by the exotic smooth structure of this 4-manifold. Finally, we discuss the exotic R4 to which we assign a gravitational instanton.
Platonic polyhedra tune the three-sphere: II. Harmonic analysis on cubic spherical three-manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, Peter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: peter.kramer@uni-tuebingen.de
2009-08-15
From the homotopy groups of two distinct cubic spherical three-manifolds, we construct the isomorphic groups of deck transformations acting on the three-sphere. These groups become the cyclic group of order eight and the quaternion group, respectively. By reduction of representations from the orthogonal group to the identity representation of these subgroups we provide two subgroup-periodic bases for the harmonic analysis on the three-manifolds, which have applications to cosmic topology.
Kharlamov, Mikhail P.; Savushkin, Alexander Y.
2008-01-01
In the phase space of the integrable Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom used to describe the motion of a Kowalevski-type top in a double constant force field, we point out the four-dimensional invariant manifold. It is shown that this manifold consists of critical motions generating a smooth sheet of the bifurcation diagram, and the induced dynamic system is Hamiltonian with certain subset of points of degeneration of the symplectic structure. We find the transformation separati...
Stability of The Synchronization Manifold in An All-To-All Time LAG- Diffusively Coupled Oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adu A.M. Wasike
2009-06-01
Full Text Available we consider a lattice system of identical oscillators that are all coupled to one another with a diffusive coupling that has a time lag. We use the natural splitting of the system into synchronized manifold and transversal manifold to estimate the value of the time lag for which the stability of the system follows from that without a time lag. Each oscillator has a unique periodic solution that is attracting.
Sacchelli, Ludovic; Sigalotti, Mario
2017-01-01
In this article we study the validity of the Whitney $C^1$ extension property for horizontal curves in sub-Riemannian manifolds endowed with 1-jets that satisfy a first-order Taylor expansion compatibility condition. We first consider the equiregular case, where we show that the extension property holds true whenever a suitable non-singularity property holds for the input-output maps on the Carnot groups obtained by nilpotent approximation. We then discuss the case of sub-Riemannian manifolds...
Definability and stability of multiscale decompositions for manifold-valued data
Grohs, Philipp
2012-06-01
We discuss multiscale representations of discrete manifold-valued data. As it turns out that we cannot expect general manifold analogs of biorthogonal wavelets to possess perfect reconstruction, we focus our attention on those constructions which are based on upscaling operators which are either interpolating or midpoint-interpolating. For definable multiscale decompositions we obtain a stability result. © 2012 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soft-group-manifold structure of supergravity, and the proof of unitarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thierry-Mieg, J.; Ne' eman, Y.
1979-01-01
The Soft Group Manifold (SGM) method of gauging a non-internal group is reviewed. Applications to three different versions of Extended Supergravity are presented. Then the geometric identification of the ghost fields and BRS equations, another aspect of the Group Manifold method, is summarized. The results are applied to Supergravity, and a completion of the proof of Unitarity of Sterman, Townsend, and Van Nieuwenhuizen is provided. 3 figures.
Estimating Turaev-Viro three-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation
Alagic, Gorjan; Jordan, Stephen P.; König, Robert; Reichardt, Ben W.
2010-01-01
The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem ef...
Approximating Turaev-Viro 3-manifold invariants is universal for quantum computation
Alagic, Gorjan; Jordan, Stephen P.; Koenig, Robert; Reichardt, Ben W.
2010-01-01
The Turaev-Viro invariants are scalar topological invariants of compact, orientable 3-manifolds. We give a quantum algorithm for additively approximating Turaev-Viro invariants of a manifold presented by a Heegaard splitting. The algorithm is motivated by the relationship between topological quantum computers and (2+1)-D topological quantum field theories. Its accuracy is shown to be nontrivial, as the same algorithm, after efficient classical preprocessing, can solve any problem efficiently ...
Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners’ work
Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitkälä, K.H.
2015-01-01
Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners’ (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding their experience of emotional exhaustion and items related to their work experiences and professional identity. A statement “I feel burnt out from my job” (never, seldom, sometimes, quite often, or often) enquired about emotional exhaustion. Those responding quite often or often were categorized as emotionally exhausted. Results. Among the GPs, 68% responded (165/244). Of the respondents, 18% were emotionally exhausted. Emotional exhaustion was associated with older age, longer working history, experiences of having too much work, fear and reports of having committed a medical error, low tolerance of uncertainty in their work, and feeling alone at work. No differences in positive work experiences were found. In logistic regression analysis working experience > 5 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6–10.8; p = 0.0036) and feeling alone at work (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.1; p = 0.020) predicted emotional exhaustion, having committed a medical error in the past three months predicted it marginally significantly (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.9, p = 0.057), whereas tolerating uncertainty well protected against it (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.09–0.7; p = 0.0098). Conclusions. Emotional exhaustion among GPs was common and associated with longer working history, having committed a medical error, and feelings of isolation at work. GPs should receive more support throughout their careers. PMID:26311207
Health effects of exhaust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.
2013-11-01
This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area
40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.
2010-07-01
... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must...
Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine
Wu, Ko-Jen
2013-05-21
An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.
Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.
Schaffner, Anna Katharina
2016-09-01
This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity.
Wang, Wen; Wang, Ruiping; Huang, Zhiwu; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin
To address the problem of face recognition with image sets, we aim to capture the underlying data distribution in each set and thus facilitate more robust classification. To this end, we represent image set as the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) comprising a number of Gaussian components with prior probabilities and seek to discriminate Gaussian components from different classes. Since in the light of information geometry, the Gaussians lie on a specific Riemannian manifold, this paper presents a method named discriminant analysis on Riemannian manifold of Gaussian distributions (DARG). We investigate several distance metrics between Gaussians and accordingly two discriminative learning frameworks are presented to meet the geometric and statistical characteristics of the specific manifold. The first framework derives a series of provably positive definite probabilistic kernels to embed the manifold to a high-dimensional Hilbert space, where conventional discriminant analysis methods developed in Euclidean space can be applied, and a weighted Kernel discriminant analysis is devised which learns discriminative representation of the Gaussian components in GMMs with their prior probabilities as sample weights. Alternatively, the other framework extends the classical graph embedding method to the manifold by utilizing the distance metrics between Gaussians to construct the adjacency graph, and hence the original manifold is embedded to a lower-dimensional and discriminative target manifold with the geometric structure preserved and the interclass separability maximized. The proposed method is evaluated by face identification and verification tasks on four most challenging and largest databases, YouTube Celebrities, COX, YouTube Face DB, and Point-and-Shoot Challenge, to demonstrate its superiority over the state-of-the-art.To address the problem of face recognition with image sets, we aim to capture the underlying data distribution in each set and thus facilitate more
Taxation of exhaustible resources. [Monograph
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dasgupta, P.; Heal, G.; Stiglitz, J.
1980-01-01
This paper analyzes the effect of taxation on the intertemporal allocation of an exhaustible resource. A general framework within which a large variety of taxes can be analyzed is developed and then applied to a number of specific taxes. It is shown that there exists a pattern of taxation which can generate essentially any desired pattern of resource usage. Many tax policies, however, have effects markedly different both from the effects that these policies would have in the case of produced commodities and from those which they are designed (or widely thought) to have. For instance, if extraction costs are zero, a depletion allowance at a constant rate (widely thought to encourage the extraction of resources) has absolutely no effect; its gradual removal (usually thought to be preferable to a sudden removal) leads to faster rates of depletion (and lower prices) now, but higher prices in the future; which its sudden and unanticipated removal has absolutely no distortionary effect on the pattern of extraction. More generally, it is shown that the effects of tax structure on the patterns of extraction are critically dependent on expectations concerning future taxation. The changes in tax structure that have occurred in the past fifty years are of the kind that, if they were anticipated, (or if similar further changes are expected to occur in the future) lead to excessively fast exploitation of natural resources. However, if it is believed that current tax policies (including rates) will persist indefinitely, the current tax structure would lead to excessive conservationism. Thus, whether in fact current tax policies have lead to excessive conservationism is a moot question.
Invariant Manifolds and the Transport and Capture of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
Swenson, Travis; Lo, Martin W.
2017-06-01
Poincaré stated that “periodic orbits” are the only means by which we can understand the dynamics of differential equations. The objects he really meant are the “invariant manifolds of periodic orbits” which he discovered. It was the intersection of invariant manifolds that led to his discovery of homoclinic orbits and deterministic chaos in his celebrated work on the 3 body problem. Koon, Lo, Marsden, Ross 2000 explained the theory of how invariant manifolds of periodic orbits around the L1 and L2 Lagrange points control the transport of small bodies between the 2:3 resonance outside of Jupiter’s orbit to the 3:2 resonance inside of Jupiter’s orbit. This resonance transition is exhibited by many members of the Jupiter Family of comets as shown by Howell, Marchand, and Lo 2001 computed in the JPL ephemeris model. These comets include Gehrels 3, Helin-Roman-Crockett, Oterma, and others. We present some recent work on the role of invariant manifolds for the capture and impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy9 (SL9). The comet underwent resonance transition in the Sun-Saturn three-body problem until it was captured by invariant manifolds of the Sun-Jupiter three-body problem. We show how these manifolds guided SL9 towards Jupiter and through the periodic orbits which act as gateways to Jupiter and the inner solar system. We demonstrate that invariant manifolds controlled the dynamics of capture, ultimately leading to the impact of SL9 in 1994.
An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program
Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.
1977-01-01
The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.
Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine
Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA
2011-11-29
An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.
Exhaustivity and intonation: a unified theory
Westera, M.
2017-01-01
This dissertation presents a precise, unified and explanatory theory of human conversation, centered on two broad phenomena: exhaustivity implications and intonational meaning. In a nutshell: (i) speakers have two types of communicative intentions, namely information sharing and attention sharing,
Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)
1997-12-31
The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.
Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography
1978-12-01
hydrocarbon ( TIIC ) results for the March 1975 jet engine exhaust studies ......... .............. 11 3. Specific retention volumes (Vg) for selected...studies with subsequent low TiIC recove.’cries. At least three factors could singly or in combination bu I responsible for exceeding the trap capacities: 1...effective system for collectingq crqanics : in jet engine exhaust. The success of these modifications is illustrated by t.he TIIC recovery data compared
T cell exhaustion and Interleukin 2 downregulation.
Balkhi, Mumtaz Y; Ma, Qiangzhong; Ahmad, Shazia; Junghans, Richard P
2015-02-01
T cells reactive to tumor antigens and viral antigens lose their reactivity when exposed to the antigen-rich environment of a larger tumor bed or viral load. Such non-responsive T cells are termed exhausted. T cell exhaustion affects both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. T cell exhaustion is attributed to the functional impairment of T cells to produce cytokines, of which the most important may be Interleukin 2 (IL2). IL2 performs functions critical for the elimination of cancer cells and virus infected cells. In one such function, IL2 promotes CD8+ T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activities. Other functions include regulating naïve T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 subsets upon exposure to antigens. Thus, the signaling pathways contributing to T cell exhaustion could be linked to the signaling pathways contributing to IL2 loss. This review will discuss the process of T cell exhaustion and the signaling pathways that could be contributing to T cell exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, Zulfiqar Hasan; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua
2013-12-01
This paper proposes a novel Bayesian online learning and tracking scheme for video objects on Grassmann manifolds. Although manifold visual object tracking is promising, large and fast nonplanar (or out-of-plane) pose changes and long-term partial occlusions of deformable objects in video remain a challenge that limits the tracking performance. The proposed method tackles these problems with the main novelties on: 1) online estimation of object appearances on Grassmann manifolds; 2) optimal criterion-based occlusion handling for online updating of object appearances; 3) a nonlinear dynamic model for both the appearance basis matrix and its velocity; and 4) Bayesian formulations, separately for the tracking process and the online learning process, that are realized by employing two particle filters: one is on the manifold for generating appearance particles and another on the linear space for generating affine box particles. Tracking and online updating are performed in an alternating fashion to mitigate the tracking drift. Experiments using the proposed tracker on videos captured by a single dynamic/static camera have shown robust tracking performance, particularly for scenarios when target objects contain significant nonplanar pose changes and long-term partial occlusions. Comparisons with eight existing state-of-the-art/most relevant manifold/nonmanifold trackers with evaluations have provided further support to the proposed scheme.
Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.
Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian
2015-11-01
We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling.
Parts-based stereoscopic image assessment by learning binocular manifold color visual properties
Xu, Haiyong; Yu, Mei; Luo, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi
2016-11-01
Existing stereoscopic image quality assessment (SIQA) methods are mostly based on the luminance information, in which color information is not sufficiently considered. Actually, color is part of the important factors that affect human visual perception, and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and manifold learning are in line with human visual perception. We propose an SIQA method based on learning binocular manifold color visual properties. To be more specific, in the training phase, a feature detector is created based on NMF with manifold regularization by considering color information, which not only allows parts-based manifold representation of an image, but also manifests localized color visual properties. In the quality estimation phase, visually important regions are selected by considering different human visual attention, and feature vectors are extracted by using the feature detector. Then the feature similarity index is calculated and the parts-based manifold color feature energy (PMCFE) for each view is defined based on the color feature vectors. The final quality score is obtained by considering a binocular combination based on PMCFE. The experimental results on LIVE I and LIVE Π 3-D IQA databases demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve much higher consistency with subjective evaluations than the state-of-the-art SIQA methods.
Improving head and body pose estimation through semi-supervised manifold alignment
Heili, Alexandre
2014-10-27
In this paper, we explore the use of a semi-supervised manifold alignment method for domain adaptation in the context of human body and head pose estimation in videos. We build upon an existing state-of-the-art system that leverages on external labelled datasets for the body and head features, and on the unlabelled test data with weak velocity labels to do a coupled estimation of the body and head pose. While this previous approach showed promising results, the learning of the underlying manifold structure of the features in the train and target data and the need to align them were not explored despite the fact that the pose features between two datasets may vary according to the scene, e.g. due to different camera point of view or perspective. In this paper, we propose to use a semi-supervised manifold alignment method to bring the train and target samples closer within the resulting embedded space. To this end, we consider an adaptation set from the target data and rely on (weak) labels, given for example by the velocity direction whenever they are reliable. These labels, along with the training labels are used to bias the manifold distance within each manifold and to establish correspondences for alignment.
Latash, Mark L
2017-12-23
The main goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of iso-perceptual manifold for perception of body configuration and related variables (kinesthetic perception) and to discuss its relation to the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the concepts of reference coordinate and uncontrolled manifold. Hierarchical control of action is postulated with abundant transformations between sets of spatial reference coordinates for salient effectors at different levels. Iso-perceptual manifold is defined in the combined space of afferent and efferent variables as the subspace corresponding to a stable percept. Examples of motion along an iso-perceptual manifold (perceptually equivalent motion) are considered during various natural actions. Some combinations of afferent and efferent signals, in particular those implying a violation of body's integrity, give rise to variable percepts by artificial projection onto iso-perceptual manifolds. This framework is used to interpret unusual features of vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions and to predict new illusions not yet reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butail, Sachit; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio
2013-11-07
In this paper, we build a framework for the analysis and classification of collective behavior using methods from generative modeling and nonlinear manifold learning. We represent an animal group with a set of finite-sized particles and vary known features of the group structure and motion via a class of generative models to position each particle on a two-dimensional plane. Particle positions are then mapped onto training images that are processed to emphasize the features of interest and match attainable far-field videos of real animal groups. The training images serve as templates of recognizable patterns of collective behavior and are compactly represented in a low-dimensional space called embedding manifold. Two mappings from the manifold are derived: the manifold-to-image mapping serves to reconstruct new and unseen images of the group and the manifold-to-feature mapping allows frame-by-frame classification of raw video. We validate the combined framework on datasets of growing level of complexity. Specifically, we classify artificial images from the generative model, interacting self-propelled particle model, and raw overhead videos of schooling fish obtained from the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have stagnant...
14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff...
40 CFR 1065.330 - Exhaust-flow calibration.
2010-07-01
... recommend that you use a calibration subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter and simulate exhaust temperatures by incorporating a heat exchanger between the calibration meter and the exhaust-flow meter. If you... Exhaust-flow calibration. (a) Calibrate exhaust-flow meters upon initial installation. Follow the...
Rudell, B; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R; Ledin, M C; Lundbäck, B; Stjernberg, N; Hörstedt, P; Sandström, T
1999-08-01
Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. The study comprised three exposures in all 10 healthy never smoking subjects; air, diluted diesel exhaust, and diluted diesel exhaust filtered with a ceramic particle trap. The exposures were given for 1 hour in randomised order about 3 weeks apart. The diesel exhaust exposure apperatus has previously been carefully developed and evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 24 hours after exposures and the lavage fluids from the bronchial and bronchoalveolar region were analysed for cells and soluble components. The particle trap reduced the mean steady state number of particles by 50%, but the concentrations of the other measured compounds were almost unchanged. It was found that diesel exhaust caused an increase in neutrophils in airway lavage, together with an adverse influence on the phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, the diesel exhaust was found to be able to induce a migration of alveolar macrophages into the airspaces, together with reduction in CD3+CD25+ cells. (CD = cluster of differentiation) The use of the specific ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe was not sufficient to completely abolish these effects when interacting with the exhaust from an idling vehicle. The current study showed that exposure to diesel exhaust may induce neutrophil and alveolar macrophage recruitment into the airways and suppress alveolar macrophage function. The particle trap did not cause significant reduction of effects induced by diesel exhaust compared with unfiltered diesel exhaust. Further studies are warranted to
Slices to sums of adjoint orbits, the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold, and Hilbert schemes of points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bielawski Roger
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We show that the regular Slodowy slice to the sum of two semisimple adjoint orbits of GL(n, ℂ is isomorphic to the deformation of the D2-singularity if n = 2, the Dancer deformation of the double cover of the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold if n = 3, and to the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold itself if n = 4. For higher n, such slices to the sum of two orbits, each having only two distinct eigenvalues, are either empty or biholomorphic to open subsets of the Hilbert scheme of points on one of the above surfaces. In particular, these open subsets of Hilbert schemes of points carry complete hyperkähler metrics. In the case of the double cover of the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold this metric turns out to be the natural L2-metric on a hyperkähler submanifold of the monopole moduli space.
Coherent Quantum Dynamics in Steady-State Manifolds of Strongly Dissipative Systems
Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo
2014-12-01
Recently, it has been realized that dissipative processes can be harnessed and exploited to the end of coherent quantum control and information processing. In this spirit, we consider strongly dissipative quantum systems admitting a nontrivial manifold of steady states. We show how one can enact adiabatic coherent unitary manipulations, e.g., quantum logical gates, inside this steady-state manifold by adding a weak, time-rescaled, Hamiltonian term into the system's Liouvillian. The effective long-time dynamics is governed by a projected Hamiltonian which results from the interplay between the weak unitary control and the fast relaxation process. The leakage outside the steady-state manifold entailed by the Hamiltonian term is suppressed by an environment-induced symmetrization of the dynamics. We present applications to quantum-computation in decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems and numerical analysis of nonadiabatic errors.
Mielke, Alexander
1991-01-01
The theory of center manifold reduction is studied in this monograph in the context of (infinite-dimensional) Hamil- tonian and Lagrangian systems. The aim is to establish a "natural reduction method" for Lagrangian systems to their center manifolds. Nonautonomous problems are considered as well assystems invariant under the action of a Lie group ( including the case of relative equilibria). The theory is applied to elliptic variational problemson cylindrical domains. As a result, all bounded solutions bifurcating from a trivial state can be described by a reduced finite-dimensional variational problem of Lagrangian type. This provides a rigorous justification of rod theory from fully nonlinear three-dimensional elasticity. The book will be of interest to researchers working in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, elliptic variational problems, and continuum mechanics. It begins with the elements of Hamiltonian theory and center manifold reduction in order to make the methods accessible to non-specialists,...
A Set of Axioms for the Degree of a Tangent Vector Field on Differentiable Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Furi Massimo
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Given a tangent vector field on a finite-dimensional real smooth manifold, its degree (also known as characteristic or rotation is, in some sense, an algebraic count of its zeros and gives useful information for its associated ordinary differential equation. When, in particular, the ambient manifold is an open subset of , a tangent vector field on can be identified with a map , and its degree, when defined, coincides with the Brouwer degree with respect to zero of the corresponding map . As is well known, the Brouwer degree in is uniquely determined by three axioms called Normalization, Additivity, and Homotopy Invariance. Here we shall provide a simple proof that in the context of differentiable manifolds the degree of a tangent vector field is uniquely determined by suitably adapted versions of the above three axioms.
A Set of Axioms for the Degree of a Tangent Vector Field on Differentiable Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Spadini
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Given a tangent vector field on a finite-dimensional real smooth manifold, its degree (also known as characteristic or rotation is, in some sense, an algebraic count of its zeros and gives useful information for its associated ordinary differential equation. When, in particular, the ambient manifold is an open subset U of ℝm, a tangent vector field v on U can be identified with a map v→:U→ℝm, and its degree, when defined, coincides with the Brouwer degree with respect to zero of the corresponding map v→. As is well known, the Brouwer degree in ℝm is uniquely determined by three axioms called Normalization, Additivity, and Homotopy Invariance. Here we shall provide a simple proof that in the context of differentiable manifolds the degree of a tangent vector field is uniquely determined by suitably adapted versions of the above three axioms.
The twisted photon associated to hyper-Hermitian four-manifolds
Dunajski, Maciej
1999-06-01
The Lax formulation of the hyper-Hermiticity condition in four dimensions is used to derive a pair of potentials that generalises Plebanski's second heavenly equation for hyper-Kähler four-manifolds. A class of examples of hyper-Hermitian metrics which depend on two arbitrary functions of two complex variables is given. The twistor theory of four-dimensional hyper-Hermitian manifolds is formulated as a combination of the Nonlinear Graviton Construction with the Ward transform for anti-self-dual Maxwell fields.
Upper bound theorem for odd-dimensional flag triangulations of manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adamaszek, Michal Jan; Hladký, Jan
2016-01-01
We prove that among all flag triangulations of manifolds of odd dimension 2r-1, with a sufficient number of vertices, the unique maximizer of the entries of the f-, h-, g- and γ-vector is the balanced join of cycles. Our proof uses methods from extremal graph theory.......We prove that among all flag triangulations of manifolds of odd dimension 2r-1, with a sufficient number of vertices, the unique maximizer of the entries of the f-, h-, g- and γ-vector is the balanced join of cycles. Our proof uses methods from extremal graph theory....
Renormalization and 3-manifolds which fiber over the circle (AM-142)
McMullen, Curtis T
2014-01-01
Many parallels between complex dynamics and hyperbolic geometry have emerged in the past decade. Building on work of Sullivan and Thurston, this book gives a unified treatment of the construction of fixed-points for renormalization and the construction of hyperbolic 3- manifolds fibering over the circle. Both subjects are studied via geometric limits and rigidity. This approach shows open hyperbolic manifolds are inflexible, and yields quantitative counterparts to Mostow rigidity. In complex dynamics, it motivates the construction of towers of quadratic-like maps, and leads to a quantitativ
Explicit Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spotti, Cristiano; Sun, Song
2017-01-01
We exhibit the first non-trivial concrete examples of Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds in all complex dimensions bigger than two (Fano K-moduli spaces). We also discuss potential applications to explicit study of moduli spaces of K-stable Fano...... manifolds with large anti-canonical volume. Our arguments are based on recent progress about the geometry of metric tangent cones and on related ideas about the algebro-geometric study of singularities of K-stable Fano varieties....
Whether Lyra's Manifold Itself is aHidden Source of Dark Energy
Singh, Kangujam Priyokumar; Singh, Koijam Manihar; Mollah, Mahbubur Rahman
2017-08-01
In the course of investigation of some interesting cosmic string universes in the five dimensional Lyra manifold it is excitingly found that the geometry itself of Lyra manifold behaves as a new source of dark energy and this energy takes a form similar to that of quintessence in most of the cases, though in one case the dark energy comes out to be that of the cosmological constant type. The behaviour of the universes and their contribution to the process of evolution are examined. Further study of such type of universes will be very helpful in explaining the present accelerated expansion behaviour of the universe.
Pompano subsea development: Template/manifold, tree and ROV intervention systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beckmann, M.M.; Byrd, M.L.; Holt, J.; Riley, J.W.; Snell, C.K.; Tyer, C.; Brewster, D.
1996-12-31
BP Exploration`s Pompano Subsea Development, in 1,865 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico, uses a subsea production system to produce oil to a host platform 4{1/2} miles away. The 10-slot subsea template/manifold supports Through FlowLine (TFL) wells, which are controlled by means of an electrohydraulic control system. All process components of the system are retrievable with ROV intervention. This paper describes the template/manifold system, TFL tree system and ROV intervention systems.
Complexes and manifolds the mathematical works of J. H. C. Whitehead
James, I M
1962-01-01
The Mathematical Works of J. H. C. Whitehead, Volume 2: Complexes and Manifolds contains papers that are related in some way to the classification problem for manifolds, especially the Poincare conjecture, but towards the end one sees the gradual transition in the direction of algebraic topology. This volume includes all Whitehead's published work up to the year 1941, as well as a few later papers. The book begins with a list of Whitehead's works, in chronological order of writing. This is followed by separate chapters on topics such as analytical complexes; duality and intersection chains in
Geometry of hypersurfaces of a quarter symmetric non metric connection in a quasi-Sasakian manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sh. Rahman
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the notion of CR-submanifold and the existence of some structures on a hypersurface of a quarter symmetric non metric connection in a quasi-Sasakian manifold. We study the existence of a Kahler structure on $M$ and the existence of a globally metric frame $f$-structure in sence of Goldberg S.I., Yano K. We discuss the integrability of distributions on $M$ and geometry of their leaves. We have tries to relate this result with those before obtained by Goldberg V., Rosca R. devoted to Sasakian manifold and conformal connections.
Explicit Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spotti, Cristiano; Sun, Song
We exhibit the first non-trivial concrete examples of Gromov-Hausdorff compactifications of moduli spaces of Kähler-Einstein Fano manifolds in all complex dimensions bigger than two (Fano K-moduli spaces). We also discuss potential applications to explicit study of moduli spaces of K-stable Fano...... manifolds with large anti-canonical volume. Our arguments are based on recent progress about the geometry of metric tangent cones and on related ideas about the algebro-geometric study of singularities of K-stable Fano varieties....
Generation of large-area microscale manifolds using excimer laser ablation
Zhou, Simon; Kilgo, Marvin M., III; Williams, Charles N.
1999-08-01
Excimer laser ablation of polymeric materials is a widely used technology for the generation of nozzles and through- holes. Ablation is also a viable process to create more complex fluidic structures such as channels and manifolds. This paper presents recent results of experiments demonstrating the creation of manifolds in 25 micrometers polyimide films. These structures include cross-over points, and channels of various widths. The results presented include photomicrographs and SEMS, and characterization of channel wall taper and width control as well as an assessment of ablation depth uniformity over large fields. The characteristics of projection ablation systems are reviewed, and the experimental system is described in detail.
Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva
2017-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate...... the empirical evidence in this field. The purpose of this study was to review and quantify the impact of vital exhaustion on the development and progression of CHD. METHODS: Prospective and case-control studies reporting vital exhaustion at baseline and CHD outcomes at follow-up were derived from PubMed, Psyc...... by two authors. RESULTS: Thirteen prospective (n = 52,636) and three case-control (cases, n = 244; controls, n = 457) studies assessed vital exhaustion and could be summarized in meta-analyses. The pooled adjusted risk of CHD in healthy populations was 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...
Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.
2011-11-01
The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.
Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rensink, G.E.
1997-10-01
Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures.
Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system
Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.
2017-09-01
The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.
Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig
2015-01-01
This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.......5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than...
Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed
Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring
2005-01-01
Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.
Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael
2017-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline...
Exhaustion of digital goods: An economic perspective
Kerber, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
The "UsedSoft" decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) about the right of a buyer of a downloaded copy of a software to resell this copy triggered a controversial discussion about the applicability of the "exhaustion" rule (US: first-sale doctrine) to copyright-protected digital goods (as, e.g., also e-books). This paper offers, in a first step, a systematic analysis and assessment of economic reasonings that have been discussed in the literature about exhaustion, and ap...
Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kushvah, Badam Singh
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the invariant manifold and its application in transfer trajectory problem from a low Earth parking orbit to the Sun-Earth L1 and L2-halo orbits with the inclusion of radiation pressure and oblateness. Invariant manifold of the halo orbit provides a natural entrance to travel the spacecraft in the solar system along some specific paths due to its strong hyperbolic character. In this regard, the halo orbits near both collinear Lagrangian points are computed first. The manifold's approximation near the nominal halo orbit is computed using the eigenvectors of the monodromy matrix. The obtained local approximation provides globalization of the manifold by applying backward time propagation to the governing equations of motion. The desired transfer trajectory well suited for the transfer is explored by looking at a possible intersection between the Earth's parking orbit of the spacecraft and the manifold.
Adaptive manifold-mapping using multiquadric interpolation applied to linear actuator design
D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); A. Canova; G. Gruosso; M. Repetto
2006-01-01
htmlabstractIn this work a multilevel optimization strategy based on manifold-mapping combined with multiquadric interpolation for the coarse model construction is presented. In the proposed approach the coarse model is obtained by interpolating the fine model using multiquadrics in a small
Random Wandering Around Homoclinic-like Manifolds in Symplectic Map Chain
Goto, Shin-itiro; Nozaki, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hiroyasu
2001-01-01
We present a method to construct a symplecticity preserving renormalization group map of a chain of weakly nonlinear symplectic maps and obtain a general reduced symplectic map describing its long-time behaviour. It is found that the modulational instability in the reduced map triggers random wandering of orbits around some homoclinic-like manifolds, which is understood as the Bernoulli shifts.
Random Wandering around Homoclinic-Like Manifolds in a Symplectic Map Chain
Shin-itiro, GOTO; Kazuhiro, NOZAKI; Hiroyasu, YAMADA; Department of Physics, Nagoya University
2002-01-01
We present a method to construct a symplecticity preserving renormalization group map of a chain of weakly nonlinear symplectic maps and obtain a general reduced symplectic map describing its long-time behavior. It is found that the modulational instability in the reduced map triggers random wandering of orbits around some homoclinic-like manifolds. This behavior is understood as Bernoulli shifts.
Pressure Losses in Multiple-Elbow Paths and in V-Bends of Hydraulic Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Zardin
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic manifolds are used to realize compact circuit layouts, but may introduce high pressure losses in the system because their design is usually oriented to achieving minimum size and weight more than reducing the pressure losses. The purpose of this work is to obtain the pressure losses when the internal connections within the manifold are creating complex paths for the fluid and the total loss cannot be calculated simply as the sum of the single losses. To perform the analysis both Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD analysis and experimental tests have been executed. After the comparison between numerical and experimental results, it was possible to assess that the numerical analysis developed in this work is able to depict the correct trends of the pressure losses also when complex fluid path are realized in the manifold. Successively, the numerical analysis was used to calculate the pressure loss for inclined connections of channels (or V-bends, a solution that is sometimes adopted in manifolds to meet the design requirements aimed towards the minimum room-minimum weight objective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meiting Yu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The extraction of a valuable set of features and the design of a discriminative classifier are crucial for target recognition in SAR image. Although various features and classifiers have been proposed over the years, target recognition under extended operating conditions (EOCs is still a challenging problem, e.g., target with configuration variation, different capture orientations, and articulation. To address these problems, this paper presents a new strategy for target recognition. We first propose a low-dimensional representation model via incorporating multi-manifold regularization term into the low-rank matrix factorization framework. Two rules, pairwise similarity and local linearity, are employed for constructing multiple manifold regularization. By alternately optimizing the matrix factorization and manifold selection, the feature representation model can not only acquire the optimal low-rank approximation of original samples, but also capture the intrinsic manifold structure information. Then, to take full advantage of the local structure property of features and further improve the discriminative ability, local sparse representation is proposed for classification. Finally, extensive experiments on moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, including target recognition under EOCs, as well as the capability of small training size.
Normal Anti-Invariant Submanifolds of Paraquaternionic Kähler Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novac-Claudiu Chiriac
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We introduce normal anti-invariant submanifolds of paraquaternionic Kähler manifolds and study the geometric structures induced on them. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the integrability of the distributions defined on a normal anti-invariant submanifold. Also, we present characterizations of local (global anti-invariant products.
Impulse/response functions of individual components of flow-injection manifolds
van Nugteren-Osinga, I.C.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.
1988-01-01
The dispersion behaviour of the various individual parts making up a flow-injection manifold is often difficult to establish because it is virtually impossible to obtainthe required very small injection and detection volumes. It is shown that it is possible, under suitable experimental conditions,
Norizan, A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Basha, M. H.; Ismail, M. H. N.; Hamid, A. F. A.
2017-10-01
This paper describes the design differences between the intake manifold and restrictor used in racing cars that participate in the Formula Student (FSAE) competition. To fulfil the criteria of rules and regulation of the race, each race car must have a restriction device that has a maximum diameter of 20 mm installed between the throttle body and intake manifold. To overcome these problems, a restrictor has been designed and analysed using the steady state analysis, to reduce the loss of pressure in the restrictor. Design of the restrictor has a fixed parameter of the maximum diameter of 20mm. There are some differences that have been taken to make the comparison between the design of the restrictor, the diameter of the inlet and outlet, the curvature of the surface, convergence and divergence angle and length of the restrictor. Intake manifold was designed based on the design of the chassis, which shall not exceed the envelope defined by the FSAE competition. A good intake manifold design will affect the performance of the engine. Each design have made an analysis designed to ensure that each cylinder engine gets its air evenly. To verify the design, steady state analysis was made for a total mass flow rate and the velocity of air leaving a runner in each engine. Data such as the engine MAP reading was recorded by using Haltech ECU Management Software as reference purposes.
Stein manifolds and holomorphic mappings the homotopy principle in complex analysis
Forstnerič, Franc
2017-01-01
This book, now in a carefully revised second edition, provides an up-to-date account of Oka theory, including the classical Oka-Grauert theory and the wide array of applications to the geometry of Stein manifolds. Oka theory is the field of complex analysis dealing with global problems on Stein manifolds which admit analytic solutions in the absence of topological obstructions. The exposition in the present volume focuses on the notion of an Oka manifold introduced by the author in 2009. It explores connections with elliptic complex geometry initiated by Gromov in 1989, with the Andersén-Lempert theory of holomorphic automorphisms of complex Euclidean spaces and of Stein manifolds with the density property, and with topological methods such as homotopy theory and the Seiberg-Witten theory. Researchers and graduate students interested in the homotopy principle in complex analysis will find this book particularly useful. It is currently the only work that offers a comprehensive introduction to both the Oka t...
A novel multi-manifold classification model via path-based clustering for image retrieval
Zhu, Rong; Yuan, Zhijun; Xuan, Junying
2011-12-01
Nowadays, with digital cameras and mass storage devices becoming increasingly affordable, each day thousands of pictures are taken and images on the Internet are emerged at an astonishing rate. Image retrieval is a process of searching valuable information that user demanded from huge images. However, it is hard to find satisfied results due to the well known "semantic gap". Image classification plays an essential role in retrieval process. But traditional methods will encounter problems when dealing with high-dimensional and large-scale image sets in applications. Here, we propose a novel multi-manifold classification model for image retrieval. Firstly, we simplify the classification of images from high-dimensional space into the one on low-dimensional manifolds, largely reducing the complexity of classification process. Secondly, considering that traditional distance measures often fail to find correct visual semantics of manifolds, especially when dealing with the images having complex data distribution, we also define two new distance measures based on path-based clustering, and further applied to the construction of a multi-class image manifold. One experiment was conducted on 2890 Web images. The comparison results between three methods show that the proposed method achieves the highest classification accuracy.
Dumping topological charges on neighbors: ice manifolds for colloids and vortices
Nisoli, Cristiano
2014-11-01
We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. It has been found experimentally and numerically that both colloids and vortices exhibit ice or quasi-ice manifolds. However, the frustration of colloids and vortices differs essentially from spin ice at the vertex level. We show that the effective vertex energetics of the colloidal/vortex systems is made identical to that of spin ice materials by the contribution of an emergent field associated to the topological charge of the vertex. The similarity extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, where the effect of geometric hard constraints can be subsumed into the spatial modulation of the emergent field, which mediates an entropic interaction between topological charges. There, as in spin ice materials, genuine ice manifolds enter a Coulomb phase, whereas quasi-ice manifolds posses a well defined screening length, provided by a plasma of embedded topological charges. We also show that such similarities break down in lattices of mixed coordination because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices. This opens interesting perspective for extensions beyond physics, to social and economical networks.
Tensor calculus with open-source software: the SageManifolds project
Gourgoulhon, Eric; Mancini, Marco
2014-01-01
The SageManifolds project aims at extending the mathematics software system Sage towards differential geometry and tensor calculus. As Sage itself, it is free, open-source and is based on the Python programming language. We discuss here some details of the implementation, which relies on Sage's category pattern, and present a concrete example of use.
Gauging isometries on hyperKahler cones and quaternion Kahler manifolds
Wit, Bernard de; Rocek, M.; Vandoren, S.
2001-01-01
We extend our previous results on the relation between quaternion-Kähler manifolds and hyperk¨ahler cones and we describe how isometries, moment maps and scalar potentials descend from the cone to the quaternion-Kähler space. As an example of the general construction, we discuss the gauging and
Particle Image Velocimetry and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Fuel Cell Manifold
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebæk, Jesper; Blazniak Andreasen, Marcin; Andresen, Henrik Assenholm
2010-01-01
The inlet effect on the manifold flow in a fuel cell stack was investigated by means of numerical methods (computational fluid dynamics) and experimental methods (particle image velocimetry). At a simulated high current density situation the flow field was mapped on a 70 cell simulated cathode...
Nehari manifold for non-local elliptic operator with concave–convex ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 4. Nehari manifold for non-local elliptic operator with concave–convex nonlinearities and sign-changing weight functions. Sarika Goyal K Sreenadh. Volume 125 Issue 4 November 2015 pp 545-558 ...
Granados, Albert
2017-08-01
Energy harvesting systems based on oscillators aim to capture energy from mechanical oscillations and convert it into electrical energy. Widely extended are those based on piezoelectric materials, whose dynamics are Hamiltonian submitted to different sources of dissipation: damping and coupling. These dissipations bring the system to low energy regimes, which is not desired in long term as it diminishes the absorbed energy. To avoid or to minimize such situations, we propose that the coupling of two oscillators could benefit from theory of Arnold diffusion. Such phenomenon studies O(1) energy variations in Hamiltonian systems and hence could be very useful in energy harvesting applications. This article is a first step towards this goal. We consider two piezoelectric beams submitted to a small forcing and coupled through an electric circuit. By considering the coupling, damping and forcing as perturbations, we prove that the unperturbed system possesses a 4-dimensional Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Manifold with 5 and 4-dimensional stable and unstable manifolds, respectively. These are locally unique after the perturbation. By means of the parameterization method, we numerically compute parameterizations of the perturbed manifold, its stable and unstable manifolds and study its inner dynamics. We show evidence of homoclinic connections when the perturbation is switched on.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Hauberg, Søren
2010-01-01
and for which it does not. Indicators for the differences between the two versions are then developed and applied to two examples of manifold valued data: outlines of vertebrae from a study of vertebral fractures and spacial coordinates of human skeleton end-effectors acquired using a stereo camera and tracking...
Methodology for CFD Design Analysis of National Launch System Nozzle Manifold
Haire, Scot L.
1993-01-01
The current design environment dictates that high technology CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis produce quality results in a timely manner if it is to be integrated into the design process. The design methodology outlined describes the CFD analysis of an NLS (National Launch System) nozzle film cooling manifold. The objective of the analysis was to obtain a qualitative estimate for the flow distribution within the manifold. A complex, 3D, multiple zone, structured grid was generated from a 3D CAD file of the geometry. A Euler solution was computed with a fully implicit compressible flow solver. Post processing consisted of full 3D color graphics and mass averaged performance. The result was a qualitative CFD solution that provided the design team with relevant information concerning the flow distribution in and performance characteristics of the film cooling manifold within an effective time frame. Also, this design methodology was the foundation for a quick turnaround CFD analysis of the next iteration in the manifold design.
Modelling the inner disc of the Milky Way with manifolds - I. A first step
Romero-Gomez, M.; Athanassoula, E.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Figueras, F.
2011-01-01
We study the bar-driven dynamics in the inner part of the Milky Way by using invariant manifolds. This theory has been successfully applied to describe the morphology and kinematics of rings and spirals in external galaxies, and now, for the first time, we apply it to the Milky Way. In particular,
Generic Submanifolds of Nearly Kaehler Manifolds with Certain Parallel Canonical Structure
Zhu, Qingqing; Yang, Biaogui
2014-01-01
The class of generic submanifold includes all real hypersurfaces, complex submanifolds, totally real submanifolds, and CR-submanifolds. In this paper we initiate the study of generic submanifolds in a nearly Kaehler manifold from differential geometric point of view. Some fundamental results in this paper will be obtained. PMID:27355057
Automorphisms of $\\mathbb C^k$ and associated compact complex manifolds
Renaud, Julie
2005-01-01
In this paper, we first construct $k$-dimensional compact complex manifolds from automorphisms of $\\mathbb{C}^k$ which admit a fixed attracting point at infinity. Then, we charactize the fundamental group as well as the universal covering of the attracting basin of this fixed point thanks to a generalization of the method described by T. Bousch in his thesis.
Constraints on spacetime manifold in Euclidean supergravity in terms of Dirac eigenvalues
Ciuhu, C.; Vancea, I. V.
1998-01-01
We generalize previous work on Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of Euclidean supergravity. The most general set of constraints on the curvatures of the tangent bundle and on the spinor bundle of the spacetime manifold under which spacetime admits Dirac eigenvalues as observables, are derived.
A geometrical take on invariants of low-dimensional manifolds found by integration
Wintraecken, M.H.M.J.; Vegter, G.
2013-01-01
An elementary geometrical proof of the fact that the Euler characteristic is the only topological invariant of a surface that can be found by integration (using Gauss-Bonnet) is given. A similar method is also applied to three-dimensional manifolds. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Durning, Joseph G., III; Westover, Shayne C.; Cone, Darren M.
2011-01-01
In June 2010, an 870 lbf Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control System Primary Thruster experienced an unintended shutdown during a test being performed at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Subsequent removal and inspection of the thruster revealed permanent deformation and misalignment of the thruster valve mounting plate. Destructive evaluation determined that after three nominal firing sequences, the thruster had experienced an energetic event within the fuel (monomethylhydrazine) manifold at the start of the fourth firing sequence. The current understanding of the phenomenon of intra-manifold explosions in hypergolic bipropellant thrusters is documented in literature where it is colloquially referred to as a ZOT. The typical ZOT scenario involves operation of a thruster in a gravitational field with environmental pressures above the triple point pressure of the propellants. Post-firing, when the thruster valves are commanded closed, there remains a residual quantity of propellant in both the fuel and oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide) injector manifolds known as the "dribble volume". In an ambient ground test configuration, these propellant volumes will drain from the injector manifolds but are impeded by the local atmospheric pressure. The evacuation of propellants from the thruster injector manifolds relies on the fluids vapor pressure to expel the liquid. The higher vapor pressure oxidizer will evacuate from the manifold before the lower vapor pressure fuel. The localized cooling resulting from the oxidizer boiling during manifold draining can result in fuel vapor migration and condensation in the oxidizer passage. The liquid fuel will then react with the oxidizer that enters the manifold during the next firing and may produce a localized high pressure reaction or explosion within the confines of the oxidizer injector manifold. The typical ZOT scenario was considered during this failure investigation, but was ultimately ruled out as a cause of the explosion
Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.
Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang
2015-05-01
Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of biodiesel exhaust
Biodiesel (BD) is commercially made from the transesterification of plant and animal derived oils. The composition of biodiesel exhaust (BE) depends on the type of fuel, the blend ratio and the engine and operating conditions. While numerous studies have characterized the health ...
Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle N Wykes
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.
The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
. To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...
Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relationship between emotional labour strategies, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour among Korean fitness employees. Three hundred and sixty-six (n=366) fitness employees participated in a self-administered survey aimed at measuring the impact of ...
Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes
van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.
2014-10-01
Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
M’Sadak Y, Makhlouf M and El Amrouni S
2016-05-01
May 1, 2016 ... material (8 to 10% moisture), composed of fragments of olive stones and pulp. Such pomace, fine textured, rich in carbon and contains high amounts of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. (easily biodegradable polymers). 2.1.1. Quantitative characterization. The quantities of pomace exhausted have been ...
Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P
2016-04-01
The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.
High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svenningstorp, Henrik
2000-07-01
One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.
Jin, Dakai; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Chen, Cheng; Bai, ErWei; Saha, Punam K.
2017-03-01
Osteoporosis is associated with increased fracture risk. Recent advancement in the area of in vivo imaging allows segmentation of trabecular bone (TB) microstructures, which is a known key determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. An accurate biomechanical modelling of TB micro-architecture provides a comprehensive summary measure of bone strength and fracture risk. In this paper, a new direct TB biomechanical modelling method using nonlinear manifold-based volumetric reconstruction of trabecular network is presented. It is accomplished in two sequential modules. The first module reconstructs a nonlinear manifold-based volumetric representation of TB networks from three-dimensional digital images. Specifically, it starts with the fuzzy digital segmentation of a TB network, and computes its surface and curve skeletons. An individual trabecula is identified as a topological segment in the curve skeleton. Using geometric analysis, smoothing and optimization techniques, the algorithm generates smooth, curved, and continuous representations of individual trabeculae glued at their junctions. Also, the method generates a geometrically consistent TB volume at junctions. In the second module, a direct computational biomechanical stress-strain analysis is applied on the reconstructed TB volume to predict mechanical measures. The accuracy of the method was examined using micro-CT imaging of cadaveric distal tibia specimens (N = 12). A high linear correlation (r = 0.95) between TB volume computed using the new manifold-modelling algorithm and that directly derived from the voxel-based micro-CT images was observed. Young's modulus (YM) was computed using direct mechanical analysis on the TB manifold-model over a cubical volume of interest (VOI), and its correlation with the YM, computed using micro-CT based conventional finite-element analysis over the same VOI, was examined. A moderate linear correlation (r = 0.77) was observed between the two YM measures. This
Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.
Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S
2016-07-01
Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number
14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia, and...
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...
34 CFR 110.39 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 110.39 Section... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.39 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...
38 CFR 18.550 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.550 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act. Administrative...
45 CFR 91.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 91.50... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
45 CFR 90.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 90.50..., Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 90.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) The agency shall provide in its regulations that a complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...
12 CFR 1780.56 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1780.56 Section 1780.56 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING... Posthearing Proceedings § 1780.56 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as...
14 CFR 1252.410 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1252..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1252.410 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
12 CFR 1777.27 - Exhaustion and review.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion and review. 1777.27 Section 1777.27... 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.27 Exhaustion and review. (a) Judicial review—(1) Review of certain actions... in section 1369D of the 1992 Act (12 U.S.C. 4623). (b) Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In...
10 CFR 4.340 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4.340 Section 4.340... Act of 1975, as Amended Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.340 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...
12 CFR 908.66 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 908.66 Section 908.66 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Proceedings § 908.66 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as to any issue...
45 CFR 1156.21 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1156.21... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1156.21 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
40 CFR 7.175 - Exhaustion of administrative remedy.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedy. 7... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.175 Exhaustion of administrative remedy. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Age Discrimination...
41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...
43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 17... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.339 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
44 CFR 7.949 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-10-01
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.949 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
24 CFR 26.53 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 26.53 Section 26.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Hearings § 26.53 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In order to fulfill the requirement of exhausting...
10 CFR 1040.89-13 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1040.89-13 Section... Investigation, Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-13 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...
24 CFR 146.45 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 146.45 Section 146.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...
29 CFR 35.40 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 35.40 Section 35.40... Enforcement Procedures § 35.40 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action under the Act following the exhaustion of administrative remedies. Administrative remedies are...
Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.
In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a
Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction
Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan
2013-01-01
Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.
Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases
Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir
2017-10-01
The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.
Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio
2013-12-01
The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hadamard States for the Klein-Gordon Equation on Lorentzian Manifolds of Bounded Geometry
Gérard, Christian; Oulghazi, Omar; Wrochna, Michał
2017-06-01
We consider the Klein-Gordon equation on a class of Lorentzian manifolds with Cauchy surface of bounded geometry, which is shown to include examples such as exterior Kerr, Kerr-de Sitter spacetime and the maximal globally hyperbolic extension of the Kerr outer region. In this setup, we give an approximate diagonalization and a microlocal decomposition of the Cauchy evolution using a time-dependent version of the pseudodifferential calculus on Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. We apply this result to construct all pure regular Hadamard states (and associated Feynman inverses), where regular refers to the state's two-point function having Cauchy data given by pseudodifferential operators. This allows us to conclude that there is a one-parameter family of elliptic pseudodifferential operators that encodes both the choice of (pure, regular) Hadamard state and the underlying spacetime metric.
Wilson loops on three-manifolds and their M2-brane duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farquet, Daniel; Sparks, James [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)
2014-12-30
We compute the large N limit of Wilson loop expectation values for a broad class of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on a general class of background three-manifolds M{sub 3}, diffeomorphic to S{sup 3}. We find a simple closed formula which depends on the background geometry only through a certain supersymmetric Killing vector field. The supergravity dual of such a Wilson loop is an M2-brane wrapping the M-theory circle, together with a complex curve Σ{sub 2} in a self-dual Einstein manifold M{sub 4}, whose conformal boundary is M{sub 3}. We show that the regularized action of this M2-brane also depends only on the supersymmetric Killing vector, precisely reproducing the large N field theory computation.
Towards an Algebraic Classification of Calabi-Yau Manifolds; 1, Study of K3 Spaces
Anselmo, F; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Volkov, G
2001-01-01
We present an inductive algebraic approach to the systematic construction andclassification of generalized Calabi-Yau (CY) manifolds in different numbers ofcomplex dimensions, based on Batyrev's formulation of CY manifolds as toricvarieties in weighted complex projective spaces associated with reflexivepolyhedra. We show how the allowed weight vectors in lower dimensions may beextended to higher dimensions, emphasizing the roles of projection andintersection in their dual description, and the natural appearance ofCartan-Lie algebra structures. The 50 allowed extended four-dimensional vectorsmay be combined in pairs (triples) to form 22 (4) chains containing 90 (91) K3spaces, of which 94 are distinct, and one further K3 space is found usingduality. In the case of CY_3 spaces, pairs (triples) of the 10~270 allowedextended vectors yield 4242 (259) chains with K3 (elliptic) fibers containing730 additional K3 polyhedra. A more complete study of CY_3 spaces is left forlater work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Pourmehdi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this manuscript, for the first time, a fractional-order manifold in a synergetic approach using a fractional order controller is introduced. Furtheremore, in the synergetic theory a macro variable is expended into a linear combination of state variables. An aim is to increase the convergence rate as well as time response of the whole closed loop system. Quality of the proposed controller is investigated to control and synchronize a nonlinear chaotic Coullet system in comparison with an integer order manifold synergetic controller. The stability of the proposed controller is proven using the Lyapunov method. In this regard stabilizing control effort is yielded. Simulation result confirm convergence of states towards zero. This is achieved through a control effort with fewer oscillations and lower amplitude of signls which confirm feasibility of the control effort in practice.KEYWORDS: synergetic control theory; fractional order system; synchronization; nonlinear chaotic Coullet system; chaos control
Determining the first order perturbation of a polyharmonic operator on admissible manifolds
Assylbekov, Yernat M.; Yang, Yang
2017-01-01
We consider the inverse boundary value problem for the first order perturbation of the polyharmonic operator L g , X , q, with X being a W 1 , ∞ vector field and q being an L∞ function on compact Riemannian manifolds with boundary which are conformally embedded in a product of the Euclidean line and a simple manifold. We show that the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map determines X and q uniquely. The method is based on the construction of complex geometrical optics solutions using the Carleman estimate for the Laplace-Beltrami operator due to Dos Santos Ferreira, Kenig, Salo and Uhlmann. Notice that the corresponding uniqueness result does not hold for the first order perturbation of the Laplace-Beltrami operator.
Robust Optimization of Thermal Aspects of Friction Stir Welding Using Manifold Mapping Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Anders Astrup; Lahaye, Domenico; Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blicher
2008-01-01
The aim of this paper is to optimize a friction stir welding process taking robustness into account. The optimization problems are formulated with the goal of obtaining desired mean responses while reducing the variance of the response. We restrict ourselves to a thermal model of the process...... and use the manifold mapping technique to solve the optimization problems using a fast analytical coarse and an expensive accurate fine model. The statistics of the response are calculated using Taylor expansions and are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the use of manifold...... mapping reduces the number of fine model evaluations required and that the Taylor expansion approach gives good results when compared to Monte Carlo simulations....
Air/fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine controlled by gas sensor in intake manifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnard, D.D.
1978-08-22
In a closed loop fuel management system for an internal combustion engine, a gas sensor is positioned in the intake manifold and is responsive to a characteristic of the fuel mixture for generating an electrical control signal for controlling the metering of the fuel to the mixture. In the preferred embodiment, the air and fuel are mixed together and the resultant mixture passes by an oxygen gas sensor prior to being distributed to the cylinders through the intake manifold system. The output signal of the sensor is used for controlling the metering of the fuel. Fuel delivery correction delays due to transport lag in conventional closed loop fuel management systems using oxygen gas sensors are eliminated.
Non-equilibrium transitions in multiscale systems with a bifurcating slow manifold
Grafke, Tobias; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2017-09-01
Noise-induced transitions between metastable fixed points in systems evolving on multiple time scales are analyzed in situations where the time scale separation gives rise to a slow manifold with bifurcation. This analysis is performed within the realm of large deviation theory. It is shown that these non-equilibrium transitions make use of a reaction channel created by the bifurcation structure of the slow manifold, leading to vastly increased transition rates. Several examples are used to illustrate these findings, including an insect outbreak model, a system modeling phase separation in the presence of evaporation, and a system modeling transitions in active matter self-assembly. The last example involves a spatially extended system modeled by a stochastic partial differential equation.
Partition functions for equivariantly twisted N=2 gauge theories on toric Kähler manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Schmude, Johannes [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)
2015-05-21
We consider N=2 supersymmetric pure gauge theories on toric Kähler manifolds, with particular emphasis on ℂℙ{sup 2}. By choosing a vector generating a U(1) action inside the torus of the manifold, we construct equivariantly twisted theories. Then, using localization, we compute their supersymmetric partition functions. As expected, these receive contributions from a classical, a one-loop, and an instanton term. It turns out that the one-loop term is trivial and that the instanton contributions are localized at the fixed points of the U(1). In fact the full partition function can be re-written in a factorized form with contributions from each of the fixed points. The full significance of this is yet to be understood.
Objects in Manifold Times: Deleuze adn teh Speculative Philosophy of Objects as Processes
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James Williams
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This essay shows how real objects must be processes for Gilles Deleuze. These processes are determined by his account of time as a nine-fold manifold of processes deduced from Deleuze’s account of three interconnected syntheses of time in his Difference and Repetition (Différence et repetition, henceforth DR. It will also be argued that Deleuze’s philosophy of time is speculative in a broad sense and that Deleuze’s account of the real is opposed to forms of abstraction which associate objects with conceptual, perceptual or transcendental identity. In order to demonstrate the radical and systematic nature of Deleuze’s account of process, there is a discussion of a basic process underlying his manifold of time. This process is opposed to Markov chains, in order to set up an opposition to interpretations of Deleuze’s philosophy that deny its metaphysical and speculative approach in favour of scientific realism.
Chern-Simons invariants on hyperbolic manifolds and topological quantum field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA/ISAS), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bytsenko, A.A.; Goncalves, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Londrina-Parana (Brazil)
2016-11-15
We derive formulas for the classical Chern-Simons invariant of irreducible SU(n)-flat connections on negatively curved locally symmetric three-manifolds. We determine the condition for which the theory remains consistent (with basic physical principles). We show that a connection between holomorphic values of Selberg-type functions at point zero, associated with R-torsion of the flat bundle, and twisted Dirac operators acting on negatively curved manifolds, can be interpreted by means of the Chern-Simons invariant. On the basis of the Labastida-Marino-Ooguri-Vafa conjecture we analyze a representation of the Chern-Simons quantum partition function (as a generating series of quantum group invariants) in the form of an infinite product weighted by S-functions and Selberg-type functions. We consider the case of links and a knot and use the Rogers approach to discover certain symmetry and modular form identities. (orig.)
Heterotic and type II orientifold compactifications on SU(3) structure manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benmachiche, I.
2006-07-15
We study the four-dimensional N=1 effective theories of generic SU(3) structure compactifications in the presence of background fluxes. For heterotic and type IIA/B orientifold theories, the N=1 characteristic data are determined by a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the fermionic actions. The Kaehler potentials, superpotentials and the D-terms are entirely encoded by geometrical data of the internal manifold. The background flux and the intrinsic torsion of the SU(3) structure manifold, gives rise to contributions to the four-dimensional F-terms. The corresponding superpotentials generalize the Gukov-Vafa-Witten superpotential. For the heterotic compactification, the four-dimensional fermionic supersymmetry variations, as well as the conditions on supersymmetric vacua, are determined. The Yukawa couplings of the theory turn out to be similar to their Calabi-Yau counterparts. (Orig.)
The Manifold Catchment model a link between linear systems and Kinematic overland flow
Pegram, G. G. S.
2003-04-01
Those working in Hydrology are indebted to Dooge (1973) for "cleaning up" the ragged notation of the unit Hydrograph and founding it properly in Linear System Theory. The concepts are primarily based on linear storage elements, for which a strong field of mathematical results is available. These linear models lend themselves to manipulation by transform techniques and state-space formulations, leading naturally to the Kalman Filter. On the physical modelling side, Dooge (1973), and Eagleson (1970) both present the treatment by Henderson and Wooding of overland flow, Eagleson extending the ideas further. The Kinematic overland flow solution has thus become a classic, as identified by these two authors. This presentation will revisit an article by Pegram and Diskin (1987), who suggested the Manifold model, an alternative catchment model to those of the cascade type (suggested by Nash &Dooge). This is a semi-distributed model comprising as many pairs of linear storage elements in parallel to each other as there are sub-catchments, the distance of the sub-catchment (or cell) from the catchment outlet being one of the parameters of the model. They showed that in the limit, as the elements merge into a continuous model, the impulse response function (IRF) of the Manifold model converges to a function closely resembling the Kinematic flow IRF, unlike the IRF of the Nash cascade which converges to a rectangular pulse. Interesting as that might be, on a more practical note, the Manifold model is easily described by an ARMA-type linear difference equation (recently extended to three storage elements for each cell by Sinclair), based on the state-space representation’s parameters, which makes it a useful modelling concept in on-line flood forecasting work, where computational efficiency is an advantage. The presentation will highlight the advantages of the Manifold model.
An analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matassa, Marco, E-mail: marco.matassa@gmail.com, E-mail: mmatassa@math.uio.no [Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway)
2015-09-15
We prove an analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds. This is formulated in terms of a zeta function which, similarly to the classical setting, satisfies the following two properties: as a functional on the quantized algebra it is proportional to the Haar state and its first singularity coincides with the classical dimension. The relevant formulas are given for the more general case of compact quantum groups.
Holomorphic two-spheres in the complex Grassmann manifold G(k, n)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, we study the non-degenerate holomorphic S2 in the complex. Grassmann manifold G(k, n), 2k ≤ n, by the method of moving frame. For a non- degenerate holomorphic one, there exists globally defined positive functions λ1,...,λk on S2. We first show that the holomorphic S2 in G(k, 2k) is totally ...
G2-manifolds from K3 surfaces with non-symplectic automorphisms
Pumperla, Max; Reidegeld, Frank
2012-11-01
We show that K3 surfaces with non-symplectic automorphisms of prime order can be used to construct new compact irreducible G2-manifolds. This technique was carried out in detail by Kovalev and Lee for non-symplectic involutions. We use the Chen-Ruan orbifold cohomology to determine the Hodge diamonds of certain complex threefolds, which are the building blocks for this approach.
Motor synergies research in physical therapy: advantages of the uncontrolled manifold approach
Vaz,Daniela Virgínia
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Movement is central to physical therapy identity and practice. Advances in the science of movement control, motor learning and development are thus inextricably tied to professional development and clinical activity. This paper aims to describe a prominent approach to motor control with potential to greatly advance the understanding of movement dysfunction: the uncontrolled manifold (UCM). An argument is formulated for incorporating this method of data analysis in rehabilitation rese...
Instability of elliptic equations on compact Riemannian manifolds with non-negative Ricci curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaldo S. Nascimento
2010-05-01
Full Text Available We prove the nonexistence of nonconstant local minimizers for a class of functionals, which typically appear in scalar two-phase field models, over smooth N-dimensional Riemannian manifolds without boundary and non-negative Ricci curvature. Conversely, for a class of surfaces possessing a simple closed geodesic along which the Gauss curvature is negative, we prove the existence of nonconstant local minimizers for the same class of functionals.
The bifurcation set and topology of integral manifolds in the heavy body problem
Artigue, Michele; Gautheron, Veronique; Isambert, Emmanuel
The topology of integral manifolds of the motion of a massive, rigid body in motion around a fixed point is investigated analytically. Cerf diagrams (1968) are generated in terms of a bifurcation set of functions in phase space. The discussion focuses on situations where the center of gravity of the body is situated on or near the planes of inertia passing the fixed point. The techniques developed permit identifying the number and positions of stationary rotations of the body in question.
On the uniqueness of the fixed point index on differentiable manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Spadini
2004-12-01
Full Text Available It is well known that some of the properties enjoyed by the fixed point index can be chosen as axioms, the choice depending on the class of maps and spaces considered. In the context of finite-dimensional real differentiable manifolds, we will provide a simple proof that the fixed point index is uniquely determined by the properties of normalization, additivity, and homotopy invariance.
On the uniqueness of the fixed point index on differentiable manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Furi Massimo
2004-01-01
Full Text Available It is well known that some of the properties enjoyed by the fixed point index can be chosen as axioms, the choice depending on the class of maps and spaces considered. In the context of finite-dimensional real differentiable manifolds, we will provide a simple proof that the fixed point index is uniquely determined by the properties of normalization, additivity, and homotopy invariance.
Algorithms on Flag Manifolds for Knowledge Discovery in N-way Arrays
2015-11-20
support vector machines [7]. We address the identification of optimal biomarkers for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis . We employ both distances on...from infants with suspected sepsis from Yale-New Haven Hospital’s Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Grassmann manifold distances are shown to be...biomarkers. These results suggest an enhanced sepsis scoring system for neonatal sepsis that includes these five biomarkers. 16DISTRIBUTION A
Page 1 The geometry and spectra of hyperbolic manifolds 753 The ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The geometry and spectra of hyperbolic manifolds 753. The remainder terms E, are compact. This follows from the estimates mentioned above and the boundedness of lis(L.) L(logxi) n(x,x) on 3%,(A) for n with compact support in x, and x * 1, the proof of which is technical. As for the first term in (2.77) we use the compactness ...
Berezin-Toeplitz Quantization for Compact Kähler Manifolds. A Review of Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Schlichenmaier
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This article is a review on Berezin-Toeplitz operator and Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization for compact quantizable Kähler manifolds. The basic objects, concepts, and results are given. This concerns the correct semiclassical limit behaviour of the operator quantization, the unique Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization (star product, covariant and contravariant Berezin symbols, and Berezin transform. Other related objects and constructions are also discussed.
The effective action of the heterotic string compactified on manifolds with SU(3) structure
Benmachiche, Iman; Louis, Jan; Martínez-Pedrera, Danny
2008-07-01
We derive the N = 1 effective action of the heterotic string compactified on manifolds with SU(3) structure in the presence of background fluxes. We use a Kaluza Klein reduction and compute the moduli dependence of the Kähler potential, the gauge kinetic function and the superpotential entirely from fermionic terms of the reduced action. Work supported by: DFG—The German Science Foundation, European RTN Program MRTN-CT-2004-503369 and the DAAD—the German Academic Exchange Service.
Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C
2006-03-01
For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were
Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine
Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL
2008-05-27
A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.
T-cell exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment
Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, B
2015-01-01
T-cell exhaustion was originally identified during chronic infection in mice, and was subsequently observed in humans with cancer. The exhausted T cells in the tumor microenvironment show overexpressed inhibitory receptors, decreased effector cytokine production and cytolytic activity, leading to the failure of cancer elimination. Restoring exhausted T cells represents an inspiring strategy for cancer treatment, which has yielded promising results and become a significant breakthrough in the cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we overview the updated understanding on the exhausted T cells in cancer and their potential regulatory mechanisms and discuss current therapeutic interventions targeting exhausted T cells in clinical trials. PMID:26086965
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Yang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Normally, polarimetric SAR classification is a high-dimensional nonlinear mapping problem. In the realm of pattern recognition, sparse representation is a very efficacious and powerful approach. As classical descriptors of polarimetric SAR, covariance and coherency matrices are Hermitian semidefinite and form a Riemannian manifold. Conventional Euclidean metrics are not suitable for a Riemannian manifold, and hence, normal sparse representation classification cannot be applied to polarimetric SAR directly. This paper proposes a new land cover classification approach for polarimetric SAR. There are two principal novelties in this paper. First, a Stein kernel on a Riemannian manifold instead of Euclidean metrics, combined with sparse representation, is employed for polarimetric SAR land cover classification. This approach is named Stein-sparse representation-based classification (SRC. Second, using simultaneous sparse representation and reasonable assumptions of the correlation of representation among different frequency bands, Stein-SRC is generalized to simultaneous Stein-SRC for multi-frequency polarimetric SAR classification. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Electromagnetics Institute Synthetic Aperture Radar (EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiments on single-band and multi-band data both show that these approaches acquire more accurate classification results in comparison to many conventional and advanced classifiers.
Indoor Localization Using Semi-Supervised Manifold Alignment with Dimension Expansion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiao Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Location estimation plays a crucial role in Location-Based Services (LBSs with satisfactory user experience. The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN localization approach is preferred as a cost-efficient solution to indoor localization on account of the widely-deployed WLAN infrastructures. In this paper, we propose a new WLAN Received Signal Strength (RSS-based indoor localization approach using the semi-supervised manifold alignment with dimension expansion. In concrete terms, we first construct an innovative objective function based on the augmented physical coordinates and the corresponding WLAN RSS measurements. Second, the closed-form solution to the objective function is derived out according to the Lagrange multiplier equation, which results in the manifold in physical coordinate space. Third, the target location is estimated by matching the transformed newly-collected RSS against the manifold. The localization performance with noise perturbation is analyzed upon the constructed objective function, and meanwhile, the closed-form solution to the objective function with respect to multiple types of measurements is also derived out for the sake of leveraging all of the potential measurements for indoor localization. The extensive testing results show that the proposed approach performs well in localization accuracy even at low calibration load, and its performance can be further improved by using multiple types of measurements for localization.
Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Ko-Jen
2015-12-22
According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.
Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger
Keating, Edward J.
2015-11-03
An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.
Tu, Enmei; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Jie; Kasabov, Nikola
2016-01-01
$k$ Nearest Neighbors ($k$NN) is one of the most widely used supervised learning algorithms to classify Gaussian distributed data, but it does not achieve good results when it is applied to nonlinear manifold distributed data, especially when a very limited amount of labeled samples are available. In this paper, we propose a new graph-based $k$NN algorithm which can effectively handle both Gaussian distributed data and nonlinear manifold distributed data. To achieve this goal, we first propos...
Holst, Michael; Meier, Caleb; Tsogtgerel, G.
2017-11-01
In this article we continue our effort to do a systematic development of the solution theory for conformal formulations of the Einstein constraint equations on compact manifolds with boundary. By building in a natural way on our recent work in Holst and Tsogtgerel (Class Quantum Gravity 30:205011, 2013), and Holst et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100(16):161101, 2008, Commun Math Phys 288(2):547-613, 2009), and also on the work of Maxwell (J Hyperbolic Differ Eqs 2(2):521-546, 2005a, Commun Math Phys 253(3):561-583, 2005b, Math Res Lett 16(4):627-645, 2009) and Dain (Class Quantum Gravity 21(2):555-573, 2004), under reasonable assumptions on the data we prove existence of both near- and far-from-constant mean curvature (CMC) solutions for a class of Robin boundary conditions commonly used in the literature for modeling black holes, with a third existence result for CMC appearing as a special case. Dain and Maxwell addressed initial data engineering for space-times that evolve to contain black holes, determining solutions to the conformal formulation on an asymptotically Euclidean manifold in the CMC setting, with interior boundary conditions representing excised interior black hole regions. Holst and Tsogtgerel compiled the interior boundary results covered by Dain and Maxwell, and then developed general interior conditions to model the apparent horizon boundary conditions of Dainand Maxwell for compact manifolds with boundary, and subsequently proved existence of solutions to the Lichnerowicz equation on compact manifolds with such boundary conditions. This paper picks up where Holst and Tsogtgerel left off, addressing the general non-CMC case for compact manifolds with boundary. As in our previous articles, our focus here is again on low regularity data and on the interaction between different types of boundary conditions. While our work here serves primarily to extend the solution theory for the compact with boundary case, we also develop several technical tools that have
Flockerzi, Dietrich; Heineken, Wolfram
2006-12-01
It is claimed by Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins [Chaos 9, 108-123 (1999)] that the projection algorithm of Maas and Pope [Combust. Flame 88, 239-264 (1992)] identifies the slow invariant manifold of a system of ordinary differential equations with time-scale separation. A transformation to Fenichel normal form serves as a tool to prove this statement. Furthermore, Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins [Chaos 9, 108-123 (1999)] conjectured that away from a slow manifold, the criterion of Maas and Pope will never be fulfilled. We present two examples that refute the assertions of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins. In the first example, the algorithm of Maas and Pope leads to a manifold that is not invariant but close to a slow invariant manifold. The claim of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins that the Maas and Pope projection algorithm is invariant under a coordinate transformation to Fenichel normal form is shown to be not correct in this case. In the second example, the projection algorithm of Maas and Pope leads to a manifold that lies in a region where no slow manifold exists at all. This rejects the conjecture of Rhodes, Morari, and Wiggins mentioned above.
Heck, W. W.
1980-01-01
The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.
EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kick Alfred
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.
Infrared measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes
Schweitzer, Caroline; Ohmer, Phillip; Wendelstein, Norbert; Stein, Karin
2017-10-01
In the fields of early warning, one is depending on reliable analytical models for the prediction of the infrared threat signature: By having this as a basis, the warning sensors can be specified as suitable as possible to give timely threat approach alerts. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of measurement trials that have been carried out in 2015, where the exhaust plume of launch vehicles has been measured under various atmospheric conditions. The gathered data will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of the plume signature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)
2010-10-15
In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much
Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...
Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics
1997-12-31
Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.
On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Grahn
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.
Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agne Slapsinskaite
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.
Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.
1992-11-01
This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.
Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.
1992-01-01
This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)
2014-01-15
Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhang
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Divergence functions are the non-symmetric “distance” on the manifold, Μθ, of parametric probability density functions over a measure space, (Χ,μ. Classical information geometry prescribes, on Μθ: (i a Riemannian metric given by the Fisher information; (ii a pair of dual connections (giving rise to the family of α-connections that preserve the metric under parallel transport by their joint actions; and (iii a family of divergence functions ( α-divergence defined on Μθ x Μθ, which induce the metric and the dual connections. Here, we construct an extension of this differential geometric structure from Μθ (that of parametric probability density functions to the manifold, Μ, of non-parametric functions on X, removing the positivity and normalization constraints. The generalized Fisher information and α-connections on M are induced by an α-parameterized family of divergence functions, reflecting the fundamental convex inequality associated with any smooth and strictly convex function. The infinite-dimensional manifold, M, has zero curvature for all these α-connections; hence, the generally non-zero curvature of M can be interpreted as arising from an embedding of Μθ into Μ. Furthermore, when a parametric model (after a monotonic scaling forms an affine submanifold, its natural and expectation parameters form biorthogonal coordinates, and such a submanifold is dually flat for α = ± 1, generalizing the results of Amari’s α-embedding. The present analysis illuminates two different types of duality in information geometry, one concerning the referential status of a point (measurable function expressed in the divergence function (“referential duality” and the other concerning its representation under an arbitrary monotone scaling (“representational duality”.
You, Zhu-Hong; Lei, Ying-Ke; Gui, Jie; Huang, De-Shuang; Zhou, Xiaobo
2010-11-01
High-throughput protein interaction data, with ever-increasing volume, are becoming the foundation of many biological discoveries, and thus high-quality protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are critical for a deeper understanding of cellular processes. However, the unreliability and paucity of current available PPI data are key obstacles to the subsequent quantitative studies. It is therefore highly desirable to develop an approach to deal with these issues from the computational perspective. Most previous works for assessing and predicting protein interactions either need supporting evidences from multiple information resources or are severely impacted by the sparseness of PPI networks. We developed a robust manifold embedding technique for assessing the reliability of interactions and predicting new interactions, which purely utilizes the topological information of PPI networks and can work on a sparse input protein interactome without requiring additional information types. After transforming a given PPI network into a low-dimensional metric space using manifold embedding based on isometric feature mapping (ISOMAP), the problem of assessing and predicting protein interactions is recasted into the form of measuring similarity between points of its metric space. Then a reliability index, a likelihood indicating the interaction of two proteins, is assigned to each protein pair in the PPI networks based on the similarity between the points in the embedded space. Validation of the proposed method is performed with extensive experiments on densely connected and sparse PPI network of yeast, respectively. Results demonstrate that the interactions ranked top by our method have high-functional homogeneity and localization coherence, especially our method is very efficient for large sparse PPI network with which the traditional algorithms fail. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is a much more promising method to detect both false positive and false negative interactions
Using space manifold dynamics to deploy a small satellite constellation around the Moon
Marson, Riccardo; Pontani, Mauro; Perozzi, Ettore; Teofilatto, Paolo
2010-02-01
The possibility of communicating with the far side of the Moon is essential for keeping a continuous radio link with lunar orbiting spacecraft, as well as with manned or unmanned surface facilities in locations characterized by poor coverage from Earth. If the exploration and the exploitation of the Moon must be sustainable in the medium/long term, we need to develop the capability to realize and service such facilities at an affordable cost. Minimizing the spacecraft mass and the number of launches is a driving parameter to this end. The aim of this study is to show how Space Manifold Dynamics can be profitably applied in order to launch three small spacecraft onboard the same launch vehicle and send them to different orbits around the Moon with no significant difference in the Delta-V budgets. Internal manifold transfers are considered to minimize also the transfer time. The approach used is the following: we used the linearized solution of the equations of motion in the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem to determine a first-guess state vector associated with the Weak Stability Boundary regions, either around the collinear Lagrangian point L1 or around the Moon. The resulting vector is then used as initial state in a numerical backward-integration sequence that outputs a trajectory on a manifold. The dynamical model used in the numerical integration is four-body and non-circular, i.e. the perturbations of the Sun and the lunar orbital eccentricity are accounted for. The trajectory found in this way is used as the principal segment of the lunar transfer. After separation, with minor maneuvers each satellite is injected into different orbits that lead to ballistic capture around the Moon. Finally, one or more circularization maneuvers are needed in order to achieve the final circular orbits. The whole mission profile, from launch to insertion into the final lunar orbits, is modeled numerically with the commercial software STK.
Quasi-quantum groups, knots, three-manifolds, and topological field theory
Altschüler, D R; Altschuler, Daniel; Coste, Antoine
1992-01-01
We show how to construct, starting from a quasi-Hopf algebra, or quasi-quantum group, invariants of knots and links. In some cases, these invariants give rise to invariants of the three-manifolds obtained by surgery along these links. This happens for a finite-dimensional quasi-quantum group, whose definition involves a finite group $G$, and a 3-cocycle $\\om$, which was first studied by Dijkgraaf, Pasquier and Roche. We treat this example in more detail, and argue that in this case the invariants agree with the partition function of the topological field theory of Dijkgraaf and Witten depending on the same data $G, \\,\\om$.
On stable integral manifolds for impulsive Kolmogorov systems of fractional order
Stamov, Gani; Stamova, Ivanka
2017-05-01
In this paper, an impulsive Kolmogorov-type system using the Caputo fractional-order derivative is developed. The fractional-order system displays many interesting dynamic behaviors and fractional integrals can be used to describe the fractal media. The existence and stability of integral manifolds for the impulsive fractional model are considered. The main results are proved by means of piecewise continuous Lyapunov functions and the new fractional comparison principle. The impulses are realized at variable impulsive moments of time and can be considered as a control. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.
Decoding Complex Cognitive States Online by Manifold Regularization in Real-Time fMRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Toke Jansen; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
2011-01-01
Human decision making is complex and influenced by many factors on multiple time scales, reflected in the numerous brain networks and connectivity patterns involved as revealed by fMRI. We address mislabeling issues in paradigms involving complex cognition, by considering a manifold regularizing...... prior for modeling a sequence of neural events leading to a decision. The method is directly applicable for online learning in the context of real-time fMRI, and our experimental results show that the method can efficiently avoid model degeneracy caused by mislabeling....
Worldline approach to quantum field theories on flat manifolds with boundaries
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Pisani, Pablo A. G.
2006-01-01
We study a worldline approach to quantum field theories on flat manifolds with boundaries. We consider the concrete case of a scalar field propagating on R_+ x R^{D-1} which leads us to study the associated heat kernel through a one dimensional (worldline) path integral. To calculate the latter we map it onto an auxiliary path integral on the full R^D using an image charge. The main technical difficulty lies in the fact that a smooth potential on R_+ x R^{D-1} extends to a potential which gen...
P-Cell Gauge Theories, Manifold Space, and Multi-Dimensional Integrability
Larsson, T. A.
We construct lattice gauge theories where the gauge potentials live on p-cells, using ideas from the theory of multi-dimensional lattice integrability. The classical limit of these models can naturally be considered as chiral models in the space ΩPM of p-dimensional manifolds on M, or alternatively as gauge theories in ΩP-1M. The continuum models have an infinite set of functionally conserved currents in ΩPM, which are classical analogs of the simplex equations of lattice integrable systems.
A manifold learning approach to data-driven computational materials and processes
Ibañez, Ruben; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Aguado, Jose Vicente; Gonzalez, David; Cueto, Elias; Duval, Jean Louis; Chinesta, Francisco
2017-10-01
Standard simulation in classical mechanics is based on the use of two very different types of equations. The first one, of axiomatic character, is related to balance laws (momentum, mass, energy, …), whereas the second one consists of models that scientists have extracted from collected, natural or synthetic data. In this work we propose a new method, able to directly link data to computers in order to perform numerical simulations. These simulations will employ universal laws while minimizing the need of explicit, often phenomenological, models. They are based on manifold learning methodologies.
Moment Maps, Scalar Curvature and Quantization of Kähler Manifolds
Arezzo, Claudio; Loi, Andrea
Building on Donaldson's work on constant scalar curvature metrics, we study the space of regular Kähler metrics Eω, i.e. those for which deformation quantization has been defined by Cahen, Gutt and Rawnsley. After giving, in Sects. 2 and 3 a review of Donaldson's moment map approach, we study the ``essential'' uniqueness of balanced basis (i.e. of coherent states) in a more general setting (Theorem 2.5). We then study the space Eω in Sect.4 and we show in Sect.5 how all the tools needed can be defined also in the case of non-compact manifolds.
Boundary control and tomography of Riemannian manifolds (the BC-method)
Belishev, M. I.
2017-08-01
The BC-method provides one of the approaches to inverse problems of mathematical physics. A characteristic feature of this method is the great variety of interdisciplinary relations involved: in addition to partial differential equations as a source of problems, use is made of control theory and systems theory, asymptotic methods, functional analysis, operator theory, Banach algebras, and so on. The purpose of this paper is to present the principal ideas and tools of the BC-method and to give a survey of some results. One of the main achievements of the method is chosen for presentation: the reconstruction of Riemannian manifolds from dynamical and spectral boundary data. Bibliography: 108 titles.
Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Dunson, David B
2012-08-01
This article considers a broad class of kernel mixture density models on compact metric spaces and manifolds. Following a Bayesian approach with a nonparametric prior on the location mixing distribution, sufficient conditions are obtained on the kernel, prior and the underlying space for strong posterior consistency at any continuous density. The prior is also allowed to depend on the sample size n and sufficient conditions are obtained for weak and strong consistency. These conditions are verified on compact Euclidean spaces using multivariate Gaussian kernels, on the hypersphere using a von Mises-Fisher kernel and on the planar shape space using complex Watson kernels.
Vehicle exhaust: An overstated cause of haze in China.
Zhao, Yi-Bo; Gao, Pan-Pan; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang
2018-01-15
Overall, total exhaust emissions of NOX, VOC and particulate matter (PM) declined, though vehicles in use continued to increase in China. This suggested that contribution of motor vehicle exhaust to haze in China may be exaggerated. A higher frequency of haze episodes in China with lower total emissions fraction from vehicle exhaust compared with those in the USA confirmed that there exists no strict causality between vehicle and haze. No significant correlation (pvehicles to airborne PM2.5 (particulates that are aerodynamic diameter) or car ownerships. All results revealed again that vehicle exhaust is an overstated cause for haze formation in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Molecular and cellular insights into T cell exhaustion
Wherry, E. John; Kurachi, Makoto
2016-01-01
In chronic infections and cancer, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This scenario is often associated with the deterioration of T cell function: a state called ‘exhaustion’. Exhausted T cells lose robust effector functions, express multiple inhibitory receptors and are defined by an altered transcriptional programme. T cell exhaustion is often associated with inefficient control of persisting infections and tumours, but revitalization of exhausted T cells can reinvigorate immunity. Here, we review recent advances that provide a clearer molecular understanding of T cell exhaustion and reveal new therapeutic targets for persisting infections and cancer. PMID:26205583
T-cell exhaustion in allograft rejection and tolerance.
Thorp, Edward B; Stehlik, Christian; Ansari, M Javeed
2015-02-01
The role of T-cell exhaustion in the failure of clearance of viral infections and tumors is well established. There are several ongoing trials to reverse T-cell exhaustion for treatment of chronic viral infections and tumors. The mechanisms leading to T-cell exhaustion and its role in transplantation, however, are only beginning to be appreciated and are the focus of the present review. Exhausted T cells exhibit a distinct molecular profile reflecting combinatorial mechanisms involving the interaction of multiple transcription factors important in control of cell metabolism, acquisition of effector function and memory capacity. Change of microenvironmental cues and limiting leukocyte recruitment can modulate T-cell exhaustion. Impaired leukocyte recruitment induces T-cell exhaustion and prevents allograft rejection. Preventing or reversing T-cell exhaustion may lead to prevention of transplant tolerance or triggering of rejection; therefore, caution should be exercised in the use of agents blocking inhibitory receptors for the treatment of chronic viral infections or tumors in transplant recipients. Further definition of the role of T-cell exhaustion in clinical transplantation and an understanding of the mechanisms of induction of T-cell exhaustion are needed to develop strategies for preventing allograft rejection and induction of tolerance.
T-cell exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, B
2015-01-01
.... The exhausted T cells in the tumor microenvironment show overexpressed inhibitory receptors, decreased effector cytokine production and cytolytic activity, leading to the failure of cancer elimination...
The exhaust heat management system; Das Abgaswaerme-Management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geskes, P.; Strauss, T. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)
2006-10-15
Behr uses EGR coolers in its Exhaust Heat Management System (EHMS) to obtain exhaust enthalpy, helping to heat up the vehicle cabin faster, or to reduce the power train warm-up phase. In today's DI diesel and DI gasoline engines, auxiliary heating is essential to ensure thermal comfort, since fuel-efficient vehicles no longer transmit sufficient heat to the coolant. By modifying the internal engine combustion, which produces much higher exhaust temperatures, auxiliary heating by th exhaust heat can provide extremely high thermal output in conjunction with just a slight increase in fuel consumption. (orig.)
GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H
2003-08-24
The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple
T Cell exhaustion in protozoan disease
Gigley, Jason P.; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Moretto, Magali M.; Khan, Imtiaz A.
2012-01-01
Protozoan parasites cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to chemotherapeutic agents is limited. Although parasites initially evoke a robust immune response, subsequent immunity fails to clear infection, ultimately leading to the chronic stage. This enigmatic situation was initially addressed in chronic viral models, where T cells lose their function, a phenomenon referred to as ’exhaustion‘. However, recent studies demonstrate that this paradigm can be extended to protozoan diseases as well, albeit with notable differences. These studies have revealed that T cell responses generated against Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium sp. and Leishmania sp. can become dysfunctional. This Review discusses T cell exhaustion in parasitic infection, mechanisms of development, and a possible role in disease outcome. PMID:22832368