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Sample records for exhaust increases arterial

  1. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  2. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively in...

  3. Exercise after SCUBA diving increases the incidence of arterial gas embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko; Ljubkovic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    Arterialization of gas bubbles after decompression from scuba diving has traditionally been associated with pulmonary barotraumas or cardiac defects, such as the patent foramen ovale. Recent studies have demonstrated the right-to-left passage of bubbles through intrapulmonary arterial-venous anastamoses (IPAVA) that allow blood to bypass the pulmonary microcirculation. These passages open up during exercise, and the aim of this study is to see if exercise in a postdiving period increases the incidence of arterialization. After completing a dive to 18 m for 47 min, patent foramen ovale-negative subjects were monitored via transthoracic echocardiography, within 10 min after surfacing, for bubble score at rest. Subjects then completed an incremental cycle ergometry test to exhaustion under continuous transthoracic echocardiography observation. Exercise was suspended if arterialization was observed and resumed when the arterialization cleared. If arterialization was observed a second time, exercise was terminated, and oxygen was administered. Out of 23 subjects, 3 arterialized at rest, 12 arterialized with exercise, and 8 did not arterialize at all even during maximal exercise. The time for arterialization to clear with oxygen was significantly shorter than without. Exercise after diving increased the incidence of arterialization from 13% at rest to 52%. This study shows that individuals are capable of arterializing through IPAVA, and that the intensity at which these open varies by individual. Basic activities associated with SCUBA diving, such as surface swimming or walking with heavy equipment, may be enough to allow the passage of venous gas emboli through IPAVA.

  4. Is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with increased arterial stiffness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janner, Julie H; McAllister, David A; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesize that airflow limitation is associated with increasing arterial stiffness and that having COPD increases a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness - the aortic augmentation index (AIx) - independently of other CVD risk factors....

  5. Increased arterial compliance in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In patients with cirrhosis, the systemic circulation is hyperdynamic with low arterial blood pressure and reduced systemic vascular resistance. The present study was undertaken to estimate the compliance of the arterial tree in relation to severity of cirrhosis, circulating level...... of the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). METHODS: Arterial compliance (COMPart=deltaV/deltaP) was determined as the stroke volume relative to pulse pressure (i.e. systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) during a haemodynamic evaluation of portal hypertension...... of CGRP (r=0.34, parterial compliance in cirrhosis is directly related to the severity of the disease and to the elevated level of circulating vasodilator peptide CGRP, and inversely related...

  6. Increased arterial compliance in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S

    1999-01-01

    of the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). METHODS: Arterial compliance (COMPart=deltaV/deltaP) was determined as the stroke volume relative to pulse pressure (i.e. systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) during a haemodynamic evaluation of portal hypertension......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In patients with cirrhosis, the systemic circulation is hyperdynamic with low arterial blood pressure and reduced systemic vascular resistance. The present study was undertaken to estimate the compliance of the arterial tree in relation to severity of cirrhosis, circulating level...... in patients with biopsy-verified cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte classes A/B/C=10/15/6). RESULTS: COMPart was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients (n=31) than in controls (n=10) (1.44 vs 1.00 x 10(-3) l/mmHg, p

  7. Increased arterial compliance in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In patients with cirrhosis, the systemic circulation is hyperdynamic with low arterial blood pressure and reduced systemic vascular resistance. The present study was undertaken to estimate the compliance of the arterial tree in relation to severity of cirrhosis, circulating level...... of the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). METHODS: Arterial compliance (COMPart=deltaV/deltaP) was determined as the stroke volume relative to pulse pressure (i.e. systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) during a haemodynamic evaluation of portal hypertension...... of CGRP (r=0.34, pcompliance in cirrhosis is directly related to the severity of the disease and to the elevated level of circulating vasodilator peptide CGRP, and inversely related...

  8. Mechanics of arterial subfailure with increasing loading rate.

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    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    Arterial subfailure leads to delayed symptomatology and high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly for the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries. Although arterial injuries occur during high-velocity automotive collisions, previous studies of arterial subfailure focused on quasi-static loading. This investigation subjected aortic segments to increasing loading rates to quantify effects on elastic, subfailure, and ultimate vessel mechanics. Sixty-two specimens were axially distracted, and 92% demonstrated subfailure before ultimate failure. With increasing loading rate, stress at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly increased, and strain at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly decreased. Present results indicate increased susceptibility for arterial subfailure and/or dissection under higher-rate extension. According to the present results, automotive occupants are at greater risk of arterial injury under higher velocity impacts due to greater body segment motions in addition to decreased strain tolerance to subfailure and catastrophic failure.

  9. Paradoxical centrally increased diffusivity in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stence, Nicholas V.; Mirsky, David M.; Deoni, Sean C.L. [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (Neurology) and OB/GYN, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Restricted diffusion on acute MRI is the diagnostic standard for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a subset of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, primarily those with large infarct volumes, we noted a core of centrally increased diffusivity with a periphery of restricted diffusion. Given the paradoxical diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance observed in some children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, we sought to determine its significance and hypothesized that: (1) centrally increased diffusivity is associated with larger infarcts in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and (2) this tissue is irreversibly injured (infarcted). We reviewed all perinatal arterial ischemic stroke cases in a prospective cohort study from Aug. 1, 2000, to Jan. 1, 2012. Infarct volumes were measured by drawing regions of interest around the periphery of the area of restricted diffusion on DWI. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means between groups. Of 25 eligible cases, centrally increased diffusivity was seen in 4 (16%). Cases with centrally increased diffusivity had larger average infarct volumes (mean 117,182 mm{sup 3} vs. 36,995 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.008), higher average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the infarct core (1,679 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 611 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s, P < 0.0001), and higher ADC ratio (1.2 vs. 0.5, P < 0.0001). At last clinical follow-up, children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and centrally increased diffusivity were more often treated for ongoing seizures (75% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than those without. Centrally increased diffusivity was associated with larger stroke volume and the involved tissue was confirmed to be infarcted on follow-up imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual appearance of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in order to avoid underestimating infarct volume or making an incorrect early diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Relationship between increased carotid artery stiffness and idiopathic subjective tinnitus.

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    Bayraktar, C; Taşolar, S

    2017-05-01

    Tinnitus is defined as perception of sound with no external stimulus, and can separate into pulsatile and non-pulsatile types. Arterial stiffness is a parameter that can predict the cardiovascular event and associated with incidence of stroke. It has been shown that increased arterial stiffness may lead to microvascular damage in brain. Our aim was to assess the arterial stiffness of the carotid system in the development and severity of idiopathic subjective tinnitus. Forty subjective tinnitus patients and 40 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The parameters obtained from the participants included pure tone hearing (dB), serum lipid profile (mg/dl), fasting glucose (mg/dl), blood pressure (mmHg), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). The common carotid artery (CCA) stiffness index, Young's elastic modulus (YEM), common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), vessel diameter, mean velocity (MV), and volume flow (VF) were measured in both the right and left common carotid arteries in both groups. The CCA stiffness index, YEM measurements, right CIMT, and left PI were found to be significantly higher in the patients than those in the control group (p tinnitus and the patient characteristics, there was a significant positive correlation with the CCA stiffness index, YEM measurements, left CIMT, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). However, only the right and left CCA stiffness parameters were found to be statistically significant in the multivariate analysis as independent predictors of a moderate to high degree of tinnitus. The increased stiffness index of the common carotid arteries was significantly associated with the formation and severity of tinnitus. Therefore, an assessment of the carotideal system may be helpful in these patients.

  11. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

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    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  12. Increases of Quadriceps Inter-Muscular Cross-Correlation and Coherence during Exhausting Stepping Exercise

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    Shun-Hwa Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the change of the intermuscular cross-correlation and coherence of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL during exhausting stepping exercise. Eleven healthy adults repeated the stepping exercise up to their individual endurance limits (RPE score reached 20, and the cross-correlation and coherence were assessed by surface electromyography (EMG recordings. The coefficient and time lag of cross-correlation and the coherence areas in the alpha (8–12 Hz, beta (15–30 Hz, gamma (30–60 Hz and high-gamma (60–150 Hz bands among the three muscle pairs (RF-VM, RF-VL and VM-VL were calculated. As muscle fatigue, RF-VM and VM-VL showed increases of coefficients and the shortening of time lags. RF-VM and RF-VL showed increases of beta-band coherence in the ascent and descent phases, respectively. The increased intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a compensatory strategy for maintaining the coordination of knee synergistic muscles during fatigue due to the fatigue-related disturbance of the corticospinal transmission. Therefore, the intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a potential index for assessing muscle fatigue and monitoring the central control of motor function during dynamic fatiguing exercise.

  13. Influence of increased exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the thermodynamic processes in CI DI engine

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    Pielecha, I.; Skowron, M.; Bueschke, W.; Cieślik, W.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the conducted research was the thermodynamic identification of combustion process involving up to 50-60% recirculated exhaust gasses in compression ignition engine. The values of the respective indicators obtained for the high share of exhaust gasses in the cylinder were compared to the values obtained in the engine working without EGR. The research was conducted on the single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine equipped with recirculated gas cooling system. The conditions of combustion process were determined using indicators of engine operation and measurements of fast-varying cylinder pressure. The evaluation of the influence of different share of exhaust gases in the cylinder on the combustion course and heat release was conducted. As a result of the conducted research the possibility of utilizing the high share of exhaust gasses (50-60%) with simultaneous ecological benefits, not only in relation to nitrogen oxides, was demonstrated.

  14. Increased extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels contribute to enhanced subthalamic nucleus neural activity during exhausting exercise

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    Y Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the mechanism underlying the enhanced subthalamic nucleus (STN neural activity during exhausting exercise from the perspective of monoamine neurotransmitters and changes of their corresponding receptors. Rats were randomly divided into microdialysis and immunohistochemistry study groups. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of the STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe before, during and 90 min after one bout of exhausting exercise. Dopamine (DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT levels were subsequently detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For immunohistochemistry study, the expression of DRD 2 and HT 2C receptors in the STN, before, immediately after and 90 min after exhaustion was detected through immunohistochemistry technique. Microdialysis study results showed that the extracellular DA and 5-HT neurotransmitters increased significantly throughout the procedure of exhausting exercise and the recovery period (P0.05. Our results suggest that the increased extracellular DA and 5-HT in the STN might be one important factor leading to the enhanced STN neural activity and the development of fatigue during exhausting exercise. This study may essentially offer useful evidence for better understanding of the mechanism of the central type of exercise-induced fatigue.

  15. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

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    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  16. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  17. DECREASED PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEINS AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION

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    Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), termed collectins, enhance the opsonization of foreign particles and pathogens by phagocytic cells. Inhaled pollutants such as diesel exhaust (DE) have a possible role in suppressing the production of surfactant proteins whic...

  18. Increased vital exhaustion among type-D patients with ischemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, SS; Middel, B

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the "distressed personality" (type-D) in cardiac patients and to explore the relationships between type-D, gender, vital exhaustion and angina pectoris. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 171 patients scheduled for coronary angiography (CAG) at

  19. HCV coinfection contributes to HIV pathogenesis by increasing immune exhaustion in CD8 T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallón, Norma; García, Marcial; García-Samaniego, Javier; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cabello, Alfonso; Restrepo, Clara; Álvarez, Beatriz; García, Rosa; Górgolas, Miguel; Benito, José M

    2017-01-01

    There are several contributors to HIV-pathogenesis or insufficient control of the infection. However, whether HIV/HCV-coinfected population exhibits worst evolution of HIV-pathogenesis remains unclear. Recently, some markers of immune exhaustion have been proposed as preferentially upregulated on T-cells during HIV-infection. Herein, we have analyzed T-cell exhaustion together with several other contributors to HIV-pathogenesis that could be affected by HCV-coinfection. Ninety-six patients with chronic HIV-infection (60 HIV-monoinfected and 36 HIV/HCV-coinfected), and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. All patients were untreated for both infections. Several CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets involved in HIV-pathogenesis were investigated. Non-parametric tests were used to establish differences between groups and associations between variables. Multivariate linear regression was used to ascertain the variables independently associated with CD4 counts. HIV-patients presented significant differences compared to healthy controls in most of the parameters analyzed. Both HIV and HIV/HCV groups were comparable in terms of age, CD4 counts and HIV-viremia. Compared to HIV group, HIV/HCV group presented significantly higher levels of exhaustion (Tim3+PD1- subset) in total CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.003), and higher levels of exhaustion in CD8+HLADR+CD38+ (p = 0.04), CD8+HLADR-CD38+ (p = 0.009) and CD8+HLADR-CD38- (p = 0.006) subsets of CD8+ T-cells. Interestingly these differences were maintained after adjusting by CD4 counts and HIV-viremia. We show a significant impact of HCV-coinfection on CD8 T-cells exhaustion, an important parameter associated with CD8 T-cell dysfunction in the setting of chronic HIV-infection. The relevance of this phenomenon on immunological and/or clinical HIV progression prompts HCV treatment to improve management of coinfected patients.

  20. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension and...... of systemic arterial vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension during the first half of the night compared to normotensive control subjects.......The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension...... systemic vasoconstriction as confirmed by cold pressure tests and a significant correlation between arterial vascular tone and sympathetic nerve activity measured by microneurography from the peroneal nerve. Photoplethysmographic determination of arterial vascular tone demonstrated a significant increase...

  1. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

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    H.U. Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1 or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s (p<0.05. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  2. Pre-exercise arginine supplementation increases time to exhaustion in elite male wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, H U; Turnagol, H; Demirel, A H

    2014-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years) participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg(-1) body weight) or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night) for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm) between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s) compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s) (p L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  3. Regular endurance exercise in young men increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through neural alteration of baroreflex arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Hidehiko; Sugawara, Jun; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Yokoi, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    Endurance exercise training increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity that corresponds to alteration in vessel wall compliance of the carotid artery in elderly men. Here, we examined whether regular endurance exercise increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through neural alteration of the baroreflex arc in young men. We assessed arterial baroreflex sensitivity in eight sedentary men (age 24 +/- 1 yr) and nine men trained in endurance exercise (age 23 +/- 1 yr) during phase IV of the Valsalva maneuver [systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP)-R-R interval relationship]. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity was further analyzed by dividing the mechanical component [SAP-end-systolic carotid lumen diameter relationship (ultrasonography)] and the neural component (end-systolic carotid lumen diameter-R-R interval relationship). Carotid arterial compliance was determined using B-mode ultrasound and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity and its neural component were greater in the exercise-trained group (P baroreflex sensitivity did not differ between groups. These results suggest that regular endurance exercise in young men increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity through changes in the neural component of the baroreflex arc and not through alterations in vessel wall compliance of the carotid artery.

  4. Skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marjon J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Loeffen, Erik A. H.; Saleem, Ben R.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Smit, Andries J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. We evaluated skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive measurement of tissue AGE accumulation, in patients with carotid artery stenosis with and without coexisting peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). SAF was

  5. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise increase circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA without development of tolerance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert; Walczak, Konrad; Kosielski, Piotr; Meissner, Pawel; Budlewski, Tomasz; Padula, Gianluca; Nowak, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men. Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting. Blood was collected before and after each bout of exercise for determination of cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (cf n-DNA, cf mt-DNA) by real-time PCR, selected markers of muscle damage, and blood cell count. Each bout induced the increase (pexercise, respectively. In a congruent way, cf mt-DNA rose significantly after the second (from 229±216 to 450±228*103 GE/mL) and third bout of exercise (from 173±120 to 462±314*103 GE/mL). Pre-exercise cf mt-DNA decreased (pexercise induced percentage increment of cf n-DNA was always many times higher than corresponding increments of the afore-mentioned markers at any occasion. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced remarkable increase in circulating cf n-DNA without signs of tolerance development. Baseline cf mt-DNA decreased in response to series of strenuous exercise. Since percentage increments of cf n-DNA in response to exercise were many times higher than those observed for other markers, measurement of circulating cf n-DNA could be a sensitive tool for monitoring acute exercise effects in human body.

  6. Increased arterial stiffness in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Reiner, Barbara; Oberhoffer, Renate; Hager, Alfred; Ewert, Peter; Müller, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Objective Central systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a measure of arterial stiffness and strongly associated with atherosclerosis and end-organ damage. It is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality than peripheral SBP. In particular, for children with congenital heart disease, a higher central SBP might impose a greater threat of cardiac damage. The aim of the study was to analyse and compare central SBP in children with congenital heart disease and in healthy counterparts. Patients and methods Central SBP was measured using an oscillometric method in 417 children (38.9% girls, 13.0 ± 3.2 years) with various congenital heart diseases between July 2014 and February 2017. The test results were compared with a recent healthy reference cohort of 1466 children (49.5% girls, 12.9 ± 2.5 years). Results After correction for several covariates in a general linear model, central SBP of children with congenital heart disease was significantly increased (congenital heart disease: 102.1 ± 10.2 vs. healthy reference cohort: 100.4 ± 8.6, p congenital heart disease subgroups revealed higher central SBP in children with left heart obstructions (mean difference: 3.6 mmHg, p hearts after total cavopulmonary connection (mean difference: 2.1 mmHg, p = .015) compared with the reference. Conclusion Children with congenital heart disease have significantly higher central SBP compared with healthy peers, predisposing them to premature heart failure. Screening and long-term observations of central SBP in children with congenital heart disease seems warranted in order to evaluate the need for treatment.

  7. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  8. Increased PIO2 at Exhaustion in Hypoxia Enhances Muscle Activation and Swiftly Relieves Fatigue: A Placebo or a PIO2 Dependent Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Ponce-González, Jesús G; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A L

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of hypoxia from which muscle activation (MA) is reduced during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE), and the role played by PIO2 in this process, ten volunteers (21 ± 2 years) performed four IE in severe acute hypoxia (SAH) (PIO2 = 73 mmHg). Upon exhaustion, subjects were asked to continue exercising while the breathing gas mixture was swiftly changed to a placebo (73 mmHg) or to a higher PIO2 (82, 92, 99, and 142 mmHg), and the IE continued until a new exhaustion. At the second exhaustion, the breathing gas was changed to room air (normoxia) and the IE continued until the final exhaustion. MA, as reflected by the vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL) EMG raw and normalized root mean square (RMSraw, and RMSNz, respectively), normalized total activation index (TAINz), and burst duration were 8-20% lower at exhaustion in SAH than in normoxia (P exhaustion reduces fatigue and allows for the continuation of exercise in moderate and SAH, regardless of the effects of PIO2 on MA. At task failure, MA is increased during the first 10 s of increased PIO2 when the IE is performed at a PIO2 close to 73 mmHg and the PIO2 is increased to 92 mmHg or higher. Overall, these findings indicate that one of the central mechanisms by which severe hypoxia may cause central fatigue and task failure is by reducing the capacity for reaching the appropriate level of MA to sustain the task. The fact that at exhaustion in severe hypoxia the exercise was continued with the placebo-gas mixture demonstrates that this central mechanism has a cognitive component.

  9. Increased arterial inflammation in individuals with stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); MacNabb, Megan H.; Emami, Hamed; Abdelbaky, Amr; Lavender, Zachary R. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Singh, Parmanand [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Division of Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Di Carli, Marcelo; Taqueti, Viviany; Foster, Courtney [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Mann, Jessica; Comley, Robert A.; Weber, Chek Ing Kiu [F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel (Switzerland); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiology Division, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    While it is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, it is not known whether arterial inflammation is increased in mild CKD. The aim of this study was to compare arterial inflammation using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with CKD and in matched controls. This retrospective study included 128 patients undergoing FDG PET/CT imaging for clinical indications, comprising 64 patients with stage 3 CKD and 64 control patients matched by age, gender, and cancer history. CKD was defined according to guidelines using a calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Arterial inflammation was measured in the ascending aorta as FDG uptake on PET. Background FDG uptake (venous, subcutaneous fat and muscle) were recorded. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed using the CT images. The impact of CKD on arterial inflammation and CAC was then assessed. Arterial inflammation was higher in patients with CKD than in matched controls (standardized uptake value, SUV: 2.41 ± 0.49 vs. 2.16 ± 0.43; p = 0.002). Arterial SUV correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.299, p = 0.001). Venous SUV was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD, while subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue SUVs did not differ between groups. Moreover, arterial SUV remained significantly elevated in patients with CKD compared to controls after correcting for muscle and fat background, and also remained significant after adjusting for clinical risk factors. Further, CKD was associated with arterial inflammation (SUV) independent of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC). Moderate CKD is associated with increased arterial inflammation beyond that of controls. Further, the increased arterial inflammation is independent of presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Current risk stratification tools may underestimate the presence of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD and thereby the risk of

  10. Diabetes Mellitus Associates with Increased Right Ventricular Afterload and Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Morgan E; Nair, Vineet; Sinari, Shripad; Dherange, Parinita; Natarajan, Balaji; Trutter, Lindsey; Brittain, Evan L; Hemnes, Anna R; Austin, Eric; Patel, Kumar; Black, Stephen M; Garcia, Joe G N; Yuan, Jason X; Vanderpool, Rebecca; Rischard, Franz; Makino, Ayako; Bedrick, Edward J; Desai, Ankit A

    2018-02-05

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Parallel studies have also reported associations between diabetes mellitus and right ventricle dysfunction and reduced survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the impact of diabetes mellitus on the pulmonary vasculature has not been well-characterized. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia could specifically influence right ventricular afterload and remodeling in patients with Group I pulmonary arterial hypertension, providing a link to their known susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction. Using an adjusted model for age, gender, pulmonary vascular resistance, and medication use, associations of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and the presence of diabetes mellitus were evaluated with markers of disease severity in 162 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. A surrogate measure of increased pulmonary artery stiffness, elevated pulmonary arterial elastance (P=0.012), along with reduced log(pulmonary artery capacitance) (P=0.006) were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a fully adjusted model. Similar associations between pulmonary arterial elastance and capacitance were noted with both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, right ventricular wall thickness on echocardiography was greater in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with diabetes, supporting the link between right ventricular remodeling and diabetes. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that an increase in right ventricular afterload, beyond pulmonary vascular resistance alone, may influence right ventricular remodeling and provide a mechanistic link between the susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction in patients with both diabetes mellitus and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

  12. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Increased risk of acute arterial events in young patients and severely active IBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    was assessed by Cox regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among 210 162 individuals with IBD (Crohn's disease (CD), n=97 708; UC, n=112 454), 5554 incident acute arterial events were identified. Both patients with CD and UC had a statistically significant overall increased......, all patients aged 15 years or older and diagnosed with IBD were identified and followed up until 31 December 2013. The rates of incident acute arterial events were calculated and the impact of time with active disease (period around hospitalisation for IBD flare or IBD-related surgery) on the risk...... associated with an increased risk of acute arterial events in both CD and UC (HR 1.74; 95 CI 1.44 to 2.09 and 1.87; 95% CI 1.58 to 2.22, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with IBD are at increased risk of acute arterial events, with the highest risk in young patients. Disease activity may also have...

  14. Increased PIO2 at exhaustion in hypoxia enhances muscle activation and swiftly relieves fatigue: a placebo or a PIO2 dependent effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Torres-Peralta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the level of hypoxia from which muscle activation (MA is reduced during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE, and the role played by PIO2 in this process, ten volunteers (21±2 years performed four IE in severe acute hypoxia (SAH (PIO2=73 mmHg. Upon exhaustion, subjects were asked to continue exercising while the breathing gas mixture was swiftly changed to a placebo (73 mmHg or to a higher PIO2 (82, 92, 99, 142 mmHg, and the IE continued until a new exhaustion. At the second exhaustion, the breathing gas was changed to room air (normoxia and the IE continued until the final exhaustion. MA, as reflected by the vastus medialis (VM and lateralis (VL EMG raw and normalized root mean square (RMSraw, RMSNz, respectively, normalized total activation index (TAINz, and burst duration were 8-20 % lower at exhaustion in SAH than in normoxia (P<0.05. The switch to a placebo or higher PIO2 allowed for the continuation of exercise in all instances. RMSraw, RMSNz and TAINz were increased by 5-11% when the PIO2 was raised from 73 to 92 or 99 mmHg, and VL and VM averaged RMSraw by 7% when the PIO2 was elevated from 73 to 142 mmHg (P<0.05. The increase of VM-VL average RMSraw was linearly related to the increase in PIO2, during the transition from SAH to higher PIO2 (R2=0.99, P<0.5. In conclusion, increased PIO2 at exhaustion reduces fatigue and allows for the continuation of exercise in moderate and SAH, regardless of the effects of PIO2 on MA. At task failure, MA is increased during the first 10 s of increased PIO2 when the IE is performed at a PIO2 close to 73 mmHg and the PIO2 is increased to 92 mmHg or higher. Overall, these findings indicate that one of the central mechanisms by which severe hypoxia may cause central fatigue and task failure is by reducing the capacity for reaching the appropriate level of muscle activation to sustain the task. The fact that at exhaustion in severe hypoxia the exercise was continued with the placebo

  15. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypertrophic remodeling and increased arterial stiffness in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltete, David; Bellien, Jeremy; Cabrejo, Lucie; Iacob, Michele; Proust, François; Mihout, Bruno; Thuillez, Christian; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Joannides, Robinson

    2010-08-01

    Because an underlying arteriopathy might contribute to the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), we assessed the elastic properties of proximal conduit arteries in patients with IA. In 27 patients with previous ruptured IA and 27 control subjects matched for age, gender and BMI, we determined arterial pressure, internal diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), circumferential wall stress (CWS) and elastic modulus (wall stiffness) in common carotid arteries using applanation tonometry and echotracking. Moreover, carotid augmentation index (AIx, arterial wave reflections) and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic stiffness) were assessed. Compared with controls, patients with IA exhibited higher brachial and carotid systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with similar brachial but higher carotid artery pulse pressure (35 + or - 6mm Hg vs. 41 + or - 8mm Hg, P=0.014). Moreover, patients have higher PWV (7.8 + or - 1.2ms(-1) vs. 8.3 + or - 1.1ms(-1), P=0.048) and AIx (15.8 + or - 10.8% vs. 21.1 + or - 8.5%, PIA display a particular carotid artery phenotype with an exaggerated hypertrophic remodeling and altered elastic properties. Thus, a systemic arteriopathy might contribute, together with the arterial wall fatiguing effect of the increased pulsatile stress, to the pathogenesis of IA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of age-related increase in carotid artery wall viscosity in cardiorespiratory fit men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Tanimoto, Michiya; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2013-12-01

    Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25-39 years (young) and 40-64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: Pviscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men.

  18. The Role of LAT in Increased CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion in Trigeminal Ganglia of Mice Latently Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus 1▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sariah J.; Hamrah, Pedram; Gate, David; Mott, Kevin R.; Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; Zheng, Lixin; Town, Terrence; Jones, Clinton; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Ahmed, Rafi; Wechsler, Steven L.; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a classic example of latent viral infection in humans and experimental animal models. The HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) plays a major role in the HSV-1 latency reactivation cycle and thus in recurrent disease. Whether the presence of LAT leads to generation of dysfunctional T cell responses in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of latently infected mice is not known. To address this issue, we used LAT-positive [LAT(+)] and LAT-deficient [LAT(−)] viruses to evaluate the effect of LAT on CD8 T cell exhaustion in TG of latently infected mice. The amount of latency as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) of viral DNA in total TG extracts was 3-fold higher with LAT(+) than with LAT(−) virus. LAT expression and increased latency correlated with increased mRNA levels of CD8, PD-1, and Tim-3. PD-1 is both a marker for exhaustion and a primary factor leading to exhaustion, and Tim-3 can also contribute to exhaustion. These results suggested that LAT(+) TG contain both more CD8+ T cells and more CD8+ T cells expressing the exhaustion markers PD-1 and Tim-3. This was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses of expression of CD3/CD8/PD-1/Tim-3, HSV-1, CD8+ T cell pentamer (specific for a peptide derived from residues 498 to 505 of glycoprotein B [gB498–505]), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The functional significance of PD-1 and its ligands in HSV-1 latency was demonstrated by the significantly reduced amount of HSV-1 latency in PD-1- and PD-L1-deficient mice. Together, these results may suggest that both PD-1 and Tim-3 are mediators of CD8+ T cell exhaustion and latency in HSV-1 infection. PMID:21307196

  19. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  20. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirak, Emre [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C. [Cardiovascular Sciences, Bywaters Center for Vascular Inflammation, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Kemp, Paul R., E-mail: p.kemp@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  1. Autologous Transfusion of Stored Red Blood Cells Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, Riccardo; Stowell, Christopher P.; Wang, Lin; Yu, Binglan; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Feelisch, Martin; Mietto, Cristina; Hod, Eldad A.; Chipman, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40 days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3 or 40 days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 ppm nitric oxide. Measurements and Main Results: The age of volunteers was 41 ± 4 years (mean ± SEM), and their body mass index was 33.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18 ± 2 to 23 ± 2 mm Hg; P transfusing 3-day blood (17 ± 2 to 18 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 mm Hg; P Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40 days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01529502). PMID:25162920

  2. The role of increased pulmonary blood flow in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Albada, ME; Schoemaker, RG; Kemna, MS; Cromme - Dijkhuis, A; van Veghel, R; Berger, RMF

    Chronic increased pulmonary blood flow is considered a pre-requisite for the induction of advanced vascular lesions in pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart defects. The aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of increased pulmonary flow induced by an aortocaval shunt

  3. Genetic predisposition to albuminuria is associated with increased arterial stiffness: role of elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ortega, M; García-Prieto, C F; Ruiz-Hurtado, G; Steireif, C; González, M C; Schulz, A; Kreutz, R; Fernández-Alfonso, M S; Arribas, S; Somoza, B

    2015-09-01

    The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat strain represents an experimental model to study cardiovascular alterations under conditions of progressive albuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between genetic predisposition to albuminuria and the development of arterial stiffness and/or vascular remodelling. Experiments were performed in mesenteric arteries from 12-week-old MWF, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and consomic MWF-6(SHR) and MWF-8(SHR) rats in which chromosomes 6 or 8 associated with albuminuria from MWF were replaced by the respective chromosome from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Incremental distensibility, wall stress and strain were reduced, and arterial stiffness was significantly increased in albuminuric MWF compared with WKY. Albuminuria suppression in both consomic strains was associated with lower β-values in MWF-8(SHR) and MWF-6(SHR) compared with MWF. Moreover, elastin content was significantly lower in MWF external elastic lamina compared with WKY and both consomic strains. In addition, a reduction in arterial external and internal diameter and cross-sectional area was detected in MWF compared with WKY, thus exhibiting an inward hypotrophic remodelling. However, these alterations remained unchanged in both consomic strains. These data demonstrate that albuminuria in MWF is associated with increased arterial stiffness due to a reduction of elastin content in the external elastic lamina. Moreover, inward hypotrophic remodelling in MWF is not directly associated with albuminuria. In contrast, we demonstrated that two major genetic loci affect both the development of albuminuria and arterial stiffness, thus linking albuminuria and impairment of mechanical properties of resistance arteries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Arterial stiffness is not increased in patients with short duration rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieża-Grudnik, Anna; Sulicka, Joanna; Strach, Magdalena; Siga, Olga; Klimek, Ewa; Korkosz, Mariusz; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of CV events. The aim of the study was to assess arterial stiffness and inflammatory markers in patients with short duration chronic arthritis. We assessed carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), traditional CV risk factors and inflammatory and endothelial markers in 71 chronic arthritis patients (RA and AS) and in 29 healthy controls. We did not find differences in PWV (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 10 [8.8-10.9] versus 10.7 [9.1-11.8] versus 9.2 [8.3-11.4] m/s; p = .14) and AIx (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 24.3 ± 11.5 versus 5.7 ± 12.4 versus 10 ± 12.8%; p = .22). Both groups of arthritis patients had active disease with significantly elevated inflammatory markers compared to controls. There were no correlations between endothelial and inflammatory markers and parameters of arterial stiffness in arthritis patients. When analyzing arthritis patients according to median of PVW, there were no significant differences in inflammatory and endothelial markers. We found that in patients with short duration active RA and AS arterial stiffness was not increased and furthermore, there was no association between markers of systemic inflammation and arterial stiffness.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased arterial stiffness in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetho, Ian W; Parker, Robert J; Craig, Sonya; Duffy, Nick; Hardy, Kevin J; Wilding, John P H

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, leading to greater cardiovascular risk. Severely obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea may still be at risk of adverse health outcomes, even without previous cardiovascular disease. Pulse wave analysis non-invasively measures peripheral pulse waveforms and derives measures of haemodynamic status, including arterial stiffness, augmentation pressure and subendocardial viability ratio. We hypothesized that the presence of obstructive sleep apnea in severe obesity, even in the absence of an antecedent history of cardiovascular disease, would affect measurements derived from pulse wave analysis. Seventy-two severely obese adult subjects [obstructive sleep apnea 47 (body mass index 42 ± 7 kg m(-2) ), without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA) 25 (body mass index 40 ± 5 kg m(-2) )] were characterised using anthropometric, respiratory and cardio-metabolic parameters. Groups were similar in age, body mass index and gender. More subjects with obstructive sleep apnea had metabolic syndrome [obstructive sleep apnea 60%, without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA) 12%]. Those with obstructive sleep apnea had greater arterial stiffness, augmentation pressure and decreased subendocardial viability ratio (all P arterial pressures (P = 0.004) than patients without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA). Arterial stiffness correlated with mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.003) and obstructive sleep apnea severity (apnea-hypopnea index; P arterial stiffness in multiple regression analysis, but components of the metabolic syndrome did not. Thus, patients with obstructive sleep apnea with severe obesity have increased arterial stiffness that may potentially influence cardiovascular risk independently of metabolic abnormalities. The presence of obstructive sleep apnea in severe obesity identifies a group at high cardiovascular risk; clinicians should ensure that risk factors are managed

  6. Coronary artery calcification is increased in patients with COPD and associated with increased morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, M. C.; Murchison, J. T.; Edwards, L. D.

    2014-01-01

    , functional capacity and outcomes in patients with COPD. Methods Coronary artery calcium score (CACS; Agatston score) was measured using chest CT in patients with COPD, smokers with normal spirometry and nonsmokers from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE......) study. Results CACS was measured in 942 subjects: 672 with COPD (mean age+/-SD, 63+/-7 years; FEV1 49+/-16% predicted), 199 smokers with normal spirometry (54+/-9 years; FEV1 110+/-12% predicted) and 71 nonsmokers (55+/-9 years; FEV1 114+/-14% predicted). CACS was higher in patients with COPD than...... smokers or non-smokers (median (IQR), 128 (492) vs 0 (75) vs 0 (3) Agatston units (AU), p...

  7. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Pozo, Mario O.; Casabella, Christian A.; Palizas, Fernando; Murias, Gaston; Moseinco, Miriam C.; Kanoore Edul, Vanina S.; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were

  8. Repeated cessation and resumption of resistance training attenuates increases in arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Sakamaki, M S; Min, S K; Yoshida, S; Watanabe, Y; Ogasawara, R

    2015-06-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training (RT) increases arterial stiffness, removing weightlifting stimuli returns arterial stiffness to baseline levels within relatively short periods during 4-8 weeks. This study investigates the effects of repeated RT cessation and resumption on arterial stiffness. Eighteen young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed continuous RT (CRT, n=9) and a group that performed periodic RT (PRT, n=9). Both groups performed RT at 75% of one repetition maximum for 3 days per week. The CRT group continuously trained for 16 weeks, whereas the PRT group performed 3 cycles of 4 weeks training, with 2 weeks detraining intervals between cycles. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in the CRT group significantly increased (Pstrength in the both groups significantly increased after 16 weeks from baseline and persisted for 20 weeks (P<0.05). These results suggest that PRT, including short-term repeated cessation and resumption, attenuates increases in arterial stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Familial history of hypertension as a predictor of increased arterial stiffness in normotensive offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ghada; El Tebi, Ibrahim; Osama, Dina; Shehahta, Ahmed; Baligh, Essam; Ashour, Zeinab; Gamal, Hany

    2017-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness can be used as a prognostic marker of arterial hypertension. The relationship between arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension seems to be reciprocal. Evaluation of changes of the arterial elastic prosperities in normotensive subjects, with and without parental history of hypertension. One hundred and ten normotensive individuals, aged 20-30 years, were divided into two groups: group-A ( n  = 57) and group-B ( n  = 53) subjects with positive and negative parental history of hypertension, respectively. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures were measured using mercury sphygmomanometer. The elastic properties of the ascending aorta and the common carotid arteries were assessed using M-mode echo and B-mode imaging, respectively. Stiffness index of the digital volume pulse (SIDVP) was measured in the right index finger using photoplethysmography. Group A subjects showed higher aortic stiffness index ( p  = 0.002), carotid stiffness index ( p  = 0.001), carotid pulse wave velocity ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and stiffness index of digital volume pulse ( p  = 0.001). Group A subjects showed lower aortic distensibility ( p  = 0.001), aortic strain ( p  = 0.004), changes in aortic diameter ( p  = 0.022), carotid distension ( p  = 0.026), carotid distensibility coefficient ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and carotid compliance coefficient ( p  = 0.002). The aortic and carotid stiffness parameters and SIDVP were higher in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. This finding could direct the attention towards the increased cardiovascular risk in this group and thus prompt earlier and tighter prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Prior exercise training produces NO-dependent increases in collateral blood flow after acute arterial occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H T; Ren, Jie; Laughlin, M Harold; Terjung, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that prior training improves collateral blood flow (BF) to the calf muscles after acute-onset occlusion of the femoral artery (Yang HT et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279: H1890-H1897, 2000). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased release of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (likely endothelial NOS) contributes to the increased BF to calf muscles of trained rats after acute femoral artery occlusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (~325 g) were limited to cage activity and were sedentary (SED; n = 28) or exercise trained (TR; n = 30) for 6 wk by treadmill running. On the day of the investigation, rats were anesthetized with ketamine-acepromazine and instrumented for determination of BF (using (141)Ce- and (85)Sr-labeled microspheres) and distal limb arterial pressure, and femoral arteries were occluded bilaterally. Four hours after surgery, collateral BF was determined twice during treadmill running: first at a demanding speed (20 m/min, 15% grade) and second, after a brief rest and at a faster running speed (25 m/min, 15% grade). The fact that BF did not increase further at the higher running speed indicated that maximal collateral BF was measured. Approximately half of the rats in each group received 20 mg/kg body wt N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) intra-arterially 30 min before treadmill exercise and BF measurement to block production of NO by NOS. Results indicate that prior training improved collateral-dependent BF to the skeletal muscle of rats after acute femoral artery occlusion due primarily to an increase in the conductance of the upstream collateral circuit. Blockade of NOS with L-NAME produced decreased vascular conductance, both in the upstream collateral circuit and in the distal skeletal muscle microcirculation, and the difference between collateral vascular conductance in TR and SED rats was abolished. Our results indicate that the primary determinant of the increased collateral BF

  11. Increased arterial wall inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is reduced by statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Fleur M; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; Strang, Aart C; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Baeten, Dominique L; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with involvement of axial and sacroiliac joints. In addition, patients with AS have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which might be attributed to enhanced inflammatory activity of the arterial wall. In the present study, we compared the level of carotid arterial wall inflammation in patients with AS with healthy controls using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT. As arterial wall inflammation is reduced by statin therapy, we subsequently assessed the effect of 3-month statin therapy on arterial wall inflammation in AS. We included 24 patients with AS (age 44±10, 72% males) without a history of CVD and 20 controls matched for age and gender. Patients with AS had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased C reactive protein (CRP) compared with controls. The 10-year CVD risk was 2% in both groups. Notwithstanding, patients with AS had a 20% increase in arterial wall (18)F-FDG uptake compared with controls. Three-month atorvastatin 40 mg daily significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (baseline 3.55±1.15 mmol/L, -53%) and CRP (baseline 5.0 (1.5-9.3) mg/L, -58%) with a concomitant decrease of carotid arterial wall inflammation (maximum target-to-background ratio from 1.90±0.30 to 1.67±0.27; p=0.009). Patients with AS and without other CVD risk factors have increased arterial wall inflammation, which decreases upon statin therapy. These subjects are not identified as being at risk in current cardiovascular prevention guidelines. Our data support the need to revise CV disease management in AS, with perhaps a role for early statin therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  13. The impact of meteo-factors on increase of arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belyayeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to study the impact of the meteorologic factors on the increase of the arterial blood pressure in the population of Vladikavkaz city considering gender specificity. The archive data of the Vladikavkaz ambulance during the first half-year of 2012 were the material of the study, ranged according to the number of calls of the patients with the complaints on the aggravation of symptoms due to the arterial pressure increase. According to the archive data, the corresponding base of average daily indices of meteo-factors (the air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind rate, cloudiness was formed, the indices of weather pathogenicity were considered. The posthoc analysis of the obtained data was carried out with the use of the statistical analysis packet Statistica 6.0. It is indicated, that the number of the ambulance calls to the patients with the arterial hypertension increases during “acute” meteo-conditions. The number of calls in women is higher than the number of calls in men. The inverse correlation between average daily air temperature and patients asking for help in the connection with aggravation symptoms against a background of the arterial pressure increase (AP was revealed. The peak increase of the ambulance calls frequency is observed while low temperature (< –100 ° C. A correlational link between AP increase frequency and the pathogenicity temperature index was established. AP increase frequency correlates with common pathogenicity index in women, and it may point out the high reactivity of cardio-vascular system in response to the impact of complex negative meteo-factors. The impact of the unfavorable weather conditions is the risk factor to the health as it may lead to the development of the cardiovascular catastrophe against a background of AP increase.

  14. Strength training increases endurance time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise despite no change in critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Stokes, David G; Womack, Christopher J; Morton, R Hugh; Weltman, Arthur; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether improvements in endurance exercise performance elicited by strength training were accurately reflected by changes in parameters of the power-duration hyperbola for high-intensity exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of strength training (N = 14) or no exercise, control (N = 5), 19 males (age: 20.6 ± 2.0 years; weight: 78.2 ± 15.9 kg) performed a maximal incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer and also cycled to exhaustion during 4 constant-power exercise bouts. Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (W') were estimated using nonlinear and linear models. Subjects in the strength training group improved significantly more than controls (p strength (~30%), power at V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (7.9%), and time to exhaustion (TTE) for all 4 constant-power tests (~39%). Contrary to our hypothesis, CP did not change significantly after strength training (p > 0.05 for all models). Strength training improved W' (mean range of improvement = +5.8 to +10.0 kJ; p strength training alters the power-duration hyperbola such that W' is enhanced without any improvement in CP. Consequently, CP may not be robust enough to track changes in endurance capacity elicited by strength training, and we do not recommend it to be used for this purpose. Conversely, W' may be the better indicator of improvement in endurance performance elicited by strength training.

  15. Clinical and Socio-demographic Predictors of Postoperative Vital Exhaustion in Patients after Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Pamela S.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Giger, Joyce Newman; Dracup, Kathleen; Doering, Lynn V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vital exhaustion, a psychological state characterized by extreme fatigue, is an independent predictor of future cardiac events. However, the attributes of vital exhaustion following coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery are poorly understood. Objective The study objective was to assess correlates of vital exhaustion following CABG surgery. Methods In a descriptive, exploratory study, 42 patients who had CABG surgery were evaluated for exhaustion four to eight weeks post-hospital discharge. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from self-report and medical chart review. Results Of the total sample (mean age 67.9±12.5, 90% male, 70% Caucasian, 3.12±1.3 grafts), approximately 41% reported exhaustion. When compared to their exhausted post-CABG counterpart, non-exhausted post-CABG patients had a significantly higher frequency of preoperative insulin use. Exhausted patients were significantly more likely to have higher left ventricular ejection fraction ([LVEF], OR 1.07, p=0.04), and elevated hemoglobin (OR 2.98, p=0.03) and eosinophils (OR 1.02, p=0.02) than those who were not exhausted. Conclusion Clinicians should evaluate all patients for exhaustion post-CABG surgery; patients with elevated LVEF, hemoglobin, and eosinophil levels warrant increased scrutiny. PMID:23453010

  16. Repeated increases in blood flow, independent of exercise, enhance conduit artery vasodilator function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard; FitzSimons, Matthew G; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of repeated increases in blood flow to conduit artery adaptation, using an exercise-independent repeated episodic stimulus. Recent studies suggest that exercise training improves vasodilator function of conduit arteries via shear stress-mediated mechanisms. However, exercise is a complex stimulus that may induce shear-independent adaptations. Nine healthy men immersed their forearms in water at 42°C for three 30-min sessions/wk across 8 wk. During each session, a pneumatic pressure cuff was inflated around one forearm to unilaterally modulate heating-induced increases in shear. Forearm heating was associated with an increase in brachial artery blood flow (P<0.001) and shear rate (P<0.001) in the uncuffed forearm; this response was attenuated in the cuffed limb (P<0.005). Repeated episodic exposure to bilateral heating induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to 5-min ischemic (P<0.05) and ischemic handgrip exercise (P<0.005) stimuli in the uncuffed forearm, whereas the 8-wk heating intervention did not influence dilation to either stimulus in the cuffed limb. Endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses were not altered in either limb. Repeated heating increases blood flow to levels that enhance endothelium-mediated vasodilator function in humans. These findings reinforce the importance of the direct impacts of shear stress on the vascular endothelium in humans.

  17. Increased central arterial stiffness explains baroreflex dysfunction in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Ainslie, Philip N; Cote, Anita T; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-06-15

    After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), orthostatic hypotension and intolerance commonly ensue. The cardiovagal baroreflex plays an important role in the acute regulation of blood pressure (BP) and is associated with the onset of presyncope. The cardiovagal baroreflex is dysfunctional after SCI; however, this may be influenced by either increased stiffening of the arteries containing the stretch-receptors (which has been shown in SCI) or a more downstream neural mechanism (i.e., solitary nucleus, sinoatrial node). Identifying where along this pathway baroreflex dysfunction occurs may highlight a potential therapeutic target. This study examined the relationship between spontaneous cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and common carotid artery (CCA) stiffness in those with high level SCI before and after midodrine (alpha1-agonist) administration, as well as in able-bodied controls, to evaluate: (1) the role arterial stiffening plays mediating baroreflex function after SCI and (2) the effect of normalizing BP on these parameters. Three to five min recordings of beat-by-beat BP and heart rate, as well as 30 sec duration recordings of CCA diameter were used for analysis. All participants were tested supine and during upright-tilt. Arterial stiffness (β-stiffness index) was elevated in those with SCI when upright (+12%; p<0.05). Further, β-stiffness index was negatively related to reduced BRS in those with SCI when upright (R2=0.55; p<0.05), but not in able-bodied persons. Normalizing BP did not improve BRS or CCA stiffness. This study clearly shows that reduced BRS is closely related to increased arterial stiffness in the population with SCI.

  18. Increased Arterial Diameters in the Posterior Cerebral Circulation in Men with Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, pFabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221

  19. Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unosson, Jon; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; Muala, Ala; Boman, Christoffer; Nyström, Robin; Westerholm, Roger; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Langrish, Jeremy P; Bosson, Jenny A

    2013-06-06

    Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314±38 μg/m3) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p smoke compared to filtered air. Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01488500.

  20. Increased metabolite levels of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and hypoxic macrophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yamashita

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inflammation and possibly hypoxia largely affect glucose utilization in atherosclerotic arteries, which could alter many metabolic systems. However, metabolic changes in atherosclerotic plaques remain unknown. The present study aims to identify changes in metabolic systems relative to glucose uptake and hypoxia in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and cultured macrophages. METHODS: Macrophage-rich or smooth muscle cell (SMC-rich neointima was created by balloon injury in the iliac-femoral arteries of rabbits fed with a 0.5% cholesterol diet or a conventional diet. THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS and interferon-γ (INFγ were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We evaluated comprehensive arterial and macrophage metabolism by performing metabolomic analyses using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. We evaluated glucose uptake and its relationship to vascular hypoxia using (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG and pimonidazole, a marker of hypoxia. RESULTS: The levels of many metabolites increased in the iliac-femoral arteries with macrophage-rich neointima, compared with those that were not injured and those with SMC-rich neointima (glycolysis, 4 of 9; pentose phosphate pathway, 4 of 6; tricarboxylic acid cycle, 4 of 6; nucleotides, 10 of 20. The uptake of (18F-FDG in arterial walls measured by autoradiography positively correlated with macrophage- and pimonidazole-immunopositive areas (r = 0.76, and r = 0.59 respectively; n = 69 for both; p<0.0001. Pimonidazole immunoreactivity was closely localized with the nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and hexokinase II expression in macrophage-rich neointima. The levels of glycolytic (8 of 8 and pentose phosphate pathway (4 of 6 metabolites increased in LPS and INFγ stimulated macrophages under hypoxic but not normoxic condition. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein levels in the supernatant were closely

  1. Impaired increase of retinal capillary blood flow to flicker light exposure in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Martin; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Raff, Ulrike; Bauernschubert, Philipp; Lehmann, Marina; Michelson, Georg; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that the increase of retinal capillary blood flow (RCF) to flicker light exposure is impaired in subjects with arterial hypertension. In 146 nondiabetic untreated male subjects with (n=50) or without (n=96) arterial hypertension, RCF was measured before and after flicker light exposure noninvasively and in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, in a subgroup of 28 subjects, the change of RCF to flicker light exposure was again assessed during parallel infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was lower in patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive subjects when expressed in absolute terms (7.69±54 versus 27.2±44 AU; P adjusted=0.013) or percent changes (2.95±14 versus 8.33±12%; P adjusted=0.023). Systolic (β=-0.216; P=0.023) but not diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.117; P=0.243) or mean arterial pressure (β=-0.178; P=0.073) was negatively related to the percent change of RCF to flicker light exposure, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. In the subgroup of 28 subjects, the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was similar at baseline and during parallel infusion of L-NMMA when expressed in absolute terms (20.0±51 versus 22.6±56 AU; P=0.731) or percent changes (7.12±16 versus 8.29±18%; P=0.607). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure is impaired in arterial hypertension. In the subgroup of the total study cohort, nitric oxide was not a major determinant of the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure.

  2. Increasing use of endovascular therapy in acute arterial injuries: analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Brian C; Whitten, Matthew G; Sarfati, Mark; Kraiss, Larry W

    2007-12-01

    The application of endovascular technology for the emergency treatment of traumatic vascular injuries is a new frontier. This study examines recent nationwide use of endovascular therapy in acute arterial traumatic injuries. This retrospective study used the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Cases with a diagnosis of arterial vascular injury were identified according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and procedure codes for endovascular therapy were selected. A descriptive analysis and multiple regressions were performed to identify variables predictive of outcomes. From 1994 to 2003, 12,732 arterial injuries were identified. Between 1997 (when the first endovascular repair was recorded in the NTDB) and 2003, 7286 open arterial repairs and 281 endovascular repairs were recorded for an overall utilization rate for endovascular procedures of 3.7%. The yearly number of endovascular procedures registered in the NTDB increased 27-fold, from four in 1997 to 107 in 2003. Use of stents substantially increased from 12 in 2000 to 30 in 2003; endograft use increased from one in 2000 to 37 in 2003. Nearly equal numbers of blunt (n = 134) and penetrating (n = 111) injuries were treated. The injury severity score (median, interquartile range [IRQ]) was significantly lower in patients who underwent an endovascular procedure at 13 (IRQ, 9 to 26) for trauma vs patients requiring an open procedure at 20 (IRQ, 10 to 34; P undergoing endovascular repair (8.7 +/- 7.2 vs 13.0 +/- 16.1, P undergoing endovascular procedures (odds ratio, 0.18; P = .029) including those with an arterial injury of the torso or head and neck (odds ratio, 0.51, P = .007). Total length of hospital stay also tended to be lower for patients undergoing endovascular procedures by 18% (P = .064). The use of endovascular therapy in the setting of acute trauma is increasing in a dramatic fashion and is being used to treat a wide variety of vessels injured by blunt

  3. NK Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  4. Mortality risk in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness is reduced by attainment of classical clinical performance measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Thies, Christina; Cheikhalfraj, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    We determined whether attainment of classical clinical performance measures for hemodialysis care improves survival in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness.......We determined whether attainment of classical clinical performance measures for hemodialysis care improves survival in hemodialysis patients with increased arterial stiffness....

  5. Association of impaired baroreflex sensitivity and increased arterial stiffness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Jain, Gaurav; Kaur, Manpreet; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Deepak, Kishore Kumar; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal dialysis patients have high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanism of cardiovascular dysfunction remains unclear. Large arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients leads to increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) and decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Impairment in baroreflex function could be attributed to the alteration in mechanical properties of large vessels due to arterial remodeling observed in these patients. The present study was designed to study the association of BRS and PWV in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. 42 CKD patients (21--without dialysis and 21--on PD) and 25 healthy controls were recruited in this study. BRS was determined by spontaneous sequence method. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were assessed using power spectrum analysis of RR intervals and systolic blood pressure by time domain and frequency domain analysis. Arterial stiffness indices were assessed by carotid-femoral PWV using Sphygmocor Vx device (AtCor Medical, Australia). CKD patients had significantly high PWV and low BRS as compared to healthy controls. PWV had a significant negative correlation with BRS in CKD patients (Spearman r = -0.7049, P baroreflex functioning and increase in pulse wave velocity observed in these patients. CKD patients are characterized by poor hemodynamic profile (low BRS, high PWV, and low HRV), and peritoneal dialysis patients had further worsened profile as compared to non-dialysis group.

  6. Continuous flow augments reactivity of rabbit carotid artery by reducing bioavailability of NO despite an increase in release of EDHF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Enkebølle; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.; Jensen, Boye L.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of steady flow and pressure on endothelial function in the rabbit carotid artery. Increases and decreases in isometric force were compared in static rings and perfused (5 or 50 ml/min) segments of the same arteries in the presence and absence...

  7. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  8. Noninvasive detection of increased carotid artery temperature in patients with coronary artery disease predicts major cardiovascular events at one year: Results from a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Benetos, Georgios; Koutagiar, Iosif; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Mitropoulou, Fotini; Davlouros, Periklis; Sfikakis, Petros P; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Siores, Elias; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-07-01

    Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Consecutive patients from 3 centers, with documented CAD by coronary angiography, were studied. In both carotid arteries, common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque thickness were evaluated by ultrasound. Temperature difference (ΔT), measured by MWR, was considered as the maximal temperature along the carotid artery minus the minimum; ΔT ≥0.90 °C was assigned as high. Major cardiovascular events (MACE, death, stroke, myocardial infarction or revascularization) were recorded during the following year. In total, 250 patients were studied; of them 40 patients (16%) had high ΔT values in both carotid arteries. MACEs occurred in 30% of patients having bilateral high ΔT versus 3.8% in the remaining patients (p<0.001). Bilateral high ΔT was independently associated with increased one-year MACE rate (HR = 6.32, 95% CI 2.42-16.53, p<0.001, by multivariate cox regression hazard model). The addition of ΔT information on a baseline model based on cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD significantly increased the prognostic value of the model (c-statistic increase 0.744 to 0.845, p dif  = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: Carotid inflammation, detected by MWR, has an incremental prognostic value in patients with documented CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased uterine artery pulsatility index at 34 weeks and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, E; Youssef, A; Arcangeli, T; Nanni, M; De Musso, F; Contro, E; Kuleva, M; Bellussi, F; Pilu, G; Rizzo, N; Ghi, T

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate pregnancy outcome in patients with increased uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility at 34 weeks' gestation as an isolated finding. Normotensive women attending at 34 weeks' gestation for fetal growth assessment were enrolled in the study if fetal growth was appropriate for age and mean UtA pulsatility index (PI) was persistently above the 95(th) centile for gestational age. Patients were excluded with any of the following conditions: multiple pregnancy, sonographic suspicion of fetal anomaly or fetal growth restriction, history of chronic maternal disease, hypertensive disorder or diabetes in the current pregnancy or one or more adverse events in their past obstetric history. The control group consisted of age- and body mass index-matched low-risk women attending at 34 weeks with normal uterine artery Doppler since the midtrimester. Sixty-six normotensive patients with normal fetal growth and increased UtA-PI at 34 weeks were included in the study group. Women with abnormal Doppler findings compared with controls showed significantly lower gestational age at delivery (38.2 ± 1.6 vs. 38.9 ± 1.3 weeks, P = 0.006), birth weight (2942 ± 583 vs. 3404 ± 469 g, P UtA-PI as an isolated finding at 34 weeks' gestation is associated with an increased risk of delivering an SGA neonate. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Pcoronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Exhaustion, immuno-inflammation, and pathogen burden after cardiac surgery: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Pamela S; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Giger, Joyce Newman; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel; Corvera-Tindel, Teresita; Magpantay, Larry; Pena, Guadalupe; Doering, Lynn V

    2014-06-01

    Exhaustion, a consequence of prolonged stress characterized by unusual fatigue, is associated with increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. In patients recovering from coronary artery bypass (CABG), little is known about the relationship of 1) immune-mediated inflammation and resultant endothelial activation, and 2) cumulative exposure to infectious pathogens (pathogen burden (PB)) implicated in coronary atherosclerosis to exhaustion. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the association of PB, inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10) and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)) to exhaustion. One to two months post-CABG, 42 individuals who met inclusion criteria were assessed for exhaustion using the Maastricht Interview for Vital Exhaustion. Serum IgG antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and inflammatory and endothelial activation markers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathogen burden was defined as the total number of seropositive exposures: low (0-1), moderate (2-3), and high (4). Prevalence of exhaustion was 40.5%. Relative to non-exhausted patients, exhausted patients demonstrated a higher frequency of moderate PB (h=0.73, p=0.04) but lower frequency of high PB (h=1.05, p=0.03). Exhaustion showed a non-significant trend for positive correlations with IL-6 and sICAM-1 levels, and inverse relation to PB. In subgroup analysis, exhausted patients had stronger correlations with IL-6 and IL-6:IL-10 and a tendency towards higher serum IL-10 concentrations compared with their non-exhausted counterparts. This hypothesis-generating study provides preliminary evidence that elevated post-CABG exhaustion may be associated with PB, inflammation, and endothelial activation.

  12. Increased Carotid Artery Lesion Inflammation Upon Treatment With the CD137 Agonistic Antibody 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Leif Å; Jin, Hong; Caravaca, April S; Klement, Maria L; Li, Yuhuang; Gisterå, Anton; Hedin, Ulf; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hansson, Göran K; Olofsson, Peder S

    2017-11-24

    Increased inflammatory activity destabilizes the atherosclerotic lesion and may lead to atherothrombosis and symptomatic cardiovascular disease. Co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD137, are key regulators of inflammation, and CD137 activity regulates inflammation in experimental atherosclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that CD137 activation promotes carotid artery inflammation and atherothrombosis.Methods and Results:In a model of inducible atherothrombosis with surgical ligation of the right carotid artery and a subsequent placement of a polyethene cuff, elevated levels of CD137 and CD137 ligand mRNA in atherothrombotic vs. non-atherothrombotic murine carotid lesions was observed. Mice treated with the CD137 agonistic antibody 2A showed signs of increased inflammation in the aorta and a higher proportion of CD8 + T cells in spleen and blood. In carotid lesions of 2A-treated mice, significantly higher counts of CD8 + and major histocompatibility (MHC)-class II molecule I-A b+ cells were observed. Treatment with the CD137 agonistic antibody 2A did not significantly affect the atherothrombosis frequency in 16-week-old mice in this model. Levels of CD137 and CD137 ligand mRNA were higher in advanced atherosclerotic disease compared to control vessels, and treatment with the CD137 agonistic antibody 2A, in a murine model for inducible atherothrombosis promoted vascular inflammation, but had no significant effect on atherothrombosis frequency at this early disease stage.

  13. Hyperventilation and finger exercise increase venous-arterial Pco2 and pH differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Akira; Kawasaki, Kazuteru; Abe, Tadashi; Watanabe, Maki; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Okada, Yasumasa

    2008-11-01

    Since the invention of the pulse oximeter, physicians often or even routinely perform venous blood gas analysis (VBGA). However, it has not been generally agreed that the application of VBGA is practically meaningful in routine clinical situations such as in an ED. We measured venous-arterial Pco(2) difference ((v-a)Pco(2)) and arterial-venous pH difference ((a-v)pH), and analyzed the physiological factors that affect these differences in healthy volunteers and hyperventilation patients. In healthy volunteers, both (v-a)Pco(2) and (a-v)pH increased during finger exercise or hyperventilation in an intensity-dependent manner. Doppler echography indicated that increases in (v-a)Pco(2) and (a-v)pH during hyperventilation are induced by reduction of peripheral blood flow. Approximately 40% of patients with untreated respiratory alkalosis were found to be incorrectly diagnosed if based only on VBGA. It must be noted that VBGA may lead to overestimation of acidosis and to underestimation of respiratory alkalosis when extremities muscles are active or patients are hyperventilating. Physicians should keep these limitations in mind when conducting VBGA.

  14. Prior exercise training increases collateral-dependent blood flow in rats after acute femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H T; Laughlin, M H; Terjung, R L

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated whether prior training would improve collateral blood flow (BF) to the calf muscles after acute-onset occlusion of the femoral artery. Exercise training was performed in the absence of any vascular occlusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 325 g) were kept sedentary (n = 14), limited to cage activity, or exercise trained (n = 14) for 6 wk by treadmill running. Early in the day of measurement, animals were surgically prepared for BF determination, and the femoral arteries were occluded bilaterally. Four to five hours later, collateral BF was determined twice during treadmill running with the use of (141)Ce and (85)Sr microspheres: first, at a demanding speed and, second, after a brief rest and at a higher speed. The absence of any further increase in BF at the higher speed indicated that maximal collateral BF was measured. Prior training increased calf muscle BF by approximately 70% compared with sedentary animals; however, absolute BF remained below values previously observed in animals with a well-developed collateral vascular tree. Thus prior training appeared to optimize the use of the existing collateral circuit. This implies that altered vasoresponsiveness induced in normal nonoccluded vessels with exercise training serves to improve collateral BF to the periphery.

  15. [High percentage of obesity during childhood and adolescence and subsequent increases in childhood arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghetti, E; Carletti, M; Strisciuglio, P; Spagnolo, A

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight and blood hypertension amongst children and adolescents. The study enrolled 2045 students between 6 and 17 years of age in three Italian cities, Varese (in the North), Rome (in the Center) and Catanzaro (in the South). The findings demonstrate that the obesity rate is 3.5% in the North, 6.1% in the Center and 8.8% in the South; these figures represent an increase both in the North and in the South. At the same time, the incidence of arterial hypertension has increased in respect to past years with 5.5% of the total study population diagnosed with hypertension over the 95 degrees percentile and 7.1% with borderline hypertension. Parental obesity has been demonstrated to be a key factor in determining the presence or level of obesity in their children. Obesity and arterial hypertension represent a worrisome departure point for a dangerous metabolic syndrome and hence require the full dedication of pediatricians in order to prevent the disease, with an urgent need for school interventions, support for a healthy diet and insistence on the necessity of adequate daily exercise.

  16. Isolated human and rat cerebral arteries constrict to increases in flow: role of 20-HETE and TP receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Rozsa, Bernadett; Springo, Zsolt; Doczi, Tamas; Koller, Akos

    2011-01-01

    Elevation of intraluminal pressure increases vasomotor tone, which thought to have a substantial role in regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Interestingly, responses of cerebral vessels to increases in flow varied and have not been studied in human cerebral arteries. We hypothesized that increases in flow elicit constrictions of isolated human and rat cerebral arteries and aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Human cerebral arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries constricted to increases in flow (P<0.05). Simultaneous increase in intraluminal flow+pressure further reduced the diameter compared with pressure-induced changes (P<0.05), leading to constant estimated CBF. Flow-induced constrictions were abolished by HET0016 (inhibitor of synthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) or inhibition of COXs or blocking TP (thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2, receptors and attenuated by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flow-enhanced ROS formation was significantly reduced by HET0016. In conclusion, in human and rat cerebral arteries (1) increases in flow elicit constrictions, (2) signaling mechanism of flow-induced constriction of cerebral arteries involves enhanced production of ROS, COX activity, and mediated by 20-HETE via TP receptors, and (3) we propose that simultaneous operation of pressure- and flow-induced constrictions is necessary to provide an effective autoregulation of CBF. PMID:21610722

  17. Increased arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to decreased arterial C-type natriuretic peptide, but not to atrial natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Gülberg, V; Gerbes, A L

    2003-01-01

    with cirrhosis showed the well-known hyperdynamic circulation with elevated cardiac output, low arterial blood pressure, and reduced systemic vascular resistance. COMPart in the patients with cirrhosis (1.30 mL/mmHg) was significantly (P ...BACKGROUND: Increased arterial compliance (COMPart) has recently been described in patients with cirrhosis, particularly in advanced disease. The aim of the present study was to relate COMPart with arterial levels of the circulating natriuretic peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C......-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), both of which are vasodilators. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with cirrhosis, 14 non-cirrhotic patients with circulatory disturbances of the ischaemic and hypertensive type, and 10 healthy controls were investigated during a haemodynamic examination. RESULTS: The patients...

  18. Increased arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to decreased arterial C-type natriuretic peptide, but not to atrial natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Gülberg, V; Gerbes, A L

    2003-01-01

    -type natriuretic peptide (CNP), both of which are vasodilators. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with cirrhosis, 14 non-cirrhotic patients with circulatory disturbances of the ischaemic and hypertensive type, and 10 healthy controls were investigated during a haemodynamic examination. RESULTS: The patients......BACKGROUND: Increased arterial compliance (COMPart) has recently been described in patients with cirrhosis, particularly in advanced disease. The aim of the present study was to relate COMPart with arterial levels of the circulating natriuretic peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C...... with cirrhosis showed the well-known hyperdynamic circulation with elevated cardiac output, low arterial blood pressure, and reduced systemic vascular resistance. COMPart in the patients with cirrhosis (1.30 mL/mmHg) was significantly (P

  19. Colchicine Depolymerizes Microtubules, Increases Junctophilin-2, and Improves Right Ventricular Function in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Tian, Lian; Wu, Danchen; Thenappan, Thenappan; Metzger, Joseph M; Archer, Stephen L

    2017-05-31

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease characterized by obstructive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Although RV function predicts outcomes in PAH, mechanisms of RV dysfunction are poorly understood, and RV-targeted therapies are lacking. We hypothesized that in PAH, abnormal microtubular structure in RV cardiomyocytes impairs RV function by reducing junctophilin-2 (JPH2) expression, resulting in t-tubule derangements. Conversely, we assessed whether colchicine, a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, could increase JPH2 expression and enhance RV function in monocrotaline-induced PAH. Immunoblots, confocal microscopy, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and treadmill testing were used to examine colchicine's (0.5 mg/kg 3 times/week) effects on pulmonary hemodynamics, RV function, and functional capacity. Rats were treated with saline (n=28) or colchicine (n=24) for 3 weeks, beginning 1 week after monocrotaline (60 mg/kg, subcutaneous). In the monocrotaline RV, but not the left ventricle, microtubule density is increased, and JPH2 expression is reduced, with loss of t-tubule localization and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves t-tubule morphology in RV cardiomyocytes. Colchicine therapy diminishes RV hypertrophy, improves RV function, and enhances RV-pulmonary artery coupling. Colchicine reduces small pulmonary arteriolar thickness and improves pulmonary hemodynamics. Finally, colchicine increases exercise capacity. Monocrotaline-induced PAH causes RV-specific derangement of microtubules marked by reduction in JPH2 and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves both t-tubule architecture and RV function. Colchicine also reduces adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results provide biological plausibility for a clinical trial to repurpose colchicine as a RV-directed therapy for PAH

  20. Impaired renal allograft function is associated with increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneifel, M; Scholze, A; Burkert, A

    2006-01-01

    It is important whether impairment of renal allograft function may deteriorate arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, arterial vascular characteristics were non-invasively determined in 48 patients with renal allograft using applanation tonometry and digital...... photoplethysmography. Mean age was 51 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM), and studies were performed 17 +/- 1 months after transplantation. The stage of chronic kidney disease was based on the glomerular filtration rate. We observed a significant association between the stage of chronic kidney disease and arterial stiffness...... of large arteries S1 and small arteries S2 in renal transplant recipients (each p renal allograft (p

  1. Hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor internalization independent of receptor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, J; Sikarwar, A S; Lizotte, P P; Hinton, M; Nolette, N; Dakshinamurti, S

    2015-02-01

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is characterized by sustained vasospasm and an increased thromboxane:prostacyclin ratio. Thromboxane (TP) receptors signal via Gαq to mobilize IP3 and Ca(2+), causing pulmonary arterial constriction. We have previously reported increased TP internalization in hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes. Serum-deprived PA myocytes were grown in normoxia (NM) or hypoxia (HM) for 72 h. TP localization was visualized in agonist-naïve and -challenged NM and HM by immunocytochemistry. Pathways for agonist-induced TP receptor internalization were determined by inhibiting caveolin- or clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolar fractionation. Roles of actin and tubulin in TP receptor internalization were assessed using inhibitors of tubulin, actin-stabilizing or -destabilizing agents. PKA, PKC or GRK activation and inhibition were used to determine the kinase responsible for post-agonist receptor internalization. Agonist-naïve HM had decreased cell surface TP, and greater TP internalization after agonist challenge. TP protein did not sort with caveolin-rich fractions. Inhibition of clathrin prevented TP internalization. Both actin-stabilizing and -destabilizing agents prevented TP endocytosis in NM, while normalizing TP internalization in HM. Velocity of TP internalization was unaffected by PKA activity, but PKC activation normalized TP receptor internalization in HM. GRK inhibition had no effect. We conclude that in hypoxic myocytes, TP is internalized faster and to a greater extent than in normoxic controls. Internalization of the agonist-challenged TP requires clathrin, dynamic actin and is sensitive to PKC activity. TP receptor trafficking and signaling in hypoxia are pivotal to understanding increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in temporal arteries from patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Malmsjö, Malin; Andersson, Christina

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Currently, giant cell arteritis (GCA) is primarily treated with corticosteroids or immunomodulating agents, but there is interest in identifying other noncorticosteroid alternatives. Similarities exist in the injury pathways between GCA and atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II is a vasoactive......, internal elastic lamina degeneration, and band-shaped infiltrates of inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, histocytes, and multinucleated giant cells. AT(1) receptor staining was primarily observed in the medial layer of the temporal arteries and was higher in the patients with GCA than in the control...... patients. This was a result of increased AT(1) receptor immunostaining of both vascular smooth muscle cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Only faint immunostaining was seen for AT(2) receptors, primarily in the endothelial cells, and to a lesser extent on the smooth muscle cells. Immunostaining...

  3. Diverticular disease is associated with increased risk of subsequent arterial and venous thromboembolic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Pedersen, Lars; Baron, John A; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-10-01

    Diverticular disease and cardiovascular disease share several risk factors. Inflammation associated with diverticular disease could predispose to cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between a diagnosis of diverticular disease and subsequent arterial and venous thromboembolic events, adjusting for related comorbidities to explore a possible causal relationship. We identified 77,065 incident cases of diverticular disease from 1980-2011 from Danish nationwide medical registries; these were matched for age and sex with 302,572 population comparison cohort members. Individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compute incidence rate ratios, comparing the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with diverticular disease with those of the population cohort members, adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, connective tissue disease, renal disease, and treatments and medications. The adjusted incidence rate ratios for patients with diverticular disease, compared with population cohort members, were 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.14) for acute myocardial infarction, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.08-1.15) for overall stroke, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43) for overall venous thromboembolism, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.09-1.48) for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The relative risk of each event remained increased after we adjusted for changes in aspirin use or for endoscopy or colorectal surgery after the diagnosis of diverticular disease. These findings also held after excluding the first year of follow-up and limiting the analysis to patients with diverticulitis. On the basis of an analysis of Danish medical registries, a diagnosis of diverticular disease is associated with a modest increase in risk of arterial and venous thromboembolic events after adjustment for related disorders

  4. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity increases more in patients with delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage after Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunozzi, Denise; Shakur, Sophia F; Hussein, Ahmed E; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Pipeline Embolization Devices (PED) are commonly used for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms but can be associated with delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage (DIPH). The role that altered intracranial hemodynamics may play in the pathophysiology of DIPH is poorly understood. We assess middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocity changes after PED deployment. Patients with aneurysms located proximal to the internal carotid artery terminus treated with PED at our institution between 2015 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if MCA flow velocities were measured using transcranial Doppler. Bilateral MCA flow velocities, ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral MCA flow velocity, and bilateral MCA pulsatility index before and after PED deployment were assessed. 10 patients of mean age 52 years were included. Two patients had DIPH within 48 hours after PED deployment. We observed that these two patients had a higher increase in ipsilateral MCA mean flow velocity after treatment compared with patients without DIPH (39.5% vs 5.5%). Additionally, before PED deployment, patients with DIPH had a higher ipsilateral MCA pulsatility index (1.55 vs 0.98) and a higher ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral MCA mean flow velocity (1.35 vs 1.04). After PED, ipsilateral MCA mean flow velocity increases more in patients with DIPH. These flow velocity changes suggest the possible role of altered distal intracranial hemodynamics in DIPH after PED treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Further data are required to confirm this observation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2018-02-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  6. Increased risk associated with pulmonary artery catheterization in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Steve G; Afessa, Bekele; Decker, Paul A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Offord, Kenneth P; Scott, John P

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether the frequency of use of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) was declining over a 5-year period in a medical intensive care unit (ICU), and to assess whether mortality was higher in patients in whom a PAC was used on the day of ICU admission compared with matched controls. Observational, retrospective, matched-set study using prospectively collected Acute Pysiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III data during a 5-year period, from 1995 to 2000, at a 15-bed medical ICU in an academic referral center. A total of 360 patients, 202 men and 158 women, in whom a PAC was placed on the first ICU day, were compared with 690 controls without a PAC, matched by primary diagnosis group and APACHE III-predicted hospital mortality. A PAC was used during the first day in 7.7% of ICU admissions (yearly range, 5.7% to 9.1%) and did not change significantly during the study period. A total of 187 study patients (27.0%) without a PAC and 132 (36.7%) with a PAC died during their hospital stay. PAC use was a significant risk factor for hospital death from a univariate analysis (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.1; P =.006). From multivariate analysis, the use of a pulmonary artery catheter was a significant risk factor for hospital death after adjusting for age, date of ICU admission, and predicted hospital mortality (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI; 1.1-2.0; P =.016). PAC use on the day of admission to a medical ICU was associated with an increased risk for hospital death.

  7. Nitric Oxide Increases Arterial Endotheial Permeability through Mediating VE-Cadherin Expression during Arteriogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Yang

    Full Text Available Macrophage invasion is an important event during arteriogenesis, but the underlying mechanism is still only partially understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO and VE-cadherin, two key mediators for vascular permeability, contribute to this event in a rat ischemic hindlimb model. In addition, the effect of NO on expression of VE-caherin and endothelial permeability was also studied in cultured HUVECs. We found that: 1 in normal arteriolar vessels (NAV, eNOS was moderately expressed in endothelial cells (EC and iNOS was rarely detected. In contrast, in collateral vessels (CVs induced by simple femoral artery ligation, both eNOS and iNOS were significantly upregulated (P<0.05. Induced iNOS was found mainly in smooth muscle cells, but also in other vascular cells and macrophages; 2 in NAV VE-cadherin was strongly expressed in EC. In CVs, VE-cadherin was significantly downregulated, with a discontinuous and punctate pattern. Administration of nitric oxide donor DETA NONOate (NONOate further reduced the amounts of Ve-cadherin in CVs, whereas NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME inhibited downregulation of VE-cadherin in CVs; 3 in normal rats Evans blue extravasation (EBE was low in the musculus gracilis, FITC-dextron leakage was not detected in the vascular wall and few macrophages were observed in perivascular space. In contrast, EBE was significantly increased in femoral artery ligation rats, FITC-dextron leakage and increased amounts of macrophages were detected in CVs, which were further enhanced by administration of NONOate, but inhibited by L-NAME supplement; 4 in vitro experiments confirmed that an increase in NO production reduced VE-cadherin expression, correlated with increases in the permeability of HUVECs. In conclusion, our data for the first time reveal the expression profile of VE-cadherin and alterations of vascular permeability in CVs, suggesting that NO-mediated VE-cadherin pathway may be one important

  8. Increased risk of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with Bell's palsy using population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Li-Syue; Chang, Chih-Ya; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This population-based cohort study investigated the risk of developing peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with Bell's palsy. We used longitudinal claims data of health insurance of Taiwan to identify 5,152 patients with Bell's palsy newly diagnosed in 2000-2010 and a control cohort of 20,608 patients without Bell's palsy matched by propensity score. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of PAOD were assessed by the end of 2013. The incidence of PAOD was approximately 1.5 times greater in the Bell's palsy group than in the non-Bell's palsy controls (7.75 vs. 4.99 per 1000 person-years). The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis measured adjusted HR was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35-1.76) for the Bell's palsy group compared to the non-Bell's palsy group, after adjusting for sex, age, occupation, income and comorbidities. Men were at higher risk of PAOD than women in the Bell's palsy group, but not in the controls. The incidence of PAOD increased with age in both groups, but the Bell's palsy group to control group HR of PAOD decreased as age increased. The systemic steroid treatment reduced 13% of PAOD hazard for Bell's palsy patients, compared to those without the treatment, but not significant. Bell's palsy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing PAOD. Further pathophysiologic, histopathology and immunologic research is required to explore the underlying biologic mechanism.

  9. Increased risk of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with Bell's palsy using population data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Syue Liou

    Full Text Available This population-based cohort study investigated the risk of developing peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD in patients with Bell's palsy.We used longitudinal claims data of health insurance of Taiwan to identify 5,152 patients with Bell's palsy newly diagnosed in 2000-2010 and a control cohort of 20,608 patients without Bell's palsy matched by propensity score. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR of PAOD were assessed by the end of 2013.The incidence of PAOD was approximately 1.5 times greater in the Bell's palsy group than in the non-Bell's palsy controls (7.75 vs. 4.99 per 1000 person-years. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis measured adjusted HR was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.35-1.76 for the Bell's palsy group compared to the non-Bell's palsy group, after adjusting for sex, age, occupation, income and comorbidities. Men were at higher risk of PAOD than women in the Bell's palsy group, but not in the controls. The incidence of PAOD increased with age in both groups, but the Bell's palsy group to control group HR of PAOD decreased as age increased. The systemic steroid treatment reduced 13% of PAOD hazard for Bell's palsy patients, compared to those without the treatment, but not significant.Bell's palsy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing PAOD. Further pathophysiologic, histopathology and immunologic research is required to explore the underlying biologic mechanism.

  10. Obesity-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats correlates with increased circulating inflammatory cytokines and lipids and with oxidant damage in the arterial wall but not with hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, David C.; Garat, Chrystelle V.; Crossno, Joseph T.; MacLean, Paul S.; Sullivan, Timothy M.; Erickson, Paul F.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Harral, Julie W.; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is causally linked to a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and cancer. Obesity has also been linked to pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was long believed that obesity-related PAH was the result of hypoventilation and hypoxia due to the increased mechanical load of excess body fat. However, in recent years it has been proposed that the metabolic and inflammatory disturbances of obesity may also...

  11. Prenatal and early-life exposure to high-level diesel exhaust particles leads to increased locomotor activity and repetitive behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirtamara Rajamani, Keerthi; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Bolden, Crystal; Willis, Daniel; Hoffman, Carol; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gu, Howard

    2013-08-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, limited knowledge is available concerning these contributing factors. An epidemiology study reported a link between increased incidence of autism and living closely to major highways, suggesting a possible role for pollutants from highway traffic. We investigated whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) negatively affects fetal development leading to autism-like phenotype in mice. Female mice and their offspring were exposed to DEP during pregnancy and nursing. Adult male offspring were then tested for behaviors reflecting the typical symptoms of ASD patients. Compared to control mice, DEP-exposed offspring exhibited higher locomotor activity, elevated levels of self-grooming in the presence of an unfamiliar mouse, and increased rearing behaviors, which may be relevant to the restricted and repetitive behaviors seen in ASD patients. However, the DEP-exposed mice did not exhibit deficits in social interactions or social communication which are the key features of ASD. These results suggest that early life exposure to DEP could have an impact on mouse development leading to observable changes in animal behaviors. Further studies are needed to reveal other environmental insults and genetic factors that would lead to animal models expressing key phenotypes of the autism spectrum disorders. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Absence of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness in infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Çağan, Havva Hasret; Selver Eklioğlu, Beray; Oran, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are considered as a risk group for atherosclerosis. Increased aortic intima-media thickness has been reported in IDM. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and atherosclerotic risk factors in IDM. Thirty IDM and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Of these infants, 14 were appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) and 16 were large-for-gestational age (LGA). CA-IMT and LVMI were obtained by M-mode echocardiographic examination. The relationship between parameters of atherosclerosis and echocardiographic measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation analysis. LVMI was higher in LGA IDM when compared to AGA IDM and controls. CA-IMT was not significantly different between the groups and was also not related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Serum lipid and insulin levels were higher in LGA IDM when compared with AGA IDM and controls. There were no correlations between CA-IMT, LVMI and atherosclerotic risk factors. In contrast to previous reports indicating an increase in CA-IMT in IDM, no differences were found between IDM and controls in this study. Our results indicate that macrosomic IDM are prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but not to atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels.

  13. Diesel exhaust particles increase IL-1β-induced human β-defensin expression via NF-κB-mediated pathway in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensin (hBD-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. Results IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional level. In addition, DEP further induced the NF-κB activation in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells more rapidly than in unstimulated control cells, which was showed by nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and degradation of IκB-α. The experiment using two NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC and MG132, confirmed that this increase of hBD-2 expression following DEP exposure was regulated through NF-κB-mediated pathway. Conclusion These results demonstrated that DEP exposure increases the expression of antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory cytokine at the transcriptional level in IL-1β-primed A549 epithelial cells and suggested that the increase is mediated at least partially through NF-κB activation. Therefore, DEP exposure may contribute to enhance the airway-responsiveness especially on the patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease.

  14. Increased rate of arterial stiffening with obesity in adolescents: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Dangardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We prospectively and longitudinally determined the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes. Changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV and vascular morphology of the radial (RA and dorsal pedal arteries (DPA were examined in obese adolescents compared to lean subjects in a 5-year follow-up study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline (14 years old and follow-up studies. PWV was measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor® and recorded at RA and carotid artery, respectively. Intima thickness (IT, intima-media thickness (IMT and RA and DPA diameters were measured using high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 770™. Over the course of 5 years, PWV increased by 25% in the obese subjects as compared to 3% in the controls (p = 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP increased by 23% in the obese subjects as opposed to 6% in controls (p = 0.009. BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the IT and IMT. The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI z -score (r = 0.51, p<0.001, as was the change in DBP (r = 0.50, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the transition from early to late adolescence, there was a general increase in arterial stiffness, which was aggravated by childhood obesity. The increase in arterial stiffness and DBP after 5 years was closely correlated to the baseline BMI z -score, indicating that childhood obesity has an adverse impact on vascular adaptation.

  15. Association of increased triglyceride levels in metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helvaci, M.R.; Kaya, H.; Gundogdu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We tried to understand significance of increased triglyceride (TG) values in metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methodology: Check up cases with a TG value lower than 60 mg/dL were collected into the first, between 60 and 99 mg/dL into the second, between 100 and 149 mg/dL into the third, between 150 and 199 into the fourth, and 200 mg/dL and greater into the fifth groups. Results: Study included 478 cases. Values of the mean age, weight, body mass index, TG, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevalence of smoking, white coat hypertension (WCH), hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and CAD increased gradually and significantly nearly in all steps from the first towards the fifth groups. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome may be a progression step between complete physical health and irreversible end points, such as obesity, type 2 DM, HT, CAD, and stroke. Hypertriglyceridemia and White Coat Hypertension (WCH) may be the most significant reversible parameters of the syndrome, and it is better to have the lowest TG value as much as possible. The most significant increase was seen after the value of 100 mg/dL. The overweight, smoking, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, and WCH may only be one of hundreds of parameters of the syndrome. Therefore, it is advisable that underlying etiologies rather than reversible parameters of the syndrome should be targeted for treatment. For example, increased TG and LDL-C values, and prevalence of WCH by aging may be secondary to decreased physical and mental stresses in elderly. (author)

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yun, Miaoying; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Shengxu; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Hua, Yingxiao; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Tao; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Johnson, Carolyn C; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association of SHS exposure in childhood and adulthood with adult arterial thickness. The study cohort consisted of 415 nonsmoking adults (301 whites and 114 blacks; ages 26.2-48.0 years) enrolled in 2004-2010. The arterial wall thickness was measured as common, bulb and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). SHS exposure data in childhood and adulthood were obtained by a questionnaire survey. Increased adult composite carotid IMT was significantly associated with SHS exposure (regression coefficient, β = 53.1 μm, p effect may be mitigated and controlled early in the cardiovascular disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa; Araújo, Julia F.P. de; Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Graceli, Jones B.; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration–response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT 1 receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O 2 − production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride reduces estrogen levels in female rats. • Treatment with TBT

  18. Coronary artery disease is associated with an increased mortality rate following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandri, Alberto; Petersen, Rene Horsleben; Decaluwé, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Multicentre retrospective analysis of 1699 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy...

  19. Increase of pulmonary arterial pressure in subjects with venous gas emboli after uncomplicated recreational SCUBA diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Scalzini, Alessandro; Chiesa, Ferruccio

    2013-04-01

    The presence of circulating gas bubbles has been repeatedly reported after uncomplicated SCUBA dives. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon is still under debate but some experimental data suggest that silent bubbles may have a damaging potential on pulmonary endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible hemodynamic effect on pulmonary circulation of post-dive circulating gas bubbles. To this aim, 16 experienced divers were studied by Doppler-echocardiography in basal conditions and 2.0 ± 0.15 h after an uncomplicated, unrestricted recreational SCUBA dive. At the post-dive examination, circulating bubbles were present in 10/16 subjects (62.5%). Divers with circulating bubbles showed a significant post-dive increase of pulmonary systolic arterial pressure (evaluated by the maximal velocity of the physiological tricuspid regurgitation; P dive decrease of transmitral E/A ratio (index of left ventricular diastolic function: subjects with bubbles P dive diastolic function changes, observed in both groups, may be explained by a preload reduction due to immersion natriuresis. The results of the present study add some evidence that post-dive circulating bubbles, although symptomless, have an easily detectable pathogenetic potential, inducing unfavorable hemodynamic changes in the lesser circulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  1. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa; de Araújo, Julia F P; Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2016-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT1 receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O2(-) production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution promotes adverse intrauterine conditions, resulting in weight gain, altered blood pressure, and increased susceptibility to heart failure in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad S Weldy

    Full Text Available Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM₂.₅ is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM₂.₅ during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE air pollution, a major source of urban PM₂.₅, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (≈300 µg/m³ PM₂.₅, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week from embryonic day (E 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE 'reprograms' the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental

  3. Exhaust gas filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tadamasa; Hiraki, Akimitsu.

    1993-01-01

    A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

  4. Isolated single umbilical artery poses neonates at increased risk of long-term respiratory morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharier, Ofer; Sheiner, Eyal; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniela; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Walfisch, Asnat

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. Soroka University Medical Center. all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013. hospitalization due to respiratory morbidity. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of respiratory morbidity. A Cox hazards model analysis was used to establish an independent association between iSUA and pediatric respiratory morbidity of the offspring while controlling for clinically relevant confounders. The study included 232,281 deliveries. 0.3% were of newborns with iSUA (n = 766). Newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher rate of long-term respiratory morbidity compared to newborns without iSUA (7.6 vs 5.5%, p = 0.01). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of respiratory hospitalizations (log rank = 0.006). In the Cox model, while controlling for the maternal age, gestational age, and birthweight, iSUA at term was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term respiratory morbidity (adjusted HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.81; p = 0.012). Newborns with iSUA are at an increased risk for long-term respiratory morbidity.

  5. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Middle cerebral arterial flow changes on transcranial color and spectral Doppler sonography in patients with increased intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Duan, Yun-You; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Yuan, Li-Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Li-Hong; Li, Liang

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial pressure usually increases after severe brain injury. However, a method for noninvasive evaluation of intracranial pressure is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of transcranial color Doppler sonography in assessing intracranial pressure by observing the middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters in patients with increased intracranial pressure of varying etiology. The hemodynamic changes in the middle cerebral artery in patients with varying degrees of increased intracranial pressure were investigated by transcranial color Doppler sonography in 93 patients who had emergency surgery for brain injury. Middle cerebral artery Doppler flow spectra changed regularly as intracranial pressure increased. The pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) had a significantly positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.90 and 0.89, respectively; Pintracranial pressure (r = -0.52; Pintracranial pressure, with sensitivity of 0.885 and specificity of 0.970. In addition to the PI and RI, middle cerebral artery diastolic flow velocity measurement by transcranial color Doppler sonography may also be a useful variable for evaluating intracranial pressure in patients with acute brain injury. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without...... manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus......-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95...

  8. T cell exhaustion and immune-mediated disease-the potential for therapeutic exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Eoin F; Smith, Kenneth Gc

    2016-12-01

    T cell exhaustion represents a continuous spectrum of cellular dysfunction induced during chronic viral infection, facilitating viral persistence and associating with poor clinical outcome. Modulation of T cell exhaustion can restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells, promoting viral clearance. Exhaustion has also been implicated as playing an important role in anti-tumour responses, whereby exhausted tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes fail to control tumour progression. More recently exhaustion has been linked to long-term clinical outcome in multiple autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to cancer or infection, it is associated with a favourable clinical outcome characterised by fewer relapses. An increasing understanding of key inhibitory signals promoting exhaustion has led to advances in therapy for chronic infection and cancer. An increasing understanding of this biology may facilitate novel treatment approaches for autoimmunity through the therapeutic induction of exhaustion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Vital exhaustion increases the risk of ischemic stroke in women but not in men: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Henriette; Marott, Jacob Louis; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have indicated an association between depression and the development of stroke, but few studies have focused on gender differences, although both depression and stroke are more common in women than in men. The aim of the present study was to describe whether vital exhaustion...

  10. The costly burden of an inauthentic self: insecure self-esteem predisposes to emotional exhaustion by increasing reactivity to negative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Perinelli, Enrico; De Longis, Evelina; Rosa, Valentina; Theodorou, Annalisa; Borgogni, Laura

    2017-11-01

    A long research tradition has investigated the impact of stress on university students by assuming that individuals have a limited reservoir of resources, and that negative events and circumstances progressively drain resources thereby producing exhaustion. A recent research tradition, instead, has focused on the detrimental consequences of discrepant levels of implicit (ISE) and explicit (ESE) self-esteem on the development of stress-related symptoms. The present research attempted to merge the aforementioned approaches, with the aim of explaining significant predictors of stress. Within the framework of a Longitudinal Structural Equation Model, we followed a moderated-mediated approach. A sample of university students (N = 209; 66% females) completed a questionnaire battery including measures of ISE, ESE, perceptions of negative events, and emotional exhaustion. Participants were assessed once a week for eight consecutive weeks. ISE significantly moderated the relationship between ESE and negative events; in turn, the latter significantly predicted emotional exhaustion. Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation showed that negative events significantly mediated the relationship between incongruent self-esteem and emotional exhaustion. The detrimental role of incongruent self-esteem has been corroborated. Practical implications and suggestions for future research dealing with stress in a university setting were provided.

  11. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in presence of low perfusion pressure increases infarct size in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Nedergaard, Majken; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    0.005), which in turn had larger infarcts than the sham-operated animals (p less than 0.001). These results indicate that patients with hypoperfusion, due to severe ICA stenosis and impaired collateral blood supply, are at higher risk of developing major stroke, when embolism into a cerebral artery...

  12. Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Humaira; Sultan, Fateh Ali Tipoo; Iqbal, Romaina; Gilani, Anwar Hassan

    2015-10-01

    More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol ≤100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial. A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol

  13. Increased brachial artery retrograde shear rate at exercise onset is abolished during prolonged cycling: role of thermoregulatory vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Grant H; Padilla, Jaume; Young, Colin N; Wong, Brett J; Lang, James A; Davis, Michael J; Laughlin, M Harold; Fadel, Paul J

    2011-02-01

    Acute leg exercise increases brachial artery retrograde shear rate (SR), while chronic exercise improves vasomotor function. These combined observations are perplexing given the proatherogenic impacts of retrograde shear stress on the vascular endothelium and may be the result of brief protocols used to study acute exercise responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that brachial artery retrograde SR increases initially but subsequently decreases in magnitude during prolonged leg cycling. Additionally, we tested the role of cutaneous vasodilation in the elimination of increased retrograde SR during prolonged exercise. Brachial artery diameter and velocity profiles and forearm skin blood flow and temperature were measured at rest and during 50 min of steady-state, semirecumbent leg cycling (120 W) in 14 males. Exercise decreased forearm vascular conductance (FVC) and increased retrograde SR at 5 min (both P minutes 30 and 40 to blunt cutaneous vasodilation attending exercise, FVC was reduced and the magnitude of retrograde SR was increased from -49.7 ± 13.6 to -78.4 ± 16.5 s(-1) (P cycling subsequently returns toward baseline values due in part to thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodilation during prolonged exercise.

  14. Differential increases in blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Y; Kawauchi, C H; Ide, M; Saito, S; Mizutani, A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol on cerebral blood flow velocity after tourniquet deflation during orthopaedic surgery. Thirty patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery were randomly divided into sevoflurane, isoflurane and propofol groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, isoflurane or propofol infusion in 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide, in whatever concentrations were necessary to keep bispectral index values between 45 and 50. Ventilatory rate or tidal volume was adjusted to target PaCO2 of 35 mmHg. A 2.0 MHz transcranial Doppler probe was attached to the patient's head at the temporal window and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was continuously measured. The extremity was exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage and the pneumatic tourniquet was inflated to a pressure of 450 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, velocity in the middle cerebral artery and arterial blood gas analysis were measured every minute for 10 minutes after release of the tourniquet in all three groups. Velocity in the middle cerebral artery in the three groups increased for five minutes after tourniquet deflation. Because of the different cerebrovascular effects of the three agents, the degree of increase in flow velocity in the isoflurane group was greater than in the other two groups, the change in flow velocity in the propofol group being the lowest (at three minutes after deflation 40 +/- 7%, 32 +/- 6% and 28 +/- 10% in the isoflurane, sevoflurane and propofol groups respectively, P < 0.05).

  15. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  16. Vital exhaustion increases the risk of ischemic stroke in women but not in men: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Henriette; Marott, Jacob Louis; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have indicated an association between depression and the development of stroke, but few studies have focused on gender differences, although both depression and stroke are more common in women than in men. The aim of the present study was to describe whether vital exhaustion, a me......, a measure of fatigue and depression, prospectively predicts ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in a large cohort, with particular focus on gender differences.......Several studies have indicated an association between depression and the development of stroke, but few studies have focused on gender differences, although both depression and stroke are more common in women than in men. The aim of the present study was to describe whether vital exhaustion...

  17. Serum Osteoprotegerin is Increased and Independently Associated with Coronary-Artery Atherosclerosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Yu; Chung, Cecilia P.; Oeser, Annette; Solus, Joseph F.; Avalos, Ingrid; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Shintani, Ayumi; Raggi, Paolo; Sokka, Tuulikki; Pincus, Theodore; Stein, C. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand, is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have inflammation and increased atherosclerosis. We examined the hypothesis that OPG concentrations are increased in patients with RA and are associated with coronary-artery atherosclerosis. Serum OPG concentrations were measured by ELISA and coronary-artery calcification by electron beam computer tomography in 157 patients with RA and 87 control subjects. OPG concentrations were higher in patients with long-standing RA (n=67) [median (interquartile range)]: [1895 (1337–2847) pg/mL, and early RA (n=90): [1340 (1021–1652) pg/mL, than controls 1068 (692–1434) pg/ml; (P<0.001)]. In patients with RA, OPG concentrations were associated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p<0.001), homocysteine (p=0.001), disease duration (p=0.02), coronary calcium score (p=0.03), and cumulative dose of corticosteroids (p=0.04) after adjustment for age and sex. In patients with long-standing RA, OPG was associated with coronary artery calcification independently of cardiovascular risk factors and disease activity [OR for every increase in 500 pg/mL of OPG = 2.22 (1.43–3.34), p<0.001]. In conclusion, OPG concentrations are increased in patients with RA and are associated with inflammation. In patients with long-standing disease, OPG is independently associated with coronary-artery calcification. PMID:17570371

  18. Does increased aortic stiffness predict reduced coronary flow velocity reserve in patients with suspected coronary artery disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, A; Csanády, M; Forster, T

    2012-09-01

    In recent studies, reduction in coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR) has been demonstrated in patients with increased aortic stiffness. Stress transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a suitable method for the simultaneous evaluation of CFR and aortic stiffness parameters. The present study was designed to test whether increased echocardiography-derived aortic elastic modulus [E(p)] predicts impaired CFR in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study comprised 158 patients with suspected CAD. A CFR value reduced CFR (HE 1.10, p < 0.05). Increased aortic stiffness predicts impaired CFR in patients with suspected CAD.

  19. Increased mean arterial pressure and aldosterone-to-renin ratio in Persian cats with polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Karen M; Pedersen, Henrik D; Häggström, Jens; Koch, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Persian cats has been increasingly reported and compared to human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the last decade. In cats, however, few studies have dealt with the occurrence and hormonal determinants of hypertension, one of the most common extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare Persian cats >4 years old with PKD to unaffected control cats with regard to blood pressure (BP), plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone concentration, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration, and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR). Three gender- and age-matched groups were studied, each consisting of 7 cats: (1) a control group without cysts, (2) a group with mild PKD, and (3) a group with severe PKD (multiple cysts and renal enlargement). Mild renal insufficiency was found in only 1 of 14 cats with PKD. Cats with PKD had a higher mean arterial pressure (P = .04) and more often had a high ARR (P = .047) than did control cats. Tendencies toward higher diastolic and systolic arterial pressures (DAPs and SAPs, respectively) and lower PRAs were observed in cats with PKD compared to controls (.05 cats had echocardiographic evidence of cardiac hypertrophy. In conclusion, cats with PKD had a minor increase in mean arterial pressure compared to control cats, and half of the cats had a high ARR.

  20. Obesity-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats correlates with increased circulating inflammatory cytokines and lipids and with oxidant damage in the arterial wall but not with hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David C; Garat, Chrystelle V; Crossno, Joseph T; MacLean, Paul S; Sullivan, Timothy M; Erickson, Paul F; Jackman, Matthew R; Harral, Julie W; Reusch, Jane E B; Klemm, Dwight J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is causally linked to a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and cancer. Obesity has also been linked to pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was long believed that obesity-related PAH was the result of hypoventilation and hypoxia due to the increased mechanical load of excess body fat. However, in recent years it has been proposed that the metabolic and inflammatory disturbances of obesity may also play a role in the development of PAH. To determine whether PAH develops in obese rats in the absence of hypoxia, we assessed pulmonary hemodynamics and pulmonary artery (PA) structure in the diet-resistant/diet-induced obesity (DR/DIO) and Zucker lean/fatty rat models. We found that high-fat feeding (DR/DIO) or overfeeding (Zucker) elicited PA remodeling, neomuscularization of distal arterioles, and elevated PA pressure, accompanied by right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. PA thickening and distal neomuscularization were also observed in DIO rats on a low-fat diet. No evidence of hypoventilation or chronic hypoxia was detected in either model, nor was there a correlation between blood glucose or insulin levels and PAH. However, circulating inflammatory cytokine levels were increased with high-fat feeding or calorie overload, and hyperlipidemia and oxidant damage in the PA wall correlated with PAH in the DR/DIO model. We conclude that hyperlipidemia and peripheral inflammation correlate with the development of PAH in obese subjects. Obesity-related inflammation may predispose to PAH even in the absence of hypoxia.

  1. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Habibollah; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Ghanemnia, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Safi, Morteza; Vakili, Hosein; Dabbagh, Ali; Gholami, Omid

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra) were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml) tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that), although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  2. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in the coronary artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Saadat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. PURPOSE: To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. METHODS: The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. RESULTS: IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that, although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. CONCLUSION: Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  3. Hemodialysis catheter insertion: is increased PO2 a sign of arterial cannulation? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Julio C; Neyra, Javier A; Patel, Jiten; Rodan, Aylin R

    2014-07-29

    Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) for temporary vascular access, preferably using the right internal jugular vein, is widely accepted by nephrologists. However CVC is associated with numerous potential complications, including death. We describe the finding of a rare left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection during central venous catheterization for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large bore temporary dual-lumen Quinton-Mahurkar catheter into the left internal jugular vein was performed for CRRT initiation in a 66 year old African-American with sepsis-related oliguric acute kidney injury. The post-procedure chest X-ray suggested inadvertent left carotid artery cannulation. Blood gases obtained from the catheter showed high partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of 140 mmHg and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) of 22 mmHg, suggestive of arterial cannulation. However, the pressure-transduced wave forms appeared venous and Computed Tomography Angiography located the catheter in the left internal jugular vein, but demonstrated that the tip of the catheter was lying over a left pulmonary vein which was abnormally draining into the left brachiocephalic (innominate) vein rather than into the left atrium. Although several mechanical complications of dialysis catheters have been described, ours is one of the few cases of malposition into an anomalous pulmonary vein, and highlights a sequential approach to properly identify the catheter location in this uncommon clinical scenario.

  4. Increased large artery intima media thickness in adolescents with either classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, M; Balsamo, A; Valenzise, M; Manganaro, A; Faggioli, G; Bombaci, S; Conti, V; Ferri, M; Aversa, T; Cicognani, A; De Luca, F

    2013-01-01

    Increased artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was found in adults with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). No data are available in patients with non-classical (NC) CAH. To evaluate IMT in adolescents with classical and NC CAH and to compare the results with those recorded in a control population. Eighteen adolescents with either classical (Subgroup A1) or NC CAH (Subgroup A2) were compared with 16 controls (Group B). All subjects underwent IMT ultrasonography measurement at different sites; results were correlated with clinical, metabolic, and insulin resistance (IR) data. When compared with Group B, both subgroups exhibited higher IMT values at all sites. No differences were found between classical and NC CAH. Univariate analysis of factors impacting on IMT of CAH patients demonstrated that: a) abdominal aorta (AA) IMT was positively correlated with cumulative glucocorticoid doses, triglyceride serum levels, and diastolic blood pressure SD score and negatively with androstenendione and ACTH levels; b) common carotid (CC) IMT was positively associated with triglycerides and triglyceride/HDL ratio. At multiple regression analysis, the independent positive predictors of AA and CC IMT were respectively triglyceride levels and triglyceride/HDL ratio. a) Even adolescents with NC CAH and not only those with classical form may be at higher risk of artery alterations; b) this risk is not necessarily associated with either obesity or waist/height ratio or dyslipidemia; c) an important role in the pathogenesis of artery alterations in CAH may be played by intermittent iatrogenic hypercortisolism and secondary IR.

  5. Iron Deficiency in COPD Associates with Increased Pulmonary Artery Pressure Estimated by Echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Louis L; Schoos, Mikkel M; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency (ID) might augment chronic pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This observational study investigates the association between ID and systolic pulmonary artery pressure estimated by echocardiography in non-anaemic COPD outpatients...... Vmax indicative of pulmonary hypertension was considered present for values ≥ 2.9 m/s. RESULTS: In a total of 75 included patients, 31 (41%) had ID. These patients had a significantly higher TR Vmax (3.02 vs. 2.77 m/s, p=0.01) and lower diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (40% vs. 50% of predicted, p......0.05). Ferritin inversely correlated with TR Vmax in ID patients (-0.37 (p=0.04)). The prevalence of TR Vmax ≥ 2.9 m/s was twice as high in patients with ID (58% vs. 29%) and odds ratio of pulmonary hypertension in ID...

  6. Hypoxia increases ROS signaling and cytosolic Ca(2+) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of mouse lungs slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desireddi, Jennifer R; Farrow, Kathryn N; Marks, Jeremy D; Waypa, Gregory B; Schumacker, Paul T

    2010-03-01

    Precapillary arteries constrict during alveolar hypoxia in a response known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). The mechanism by which pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) detect a decrease in Po(2) and trigger contraction is not fully understood. Previous studies in cultured PASMCs show that hypoxia induces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but these results may not reflect responses of PASMCs in their native tissue environment. We therefore assessed hypoxia-induced changes in cytosolic ROS in PASMCs of precision-cut mouse lung slices expressing the redox-sensitive protein, RoGFP. Superfusion of lung slices with hypoxic media (1.5% O(2)) resulted in a significant oxidation of RoGFP from normoxic baseline that was attenuated by overexpression of cytosolic catalase. Hypoxic superfusion also increased [Ca(2+)](i) above normoxic baseline; this response was significantly attenuated by cytosolic catalase overexpression or by the administration of EUK134, a synthetic SOD-catalase mimetic. The hypoxia-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), indicating that ROS signals trigger entry of extracellular calcium. Collectively, these results indicate that an increase in cytosolic ROS signaling is required for the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs in precision-cut mouse lung slices during the acute HPV response.

  7. Increased tea consumption is associated with decreased arterial stiffness in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tea has attracted considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects. The primary chemical components of tea are thought to have a beneficial effect by reducing arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to assess the association between tea consumption and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV in a relatively healthy Chinese population. METHODS: We enrolled 3,135 apparently healthy subjects from October 2006 to August 2009. Subjects taking medication for diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, or with a history of cardiovascular disease, were excluded from the study. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to their tea-drinking habits: (1 none to low (n = 1615, defined as non-habitual tea drinkers, or drinking for 450 mL per day. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether different levels of consumption were independently associated with the highest quartile of baPWV values, defined as ≥1428.5 cm/s. RESULTS: Of the 3,135 subjects, 48.5% had drunk >150 mL of tea per day for at least 1 year. In multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for co-variables, including, age, sex, current smoking, alcohol use, habitual exercise, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio >5, obesity, newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes, subjects with high tea consumption had a decreased risk of highest quartile of baPWV by 22% (odds ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.98, p = 0.032, while subjects with moderate tea consumption did not (p = 0.742, as compared subjects with none to low tea consumption. CONCLUSIONS: High, but not moderate, habitual tea consumption may decrease arterial stiffness.

  8. Increased sensitivity of prolonged P-wave during exercise stress test in detection of angiographically documented coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wsol, Agnieszka; Wydra, Wioletta; Chmielewski, Marek; Swiatowiec, Andrzej; Kuch, Marek

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study was designed to investigate P-wave duration changes in exercise stress test (EST) for the prediction of angiographically documented substantial coronary artery disease (CAD). We analyzed 265 cases of patients, who underwent EST and subsequently coronary angiography. Analysis of P-wave duration was performed in leads II, V5 at rest, and in the recovery period. The sensitivity and specificity for the isolated ST-segment depression were only 31% and 76%, respectively. The combination of ST-depression with other exercise-induced clinical and electrocardio-graphic abnormalities (chest pain, ventricular arrhythmia, hypotension, left bundle branch block) was characterized by 41% sensitivity and 69% specificity. The combination of abnormal recovery P-wave duration (≥ 120 ms) with ST-depression and other exercise-induced abnormalities had 83% sensitivity but only 20% specificity. Combined analysis of increased delta P-wave duration, ST-depression and other exercise-induced abnormalities had 69% sensitivity and 42% specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of the increase in delta P-wave duration for left CAD was 69% and 47%, respectively, and for 3-vessel CAD 70% and 50%, respectively. The presence of arterial hypertension negatively influenced the prog-nostic value of P-wave changes in the stress test. The results of the study show that an addition of P-wave duration changes assessment to ST-depression analysis and other exercise-induced abnormalities increase sensitivity of EST, especially for left CAD and 3-vessel coronary disease. We have also provided evidence for the negative influence of the presence of arterial hypertension on the predictive value of P-wave changes in the stress test. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 2: 159-166).

  9. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  10. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  11. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  12. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Pierfrancesco; Guido, Marcello; Chiavaroli, Roberto; Zizza, Antonella

    2010-06-30

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality.Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome) is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease.The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT), a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI), an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%). Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  13. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chih-Hao; Lin, Te-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate the association between pneumoconiosis and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We identified 3374 patients with pneumoconiosis from the catastrophic illness registry who were newly diagnosed from 2000 to 2005; 13,496 patients without pneumoconiosis from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) were randomly frequency matched according to sex, age, and index year and used as a nonpneumoconiosis group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of PAD in the pneumoconiosis group compared with the nonpneumoconiosis group. The mean follow-up years were 7.44 years in the pneumoconiosis group and 8.17 years in the nonpneumoconiosis group. The incidence density rate of PAD was 1.25 times greater in the pneumoconiosis group than in the nonpneumoconiosis group (8.37 vs 6.70 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidities, the adjusted HRs of PAD for the pneumoconiosis group were 1.30 (95% CI = 1.08-1.57), compared with the nonpneumoconiosis group. The combined impacts of patients with pneumoconiosis and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma showed a significant by joint association with PAD risk compared with patients with no pneumoconiosis and no counterpart comorbidity. Patients with pneumoconiosis have an independently higher risk of developing PAD. Physicians should include pneumoconiosis in evaluating PAD risk.

  14. Low Physical Activity Is Associated With Increased Arterial Stiffness in Patients Recently Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Kristian L; Laugesen, Esben; Høyem, Pernille; Fleischer, Jesper; Cichosz, Simon L; Christiansen, Jens S; Hansen, Troels K; Poulsen, Per L

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have indicated that low physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes. The association between physical activity and subclinical cardiovascular changes preceding clinical events remains to be elucidated. We investigated the relationship between physical activity and arterial stiffness, an independent predictor of CVD, in patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. We included 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 sex- and age-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, cfPWV) was measured using the SphygmoCor device (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia). Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer (counts per minute (cpm), Actiheart (CamNtech, Cambridge, UK)) worn by the participants for up to 6 days. High vs. low levels of physical activity was defined according to the median level of activity (cpm = 31). Sixty-five patients and 65 controls were included in the final analysis (median age 59 years, 55% men, median diabetes duration 1.9 years). Participants with low physical activity had higher cfPWV compared to participants with high physical activity: (i) Patients and controls combined: 9.3±1.7 m/s vs. 7.8±1.5 m/s, P diabetes: 9.5±1.8 m/s vs. 8.3±1.6 m/s, P = 0.02 and C) Controls: 9.0±1.4 m/s vs. 7.7±1.4 m/s, P diabetes and the effect of low activity was seen. Low physical activity is associated with increased arterial stiffness in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and in healthy controls. Trial Number NCT00674271. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  18. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Elie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS, as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT, monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE. Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature

  19. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfmüller, Peter; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Giannakouli, Maria; Durand-Gasselin, Ingrid; Raymond, Nicolas; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Charlotte, Frédéric; Montani, David; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric

    2011-09-09

    Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs) infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS), as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT), monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE). Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine) in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature. Immunolabeling for OX62, CD68 and actin revealed

  20. Increased prevalence of preeclampsia among women undergoing procedural intervention for renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Chardonnay J; Taylor, Robert N; Craven, Timothy E; Edwards, Matthew S; Corriere, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    Renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia (RA-FMD) has a higher prevalence among women and a presumed hormonal etiology. Although preeclampsia has a clinical presentation similar to symptomatic RA-FMD and occurs exclusively in women, associations between these 2 diseases have not been characterized. To explore epidemiologic associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia, we administered a validated screening instrument for preeclampsia to a cohort of women with a history of pregnancy who had previously been treated with procedural intervention for symptomatic RA stenosis. Women with a history of pregnancy who had previously undergone procedural intervention (including angioplasty and/or bypass) for symptomatic RA stenosis were identified from a prospectively maintained operative registry and screened for remote history of preeclampsia using a validated survey instrument. Univariable associations between RA-FMD and preeclampsia among participants with a history of pregnancy were evaluated using t-tests for continuous factors and chi-squared tests for dichotomous factors. Multivariable associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 144 women were identified who met the study inclusion criteria, including 94 with atherosclerotic RA stenosis and 50 with RA-FMD. Sixty-nine patients were contacted, 59 consented to participate, and 52 had a history of pregnancy (and therefore were at risk for preeclampsia). Participants completed the survey instrument at a mean of 7.1 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.6 years after RA procedural intervention, respectively. Survey responses indicated a history of preeclampsia in 19/52 (36.5%) of participants overall, including 14/27 (51.9%) with RA-FMD versus 5/20 (20.0%) with RA atherosclerosis (P = 0.02). Preeclampsia remained associated with FMD in a multivariable model adjusting for smoking status, age at time of surgery, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (odds ratio [OR] 9.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-60.6, P = 0

  1. Pivotal Role of Mediterranean Dietary Regimen in the Increase of Serum Magnesium Concentration in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimah Bahreini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies confirmed cardioprotective role of intravenous magnesium for the prevention of cardiac events, but effect of dietary intake of this mineral via recommended dietary regimens on control and inhibition of coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to determine effect of Mediterranean dietary approach on serum magnesium concentration among Iranian patients with CAD. Method. Baseline characteristics and clinical data of 102 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of CAD and candidates for isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were entered into the study. Laboratory parameters especially serum magnesium concentration were measured after 12–14 h of overnight fasting and before operation. Nutritional status was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and the diet score was calculated on the basis of Mediterranean diet quality index (Med-DQI. Results. No significant differences were found in the concentrations of albumin, last fasting blood sugar, last creatinine, and lipid profiles between the groups with Mediterranean dietary score < 5 and the group with higher dietary score; however, serum magnesium concentration in the first group was higher than that in the group with higher dietary score. Linear multivariate regression analysis showed that the lower Mediterranean dietary score was a predictor for serum magnesium concentration after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion. Taking Mediterranean dietary regimen can be associated with increased level of serum magnesium concentration, and thus this regimen can be cardioprotective because of its effects on serum magnesium.

  2. Significant, but limited collateral blood flow increases occur with prolonged training in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, B M; Ren, J; Terjung, R L; Yang, H T

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the capacity of collateral dependent blood flow induced by a prolonged treadmill training program, as compared to a low collateral resistance model created by femoral artery to vein (A-V) shunt. Sprague-Dawley rats, with bilateral femoral artery occlusion were confined to cage activity (Sed, n=9) or trained by daily treadmill exercise (Tr, n=15; up to ≈350 min/d) for 15 weeks. Another set of animals received a femoral A-V anastomosis in one limb and treated with (n=4) or without VEGF(165) (n=9) infusion for 2 weeks. The contralateral side was used as control. Blood flow (BF) was measured with isotope labeled microspheres. Maximal calf muscle BF increased by 15 week training (up to 100±5.0 ml x min(-1) x 100g(-1) (ptraining programs used previously. In contrast, femoral A-V shunt with VEGF(165) increased calf muscle conductance to 1.70±0.3 ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1) x mmHg(-1) that is similar to blood flows observed in non-occluded rats during maximal running. Our data indicate that the collateral circuit development is related to the driving stimulus and that exercise training, does not provide a maximal stimulus for adaptation that is possible. Nonetheless, exercise training results in profound increases in exercise capacity associated with this enhanced collateral blood flow. Our results illustrate that vascular adaptations can be much greater when physiologically induced stimuli are enhanced at the time of therapeutic angiogenesis.

  3. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaroli Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality. Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. Results The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%. Conclusions Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  4. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A

    2007-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  5. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  6. Infections Increase Risk of Arterial and Venous Thromboses in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite Hansen, Renata; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Infections and thromboses are known complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated if infectious episodes in patients with SLE were followed by an increased risk of thrombotic events. METHODS: A cohort of 571 patients with prevalent or incident SLE was followed...

  7. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.F.A.; Harbour, P.J.; Hotston, E.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  8. Exhaust gas circulation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, K.

    1975-01-10

    An exhaust gas recirculation apparatus is described. An exhaust gas recirculation tube is connected between the exhaust pipe and the intake tube and the opening of the tube; the amount of recirculated gas is regulated by a piston-type cycle control valve which is connected to the throttle valve of the carburetor through an arm. The arm is designed in a two-step linkage so that the cycle valve closes the recirculation tube when the throttle valve is at a fully opened angle and a small angle. Therefore, no exhaust gas recirculation occurs when the automobile is in full power, idling, or low running conditions. This prevents lowered engine power at these conditions.

  9. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Systemic vascular resistance is increased and associated with accelerated arterial stiffening change in patients with chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; May-Kuen Wong, A; Lien, H Y; Fuk-Tan Tang, S; Fu, T C; Lin, Y; Wang, J S

    2013-02-01

    Despite of stiffening change of conduit arteries, how total peripheral resistance (TPR) is adapted to chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) remains unclear. To investigate how chronic cervical SCI influences hemodynamic characteristics Cross-sectional, case-control study. Rehabilitation department in the tertiary medical center. Twenty-one male patients with traumatic SCI resulting from cervical spine fracture were recruited. The injury occurred three to 289 months (46 months in average) previously. Twenty-one healthy male participants with matched age and body mass index were enrolled as control group. The subjects were asked to maintain supine rest (SR) and then head-up tilt (HUT) at 60 degree for five minutes, respectively. A novel noninvasive bio-reactance device was employed to measure cardiac hemodynamics, whereas heart rate variability was used to determine cardiac autonomic activity. Additionally, the digital volume pulse analysis was applied to calculate arterial stiffness index (SI) and arteriolar reflection index (RI). SCI patients revealed less stroke volume and cardiac output (CO), as well as, greater total peripheral resistance (TPR) and SI during SR than normal subjects did. Moreover, the positive correlation between TPR and SI was observed in SCI patients rather than normal subjects. In SCI patients, HUT (1) markedly decreased TPR while CO and cardio-acceleration responses remained intact and (2) decreased HF power value but failed to change LF/HF ratio. Furthermore, the degree of orthostatic hypotension was correlated with the TPRHUT/TPRSR ratio but not the COHUT/COSR ratio. Chronic cervical SCI leads to a progressively accelerated increase in vascular stiffness, which is associated with increase in systemic vascular resistance. Furthermore, the cervical SCI-related orthostatic hypotension lies in the impairment of vasoconstriction without cardiac dysfunction. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact. SI, rather than blood pressure, reflects not only

  11. Direct effect of chronic hypoxia in suppressing large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel activity in ovine uterine arteries via increasing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Xiao, Daliao; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-15

    Chronic hypoxia has a direct effect in down-regulating the BKCa channel β1 subunit and inhibiting the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant sheep. Oxidative stress plays a causal role in hypoxia-mediated suppression of BKCa channel function. The steroid hormone-induced effect on BKCa channels is a target of hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress. Inhibition of oxidative stress ameliorates the adverse effect of hypoxia both ex vivo and in vivo in pregnant sheep exposed to long-term high-altitude hypoxia. Our findings provide novel evidence of a causative role of oxidative stress in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of the BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries and new insights in understanding and alleviating pregnancy complications associated with gestational hypoxia such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Uterine arteries of pregnant sheep acclimatized to long-term high-altitude hypoxia were associated with a decrease in large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channel activity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prolonged hypoxia has a direct effect in suppressing BKCa channel activity by increasing oxidative stress. Uterine arteries were isolated from non-pregnant and near-term (∼142 days) pregnant sheep, and were treated ex vivo with 21.0 or 10.5% O2 for 48 h. The hypoxia treatment significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species in uterine arteries, which was blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In uterine arteries of pregnant sheep, hypoxia significantly inhibited BKCa channel current density, decreased NS1619-induced relaxations and increased pressure-dependent tone, which were annulled by N-acetylcysteine. In accordance, hypoxia resulted in down-regulation of BKCa channel β1 subunit, which was restored in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the N-acetylcysteine treatment significantly increased BKCa channel β1 subunit abundance and BKCa channel current density in uterine arteries from pregnant

  12. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  13. Increased peripherin in sympathetic axons innervating plantar metatarsal arteries in STZ-induced type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufer Jahan Johansen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of axonopathy is the abnormal accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins. We recently reported that streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetes produced a change in the morphology of sympathetic nerve fibers supplying rat plantar metatarsal arteries (PMAs. Here we investigated whether these morphological changes are associated with axonal accumulation of the type III intermediate filament peripherin and the microtubule protein β-tubulin III, as both are implicated in axonal remodeling. PMAs from hyperglycemic STZ-treated rats receiving a low dose of insulin (STZ-LI were compared with those from normoglycemic STZ-treated rats receiving a high dose of insulin (STZ-HI and vehicle-treated controls. Western blotting revealed an increase in protein expression level for peripherin in PMAs from STZ-LI rats but no change in that for β-tubulin III. In addition, there was an increase in the number of peripherin immunoreactive nerve fibers in the perivascular nerve plexus of PMAs from STZ-LI rats. Co-labeling for peripherin and neuropeptide Y (a marker for sympathetic axons revealed that peripherin immunoreactivity increased in sympathetic axons. None of these changes were detected in PMAs from STZ-HI rats, indicating that increased peripherin in sympathetic axons of STZ-LI rats is likely due to hyperglycemia and provides a marker of diabetes-induced nerve damage.

  14. Metabolic exhaustion in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, E F; Smith, K G C

    2018-03-01

    It has become increasingly clear that changes in metabolism are not just consequences of T cell activation but instead are also essential drivers of that process that shape the extent and nature of differentiation and function. The process of T cell exhaustion has been linked to the outcome of chronic immune responses in multiple contexts, including chronic infection, cancer and autoimmunity. Factors that regulate the development and maintenance of exhaustion are of increasing interest as targets of therapeutic modulation. Studies have shown T cell immunometabolism to be integral to the control and development of T cell exhaustion. Early metabolic changes are responsible for the later emergence of exhaustion, do not simply reflect changes secondary to chronic activation and are modifiable. Increased understanding of this metabolic control promises to improve the ability to modulate T cell immunity to chronic antigen stimulation in multiple contexts.

  15. Arterial stiffness and pulse wave reflection are increased in patients suffering from severe periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Jockel-Schneider

    Full Text Available AIM: This single blind cross-sectional study compared the vascular health of subjects suffering from severe chronic periodontitis, severe aggressive periodontitis and periodontal healthy controls by evaluating pulse wave velocity (PWV, augmentation index (AIx and pulse pressure amplification (PPA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a total of 158 subjects, 92 suffering from severe periodontitis and 66 matched periodontal healthy controls, PWV, AIx, central and peripheral blood pressure were recorded using an oscillometric device (Arteriograph. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from severe chronic or aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly higher PWV (p = 0.00004, higher AIx (p = 0.0049 and lower PPA (p = 0.028 than matched periodontal healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the association between periodontal inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk shown by impaired vascular health in case of severe periodontitis. As impaired vascular health is a common finding in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease a concomitant routine cardiovascular evaluation may be advised.

  16. Rehabilitation: Periodic somatosensory stimulation increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademan, Maaike G J; Sun, Yiping; Han, Liming; Valk, Vanessa J; Schalij, Martin J; van Exel, Henk J; Lucas, Carolien M H B; Maan, Arie C; Verwey, Harriette F; van de Vooren, Hedde; Pinna, Gian D; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; van der Wall, Ernst E; Swenne, Cees A

    2011-10-20

    One of the beneficial effects of exercise training in chronic heart failure (CHF) is an improvement in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), a prognostic index in CHF. In our hypothesis-generating study we propose that at least part of this effect is mediated by neural afferent information, and more specifically, by exercise-induced somatosensory nerve traffic. To compare the effects of periodic electrical somatosensory stimulation on BRS in patients with CHF with the effects of exercise training and with usual care. We compared in stable CHF patients the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, N = 23, LVEF 30 ± 9%) with the effects of bicycle exercise training (EXTR, N = 20, LVEF 32 ± 7%). To mimic exercise-associated somatosensory ergoreceptor stimulation, we applied periodic (2/s, marching pace) burst TENS to both feet. TENS and EXTR sessions were held during two successive days. BRS, measured prior to the first intervention session and one day after the second intervention session, increased by 28% from 3.07 ± 2.06 to 4.24 ± 2.61 ms/mmHg in the TENS group, but did not change in the EXTR group (baseline: 3.37 ± 2.53 ms/mmHg; effect: 3.26 ± 2.54 ms/mmHg) (P(TENS vs EXTR) = 0.02). Heart rate and systolic blood pressure did not change in either group. We demonstrated that periodic somatosensory input alone is sufficient and efficient in increasing BRS in CHF patients. This concept constitutes a basis for studies towards more effective exercise training regimens in the diseased/impaired, in whom training aimed at BRS improvement should possibly focus more on the somatosensory aspect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between poor glycemic control, impaired sleep quality, and increased arterial thickening in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yoda

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients.Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory.The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1 without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT.HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period (β=-0.280, p=0.033, but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001. In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038, but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023 emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT.In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening.

  18. Decreased arterial PO2, not O2 content, increases blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joseph W; Davis, James T; Ryan, Benjamin J; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Hawn, Jerold A; Byrnes, William C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism(s) that regulate hypoxia-induced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) are currently unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated that the mechanism of hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is not simply increased cardiac output, pulmonary artery systolic pressure or sympathetic nervous system activity and, instead, it may be a result of hypoxaemia directly. To determine whether it is reduced arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2) that causes hypoxia-induced QIPAVA , individuals were instructed to breathe room air and three levels of hypoxic gas at rest before (control) and after CaO2 was reduced by 10% by lowering the haemoglobin concentration (isovolaemic haemodilution; Low [Hb]). QIPAVA , assessed by transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography, significantly increased as PaO2 decreased and, despite reduced CaO2 (via isovolaemic haemodilution), was similar at iso-PaO2. These data suggest that, with alveolar hypoxia, low PaO2 causes the hypoxia-induced increase in QIPAVA , although where and how this is detected remains unknown. Alveolar hypoxia causes increased blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) in healthy humans at rest. However, it is unknown whether the stimulus regulating hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2). CaO2 is known to regulate blood flow in the systemic circulation and it is suggested that IPAVA may be regulated similar to the systemic vasculature. Thus, we hypothesized that reduced CaO2 would be the stimulus for hypoxia-induced QIPAVA . Blood volume (BV) was measured using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method in 10 individuals. Less than 5 days later, subjects breathed room air, as well as 18%, 14% and 12.5% O2 , for 30 min each, in a randomized order, before (CON) and after isovolaemic haemodilution (10% of BV withdrawn and replaced with an equal volume of 5% human serum albumin-saline mixture) to reduce [Hb] (Low [Hb]). PaO2

  19. Increased Clot Formation in the Absence of Increased Thrombin Generation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire F. Kleinegris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn peripheral arterial disease (PAD, activation of the hemostatic system may contribute to atherosclerosis progression and atherothrombotic events.ObjectiveThis case–control study assesses the overall coagulation status in PAD patients by evaluating coagulation markers in combination with thrombin generation potential, whole blood (WB clot formation, and fibrinolysis.MethodsIn blood from 40 PAD patients (n = 20 with cardiovascular event within 1 year after initial diagnosis, n = 20 without and 40 apparently healthy controls, thrombin generation was determined in WB and platelet-poor plasma. Whole blood rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM measurements were triggered with tissue factor with/without tissue plasminogen activator.ResultsWe observed increased levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytes, eosinophil granulocytes, vWF antigen, fibrinogen, and D-dimer in PAD patients (p < 0.05. Markers of thrombin generation potential showed no difference between patients and healthy controls. In PAD patients with event compared to patients without, WB-thrombin generation showed a lower thrombin potential when triggered with 0 and 2.5 pM tissue factor. The ROTEM clotting assay showed significantly faster clot formation and increased clot firmness in PAD patients compared to controls. No significant differences were found for parameters of clot degradation.ConclusionThere are no significant differences between the thrombin generation profiles of PAD patients and healthy controls. Between PAD patients with and without cardiovascular event, the WB thrombin generation appears to differ. Mechanistically, PAD patients show an increased ability to form a stable clot in WB in comparison to healthy controls. This is most likely due to the increased fibrinogen levels related to the inflammation in atherosclerosis, confirming the importance of the inflammation-coagulation axis.

  20. Endomorphins potentiate acid-sensing ion channel currents and enhance the lactic acid-mediated increase in arterial blood pressure: effects amplified in hindlimb ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Mohamed; Drobish, Julie K; Puhl, Henry L; Kim, Joyce S; Herold, Paul B; Kaufman, Marc P; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Chronic limb ischaemia, characterized by inflammatory mediator release and a low extracellular pH, leads to acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) activation and reflexively increases mean arterial pressure; endomorphin release is also increased under inflammatory conditions. We examined the modulation of ASIC currents by endomorphins in sensory neurons from rats with freely perfused and ligated femoral arteries: peripheral artery disease (PAD) model. Endomorphins potentiated sustained ASIC currents in both groups of dorsal root ganglion neurons, independent of mu opioid receptor stimulation or G protein activation. Intra-arterial administration of lactic acid (to simulate exercising muscle and evoke a pressor reflex), endomorphin-2 and naloxone resulted in a significantly greater pressor response than lactic acid alone, while administration of APETx2 inhibited endomorphin's enhancing effect in both groups. These results suggest a novel role for endomorphins in modulating ASIC function to effect lactic acid-mediated reflex increase in arterial pressure in patients with PAD. Chronic muscle ischaemia leads to accumulation of lactic acid and other inflammatory mediators with a subsequent drop in interstitial pH. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), expressed in thin muscle afferents, sense the decrease in pH and evoke a pressor reflex known to increase mean arterial pressure. The naturally occurring endomorphins are also released by primary afferents under ischaemic conditions. We examined whether high affinity mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, endomorphin-1 (E-1) and -2 (E-2), modulate ASIC currents and the lactic acid-mediated pressor reflex. In rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, exposure to E-2 in acidic solutions significantly potentiated ASIC currents when compared to acidic solutions alone. The potentiation was significantly greater in DRG neurons isolated from rats whose femoral arteries were ligated for 72 h. Sustained ASIC current potentiation was also observed

  1. Metabolic syndrome is independently associated with increased 20-year mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Arwa; Younis, Anan; Tzur, Boaz; Peled, Yael; Shlomo, Nir; Goldenberg, Ilan; Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Klempfner, Robert

    2016-10-28

    Data regarding long-term association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with adverse outcomes are conflicting. We aim to determine the independent association of MetS (based on its different definitions) with 20 year all-cause mortality among patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Our study comprised 15,524 patients who were enrolled in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention registry between February 1, 1990, and October 31, 1992, and subsequently followed-up for the long-term mortality through December 31, 2014. MetS was defined according to two definitions: The International Diabetes Federation (IDF); and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP). According to the IDF criteria 2122 (14%) patients had MetS, whereas according to the NCEP definition 7446 (48%) patients had MetS. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all-cause mortality was significantly higher among patients with MetS defined by both the IDF (67 vs. 61%; log rank-p definition. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that long-term increased mortality risk associated with MetS was consistent among most clinical subgroups excepted patients with renal failure (p value for interaction Metabolic syndrome is independently associated with an increased 20-year all-cause mortality risk among patients with stable CAD. This association was consistent when either the IDF or NCEP definitions were used. Trial registration retrospective registered.

  2. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  3. Chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease in taiwanese men: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Wei-Chung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut chewing has been reported to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in Taiwanese men. Methods This study is a hospital-based case-control study. The case patients were male patients diagnosed in Taiwan between 1996 and 2009 as having a positive Treadmill exercise test or a positive finding on the Thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. The case patients were further evaluated by coronary angiography to confirm their CAD. Obstructive CAD was defined as a ≥ 50% decrease in the luminal diameter of one major coronary artery. The patients who did not fulfill the above criteria of obstructive CAD were excluded. The potential controls were males who visited the same hospital for health check-ups and had a normal electrocardiogram but no history of ischemic heart disease or CAD during the time period that the case patients were diagnosed. The eligible controls were randomly selected and frequency-matched with the case patients based on age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio of areca nut chewing and the risk of obstructive CAD. Results A total of 293 obstructive CAD patients and 720 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Subjects who chewed areca nut had a 3.5-fold increased risk (95% CI = 2.0-6.2 of having obstructive CAD than those without, after adjusting for other significant covariates. The dose-response relationship of chewing areca nut and the risk of obstructive CAD was also noted. After adjusting for other covariates, the 2-way additive interactions for obstructive CAD risk were also significant between areca nut use and cigarette smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Conclusions Long-term areca nut chewing was an independent risk factor of

  4. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  5. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  6. Estrogen therapy may counterbalance eutrophic remodeling of coronary arteries and increase bradykinin relaxation in a rat model of menopausal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, Mate; Hetthéssy, Judit R; Nadasy, Gyorgy L; Szekacs, Bela; Mericli, Metin; Acs, Nandor; Monos, Emil; Arbib, Nissim; Varbiro, Szabolcs

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension causes adverse remodeling and vasomotor alterations in coronaries. Hormones such as estrogen may help counterbalance some of these effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen therapy in a rat model of menopausal hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AII). We investigated diameter, tone, and mechanics of intramural coronaries taken from ovariectomized female rats (n = 11) that received chronic AII treatment to induce hypertension, and compared the results with those found in female rats that were also given estrogen therapy (n = 11). The "hypertensive control" group (n = 11) underwent an abdominal sham operation, and received AII. After 4 weeks of AII treatment, side branches of left anterior descendent coronary (approximately 200 μm in diameter) were isolated, cannulated with plastic microcannulas at both ends, and studied in vitro in a vessel chamber. The inner and outer diameter of the arteries were measured by microangiometry, and spontenuous tone, wall thickness, wall cross-sectional area, tangential stress, incremental distensibility, circumferential incremental elastic modulus, thromboxane agonist-induced tone, and bradykinin-induced dilation were calculated. In hypertension, intramural small coronaries show inward eutrophic remodeling after ovariectomy comparing with hypertensive controls. Estrogen therapy had an opposite effect on vessel diameter. Hormone therapy led to an increase in spontaneous tone, allowing for greater dilatative capacity. Estrogen may therefore be considered to counterbalance some of the adverse changes seen in the wall of intramural coronaries in the early stages of chronic hypertension.

  7. Excess salt increases infarct size produced by photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yao

    Full Text Available Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also determined in SHR. Salt loading did not affect blood pressure levels in SHR and WKY. After MCAO, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF, determined with two ways of laser-Doppler flowmetry (one-point measurement or manual scanning, was more steeply decreased in the salt-loaded group than in the control group. In SHR/Izm, infarct volume in the salt-loaded group was 112±27 mm3, which was significantly larger than 77±12 mm3 in the control group (p = 0.002, while the extents of blood-brain barrier disruption (brain albumin and hemoglobin levels were not affected by excess salt. In WKY, salt loading did not significantly increase infarct size. These results show the detrimental effects of salt loading on intra-ischemic CBF and subsequent brain infarction produced by phototrhombotic MCAO in hypertensive rats.

  8. Novel loci associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in the context of coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Huertas-Vazquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified novel loci associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD. Despite this progress, identified DNA variants account for a relatively small portion of overall SCD risk, suggesting that additional loci contributing to SCD susceptibility await discovery. The objective of this study was to identify novel DNA variation associated with SCD in the context of coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the MetaboChip custom array we conducted a case-control association analysis of 119,117 SNPs in 948 SCD cases (with underlying CAD from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (Oregon-SUDS and 3,050 controls with CAD from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC. Two newly identified loci were significantly associated with increased risk of SCD after correction for multiple comparisons at: rs6730157 in the RAB3GAP1 gene on chromosome 2 (P = 4.93×10(-12, OR = 1.60 and rs2077316 in the ZNF365 gene on chromosome 10 (P = 3.64×10(-8, OR = 2.41. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that RAB3GAP1 and ZNF365 are relevant candidate genes for SCD and will contribute to the mechanistic understanding of SCD susceptibility.

  9. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein induces proliferation and increases adhesion molecule expression of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Gulay; Basci, Ali; Shah, Sudhir V; Basnakian, Alexei; Toz, Huseyin; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Ok, Ercan

    2008-12-01

    Presence of accelerated atherosclerosis in dialysis patients cannot be entirely explained by conventional risk factors. Exposure to urea, which is elevated in patients with kidney disease, leads to the carbamylation of proteins. We investigated the effects of carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) on human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Native LDL (nLDL) was carbamylated with potassium cyanate. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of cLDL carbamylated at different time points. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), expression of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix protein synthesis were studied. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein exposure leads to morphological alterations and presence of cellular debris. Neither nLDL nor cLDL caused apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was not different between groups. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein led to a striking proliferation in VSMC compared to nLDL. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein significantly increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression compared to the control. The effects of cLDL on proliferation and adhesion molecule expression were dose-dependent and correlated with the degree of low-density lipoprotein carbamylation. cLDL had no effect on extracellular matrix protein synthesis. The results support the hypothesis that cLDL may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in uraemic patients.

  10. Cardiac Rehabilitation Increases the Reliability of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Patients After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayta, Emrulah; Korkmaz, Özge

    2017-12-07

    Few data are available on the capacity for functional exercise after cardiac rehabilitation in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and biochemical factors that affect the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results in patients who have undergone CABG. Data were prospectively collected from 56 patients consecutively admitted at our hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 for a 3-month cardiac rehabilitation program. Data were analysed retrospectively up to 90 days after cardiac surgery. In addition to clinical and biochemical parameters, the functional capacity of patients was evaluated by an exercise 6-minute walking test and echocardiography. Functional capacity was evaluated at baseline and after three months of cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Before cardiac rehabilitation, the 6MWT values were negatively correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and abdominal and buttock diameters (r = -0.375, -0.386, and -0.370, respectively; P < .05), and were positively correlated with metabolic equivalent (MET) values (r = 0.493, P < .05). After cardiac rehabilitation, the 6MWT values were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal and buttock diameters (r = -0.382, -0.274, and -0.405, respectively; P < .05) and were positively correlated with MET and VO2 max values (r = 0.456 and 0.573, respectively; P < 0.05). Before cardiac rehabilitation, VO2 max and FEV1/FEVC values were found as factors that significantly increased 6MWT values (P < .05). After cardiac rehabilitation, VO2 max values were found as factors that significantly increased 6MWT values (P < .05). Overall, in current clinical settings, cardiac rehabilitation increases the reliability of the 6MWT. Improvement in pulmonary function after cardiac rehabilitation reduces the impact of pulmonary function on 6MWT values. The functional capacity of patients may be more reliably determined by 6MWT after cardiac

  11. Regression of the increased common carotid artery-intima media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism after thyroid hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Se-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Sun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Yong-Wook

    2009-01-01

    The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease and the beneficial effect of levothyroxine replacement in subclinical hypothyroidism are still under debate. The present study was designed to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT) and whether thyroid hormone replacement can reverse this change in the C-IMT. Patients with newly-diagnosed subclinical (n=36) and overt (n=40) hypothyroidism and healthy euthyroid individuals (n=32) participated in this study. All the patients were examined for clinical characteristics, and the serum lipid levels and the C-IMT were measured. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had a C-IMT measurement after 18 months of levothyroxine replacement. There were meaningful differences in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels between patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. The subjects with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism had a greater C-IMT compared with euthyroid controls (0.66+/- 0.10 and 0.70+/- 0.11 vs. 0.57+/- 0.08 mm, respectively; P replacement significantly decreased the C-IMT (0.67+/- 0.11 to 0.60+/- 0.10 mm; P = 0.021) and improved the lipid profile. Based on multiple regression analysis, the decrement in LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the regression of the C-IMT. Subclinical hypothyroidism was closely related to an increased C-IMT. Thyroid hormone replacement resulted in regression of the increased C-IMT, which was attributed to the improvement in the lipid profile.

  12. Antioxidant Treatment Reverts Increased Arterial Basal Tone and Oxidative Stress in Nephrectomized (5/6 Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo O. Marañón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonischemic 5/6 nephrectomized rat (NefR is a model of chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about vascular dysfunction and its relation with hypertension in NefR. Aims. To evaluate possible alterations of endothelial function, NO-bioavailability, and basal tone in aorta from NefR and the role of oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into sham rats (SR, NefR, and NefR treated with tempol (NefR-T. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and renal function were determined. In isolated aortic rings the following was measured: 1-endothelial function, 2-basal tone, 3-NO levels, 4-membrane potential (MP, and 5-oxidative stress. NefR increased MAP (SR: 119 ± 4 mmHg; n=7; NefR: 169 ± 6; n=8; P<0.001. Tempol did not modify MAP (NefR-T: 168 ± 10; n=6; P<0.001. NefR showed endothelial dysfunction, increased basal tone and decreased NO levels (SR: 32 ± 2 nA; n=7, NefR: 10 ± 2; n=8; P<0.001. In both in vitro and in vivo tempol improves basal tone, NO levels, and MP. Oxidative stress in NefR was reverted in NefR-T. We described, for the first time, that aorta from NefR presented increased basal tone related to endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO-bioavailability. The fact that tempol improves NO-contents and basal tone, without decrease MAP, indicates that oxidative stress could be implicated early and independently to hypertension, in the vascular alterations.

  13. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  14. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...... of collagen-stainable material in tunica intima and media among patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: -The distinct accumulation of arterial basement membrane proteins in type 2 diabetes discloses a similarity between the diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy and suggests a molecular explanation behind...

  15. MDMA ‘ecstasy’ increases cerebral cortical perfusion determined by bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouine, J; Gobbo, O L; Campbell, M; Gigliucci, V; Ogden, I; McHugh Smith, K; Duffy, P; Behan, B; Byrne, D; Kelly, M E; Blau, C W; Kerskens, C M; Harkin, A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess cerebral perfusion changes following systemic administration of the recreational drug 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ‘ecstasy’) to rats. Experimental Approach Cerebral perfusion was quantified using bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI. Rats received MDMA (20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) and were assessed 1, 3 or 24 h later. Rats received MDMA (5 or 20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) and were assessed 3 h later. In addition, rats received MDMA (5 or 10 mg·kg−1; i.p.) or saline four times daily over 2 consecutive days and were assessed 8 weeks later. Perfusion-weighted images were generated in a 7 tesla (7T) MRI scanner and experimental data was fitted to a quantitative model of cerebral perfusion to generate mean transit time (MTT), capillary transit time (CTT) and signal amplitude. Key Results MDMA reduces MTT and CTT and increases amplitude in somatosensory and motor cortex 1 and 3 h following administration, indicative of an increase in perfusion. Prior exposure to MDMA provoked a long-term reduction in cortical 5-HT concentration, but did not produce a sustained effect on cerebral cortical perfusion. The response to acute MDMA challenge (20 mg·kg−1; i.p.) was attenuated in these animals indicating adaptation in response to prior MDMA exposure. Conclusions and Implications MDMA provokes changes in cortical perfusion, which are quantifiable by btASL MRI, a neuroimaging tool with translational potential. Future studies are directed towards elucidation of the mechanisms involved and correlating changes in cerebrovascular function with potential behavioural deficits associated with drug use. PMID:23517012

  16. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphism is associated with an increased response to angiotensin II in human arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, P. P.; Pinto, Y. M.; Voors, A. A.; Buikema, H.; Oosterga, M.; Crijns, H. J.; van Gilst, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    An adenine/cytosine (A/C) base substitution at position 1166 in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) gene is associated with the incidence of essential hypertension and increased coronary artery vasoconstriction. However, it is still unknown whether this polymorphism is associated with a

  17. Increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction after organ culture in rat and pig ocular arteries can be suppressed with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W Blixt, Frank; Kristian Haanes, Agmund; Ohlsson, Lena

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Even though retinal vascular changes following ischaemia have been poorly understood, the upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors (ETA /ETB ) following global cerebral ischaemia has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the MEK/ERK1....../2 pathway is involved in the observed upregulation and whether specific MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and trametinib can prevent it. METHODS: The aim was also to localize ETA and ETB receptors using immunohistochemistry in both fresh rat ophthalmic arteries and after 24-hr organ culture and study...... levels and counteracting ETB expression in the smooth muscle cells of the rat ophthalmic artery. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway in responsible for the increase in functional vasoconstriction via ET-1 receptor in rat ophthalmic and pig retinal arteries. Furthermore...

  18. Effects of Heat Stress on Ocular Blood Flow During Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ikemura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that heat stress reduces the ocular blood flow response to exhaustive exercise was tested by measuring ocular blood flow, blood pressure, and end- tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2 in 12 healthy males while they performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75% of the maximal heart rate at ambient temperatures of 20°C (control condition and 35°C (heat condition, until exhaustion. The blood flows in the retinal and choroidal vasculature (RCV, the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA and the superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA were recorded at rest and at 6 and 16 min after the start of exercise period and at exhaustion [after 16 ± 2 min (mean ± SE and 24 ± 3 min of exercise in the heat and control condition, respectively]. The mean arterial pressure at exhaustion was significantly lower in the heat condition than in the control condition at both 16 min and exhaustion. The degree of PETCO2 reduction did not differ significantly between the two thermal conditions at either 16 min or exhaustion. The blood flow velocity in the RCV significantly increased from the resting baseline value at 6 min in both thermal conditions (32 ± 6% and 25 ± 5% at 20°C and 35°C, respectively. However, at 16 min the increase in RCV blood flow velocity had returned to the resting baseline level only in the heat condition. At exhaustion, the blood flows in the STRA and SNRA had decreased significantly from the resting baseline value in the heat condition (STRA: -19 ± 5% and SNRA: -30 ± 6%, and SNRA blood flow was lower than that in the control condition (-14 ± 6% vs -30 ± 6% at 20°C and 35°C, respectively, despite the finding that both thermal conditions induced the same reductions in PETCO2 and vascular conductance. These findings suggested that the heat condition decreases or suppresses ocular blood flow via attenuation of pressor response during exhaustive exercise.

  19. Oral L-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T R; Waldron, M; Jeffries, O

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%. In a randomized crossover design, either L-menthol or placebo mouthwash was administered prior to exercise and at 10 min intervals. Power output, [Formula: see text]O 2 , heart rate, core and skin temperature was monitored, alongside thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Isokinetic peak power sprints were conducted prior to and immediately after the fixed RPE trial. Exercise time was greater (23:23 ± 3:36 vs. 21:44 ± 2:32 min; P = 0.049) and average power output increased (173 ± 24 vs. 167 ± 24 W; P = 0.044) in the L-menthol condition. Peak isokinetic sprint power declined from pre-post trial in the L-menthol l (9.0%; P = 0.015) but not in the placebo condition (3.4%; P = 0.275). Thermal sensation was lower in the L-menthol condition (P = 0.036), despite no changes in skin or core temperature (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a non-thermal cooling mouth rinse lowered thermal sensation, resulting in an elevated work rate, which extended exercise time in the heat at a fixed RPE.

  20. Stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Hvelplund, A.; Abildstrom, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Patients with chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are considered at low risk for cardiovascular events but evidence supporting this is scarce. We investigated the prognostic implications of stable angina pectoris in relation to the presence and degree of CAD with no o...... with stable angina and normal coronary arteries or diffuse non-obstructive CAD have elevated risks of MACE and all-cause mortality compared with a reference population without ischaemic heart disease.......Aims Patients with chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are considered at low risk for cardiovascular events but evidence supporting this is scarce. We investigated the prognostic implications of stable angina pectoris in relation to the presence and degree of CAD...... (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure, and all-cause mortality. Significantly more women (65%) than men (32%) had no obstructive CAD (P

  1. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-07-29

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission.

  2. Increased Ventricular Premature Contraction Frequency During REM Sleep in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Watanabe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are reported to have a peak of sudden cardiac death at night, in contrast to patients without apnea whose peak is in the morning. We hypothesized that ventricular premature contraction (VPC frequency would correlate with measures of apnea and sympathetic activity.Methods Electrocardiograms from a sleep study of 125 patients with coronary artery disease were evaluated. Patients were categorized by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI into Moderate (AHI 15 apnea groups. Sleep stages studied were Wake, S1, S2, S34, and rapid eye movement (REM. Parameters of a potent autonomically-based risk predictor for sudden cardiac death called heart rate turbulence were calculated.Results There were 74 Moderate and 51 Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients. VPC frequency was affected significantly by sleep stage (Wake, S2 and REM, F=5.8, p<.005 and by AHI (F=8.7, p<.005. In Severe apnea patients, VPC frequency was higher in REM than in Wake (p=.011. In contrast, patients with Moderate apnea had fewer VPCs and exhibited no sleep stage dependence (p=.19. Oxygen desaturation duration per apnea episode correlated positively with AHI (r2=.71, p<.0001, and was longer in REM than in non-REM (p<.0001. The heart rate turbulence parameter TS correlated negatively with oxygen desaturation duration in REM (r2=.06, p=.014.Conclusions Higher VPC frequency coupled with higher sympathetic activity caused by longer apnea episodes in REM sleep may be one reason for increased nocturnal death in apneic patients.

  3. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

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    María González-Núñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  4. Adjunct coronary endarterectomy increases myocardial infarction and early mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Erdinc; Harling, Leanne; Ashrafian, Hutan; Casula, Roberto; Kokotsakis, John; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-09-01

    Coronary endarterectomy (CE) may provide a useful adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with extensive, diffuse coronary atheroma. However, concerns regarding its morbidity and mortality have created uncertainty as to the role of CE in the current era. The aim of this study was therefore to quantitatively summarize the short- and long-term outcomes of CE. Twenty observational studies were identified by systematic literature search, incorporating 54 440 patients (7366 CABG + CE; 47 074 CABG only), which were analysed using random-effects modelling. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, quality scoring and risk of bias were assessed. Primary end-points were 30-day mortality and perioperative and postoperative myocardial infarction (MI). Secondary end-points were postoperative morbidity, intensive care unit (ITU) stay, hospital stay and long-term graft patency. Adjunctive CE significantly increased 30-day mortality [odds ratios (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.49-1.92], P <0.00001], perioperative (OR = 2.10, 95% CI [1.82-2.43], P <0.00001) and postoperative MI (OR = 3.34, 95% CI [1.74-6.41], P = 0.0003) when compared with CABG alone. Furthermore, postoperative ventricular arrhythmias, pulmonary complications, renal failure and inotrope use were significantly greater in patients undergoing adjunct CE. CE also increased ITU and hospital stay and reduced angiographic patency at the last follow-up (OR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.36-0.88]). Increased 30-day morbidity and mortality continues to raise concerns over the safety of adjunct CE. Furthermore, the procedure can be associated with worse long-term graft patency. To better determine whether CE should remain a viable adjunct to CABG, novel studies must focus on collecting prospective data with homogeneous inclusion criteria for CE as well as isolating outcomes for different coronary vessels and standardizing postoperative anticoagulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. Arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

  6. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Cheng; Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2010-08-01

    An injection of orexin A or B into the cisterna magna or the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where bulbospinal vasomotor neurons are located, elevated arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). We examined how orexins affected RVLM neurons to regulate cardiovascular functions by using in vitro recordings of neuronal activity of the RVLM and in vivo measurement of cardiovascular functions in rats. Orexin A and B concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. At 100 nM, both peptides excited 42% of RVLM neurons. Tetrodotoxin failed to block orexin-induced depolarization. In the presence of N-(2-methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N'-1, 5-naphthyridin-4-yl urea (SB-334867), an orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 42% of RVLM neurons with a smaller, but not significantly different, amplitude (4.9 +/- 0.8 versus 7.2 +/- 1.1 mV). In the presence of (2S)-1- (3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(4-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-1-butanone hydrochloride (TCS OX2 29), an orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 25% of RVLM neurons with a significantly smaller amplitude (1.7 +/- 0.5 mV). Coapplication of both antagonists completely eliminated orexin A-induced depolarization. An OX(2)R agonist, [Ala(11),D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. Regarding neuronal phenotypes, orexins depolarized 88% of adrenergic, 43% of nonadrenergic, and 36 to 41% of rhythmically firing RVLM neurons. Intracisternal TCS OX2 29 (3 and 10 nmol) suppressed intracisternal orexin A-induced increases of AP and HR, whereas intracisternal SB-334867 (3 and 10 nmol) had no effect on the orexin A-induced increase of HR but suppressed the orexin A-induced pressor response at 10 nmol. We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R.

  7. Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Pierre; Mateus, Victor; Bieuzen, Francois; Ouedraogo, Nafi; Cisse, Fallou; Leftheriotis, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Increase in arterial inflow to the lower limbs is important to obtain functional improvement in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients with claudication. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electrical stimulation of calf muscles on arterial inflow and tissue oxygen content in PAD in the area of stimulation. Fifteen adult patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 62 (12 ) years; height, 165 (8)cm; weight, 76 (13) kg; lowest ankle-brachial index 0.66 (0.19)] with stable arterial claudication were recruited. All patients performed a treadmill test (3.2 km/h, 10% slope) associated with a transcutaneous oximetry test expressed as decrease from rest of oxygen pressure (DROP) index values (calf changes minus chest changes from rest) with a maximum walking distance (median [25th/75th percentiles]) of 295 [133-881] m. The DROP index on the symptomatic side was -25 [-18/-34] mm Hg. On another day the patients underwent electrical stimulation in the seated position on the leg that was the most symptomatic on the treadmill. After resting values were recorded, the gastrocnemius was stimulated for 20minutes at increasing contraction rates at 5-minute steps of 60, 75, 86, and 100bpm on the most symptomatic side. Arterial blood inflow with duplex Doppler ultrasound scanning of the femoral artery, DROP transcutaneous oxygen pressure value, and oxygen concentration (O2Hb) from the near-infrared spectroscopic signal of the calf were recorded on both sides. Patients were instructed to report eventual contraction-induced pain in the stimulated calf. Results are given as mean (standard deviation) or median [25th/75th percentiles] according to distribution, and the level of statistical significance was set at P  .05) before stimulation, 123 [75/156] vs 57 [44/92] (P calf muscle with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase of arterial inflow without measurable muscle ischemia or pain. Potential use of this device as an adjuvant treatment to improve

  8. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  9. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P

    2014-01-01

    into the femoral artery at sea level and then after 8-12 days of residence at 4559 m above sea level. At sea level, the infusions were carried out while the subjects breathed room air, acute hypoxia (FI O2 = 0.11) and hyperoxia (FI O2 = 1); and at altitude (FI O2 = 0.21 and 1). Skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor...... protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. RESULTS: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower...... at altitude than at sea level (P sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses...

  10. The AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (AMPK Activator A-769662 Causes Arterial Relaxation by Reducing Cytosolic Free Calcium Independently of an Increase in AMPK Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies reveal that activation of the metabolic and Ca2+ sensor AMPK strongly inhibits smooth muscle contraction, there is a paucity of information about the potential linkage between pharmacological AMPK activation and vascular smooth muscle (VSM contraction regulation. Our aim was to test the general hypothesis that the allosteric AMPK activator A-769662 causes VSM relaxation via inhibition of contractile protein activation, and to specifically determine which activation mechanism(s is(are affected. The ability of A-769662 to cause endothelium-independent relaxation of contractions induced by several contractile stimuli was examined in large and small musculocutaneous and visceral rabbit arteries. For comparison, the structurally dissimilar AMPK activators MET, SIM, and BBR were assessed. A-769662 displayed artery- and agonist-dependent differential inhibitory activities that depended on artery size and location. A-769662 did not increase AMPK-pT172 levels, but did increase phosphorylation of the downstream AMPK substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. A-769662 did not inhibit basal phosphorylation levels of several contractile protein regulatory proteins, and did not alter the activation state of rhoA. A-769662 did not inhibit Ca2+- and GTPγS-induced contractions in β-escin-permeabilized muscle, suggesting that A-769662 must act by inhibiting Ca2+ signaling. In intact artery, A-769662 immediately reduced basal intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i, inhibited a stimulus-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, and inhibited a cyclopiazonic acid (CPA-induced contraction. MET increased AMPK-pT172, and caused neither inhibition of contraction nor inhibition of [Ca2+]i. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the differential inhibition of stimulus-induced arterial contractions by A-769662 was due to selective inhibition of a Ca2+ mobilization pathway, possibly involving CPA-dependent Ca2+ entry via an AMPK-independent pathway. That

  11. Serum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Balla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L has been suggested as a key mediator between inflammation and atherosclerosis, and the CD40-CD40L interaction has a role in atherosclerotic lesion progression. We evaluated if platelet released serum sCD40L and sCD40 levels differ between patients with early onset occlusive carotid artery disease and age-matched controls.

  12. Circulating osteoprotegerin is increased in the metabolic syndrome and associates with subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Ciriza, Carmen; Moreno, María; Restituto, Patricia; Bastarrika, Gorka; Simón, Isabel; Colina, Inmaculada; Varo, Nerea

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between osteoprotegerin (OPG) a glycoprotein related to bone metabolism and the metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been established. The aim of this study is to evaluate OPG concentration in patients with MS and its association with subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary arterial calcification (CAC). The study included 238 asymptomatic patients. MS was diagnosed according to the NCEP/ATPIII guidelines. OPG was measured by ELISA. All subjects underwent ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and evaluate the presence of atheroma plaques. In a subgroup (n=39) CAC was quantified by ECG-triggered cardiac computed tomography. Adipose tissue was excised from 25 patients and OPG expression by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry was studied. Patients with the MS (n=60) had higher OPG than patients without (n=178) (p<0.05). OPG correlated with IMT (r=0.2, p=0.005) and patients with atheroma plaques had higher OPG (p=0.008) and also those with coronary artery calcification (p<0.05). OPG expression was confirmed in adipose tissue (n=12) and the expression was significantly higher in patients with MS than in those without (p=0.003). This study shows that OPG may potentially be a biomarker for cardiovascular risk/damage in the MS and identifies adipose tissue as a potential source of OPG. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peroxynitrate formed during a transient episode of brain ischemia increases endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type dilations in thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor stimulated rat cerebral arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Onetti, Yara; Dantas, Ana Y.; Perez, Belen; McNeish, Alister J.; Vila, Elisabet; Jimenez-Altyayo, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    Aim\\ud Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,...

  14. Carbogen inhalation increases oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain tissue in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease: increased oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Hyperoxic therapy for cerebral ischemia reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) principally from the vasoconstrictive effect of oxygen on cerebral arterioles. Based on a recent study in normal volunteers, we now claim that the vasodilatory effect of carbon dioxide predominates when 5% CO(2) is added...... to inhaled oxygen (the mixture known as carbogen). In the present study, we measured CBF by positron emission tomography (PET) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), carbogen, and atmospheric air) in healthy volunteers (n = 10) and in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease (n = 6). Statistical...

  15. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  16. Long-term increase in uterine blood flow is achieved by local overexpression of VEGF-A(165) in the uterine arteries of pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V; Abi-Nader, K N; Peebles, D M; Benjamin, E; Wigley, V; Torondel, B; Filippi, E; Shaw, S W; Boyd, M; Martin, J; Zachary, I; David, A L

    2012-09-01

    Increasing uterine artery blood flow (UABF) may benefit fetal growth restriction where impaired uteroplacental perfusion prevails. Based on previous short-term results, we examined the long-term effects of adenovirus vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A(165) (VEGF-A(165)) in the uterine artery (UtA). Transit-time flow probes were implanted around both UtAs of mid-gestation pregnant sheep (n=11) to measure UABF. A carotid artery catheter was inserted to measure maternal or fetal hemodynamics. Baseline UABF was measured over 3 days, before injection of adenovirus vector (5 × 10(11) particles) encoding the VEGF-A(165) gene (Ad.VEGF-A(165)) into one UtA and a reporter β-galactosidase gene (Ad.LacZ) contralaterally. UABF was then measured daily until term. At 4 weeks post injection, the increase in UABF was significantly higher in Ad.VEGF-A(165) compared with Ad.LacZ-transduced UtAs (36.53% vs 20.08%, P=0.02). There was no significant effect on maternal and fetal blood pressure. Organ bath studies showed significantly lesser vasoconstriction (E(max) 154.1 vs 184.7, PUtAs of pregnant mid-gestation sheep leads to a sustained long-term increase in UABF, which may be explained by neovascularization and altered vascular reactivity.

  17. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L.; Heijenbrok, M.W.; Scholten, A.N.; Wolterbeek, R.; Schreur, J.H.M.; Struikmans, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [de

  18. Telomeres and HIV-1 infection: in search of exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    Telomere length analysis could be helpful in determining if exhaustion and replicative senescence are involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Evidence that CD8+ T cells have shorter telomeres may point towards an increased turnover of CD8+ T cells and exhaustion of the CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-1

  19. Heat stress enhances arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity via increased sensitivity of burst gating, not burst area, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D M; Cui, J; Davis, S L; Low, D A; Crandall, C G

    2006-06-01

    The relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic blood pressure has been used to describe two sites for arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. By determining both the likelihood of occurrence for sympathetic bursts and the area of each burst for a given diastolic blood pressure, both a 'gating' and an 'area' control site has been described in normothermic humans. Assessing the effect of heat stress on these mechanisms will improve the understanding of baroreflex control of arterial blood pressure under this thermal condition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that heat stress enhances arterial baroreflex control of burst gating and area. In 10 normotensive subjects (age, 32+/-2 years; mean+/-s.e.m.), MSNA (peroneal) was assessed using standard microneurographic techniques. Five minute periods of data were examined during normothermic and whole-body heating conditions. The burst incidence (i.e. number of sympathetic bursts per 100 cardiac cycles) and the area of each burst were determined for each cardiac cycle and were placed into 3 mmHg intervals of diastolic blood pressure. During normotheric conditions, there was a moderate, negative relationship between burst incidence and diastolic blood pressure (slope=-2.49+/-0.38; r(2)=0.73+/-0.06; mean+/-s.e.m.), while area per burst relative to diastolic blood pressure exhibited a less strong relationship (slope=-1.13+/-0.46; r(2)=0.45+/-0.09). During whole-body heating there was an increase in the slope of the relationship between burst incidence and diastolic blood pressure (slope=-4.69+/-0.44; r(2)=0.84+/-0.03) compared to normothermia (Pburst and diastolic blood pressure was unchanged (slope=-0.92+/-0.29; r(2)=0.41+/-0.08) (P=0.50). The primary finding of this investigation is that, at rest, whole-body heating enhanced arterial baroreflex control of MSNA through increased sensitivity of a 'gating' mechanism, as indicated by an increase in the slope of the

  20. Direct comparison of sensitivity encoding (SENSE) accelerated and conventional 3D contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of renal arteries: effect of increasing spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupillai, R; Douglas, E; Huber, S; Lambert, B; Pereyra, M; Wilson, G J; Flamm, S D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of attaining higher spatial resolution in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of renal arteries using parallel imaging, sensitivity encoding (SENSE), by comparing the SENSE contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA against a conventional CE-MRA protocol with identical scan times, injection protocol, and other acquisition parameters. Numerical simulations and a direct comparison of SENSE-accelerated versus conventional acquisitions were performed. A total of 41 patients (18 male) were imaged using both protocols for a direct comparison. Both protocols used fluoroscopic triggering, centric encoding, breath-holding, equivalent injection protocol, and lasted approximately 30 seconds. Simulated point-spread functions were narrower for the SENSE protocol compared to the conventional protocol. In the patient study, although the SENSE protocol produced images with lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image quality was better for all segments of the renal arteries. In addition, ringing of kidney parenchyma and renal artery blurring were significantly reduced in the SENSE protocol. Finally, reader confidence improved with the SENSE protocol. Despite a reduction in SNR, the higher-resolution SENSE CE-MRA provided improved image quality, reduced artifacts, and increased reader confidence compared to the conventional protocol. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection presenting with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction in a young adult male - an increasingly recognized rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Latt, Htun; Al-Khafaji, Jaafar; Ali, Mohamed; Seher, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background : Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of myocardial infarction and sudden death. Although some correlations have been noted in relation to aetiology, no direct causes have been identified in a large number of patients. Most of the patients are women in peripartum period or of childbearing age, with few if any risk factors for coronary heart disease. In men, however, risk factors for atherosclerosis are more prevalent in cases of SCAD Case report : We report a case of a 43-years-old healthy male, with no known risk factors, who presented with ischemic chest pain and elevated troponin levels. He underwent an emergent percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography which revealed a total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery at its origin with an evidence of spontaneous dissection as the cause of the occlusion, which was subsequently treated with placement of a drug-eluting stent and thrombectomy from the distal occluded portion. This case highlights the importance of including spontaneous coronary artery dissection as a cause of ischemic cardiac insults and illustrates the approach to treatment. Conclusion : Internists should have a low threshold of clinical suspicion for SCAD especially in a young patient with no known risk factors and should know the importance of emergency in management.

  2. Increased discordance between HeartScore and coronary artery calcification score after introduction of the new ESC prevention guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel C P; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    -contrast Cardiac-CT scan was performed to detect coronary artery calcification (CAC). RESULTS: Agreement of HeartScore risk groups with CAC groups was poor, but higher when applying the algorithm for the low-risk compared to the high-risk country model (agreement rate: 77% versus 63%, and weighted Kappa: 0......OBJECTIVES: The European HeartScore has traditionally differentiated between low and high-risk countries. Until 2012 Germany and Denmark were considered to be high-risk countries but have now been defined as low-risk countries. In this survey we aim to address the consequences of this downgrading....... METHODS: A screening of 3932 randomly selected (mean age 56 years, 46% male) individuals from Germany and Denmark free of cardiovascular disease was performed. Traditional risk factors were determined, and the HeartScore was measured using both the low-risk and the high-risk country models. A non...

  3. Population Screening for Coronary Artery Calcification Does Not Increase Mental Distress and the Use of Psychoactive Medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Daldorph; Videbech, Poul; Gerke, Oke

    2012-01-01

    as a result of the observations were at the discretion of the individual general practitioner. Before screening and at 6-month follow-up a depression test (Major Depression Inventory) was conducted, and the use of psychoactive medication was recorded. RESULTS:: A total of 1257 (69%) subjects agreed......PURPOSE:: Detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed for population screening. It remains unknown whether such a strategy would result in unnecessary concern among participants. Therefore, we set out to assess whether CAC screening affects the psychological well......-being of screening participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: A random sample of 1825 middle-aged subjects (men and women, 50 or 60 y old) were invited for health screening. The European HeartScore was calculated, and a CAC score was measured using a cardiac computed tomography scanner. Therapeutic interventions...

  4. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  5. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  6. Prostaglandin E1 increases the blood flow rate of saphenous vein grafts in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Lu, Jiakai; Wang, Chengbin; Zhao, Wendu; Qing, Enming; Ma, Jun

    2013-12-01

    To compare the effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGEl) versus placebo on blood flow rate in coronary artery bypass grafts. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. A teaching hospital. Forty-six patients with stable angina scheduled for isolated elective OPCAB were recruited and randomized into group PGE1 and group placebo. Following randomization, the patients in the PGE1 group (Group PGE1, n = 23) received a continuous intravenous infusion of PGEl (10 ng/kg/min) after endotracheal intubation and the placebo group (Group placebo, n = 23) received the same volume of normal saline. The infusion administration was removed after leaving the intensive care unit. The grafts' blood flow rate was measured with a transit time flowmeter at 10 minutes and 30 minutes after coronary artery grafting. The hemodynamic parameters, including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and SvO2, VO2I, DO2I, ERO2 monitored by a pulmonary artery catheter, were recorded. The blood flow of the saphenous vein grafts was significantly higher in the PGE1 group than the placebo group at both 10 and 30 minutes after coronary artery grafting. At the 10-minute mark, the graft flow was 54.9 ± 31.4 mL/min versus 47.3 ± 24.6 mL/min in venous nonsequential grafts to the left coronary artery for group PGE1 and placebo (p = 0.000). Corresponding values at 30 minutes were 60.1 ± 27.8 mL/min versus 48.4 ± 26.3 mL/min (p = 0.002). In the venous non-sequential grafts to the right coronary artery, a tendency of blood flow also was found to be higher in the PGE1 group than in the placebo group at 10-minutes (52.7 ± 29.4 mL/min versus 49.3 ± 23.8 mL/min, p = 0.048) and the 30-minutes (58.6 ± 26.5 mL/min, 50.9 ± 25.9 mL/min, p = 0.037). The blood flow rate of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts in group PGE1 was higher than that in the placebo group but did not reach statistical significance. The VO2I, DO2I, and ERO2 in the 2 groups at the 2 time points did not reach statistical

  7. Effect of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase type III inhibitor, on histamine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and force in middle cerebral artery of the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yoshihisa; Kanmura, Yuichi; Itoh, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cilostazol, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type III (PDE III), on the contraction induced by histamine was studied by making simultaneous measurements of isometric force and the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in endothelium-denuded muscle strips from the peripheral part of the middle cerebral artery of the rabbit.High K+ (80 mM) produced a phasic, followed by a tonic increase in both [Ca2+]i and force. Cilostazol (10 μM) did not modify the resting [Ca2+]i, but ...

  8. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  9. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  10. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. STIM2 (Stromal Interaction Molecule 2)-Mediated Increase in Resting Cytosolic Free Ca2+Concentration Stimulates PASMC Proliferation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Carr, Shane G; McDermott, Kimberly M; Rodriguez, Marisela; Babicheva, Aleksandra; Balistrieri, Angela; Ayon, Ramon J; Wang, Jian; Makino, Ayako; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2018-03-01

    An increase in cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) triggers pulmonary vasoconstriction and stimulates PASMC proliferation leading to vascular wall thickening. Here, we report that STIM2 (stromal interaction molecule 2), a Ca 2+ sensor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, is required for raising the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt in PASMCs from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and activating signaling cascades that stimulate PASMC proliferation and inhibit PASMC apoptosis. Downregulation of STIM2 in PAH-PASMCs reduces the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt , whereas overexpression of STIM2 in normal PASMCs increases the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt The increased resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt in PAH-PASMCs is associated with enhanced phosphorylation (p) of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and AKT, increased NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cell) nuclear translocation, and elevated level of Ki67 (a marker of cell proliferation). Furthermore, the STIM2-associated increase in the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt also upregulates the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in PAH-PASMCs. Downregulation of STIM2 in PAH-PASMCs with siRNA (1) decreases the level of pCREB, pSTAT3, and pAKT and inhibits NFAT nuclear translocation, thereby attenuating proliferation, and (2) decreases Bcl-2, which leads to an increase of apoptosis. In summary, these data indicate that upregulated STIM2 in PAH-PASMCs, by raising the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt , contributes to enhancing PASMC proliferation by activating the CREB, STAT3, AKT, and NFAT signaling pathways and stimulating PASMC proliferation. The STIM2-associated increase in the resting [Ca 2+ ] cyt is also involved in upregulating Bcl-2 that makes PAH-PASMCs resistant to apoptosis, and thus plays an important role in sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling in patients with PAH. © 2018 American Heart

  12. Felipressina aumenta pressão arterial durante procedimento odontológico em pacientes hipertensos Felypressin increases blood pressure during dental procedures in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Aparecida Bronzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A felipressina foi adicionada ao anestésico local para aumentar a duração do efeito anestésico e reduzir a toxicidade nos procedimentos dentários. No entanto, o efeito sobre a pressão arterial é incerta, e isso pode ser altamente relevante no tratamento dentário de pacientes hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da felipressina sobre a pressão arterial em pacientes hipertensos com pressão arterial controlada. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 71 indivíduos com essas características e com necessidade de tratamento periodontal. Após 10 minutos de repouso, a anestesia local (prilocaína foi infiltrada com e sem adição de felipressina. Em seguida, uma raspagem subgengival profunda foi realizada. A pressão arterial foi medida por um equipamento oscilométrico automático (DIXTAL DX2010. Dez minutos após a administração do anestésico, o pico de ação anestésica foi gravado. O Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE foi utilizado para avaliar o traço de ansiedade nos pacientes. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica aumentou após a anestesia, independentemente da associação com felipressina, durante todo o procedimento dentário (p BACKGROUND: Felypressin has been added to local anesthetic to increase the length of the anesthetic effect and reduce toxicity during dental procedures. However, the effect on blood pressure remains uncertain, and this may be highly relevant in the dental treatment of hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of felypressin on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with controlled BP. METHODS: 71 subjects with these characteristics and in need of periodontal treatment were studied. After 10 minutes of rest, local anesthesia (prilocaine was infiltrated with and without addition of felypressin. Then, a deep subgingival scaling was performed. Blood pressure was measured by an automated oscillometric device (DIXTAL DX2010. Ten minutes after the administration of the

  13. Comparison of acute effects of red wine, beer and vodka against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnic, Mladen; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Gunjaca, Grgo; Jajic, Ivan; Vukovic, Jonatan; Salamunic, Ilza; Sutlovic, Davorka; Kozina, Bernard; Boban, Mladen

    2011-10-01

    We determined and compared acute effects of different alcoholic beverages on oxygen-induced increase in oxidative stress plasma marker and arterial stiffness in healthy humans. Ten males randomly consumed one of four tested beverages: red wine (RW), vodka, beer (0.32 g ethanol/kg body wt) and water as control. Every beverage was consumed once, a week apart, in a cross-over design. The volunteers breathed 100% normobaric O(2) between 60th and 90th min of 3h study protocol. Plasma lipid peroxides (LOOH) and uric acid (UA) concentration, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and arterial stiffness (indicated by augmentation index, AIx) were measured before and 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after beverage consumption. Intake of all alcoholic beverages caused a similar increase of BAC. The oxygen-induced elevation in AIx was similarly reduced in all three groups relative to the control (3.4 ± 1.3%, 5.4 ± 2.2% and 0.2 ± 1.6% vs. 13.7 ± 2.6% for red wine, vodka, beer and control, respectively, 60 min after intake). Exposure to oxygen resulted in increased plasma LOOH in all groups. However, in RW group this increase was lowest (1.1 ± 0.5) in comparison to the vodka (2.1 ± 0.5), beer (1.6±0.3) and control (2.5 ± 0.4μM/L H(2)O(2)). 60 min after intake of RW and beer plasma UA significantly increased (34 ± 4 and 15 ± 3) in contrast to vodka and control (-6 ± 2 and -8 ± 2μmol/L). All three alcoholic beverages provided similar protection against oxygen-induced increase in arterial stiffness, probably due to central vasodilatatory effect of alcohol itself, but only RW provided protection against oxygen-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  15. Increased dependence on slow filling for left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease and a depressed systolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Ozaki, Masaharu; Furutani, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Kouzo; Saeki, Atsushi; Satoh, Shinichi; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1990-01-01

    Contributions of rapid filling, slow filling and atrial systole to the left ventricular(LV) filling volume were analyzed with the use of radionuclide ventriculography at rest, both globally and regionally, in 34 patients with isolated disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patients included 17 with a normal ejection fraction (EF≥50%; group 1) and 17 with a depressed EF (<50%; group 2), and the data were compared with those obtained from 13 normal subjects. A computer program subdivided the LV image into 4 regions, and time-activity curves were constructed globally and regionally by reverse-gating from the R wave. In both groups the contribution of rapid filling to the LV filling volume was decreased significantly in the affected septal and apical regions, and in the global left ventricle compared with that in normal subjects. In group 1, the contribution of atrial systole showed an increase in these affected regions and in the global left ventricle. In contrast, in group 2, the atrial contribution was not increased globally or regionally as much as was expected. However, the contribution of slow filling was either increased significantly or tended to increase in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle. There were negative correlations between the contribution of rapid filling and that of slow filling in the global left ventricle (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and in each of the septal, apical and lateral regions (r≥-0.60, p<0.001), which suggested that the contribution of slow filling as well as of atrial systole undergoes an increase as rapid filling is impaired. Thus, in patients with coronary artery disease, the left ventricle relies on slow filling as well as atrial systole to affect diastolic LV filling in the affected regions and in the global left ventricle in the presence of LV systolic dysfunction. (author)

  16. Increased Platelet Content of SDF-1alpha is Associated with Worse Prognosis in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczyk, Remigiusz; Blaszczak, Piotr; Jasiewicz, Małgorzata; Knapp, Małgorzata; Ptaszynska-Kopczynska, Katarzyna; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Waszkiewicz, Ewa; Grzywna, Ryszard; Musial, Wlodzimierz J; Kaminski, Karol A

    2018-04-04

    Inflammatory processes and platelet activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Enhanced IL-6 signaling and higher concentration of stromal-derived factor alpha (SDF-1) have been previously shown to be linked with prognosis in PAH. We hypothesized that platelets of PAH patients have higher content of IL-6 and SDF-1 and thus are involved in disease progression. We enrolled into study 22 PAH patients and 18 healthy controls. Patients with PAH presented significantly higher plasma concentrations and platelet contents of IL-6, sIL-6R, and SDF-1 than healthy subjects (platelet content normalized to protein concentration: IL-6 (0.85*10 -10 [0.29 - 1.37] vs. 0.45*10 -10 [0.19-0.65], sIL-6R 1.54*10 -7 [1.32-2.21] vs. 1.14*10 -7 [1.01-1.28] and SDF-1 (2.72*10 -7 [1.85-3.23] vs. 1.70*10 -7 [1.43-2.60], all p SDF-1/total platelet protein ratio (3.68*10 -7 [2.45-4.62] vs. 1.69*10 -7 [1.04-2.28], p = 0.001), with no significant differences between plasma levels. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher platelet SDF-1/total platelet protein ratio had more frequently deterioration of PAH in the follow-up (15.24 ± 4.26 months, log-rank test, p = 0.01). Concentrations of IL-6, sIL-6 receptor and SDF-1 in plasma and platelets are elevated in PAH patients. Higher content of SDF-1 in platelets is associated with poorer prognosis. Our study, despite of limitation due to small number of enrolled patients, suggests that activated platelets may be an important source of cytokines at the site of endothelial injury, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of PAH requires further investigation.

  17. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  18. Single-energy low-voltage arterial phase MDCT scanning increases conspicuity of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Giulia A., E-mail: gzamboni@hotmail.com [Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico GB Rossi, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, P.le LA Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Ambrosetti, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mchiara.ambrosetti@gmail.com [Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico GB Rossi, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, P.le LA Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Guariglia, Stefania, E-mail: guariglia@gmail.com [U.O. di Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, P.le Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Cavedon, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.cavedon@ospedaleuniverona.it [U.O. di Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, P.le Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.pozzimucelli@univr.it [Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico GB Rossi, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, P.le LA Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To test a single-energy low-voltage CT protocol for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials: A total of 30 patients with pathology-proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent 64-row MDCT with arterial phase at 80 kV and were compared to a similar group of 30 patients scanned with a 120 kV protocol. Scans were compared for quantitative image parameters (attenuation and standard deviation in the pancreas, tumor, aorta), CTDI and DLP using an unpaired t-test. Image noise values for each protocol (SD of the psoas) were compared using an unpaired t-test. Effective dose was calculated for each protocol. CNR (=conspicuity/SDnoise) and FOM (CNR{sup 2}/ED) were calculated. The Catphan600 phantom was used to evaluate image non-uniformity, noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast detectability. Results: Mean patient weight was 68 kg in the study group and 73 kg in the control group (p = 0.0355), while patient diameters at the celiac axis were not significantly different. Mean attenuation was significantly higher at 80 kV in the aorta (517.5 ± 116.4 vs 290.3 ± 76.4 HU) and normal pancreas (154.0 ± 39.95 vs 90.02 ± 19.01 HU) (all p < 0.0001), while no significant difference was observed for adenocarcinoma (61.43 ± 35.61 vs 47.45 ± 18.95; p = n.s.). CTDI and DLP were significantly lower at 80 kV (6.00 ± 0.90 mGy vs 10.24 ± 2.93 mGy, and 180.4 ± 35.49 mGy cm vs 383.8 ± 117 mGy cm, respectively; all p < 0.0001). Tumor conspicuity (HU{sub pancreas} − HU{sub tumor}) was significantly higher at 80 kV (94.2 ± 39.3 vs 39.5 ± 22 HU; p < 0.0001). Mean image noise was significantly higher at 80 kV (28.32 ± 10.06 vs 19.7 ± 7.1 HU; p < 0.0001). Effective dose was significantly lower at 80 kV (1.984 ± 0.39 vs 5.75 ± 1.75 mSv; p < 0.0001). The total DLP for the exam was 1024 ± 31.86 mGy cm for the 80 kV protocol and 1357 ± 62.60 mGy cm for the 120 kV protocol (p < 0.0001). Phantoms showed higher non-uniformity, slightly higher noise, slightly lower MTF

  19. β-adrenergic Receptor Blocker ICI 118,551 Selectively Increases Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa)-Mediated Relaxations in Rat Main Mesenteric Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Melike Hacer; Uma, Serdar

    2017-12-26

    Endothelial IK C a and/or SK C a channels play an important role in the control of vascular tone by participating in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Whether β-AR antagonists, mainly used in hypertension, affect endothelial K C a channel function is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of the β2-AR antagonist and inverse agonist ICI 118,551 on the IK C a /SK C a channel activity by assessing functional relaxation responses to several agonists that stimulate these channels. Mesenteric arterial rings isolated from male Sprague Dawley mounted to organ baths. Acetylcholine elicited IK C a - and SK C a -mediated relaxations that were abolished by TRAM-34 and apamin, respectively. ICI 118,551, which did not dilate the arteries per se, increased the IK C a -mediated relaxations, whereas SK C a -mediated relaxations remained unaltered. Same potentiating effect was also detected on the IK C a -mediated relaxations to carbachol and A23187, but not to NS309. Neither acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide-mediated relaxations nor SNP relaxations changed with ICI 118,551. The PKA inhibitor KT-5720, the selective β2-AR agonist salbutamol, the selective β2-AR antagonist butoxamine, the non-selective β-AR antagonist propranolol, and the inverse agonists carvedilol or nadolol failed to affect the IK C a -mediated relaxations. ICI 118,551-induced increase was not reversed by salbutamol or propranolol as well. Besides, low potassium-induced relaxations in endothelium-removed arteries remained the same in the presence of ICI 118,551. These data demonstrate a previously unrecognized action of ICI 118,551, the ability to potentiate endothelial IK C a channel-mediated vasodilation, through a mechanism independent of β2-AR antagonistic or inverse agonistic action. Instead, the enhancement of acetylcholine relaxation seems likely to occur by a mechanism secondary to endothelial calcium increase. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic

  20. Prognostic value of the increase in systolic blood pressure with exercise in patients with hypertension and known or suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Carmen; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús

    2017-01-20

    The association of an exaggerated systolic blood pressure increase with exercise (EBPIE) with cardiovascular events remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the possible association of an EBPIE with survival and risk of serious cardiac events in patients with hypertension and known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This is a retrospective observational study based on a sample of 5226 patients with a history of arterial hypertension and known or suspected CAD referred for exercise echocardiography. The EBPIE was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure with exercise greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of this population (80mmHg). The end points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death and myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, there were 978 deaths (including 371 cardiac) and 798 MI. Annual rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and MI were 2.73, 0.83 and 2.63% in patients with EBPIE and 4.4, 1.58 and 3.98% in those without EBPIE (P<.001, P=.012, and P=.014, respectively). After multivariate analysis, an EBPIE remained independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.95; P=.023) and MI (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95; P=.022) but was not significantly associated with cardiac mortality (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.43-1.20; P=.2). EBPIE was associated with an increased likelihood of survival and lower rate of MI in hypertensive patients with known or suspected CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased salt intake during early ontogenesis lead to development of arterial hypertension in salt-resistant Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitok, Pavel; Molcan, Lubos; Vesela, Anna; Kruzliak, Peter; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    A direct relationship exists between salt consumption and hypertension. Increased sodium intake does not automatically lead to a rise in blood pressure (BP) because of marked intra-individual variability in salt sensitivity. Wistar rats are a salt-resistant strain and increased salt intake in adults does not induce hypertension. Mechanisms regulating BP develop during early ontogenesis and increased sodium consumption by pregnant females leads to an increase in BP of their offspring, but early postnatal stages have not been sufficiently analyzed in salt-resistant strains of rats. The aim of this work was to study the effects of increased salt during early ontogeny on cardiovascular characteristics of Wistar rats. We used 16 control (C; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a standard diet (0.2% sodium) and 16 experimental (S; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a diet containing 0.8% sodium. BP was measured weekly and plasma renin activity, aldosterone and testosterone concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay after the experiment in 16-week-old animals. In the kidney, AT1 receptors were determined by the western blot. BP was higher in the S as compared with the C rats and did not differ between males and females. The relative left ventricle mass was increased in S as compared with C males and no differences were recorded in females. No significant differences between groups were found in hormonal parameters and AT1 receptors. Results indicate that moderately increased salt intake during postnatal ontogeny results in a BP rise even in salt-resistant rats.

  2. Leukocyte count is associated with increased platelet reactivity and diminished response to aspirin in healthy individuals with a family history of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraday, Nauder; Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian; Qayyum, Rehan; Herrera-Galeano, J Enrique; Moy, Taryn F; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C

    2009-07-01

    Markers of systemic inflammation, including blood leukocyte count, are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Leukocytes may promote platelet reactivity and thrombus formation, providing a basis for increased risk, but a relation between leukocyte count and platelet function has not been studied. We evaluated the relation of blood leukocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) to platelet aggregation to collagen, ADP and arachidonic acid, and to urinary excretion of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2. Studies were conducted in 1600 individuals (45.0+/-12.9 years, 42.7% male) at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) before and after low dose aspirin. At baseline, platelet reactivity increased with increasing quartile of leukocyte count (median counts for each quartile were normal) for all measures of platelet function (Pleukocyte count and each measure of platelet reactivity remained significant (Pleukocyte count, even within the normal range, is associated with increasing platelet reactivity in individuals at risk for CAD. This relationship is not altered by aspirin and is independent of inflammatory markers and platelet thromboxane production. Additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism(s) for this association and therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with elevated leukocyte counts.

  3. Comparison of ketorolac and low-dose ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced increase in arterial pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Raza; Ahmed, Aliya

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Application of tourniquet during orthopaedic procedures causes pain and increase in blood pressure despite adequate anaesthesia and analgesia. In this study, we compared ketorolac with ketamine in patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery with tourniquet in order to discover if ketorolac was equally effective or better than ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced hypertension. Methods: Approval was granted by the Institutional Ethics Review Committee and informed ...

  4. Increased intra-abdominal pressure affects respiratory variations in arterial pressure in normovolaemic and hypovolaemic mechanically ventilated healthy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperret, Serge; Lhuillier, Franck; Piriou, Vincent; Vivier, Emmanuel; Metton, Olivier; Branche, Patricia; Annat, Guy; Bendjelid, Karim; Viale, Jean Paul

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the systolic and pulse pressure variations induced by positive pressure ventilation in a porcine model. Experimental study in a research laboratory. Seven mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs prone to normovolaemia and hypovolaemia by blood withdrawal. Abdominal banding gradually increased IAP in 5-mmHg steps up to 30 mmHg. Variations in systolic pressure, pulse pressure, inferior vena cava flow, and pleural and transmural (LVEDPtm) left-ventricular end-diastolic pressure were recorded at each step. Systolic pressure variations were 6.1+/-3.1%, 8.5+/-3.6% and 16.0+/-5.0% at 0, 10, and 30 mmHg IAP in normovolaemic animals (mean+/-SD; p<0.01 for IAP effect). They were 12.7+/-4.6%, 13.4+/-6.7%, and 23.4+/-6.3% in hypovolaemic animals (p<0.01 vs normovolaemic group) for the same IAP. Fluctuations of the inferior vena cava flow disappeared as the IAP increased. Breath cycle did not induce any variations of LVEDPtm for 0 and 30 mmHg IAP. In this model, the systolic pressure and pulse pressure variations, and inferior vena cava flow fluctuations were dependent on IAP values which caused changes in pleural pressure swing, and this dependency was more marked during hypovolaemia. The present study suggests that dynamic indices are not exclusively related to volaemia in the presence of increased IAP. However, their fluid responsiveness predictive value could not be ascertained as no fluid challenge was performed.

  5. Comparison of ketorolac and low-dose ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced increase in arterial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Application of tourniquet during orthopaedic procedures causes pain and increase in blood pressure despite adequate anaesthesia and analgesia. In this study, we compared ketorolac with ketamine in patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery with tourniquet in order to discover if ketorolac was equally effective or better than ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced hypertension. Methods: Approval was granted by the Institutional Ethics Review Committee and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A randomised double-blinded controlled trial with 38 patients each in the ketamine and ketorolac groups undergoing elective knee surgery for anterior cruciate ligament repair or reconstruction was conducted. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardised in all patients, and the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was maintained at 1.2 throughout the study period. One group received ketamine in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg and the other group received 30 mg ketorolac 10 min before tourniquet inflation. Blood pressure was recorded before induction of anaesthesia (baseline and at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after tourniquet inflation. Results: The demographic and anaesthetic characteristics were similar in the two groups. At 0 and 10 min, tourniquet-induced rise in blood pressure was not observed in both groups. From 20 min onward, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in ketorolac group compared to ketamine group. Conclusion: We conclude that ketamine is superior to ketorolac in preventing tourniquet-induced increases in blood pressure.

  6. Comparison of ketorolac and low-dose ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced increase in arterial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Raza; Ahmed, Aliya

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Application of tourniquet during orthopaedic procedures causes pain and increase in blood pressure despite adequate anaesthesia and analgesia. In this study, we compared ketorolac with ketamine in patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery with tourniquet in order to discover if ketorolac was equally effective or better than ketamine in preventing tourniquet-induced hypertension. Methods: Approval was granted by the Institutional Ethics Review Committee and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A randomised double-blinded controlled trial with 38 patients each in the ketamine and ketorolac groups undergoing elective knee surgery for anterior cruciate ligament repair or reconstruction was conducted. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardised in all patients, and the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was maintained at 1.2 throughout the study period. One group received ketamine in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg and the other group received 30 mg ketorolac 10 min before tourniquet inflation. Blood pressure was recorded before induction of anaesthesia (baseline) and at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after tourniquet inflation. Results: The demographic and anaesthetic characteristics were similar in the two groups. At 0 and 10 min, tourniquet-induced rise in blood pressure was not observed in both groups. From 20 min onward, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in ketorolac group compared to ketamine group. Conclusion: We conclude that ketamine is superior to ketorolac in preventing tourniquet-induced increases in blood pressure. PMID:26257416

  7. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  8. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  9. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  10. LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis increases the sensitivity of contractile response mediated by endothelin-B (ET(B)) receptors in cultured endothelium-intact rat coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Bahareh; Holmstrup, Palle; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) modifies the vasomotor responses to Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) in rat coronary arteries. The arteries were studied directly or following organ culture for 24h in absence...

  11. Increased burden and severity of metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in treatment naïve HIV+ patients from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatchou W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available William Ngatchou,1 Daniel Lemogoum,1 Pierre Ndobo,2,† Euloge Yagnigni,2 Emiline Tiogou,2 Elisabeth Nga,2 Charles Kouanfack,2 Philippe van de Borne,1 Michel P Hermans3 1Hypertension Clinic, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Cardiology, Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium †Professor Pierre Ndobo passed away on January 21, 2013 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and its therapy are associated with increased aortic stiffness and metabolic syndrome (MetS phenotype in Caucasian patients. We hypothesized that, independently of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection in native black African patients is associated with increased burden of cardiometabolic risk factors that may accelerate arterial structural damage and translate into increased aortic stiffness. Patients and methods: Ninety-six apparently healthy Cameroonian subjects (controls were compared to 108 untreated Cameroonian HIV+ patients (HIV-UT of similar age. In each participant, pulse wave velocity (Complior, aortic augmentation index (SphygmoCor, brachial blood pressure (Omron 705 IT, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and lipids were recorded, as well as the prevalence and severity of MetS, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute score ≥3/5. Results: Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG 100–125 mg · dL-1 and of diabetes (FPG > 125 mg · dL-1 was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (47% versus 27%, and 26% versus 1%, respectively; both P < 0.01. Fasting triglycerides and the atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio were significantly higher in HIV-UT than in controls. Hypertension prevalence was high and comparable in both groups (41% versus 44%, respectively; not significant. HIV-UT patients exhibited a twice-higher prevalence of MetS than controls (47% versus 21%; P = 0.02. Age- and sex-adjusted pulse wave velocity was

  12. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  13. Arterial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    In many major metropolitan areas, the freeway system is : functioning at or beyond the capacity for which it was : designed. Many drivers are choosing to use arterial streets : instead. The resulting stress on the arterial systems creates : gridlock ...

  14. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors' coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors' multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors' patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86.2% and 53.4%, respectively. For

  15. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  16. Individual common carotid artery wall layer dimensions, but not carotid intima-media thickness, indicate increased cardiovascular risk in women with preeclampsia: an investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Tansim; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Marita; Naessen, Tord

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; Pwomen with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

  17. Combination oral antiplatelet therapy may increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Ryo; Mori, Etsuro; Furui, Eisuke; Sato, Shoichiro; Yazawa, Yukako; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    The association between the frequency or severity of bleeding complications and combination antiplatelet therapy for acute stroke treatment is not understood in detail. This retrospective study investigated whether combination oral antiplatelet therapy for cases with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery disease increased the incidence of hemorrhagic complications. We reviewed 1335 consecutive patients who were admitted to our department within 7 days of the onset of an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between April 2005 and November 2009. We enrolled 167 patients with >50% stenosis or occlusion in culprit major vessels and who were administered oral antiplatelet agents within 48 hours of admission. Hemorrhagic complications were classified according to the bleeding severity index. We studied the association between the incidence and severity of hemorrhagic complications during hospitalization and the clinical characteristics, including antiplatelet therapy. Fifty-nine and 108 patients were treated with only 1 antiplatelet agent and combination antiplatelet agents, respectively. Fourteen patients developed bleeds (3 major and 11 minor), and all of the major bleeds occurred in those given combination agents. The proportion of patients receiving combination agents was significantly higher in those with significant bleeds. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that being older and receiving combination agents were independent predictors for significant bleeds during hospitalization. Despite the retrospective nature of this study, our findings suggest that the incidence of hemorrhagic complications increases in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with combination antiplatelet agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Macrophage depletion by clodronate liposome attenuates muscle injury and inflammation following exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kawanishi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise promotes muscle injury, including myofiber lesions; however, its exact mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that macrophage depletion by pretreatment with clodronate liposomes alters muscle injury and inflammation following exhaustive exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: rest plus control liposome (n=8, rest plus clodronate liposome (n=8, exhaustive exercise plus control liposome (n=8, and exhaustive exercise plus clodronate liposome (n=8. Mice were treated with clodronate liposome or control liposome for 48 h before undergoing exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed for histological and PCR analyses. Exhaustive exercise increased the number of macrophages in the muscle; however, clodronate liposome treatment reduced this infiltration. Although exhaustive exercise resulted in an increase in injured myofibers, clodronate liposome treatment following exhaustive exercise reduced the injured myofibers. Clodronate liposome treatment also decreased the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise. These results suggest that macrophages play a critical role in increasing muscle injury by regulating inflammation.

  19. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  20. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  1. RhoA increases ASIC1a plasma membrane localization and calcium influx in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells following chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Lindsay M; Resta, Thomas C; Jernigan, Nikki L

    2018-02-01

    Increases in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) intracellular Ca 2+ levels and enhanced RhoA/Rho kinase-dependent Ca 2+ sensitization are key determinants of PASMC contraction, migration, and proliferation accompanying the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We previously showed that acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a)-mediated Ca 2+ entry in PASMC is an important constituent of the active vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy associated with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. However, the enhanced ASIC1a-mediated store-operated Ca 2+ entry in PASMC from pulmonary hypertensive animals is not dependent on an increase in ASIC1a protein expression, suggesting that chronic hypoxia (CH) stimulates ASIC1a function through other regulatory mechanism(s). RhoA is involved in ion channel trafficking, and levels of activated RhoA are increased following CH. Therefore, we hypothesize that activation of RhoA following CH increases ASIC1a-mediated Ca 2+ entry by promoting ASIC1a plasma membrane localization. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found greater plasma membrane localization of ASIC1a following CH. Inhibition of RhoA decreased ASIC1a plasma membrane expression and largely diminished ASIC1a-mediated Ca 2+ influx, whereas activation of RhoA had the opposite effect. A proximity ligation assay revealed that ASIC1a and RhoA colocalize in PASMC and that the activation state of RhoA modulates this interaction. Together, our findings show a novel interaction between RhoA and ASIC1a, such that activation of RhoA in PASMC, both pharmacologically and via CH, promotes ASIC1a plasma membrane localization and Ca 2+ entry. In addition to enhanced RhoA-mediated Ca 2+ sensitization following CH, RhoA can also activate a Ca 2+ signal by facilitating ASIC1a plasma membrane localization and Ca 2+ influx in pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  4. Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Priest

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disorders are well known to be associated with obesity, lipid profile, smoking, hypertension and other medical comorbidities, and large cohort studies have explored the childhood correlates to these adult risk factors. However, there has been little investigation into the childhood risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. We endeavored to better understand the role of smoking in childhood in the risk for PAD in a well described cohort of 1,537 adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In a multivariate regression model, we observed an increased risk of PAD among those who reported a history of smoking during childhood (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.99-4.11; P<0.001, which remained statistically significant after controlling for lifetime smoking burden (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.41; P = 0.049. Our novel observation of disproportionate risk of PAD conferred by a history of childhood smoking may reflect an unrecognized biological mechanism such as a unique susceptibility to vascular injury or an unaccounted for covariate such as secondhand smoke exposure in childhood. This observation suggests further investigation is required into the pathophysiology of smoking in the developing vasculature and the need for detailed clinical data about patterns of childhood smoking and smoke exposure.

  5. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear. to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. AGTR1 rs3772622 gene polymorphism increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients suffer coronary artery disease in Northern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lu, Lin-Lin; Yuan, De-Xi; Geng, Ning; Xuan, Shi-Ying; Xin, Yong-Ning

    2016-06-24

    Cardiovascular disease (CAD) responsible and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are both metabolic diseases, and they are mostly influenced by genetic factors. The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AGTR1) gene rs3772622 polymorphisms and the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese patients with NAFLD. Genotype for AGTR1 rs3772622 in 574 NAFLD patients with CAD or 589 NAFLD patients without CAD, 332 CAD patients exclude NAFLD and 338 health control subjects were determined by sequencing and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Relevant statistical methods were employed to analyze the genotypes, alleles and the clinical date. Inter-group differences and associations were assessed statistically using t-tests and Chi square and logistic analyses. The relative risk of AGTR1 rs3772622 for NAFLD was estimated by logistic regression analysis. No significant difference in genotype and allele frequency of AGTR1 rs3772622 was found between the NAFLD without CAD population and the controls (P > 0.05). However, makeable difference was found when compared the CAD in patients with NAFLD and CAD free NAFLD patients (P increase the risk of NAFLD patients suffering from CAD in the Chinese Han population. Deeply mechanisms underlying the association between AGTR1 rs3772622 gene polymorphism and the risk of CAD in NAFLD patients need more research.

  7. Vasodilatory effect of L-arginine on isolated rabbit and human posterior ciliary arteries in vitro and increased optic disc blood flow in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuman, Hideki; Sugimoto, Takako; Nao-I, Nobuhisa

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the vasodilatory effect of L-arginine on isolated rabbit and human posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs) and to investigate changes in optic disc blood flow after an infusion of L-arginine in vivo. Vascular ring segments were mounted on a double myograph system. After obtaining maximal contraction following administration of high-K solution, L-arginine was administrated. Six volunteers received an intravenous drip infusion of 100 ml of L-arginine or saline. Changes in optic disc blood flow were measured by laser speckle flowgraphy. L-arginine relaxed high-K solution-induced contracted rabbit PCAs. Carboxy-PTIO (nitric oxide scavenger) and L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) inhibited L-arginine-induced relaxation in rabbit PCAs. After removal of the endothelium of the rabbit PCAs, L-arginine still relaxed rabbit PCAs. L-arginine relaxed human PCAs, despite the lack of nitric oxide production. In the L-arginine infusion group, the mean blur rate was significantly greater than that of the control group in vivo. L-arginine has both nitric oxide-dependent and independent vasodilatory effect on high K- induced contractions in isolated rabbit and human PCAs. L-arginine increased optic disc blood flow in vivo.

  8. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-04-01

    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  9. Increased Plasma Cathepsin S at the Time of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty is Associated with 6-Months’ Restenosis of the Femoropopliteal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovski Mojca Bozic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of cathepsin S and decreased levels of cystatin C in plasma at the time of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA are associated with the occurrence of 6-months’ restenosis of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA. Methods: 20 patients with restenosis and 24 matched patients with patent FPA after a 6-months follow-up were in - cluded in this study. They all exhibited disabling claudication or critical limb ischemia and had undergone technically successful PTA. They were all receiving statins and ACE in hi - bitors (or angiotensin II receptor antagonist before the PTA and the therapy did not change throughout the observational period. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein were < 10 mg/L and of creatinine within the reference range at the time of the PTA. Plasma concentration and activity of cathepsin S, together with its potent inhibitor cystatin C, were measured the day before and the day after the PTA. Results: The increased plasma concentration and activity of cathepsin S at the time of PTA was associated with the occurrence of 6-months’ restenosis of FPA, independently of established risk factors (lesion complexity, infrapopliteal run-off vessels, type of PTA, age, gender, smoking, diabetes, lipids and of cystatin C. Plasma cystatin C concentration was not associated with restenosis and did not correlate with cathepsin S activity and concentration in the plasma. Conclusion: Increased level of plasma cathepsin S at the time of PTA is associated with 6-months’ restenosis of PTA, independently of established risk factors.

  10. Associations between Emotional Exhaustion, Social Capital, Workload, and Latitude in Decision-Making among Professionals Working with People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Christoph; Driller, Elke; Ernstmann, Nicole; Alich, Saskia; Karbach, Ute; Ommen, Oliver; Schulz-Nieswandt, Frank; Pfaff, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many people working in human services in Western countries suffer from burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal performance. Prevention of emotional exhaustion (the first phase of burnout) constitutes a great challenge because emotional exhaustion may cause increasing turnover rates in…

  11. Flight Tests of Exhaust Gas Jet Propulsion, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnkel, Benjamin; Turner, L. Richard

    1940-01-01

    Flight test s were conducted on the XP-41 airplane, equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R1830-19, 14-cylinder, air-cooled engine, to determine the increase in flight speed obtainable by the use of individual exhaust stacks directed rearwardly to obtain exhaust-gas thrust. Speed increases up to 18 miles per hour at 20,000 feet altitude were obtained using stacks having an exit area of 3.42 square inches for each cylinder. A slight increase in engine power and decrease in cylinder temperature at a given manifold pressure were obtained with the individual stacks as compared with a collector-ring installation. Exhaust-flame visibility was quite low, particularly in the rich range of fuel-air ratios.

  12. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  13. Effect of a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C on G-protein-mediated increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity in rabbit arterial skinned muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T.; Suzuki, A.; Watanabe, Y.

    1994-01-01

    1. To investigate the role of protein kinase C in the increase mediated by guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle, the effect of a novel peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC19-36) on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was studied in the presence and absence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) in beta-escin-skinned smooth muscle strips of rabbit mesenteric artery. For comparison, the effects were also observed of PKC19-36 on the action of phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu, an activator of PKC) on the two Ca(2+)-induced responses. 2. In beta-escin-skinned strips treated with ionomycin, Ca2+ (0.1-3 microM) concentration-dependently produced contraction in parallel with an increase in MLC-phosphorylation. GTP gamma S (10 microM) and PDBu (0.1 microM) each shifted both the Ca(2+)-force and Ca(2+)-MLC-phosphorylation relationships to the left without a significant change in either maximum response. The relationship between force and MLC-phosphorylation was not modified by either GTP gamma S or PDBu, indicating that the sensitivity of MLC-phosphorylation to Ca2+ is enhanced by both GTP gamma S and PDBu. 3. PKC19-36 itself modified neither the contraction nor MLC-phosphorylation induced by Ca2+ but it did block the PDBu-induced enhancement of these two Ca(2+)-induced responses. By contrast, PKC19-36 did not modify the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement of the two Ca(2+)-induced responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8012712

  14. Treatment with a JNK inhibitor increases, whereas treatment with a p38 inhibitor decreases, H2O2-induced calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in endothelial cells (ECs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote cell death by regulating the activity of various mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ECs. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell survival and glutathione (GSH) levels upon H 2 O 2 treatment in calf pulmonary artery ECs (CPAECs). H 2 O 2 treatment inhibited the growth and induced the death of CPAECs, as well as causing GSH depletion and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). While treatment with the MEK or JNK inhibitor impaired the growth of H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs, treatment with the p38 inhibitor attenuated this inhibition of growth. Additionally, JNK inhibitor treatment increased the proportion of sub-G 1 phase cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs and further decreased the MMP. However, treatment with a p38 inhibitor reversed the effects of H 2 O 2 treatment on cell growth and the MMP. Similarly, JNK inhibitor treatment further increased, whereas p38 inhibitor treatment decreased, the proportion of GSH-depleted cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs. Each of the MAPK inhibitors affected cell survival, and ROS or GSH levels differently in H 2 O 2 -untreated, control CPAECs. The data suggest that the exposure of CPAECs to H 2 O 2 caused the cell growth inhibition and cell death through GSH depletion. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor treatment further enhanced, whereas p38 inhibitors attenuated, these effects. Thus, the results of the present study suggest a specific protective role for the p38 inhibitor, and not the JNK inhibitor, against H 2 O 2 -induced cell growth inhibition and cell death.

  15. B-cell exhaustion in HIV infection: the role of immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    To discuss a component of the pathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection in the context of phenotypic and functional alterations in B cells that are due to persistent viral replication leading to aberrant immune activation and cellular exhaustion. We explore how B-cell exhaustion arises during persistent viremia and how it compares with T-cell exhaustion and similar B-cell alterations in other diseases. HIV-associated B-cell exhaustion was first described in 2008, soon after the demonstration of persistent virus-induced T-cell exhaustion, as well as the identification of a subset B cells in tonsil tissues with immunoregulatory features similar to those observed in T-cell exhaustion. Our understanding of B-cell exhaustion has since expanded in two important areas: the role of inhibitory receptors in the unresponsiveness of exhausted B cells and the increasing evidence that similar B cells are found in other diseases that are associated with aberrant immune activation and inflammation. The phenomenon of B-cell exhaustion is now well established in HIV infection and other diseases characterized by immune activation. Over the coming years, it will be important to understand how cellular exhaustion affects the capacity of the immune system to respond to persisting primary pathogens, as well as to other microbial antigens, whether encountered as secondary infections or following immunization.

  16. Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

  17. Blood Pressure Is the Determinant for the Increased Risk for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Subjects with Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is known to be an important vascular complication of diabetes. Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is considered as an important cause of stroke in Asians. We aimed to analyze the risk for ICAS assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in different groups of young Korean subjects divided by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This study included 10,437 participants without history of cardiovascular diseases (81.3% men, mean age 43 years) from a health screening program, in whom TCD ultrasonography was used to detect greater than 50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the SONIA (Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis) trial. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1c levels: HbA1c < 5.7%, 5.7 ≤ HbA1c < 6.5%, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or under medication for diabetes. Among the participants, 3.0% of the subjects had ICAS. The subjects with ICAS tended to have higher mean HbA1c level compared with those without ICAS (5.8 ± .8 versus 5.7 ± .6, P = .063). The proportion of subjects with ICAS significantly increased as the HbA1c increased from the first to the third group (2.8%, 3.0%, 4.6%, P for linear trend = .022). In logistic regression analysis with ICAS as the dependent variable, the group with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% showed significantly increased odds ratio for ICAS with subjects with HbA1c < 5.7% as the reference after adjustment for confounding variables (1.575, 95% confidence interval 1.056-2.347). However, this significance disappeared with inclusion of presence of hypertension in the model. The risk for ICAS assessed by TCD was increased in young Korean subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. However, this significance was attenuated after adjustment for presence of hypertension, suggesting the importance of hypertension in ICAS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Possible Biomarkers of Chronic Stress Induced Exhaustion - A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, Johanna; Åsberg, Marie; Nygren, Åke; Szulkin, Robert; Wallén, Håkan; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Nager, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have previously been suggested to be potential biomarkers for chronic stress induced exhaustion. The knowledge about VEGF has increased during the last decades and supports the contention that VEGF plays an important role in stress and depression. There is scarce knowledge on the possible relationship of EGF and MCP-1 in chronic stress and depression. This study further examines the role of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and healthy women during a follow-up period of two years. Blood samples were collected from 105 women with chronic stress induced exhaustion on at least 50% sick leave for at least three months, at inclusion (T0), after 12 months (T12) and after 24 months (T24). Blood samples were collected at inclusion (T0) in 116 physically and psychiatrically healthy women. The plasma levels of VEGF, EGF and MCP-1 were analyzed using Biochip Array Technology. Women with chronic stress induced exhaustion had significantly higher plasma levels of VEGF and EGF compared to healthy women at baseline, T12 and at T24. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MCP-1. Plasma levels of VEGF and EGF decreased significantly in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion during the two years follow-up. The replicated findings of elevated levels of VEGF and EGF in women with chronic stress induced exhaustion and decreasing plasma levels of VEGF and EGF during the two years follow-up add important knowledge to the pathophysiology of chronic stress induced exhaustion.

  19. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe MC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michaela C Pascoe,1 David W Howells, 2David P Crewther,1 Leeanne M Carey,2,3 Sheila G Crewther4 1Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, ²Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health La Trobe University, 4School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. Keywords: apoptosis, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  20. 20 CFR 636.5 - Exhaustion of grantee level procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. 636.5..., INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.5 Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. (a) Exhaustion required. No... have been exhausted. (b) Exhaustion exceptions. Complainants who have not exhausted the procedures at...

  1. Peroxynitrite formed during a transient episode of brain ischaemia increases endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type dilations in thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor-stimulated rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, Y; Dantas, A P; Pérez, B; McNeish, A J; Vila, E; Jiménez-Altayó, F

    2017-05-01

    Increased thromboxane A 2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A 2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats. Some rats were treated with saline or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III) (20 mg kg -1 ). Protein expression was evaluated in MCA and in human microvascular endothelial cells submitted to hypoxia (overnight)/reoxygenation (24 h) (H/R) using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In U46619-pre-constricted MCA, EDH-type relaxation by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine-NH 2 (SLIGRL) was greater in I/R than sham rats due to an increased contribution of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK C a ), which was confirmed by the enlarged relaxation to the SK C a activator N-cyclohexyl-N-2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine. I/R and H/R induced endothelial protein tyrosine nitration and filamentous-actin disruption. In control MCA, either cytochalasin D or peroxynitrite disrupted endothelial filamentous-actin and augmented EDH-type relaxation. Furthermore, peroxynitrite decomposition during I/R prevented the increase in EDH-type responses. Following TP stimulation in MCA, EDH-type relaxation to SLIGRL is greater after I/R due to endothelial filamentous-actin disruption by peroxynitrite, which prevents TP-induced block of SK C a input to EDH

  2. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  3. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  4. Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J; Miller, Mark R; Newby, David E

    2018-03-20

    Air pollution is a major global health concern with particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis, and plaque stability. Oxidative stress has emerged as a highly plausible pathobiological mechanism by which inhalation of diesel exhaust PM leads to multiple facets of cardiovascular dysfunction. Diesel exhaust inhalation promotes oxidative stress in several biological compartments that can be directly associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Further studies with more sensitive and specific in vivo human markers of oxidative stress are required to determine if targeting oxidative stress pathways involved in the actions of diesel exhaust PM could be of therapeutic value. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 819-836.

  5. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  6. Implementation of microwave transmissions for rocket exhaust plume diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Nicholas George

    Rocket-launched vehicles produce a trail of exhaust that contains ions, free electrons, and soot. The exhaust plume increases the effective conductor length of the rocket. A conductor in the presence of an electric field (e.g. near the electric charge stored within a cloud) can channel an electric discharge. The electrical conductivity of the exhaust plume is related to its concentration of free electrons. The risk of a lightning strike in-flight is a function of both the conductivity of the body and its effective length. This paper presents an approach that relates the electron number density of the exhaust plume to its propagation constant. Estimated values of the collision frequency and electron number density generated from a numerical simulation of a rocket plume are used to guide the design of the experimental apparatus. Test par meters are identified for the apparatus designed to transmit a signal sweep form 4 GHz to 7 GHz through the exhaust plume of a J-class solid rocket motor. Measurements of the scattering parameters imply that the transmission does not penetrate the plume, but instead diffracts around it. The electron density 20 cm downstream from the nozzle exit is estimated to be between 2.7x1014 m--3 and 5.6x10 15 m--3.

  7. Increased perfusion pressure enhances the expression of endothelin (ETB) and angiotensin II (AT1, AT2) receptors in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Isak; Xu, Cang-Bao; Zhang, Yaping

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that changes in perfusion pressure result in altered expression of mRNA and protein encoding for the ETA-, ETB-, AT1- and AT2-receptors in rat mesenteric vessels. Segments of the rat mesenteric artery were cannulated with glass micropipettes, pressurized and ...

  8. Increased in vivo mitochondrial oxygenation with right ventricular failure induced by pulmonary arterial hypertension: mitochondrial inhibition as driver of cardiac failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balestra, Gianmarco M.; Mik, Egbert G.; Eerbeek, Otto; Specht, Patricia A. C.; van der Laarse, Willem J.; Zuurbier, Coert J.

    2015-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is failure of the cardiac right ventricle. It has long been hypothesized that during the development of chronic cardiac failure the heart becomes energy deprived, possibly due to shortage of oxygen at the level of

  9. Increased in vivo mitochondrial oxygenation with right ventricular failure induced by pulmonary arterial hypertension: Mitochondrial inhibition as driver of cardiac failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Balestra (Gianmarco); E.G. Mik (Egbert); O. Eerbeek (Otto); P. Specht (Patricia); W.J. van der Laarse (Willem J.); C.J. Zuurbier (Coert J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The leading cause of mortality due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is failure of the cardiac right ventricle. It has long been hypothesized that during the development of chronic cardiac failure the heart becomes energy deprived, possibly due to shortage of oxygen at

  10. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  11. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  12. Highly increased Troponin I levels following high-intensity endurance cycling may detect subclinical coronary artery disease in presumably healthy leisure sport cyclists: The North Sea Race Endurance Exercise Study (NEEDED) 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadberg, Øyvind; Kleiven, Øyunn; Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, Magnus; Melberg, Tor; Bergseth, Rolf; Selvåg, Jone; Auestad, Bjørn; Greve, Ole J; Dickstein, Kenneth; Aarsland, Torbjørn; Ørn, Stein

    2017-05-01

    Background Circulating cardiac troponin levels increase following prolonged intense physical exercise. The aim of this study was to identify participants with highly elevated cardiac troponins after prolonged, high intensity exercise, and to evaluate these for subclinical coronary artery disease. Methods and results Ninety-seven recreational cyclists without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes, participating in a 91 km mountain bike race were included, 74 (76%) were males, age: 43 ± 10 years, race duration: 4.2 (3.6-4.7) h. Blood samples, rest electrocardiogram and physical examination were obtained 24 h prior to, and at 0, 3 and 24 h following the race. Median cardiac troponin I level at baseline: 3.4 (2.1-4.9) ng/l (upper limit of normal: 30.0 ng/l). There was a highly significant ( p coronary artery disease during or following the race. Coronary artery disease was detected by coronary angiography in the three cyclists with the three of the four highest cardiac troponin values (>370 ng/l) at 3 and 24 h following the race. Computed tomographic coronary angiography was performed in an additional 10 riders with the subsequently highest cardiac troponin I values, without identifying underlying coronary artery disease. Conclusions This study suggests that there is a pathologic cardiac troponin I response following exercise in individuals with subclinical coronary artery disease. This response may be associated with an excessive cardiac troponin I increase at 3 and 24 h following prolonged high-intensity exercise.

  13. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  14. High Blood Pressure Increases the Risk of Poor Outcome at Discharge and 12-month Follow-up in Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Large Artery Stenosis and Occlusions: Subgroup analysis of the CICAS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Pu, Yue-Hua; Pan, Yue-Song; Zou, Xin-Ying; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas; Liu, Li-Ping; Wang, David Z; Wong, Ka-Sing; Wang, Yi-Long; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discuss the relationship between blood pressure and prognosis of patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. Data on 2426 patients with symptomatic intracranial large artery stenosis and occlusion who participated in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis (CICAS) study were analyzed. According to the JNC 7 criteria, blood pressure of all patients was classified into one of the four subgroups: normal, prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II. Poor outcomes were defined as death and functional dependency (mRS 3-5) at discharge or at 1 year. For patients with intracranial stenosis of 70% to 99%, the rate of poor outcome at discharge was 19.3%, 23.5%, 26.8%, and 39.8% (P = 0.001) for each blood pressure subgroup. For patients with intracranial large artery occlusion, the rates were 17.6%, 22.1%, 29.5%, and 49.8%, respectively (P pressure subgroup and 11.6%, 21.5%, 23.9%, 35.1% (P intracranial arterial stenosis or occlusion, higher hypertension stages are associated with an increased risk of poor outcome at discharge and 12-month follow-up. © 2015 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterization of Soy Biodiesel Exhaust and Toxicological Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biofuel use across the world is increasing, very little is known about possible health effects resulting from biofuel exhaust (BE) from this relatively new source of transportation fuel. The U.S. EPA has instigated an in vivo screening approach in rodents to examine whet...

  16. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood flow during exercise and muscle ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Perko, M; Hanel, B

    1992-01-01

    Changes in middle cerebral artery flow velocity (Vmean), measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound, were used to determine whether increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) or brain activation enhance cerebral perfusion during exercise. We also evaluated the role of "central command......, they support the hypothesis that cerebral perfusion during exercise reflects an increase in brain activation that is independent of MAP, central command, and muscle metaboreceptors but is likely to depend on influence of mechanoreceptors.......," mechanoreceptors, and/or muscle "metaboreceptors" on cerebral perfusion. Ten healthy subjects performed two levels of dynamic exercise corresponding to a heart rate of 110 (range 89-134) and 148 (129-170) beats/min, respectively, and exhaustive one-legged static knee extension. Measurements were continued during 2...

  17. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  18. Leadership, organizational stress, and emotional exhaustion among hospital nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stordeur, S; D'hoore, W; Vandenberghe, C

    2001-08-01

    STUDY'S RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of work stressors and head nurses' transactional and transformational leadership on the levels of emotional exhaustion experienced among their staff. A questionnaire was sent to all nurses of a university hospital. Usable returns were received from 625 nurses, giving a response rate of 39.2%. Data were treated using correlational analyses and multiple regression. The latter modelled stressors and leadership as predictors of nurses' reported emotional exhaustion. Work stressors were assessed using the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) which comprises 34 items divided into three subscales (referring to stress from the physical, psychological, and social environment), and the role ambiguity (three items) and conflict (three items) scales. Leadership was measured with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. In regression analyses, work stressors as a whole were found to explain 22% of the variance in emotional exhaustion whereas leadership dimensions explained 9% of the variance in that outcome measure. Stress emanating from the physical and social environment, role ambiguity, and active management-by-exception leadership were significantly associated with increased levels of emotional exhaustion. Transformational and contingent reward leadership did not influence emotional exhaustion. A limitation of this study is that it considered only the emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout. Also, as data were cross-sectional in nature, conclusions regarding the direction of causality among variables cannot be drawn. This study provided, for the first time, a test of the influence of leadership on burnout among nurses, taking into account the role of work stressors. Future research is needed to examine if the effects reported herein can be replicated using the two other dimensions of burnout (depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment).

  19. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to breathing problems or problems with the body's metabolism . Sometimes arterial sticks are done to get blood ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Bacterial Infections Read more Blood Read more Blood Disorders ...

  20. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  1. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  2. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  3. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it passes... discharge terminating in a transom must be located as far outboard as practicable so that exhaust gases...

  4. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  5. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  6. Increase perfusion homogeniety in attenuation and scatter corrected Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, C. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Effect of attenuation correction (AC) and scatter correction (SC) in thallium-201 SPECT has been established but a few study was done about Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. This study evaluated the effect of AC/SC on myocardial Tc-99m MIBI distribution in patients with low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Twenty-three subjects, 7 men and 16 women between 45 and 75 years of age were studied. For quantification, data were reconstructed into polar maps with the score of % extent and severity (sds) of uneven perfusion. Uncorrected and corrected polar maps were divided into 3 vascular territories. The extent and severity of uneven perfusion in RCA territory decreased after AC/SC correction (p<0.005). The improvement of uniformity (smaller extent and severity of uneven perfusion after correction) in LAD and LCX territories correlated with BMI for women and in RCA for men (p<0.001). AC and SC yields improved homogeneity of Tc-MIBI distribution in patients with low likelihood of coronary artery diseased

  7. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  8. The Role of Hydrogen Bonds Of The Azeotropic Hydrous Ethanol Fuel Composition To The Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Suarta, I.; Nyoman Gede Baliarta, I.; Sopan Rahtika, I. P. G.; Wijaya Sunu, Putu

    2018-01-01

    In this study observed the role of hydrogen bonding to the composition of exhaust emissions which is produced hydrous ethanol fuel (95.5% v). Testing is done by using single cylinder four stroke motor engine. The composition of exhaust gas emissions is tested using exhaust gas analyzer on lean and stoichiometry mixer. The exhaust emissions produced by anhydrous ethanol were also tested. The composition of emissions produced by that two fuels is compared. The results showed CO emissions levels produced by hydrous ethanol are slightly higher than anhydrous ethanol in stoichiometric mixtures. But the composition of CO hydrous ethanol emissions is lower in the lean mix. If lean the mixer the different in the composition of emissions is increasing. On hydrous ethanol emission CO2 content little bit lower on the stoichiometric mixer and higher on the lean mixture. Exhaust emissions of ethanol fuel also produce O2. O2 hydrous ethanol emissions is higher than anhydrous ethanol fuel.

  9. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  11. Psychobiological stress in vital exhaustion. Findings from the Men Stress 40+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Emilou; Fischer, Susanne; Ruppen, Jessica; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2018-02-01

    Despite the increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity associated with vital exhaustion (VE), the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Allostatic load may constitute the missing link between VE and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether men with different degrees of VE would differ in terms of allostatic load, chronic stress, and social support. The Men Stress 40+ study sample consisted of N=121 apparently healthy men aged 40 to 75years. The following allostatic load markers were aggregated to create a cumulative index of biological stress: salivary cortisol, salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), waist-to-hip-ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Long-term cortisol and DHEA were additionally measured in hair. Chronic stress and social support were assessed via validated questionnaires. Groups of mildly, substantially, and severely exhausted men were compared using one-way ANOVAs with appropriate post-hoc tests. Men who reported mild or severe levels of vital exhaustion had the highest scores on the cumulative index of biological stress. Hair cortisol was unrelated to vital exhaustion; hair DHEA was highest in men with substantial levels of exhaustion. Men with mild exhaustion reported the lowest levels of chronic stress, while men with severe exhaustion reported the lowest levels of social support. Signs of allostatic load are detectable in vitally exhausted men at a stage where no major cardiovascular consequences have yet ensued. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Relation of Vital Exhaustion to Cardiovascular Disease Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Randy; Bavishi, Chirag; Haider, Syed; Thankachen, Jincy; Rozanski, Alan

    2017-04-15

    To assess the net impact of vital exhaustion on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO (through April 2016) to identify all studies which investigated the relation between vital exhaustion (VE) and health outcomes. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) a cohort study (prospective cohort or historical cohort) consisting of adults (>18 years); (2) at least 1 self-reported or interview-based assessment of VE or exhaustion; (3) evaluated the association between vital exhaustion or exhaustion and relevant outcomes; and (4) reported adjusted risk estimates of vital exhaustion/exhaustion for outcomes. Maximally adjusted effect estimates with 95% CIs along with variables used for adjustment in multivariate analysis were also abstracted. Primary study outcome was cardiovascular events. Secondary outcomes were stroke and all-cause mortality. Seventeen studies (19 comparisons) with a total of 107,175 participants were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up was 6 years. VE was significantly associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (relative risk 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.83, p exhaustion, such as occupational burnout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  14. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, Aaron D.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Coldren, Dana R.

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  16. No influence of increased intake of orange and blackcurrant juices and dietary amounts of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Jonung, Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    by dietary factors like the antioxidants. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined the effect of antioxidant-rich orange and blackcurrant juices and vitamin E supplement on PON1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, we studied whether genetic polymorphisms in the PON1 gene predicted...... the change in PON1 activity. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-over trial with 48 participants who received two of the four possible treatments: (1) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice; (2) 15 mg vitamin E; (3) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice and 15 mg vitamin E......; or (4) control/placebo (energy-equivalent sugar-containing beverage). The treatments were given for 28 days, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. RESULTS: The PON1 activity was not affected by juice or vitamin E supplement neither was there evidence of synergetic effects. However, a statistically...

  17. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  18. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  19. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER's nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified

  20. Harvesting the radial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Arie; Osterday, Robert M; Brodman, Richard F

    2013-07-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a "no-touch" technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit.

  1. The pathophysiology of the arterial tourniquet: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... phate is depleted by 2 hours and the ATP supply is exhausted. Arterial tourniquets are widely used in limb surgery to reduce intra-operative bleeding, thereby providing for better opera- tive conditions. There are, however, a number of consequences, both localised and systemic, related to tourniquet use.

  2. T cell exhaustion and Interleukin 2 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhi, Mumtaz Y; Ma, Qiangzhong; Ahmad, Shazia; Junghans, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    T cells reactive to tumor antigens and viral antigens lose their reactivity when exposed to the antigen-rich environment of a larger tumor bed or viral load. Such non-responsive T cells are termed exhausted. T cell exhaustion affects both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. T cell exhaustion is attributed to the functional impairment of T cells to produce cytokines, of which the most important may be Interleukin 2 (IL2). IL2 performs functions critical for the elimination of cancer cells and virus infected cells. In one such function, IL2 promotes CD8+ T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activities. Other functions include regulating naïve T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 subsets upon exposure to antigens. Thus, the signaling pathways contributing to T cell exhaustion could be linked to the signaling pathways contributing to IL2 loss. This review will discuss the process of T cell exhaustion and the signaling pathways that could be contributing to T cell exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  4. Oxotremorine delays and scopolamine accelerates sexual exhaustion when applied to the preoptic area in male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floody, Owen R

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has not been tested for a role in the development of sexual exhaustion in males. However, male hamsters receiving infusions into the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (OXO) or antagonist scopolamine (SCO) show changes in the postejaculatory interval, one of the measures that changes most consistently as exhaustion approaches. In addition, central SCO treatments cause changes in the patterning of intromissions that resemble those signaling exhaustion. To extend these observations and more thoroughly test the dependence of sexual exhaustion on ACh, male hamsters received MPOA treatments of OXO, SCO or the combination of the two before mating to exhaustion. Relative to placebo, OXO infusions caused small but consistent increases in ejaculation frequency and long intromission latency, delaying the appearance of exhaustion. Scopolamine treatments did the reverse, dramatically accelerating the development of exhaustion. Consistent with and possibly responsible for these changes were effects on the quality of performance prior to exhaustion. These included differences in overall copulatory efficiency (e.g., ejaculations/intromission), which was increased by OXO and decreased by SCO. They also extended to several standard measures of copulatory behavior, including intromission frequency, ejaculation latency and the postejaculatory interval: Most of these were increased by SCO and decreased by OXO. Finally, whereas most or all effects of OXO were counteracted by SCO, most or all of the responses to SCO resisted change by added OXO. This asymmetry in the responses to combined treatment raises the possibility that the effects of these drugs on sexual exhaustion and other elements of male behavior are mediated by distinct muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  6. Effects of exercise training on HbA1c and VO2peak in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Njerve, Ida U; Anderssen, Sigmund; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2015-09-01

    Few exercise trials have focused on patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. We investigated the effects of 1 year of exercise training on HbA1c and VO(2peak) in these patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (n = 137) were randomised to combined exercise training or control group. HbA(1c) was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Changes in VO(2peak), and also ventilatory threshold and time to exhaustion, were assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. No differences in changes between the randomised groups were observed in HbA1c and VO(2peak), whereas ventilatory threshold and time to exhaustion increased significantly in the exercise group compared with the controls (p = 0.046 and p = 0.034). In patients without previous acute myocardial infarction and diabetes microvascular complications (n = 46), the exercise group did improve HbA1c and VO(2peak) compared with the controls (p = 0.052 and p = 0.035). No significant effects of exercise training on HbA(1c) or VO(2peak) were observed in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, although improvements were seen in patients without vascular complications beyond coronary artery disease, implying that the degree of vascular disease may influence exercise responses. Ventilatory threshold and time to exhaustion did increase significantly, indicating improved exercise performance despite the minor change in VO(2peak). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Protective effect of Tanshinone IIA against infarct size and increased HMGB1, NFκB, GFAP and apoptosis consequent to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Bondy, Stephen C; Zhou, Li; Yang, Feng-Zhen; Ding, Zhi-Gang; Hu, Yu; Tian, Yun; Wen, Pu-Yuan; Luo, Hao; Wang, Fang; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Acute inflammation plays an important role in brain damage following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study employed a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion to explore the neuroprotective effects of tanshinone IIA (TSN), which is widely used in China for treating cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Rats were divided into a sham-operated group and I/R transiently occluded then reperfused groups. Some of the I/R animals were treated daily for 7 or 15 days with two different doses of TSN. After 15 days, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining revealed less unstained area indicating fewer lesions in the TSN-treated I/R group relative to the untreated corresponding I/R group. TSN treatment dramatically reduced infarct sizes and reduced content of high mobility group box 1 protein following I/R. Nuclear translocation of NFκB was also attenuated in I/R animals subsequently receiving TSN. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining revealed more apoptosis in the I/R model group and this was reduced in the I/R animals treated with TSN for 15 days. Thus, TSN mitigates the severity of damage effected by I/R.

  8. Constriction of collateral arteries induced by "head-up tilt" in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    not change the pressure gradient from femoral to popliteal artery in the patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, indicating that the flow resistance offered by the collateral arteries had increased. In a bilateral sympathectomised patient the increase in collateral resistance was almost...... absent indicating that the constriction of the collateral arteries is mainly mediated via sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibres....

  9. Noninvasively assessed pulmonary artery stiffness predicts mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, C.T.; Lankhaar, J.W.; Westerhof, N.; Marcus, J.T.; Becker, A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Decreased total compliance of the pulmonary vascular bed is associated with increased mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We investigated whether proximal pulmonary artery stiffness, in terms of area distensibility and noninvasively assessed relative area change

  10. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have stagnant...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff...

  12. Effect of Exhaust Pressure on the Cooling Characteristics of a Liquid-Cooled Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ronald B.; Desmon, Leland G.

    1947-01-01

    Data for a liquid-cooled engine with a displacement volume of 1710 cubic inches were analyzed to determine the effect of exhaust pressure on the engine cooling characteristics. The data covered a range of exhaust pressures from 7 to 62 inches of mercury absolute, inlet-manifold pressures from 30 to 50 inches of mercury absolute, engine speeds from 1600 to 3000 rpm, and fuel-air ratios from 0.063 to 0.100. The effect of exhaust pressure on engine cooling was satisfactorily incorporated in the NACA cooling-correlation method as a variation in effective gas temperature with exhaust pressure. Large variations of cylinder-head temperature with exhaust pressure were obtained for operation at constant charge flow. At a constant charge flow of 2 pounds per second (approximately 1000 bhp) and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, an increase in exhaust pressure from 10 to 60 inches of mercury absolute resulted in an increase of 40 F in average cylinder-head temperature. For operation at constant engine speed and inlet-manifold pressure and variable exhaust pressure (variable charge flow), however, the effect of exhaust pressure on cylinder-head temperature is small. For example, at an inlet-manifold pressure of 40 inches of mercury absolute, an engine speed of 2400 rpm.- and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, the average cylinder-head temperature was about the same at exhaust pressures of 10 and 60 inches of,mercury absolute; a rise and a subsequent decrease of about 70 occurred between these extremes.

  13. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  14. Design and Optimisation of Electrostatic Precipitator for Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivaas, A.; Sathian, Samanyu; Ramesh, Arjun

    2018-02-01

    The principle of an industrially used emission reduction technique is employed in automotive diesel exhaust to reduce the diesel particulate emission. As the Emission regulation are becoming more stringent legislations have been formulated, due to the hazardous increase in the air quality index in major cities. Initially electrostatic precipitation principle and working was investigated. The High voltage requirement in an Electrostatic precipitator is obtained by designing an appropriate circuit in MATLAB -SIMULINK. Mechanical structural design of the new model after treatment device for the specific diesel exhaust was done. Fluid flow analysis of the ESP model was carried out using ANSYS CFX for optimized fluid with a reduced back pressure. Design reconsideration was done in accordance with fluid flow analysis. Accordingly, a new design is developed by considering diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter design to ESP model.

  15. Metabolic syndrome may be associated with increased arterial stiffness even in the absence of hypertension: a study in 84 cases and 82 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Pauliina; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna M; Leskinen, Miia H; Viitala, Jani M; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni J; Mustonen, Jukka T; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the absence and presence of hypertension. Altogether 166 subjects without previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or antihypertensive medication, were allocated to four groups: control, hypertension only, MetS without hypertension, and MetS with hypertension (mean age 44-46 years). Cut-point for hypertension was blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. Other criteria of MetS were as defined by Alberti et al. 2009. Hemodynamic variables were measured using whole-body impedance cardiography and pulse wave analysis. Pulse wave velocity was higher in hypertensive and normotensive subjects with MetS than controls (p<0.05), and in the hypertensive MetS group than subjects with hypertension only (p<0.05). Aortic pulse pressure was higher in the two hypertensive groups than the two normotensive groups (p<0.05). Systemic vascular resistance index was higher in the hypertensive than normotensive MetS group (p<0.05), and in the group with hypertension alone than in controls (p<0.05). Heart rate was higher in the hypertensive Mets group than in controls and subjects with hypertension only (p<0.05). Cardiac index did not differ, while stroke index was lower in both groups with MetS than groups without MetS. Augmentation pressure was higher in the hypertensive MetS group than in controls and normotensive MetS group (p<0.05). Pulse wave velocity, an acknowledged marker of arterial stiffness, was associated with MetS even in the absence of hypertension. This emphasizes the importance of the prevention and treatment of MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of...

  17. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  18. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  19. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  20. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  1. Measures of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures associate with pulmonary arterial pressure in the general population : Results from the population-based Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billar, R.J. (Ryan J.); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten); D. Merkus (Daphne); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A. Ghofrani; O.H. Franco (Oscar); H. Gall (Henning); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Heart failure is a common cause of pulmonary hypertension. Yet, the relation between left heart parameters reflective of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures,

  2. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  3. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    damages the cerebral microcirculation, which causes various phenomena associated with cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVDs), such as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and lacunar infarctions (LIs). The mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may also be associated with reductions in white matter and gray matter integrity, medial temporal lobe atrophy and Aβ protein deposition. Engaging in more frequent physical exercise; increasing flavonoid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption; increasing tea, nitrite, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake; losing weight and taking medications intended to improve insulin sensitivity; quitting smoking; and using antihypertensive drugs and statins are early interventions and lifestyle changes that may be effective in preventing arterial stiffness and thus preventing cognitive impairment. Arterial stiffness is a sensitive predictor of cognitive impairment, and arterial stiffness severity has the potential to serve as an indicator used to facilitate treatments designed to prevent or delay the onset and progression of dementia in elderly individuals. Early treatment of arterial stiffness is beneficial and recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  5. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  6. Gasoline reformulation to reduce exhaust emissions in Finnish conditions. Influence of sulphur and benzene contents of gasoline on exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoe, M.; Aakko, P.; Lappi, M.

    1994-01-01

    At earlier stages of the study it was found that the exhaust emissions from cars are reduced when using fuels with no more than 4 wt% of oxygen. At this stage of the study the work focused on impacts of the sulphur and benzene content of gasoline on exhaust emissions in Finland. Sulphur in gasoline retards the operation of the catalyst, and consequently the exhaust emissions of catalyst cars increase if the sulphur content of the fuel increases. In the present study, evaporation during refuelling were measured for fuels with varying vapour pressures and benzene contents of gasoline. The total hydrocarbon evaporation was reduced by 22 % (10 g) when the vapour pressure of gasoline was reduced from 85 kPa to 65 kPa. Correspondingly, benzene evaporation during refuelling was reduced to a third when the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from the level of 3 wt% to 1 wt%. The reduction of the sulphur content of gasoline from 500 ppm to 100 ppm affected regulated exhaust emissions from the catalyst car at +22 deg C as follows: CO emission was reduced on average by 14 % (0.175 g/km), CH emission by 7 % (0.010 g/km) and NO x emission by 9 % (0.011 g/km). At-7 deg C the percentual changes were smaller. When the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from 3 wt% to 1 wt%, the benzene emission from the catalyst cars was reduced by 20-30 % and from the non-catalyst cars on average by 30 % both at +22 deg C and -7 deg C. The benzene emission ranged 3-22 mg/km for the catalyst cars and 40-90 mg/km for the non-catalyst cars at +22 deg C in the FTP test

  7. Dislocation Starvation and Exhaustion Hardening in Mo-alloy Nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Claire [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Lowry, M. B. [University of California, Berkeley; Oh, Jason [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Asif, S.A. Syed [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Warren, O. [Hysitron, Inc., MN; Shan, Zhiwei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, China & Hysitron, Inc., MN; George, Easo P [ORNL; Minor, Andrew [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of defects in Mo alloy nanofibers with initial dislocation densities ranging from 0 to 1.6 1014 m2 were studied using an in situ push-to-pull device in conjunction with a nanoindenter in a transmission electron microscope. Digital image correlation was used to determine stress and strain in local areas of deformation. When they had no initial dislocations the Mo alloy nanofibers suffered sudden catastrophic elongation following elastic deformation to ultrahigh stresses. At the other extreme fibers with a high dislocation density underwent sustained homogeneous deformation after yielding at much lower stresses. Between these two extremes nanofibers with intermediate dislocation densities demonstrated a clear exhaustion hardening behavior, where the progressive exhaustion of dislocations and dislocation sources increases the stress required to drive plasticity. This is consistent with the idea that mechanical size effects ( smaller is stronger ) are due to the fact that nanostructures usually have fewer defects that can operate at lower stresses. By monitoring the evolution of stress locally we find that exhaustion hardening causes the stress in the nanofibers to surpass the critical stress predicted for self-multiplication, supporting a plasticity mechanism that has been hypothesized to account for the rapid strain softening observed in nanoscale bcc materials at high stresses.

  8. GADTs and Exhaustiveness: Looking for the Impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Garrigue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sound exhaustiveness checking of pattern-matching is an essential feature of functional programming languages, and OCaml supports it for GADTs. However this check is incomplete, in that it may fail to detect that a pattern can match no concrete value. In this paper we show that this problem is actually undecidable, but that we can strengthen the exhaustiveness and redundancy checks so that they cover more practical cases. The new algorithm relies on a clever modification of type inference for patterns.

  9. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  10. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from two fossil and two plant oil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, J; Müller, M M; Krahl, J; Baum, K; Weigel, A; Hallier, E; Schulz, T G

    2000-09-01

    Particulate matter of diesel engine exhaust from four different fuels was studied for content of polynuclear aromatic compounds and mutagenic effects. Two so-called biodiesel fuels, rapeseed oil methylesters (RME) and soybean oil methylesters (SME), were compared directly with two fossil diesel fuels with the normal (DF) and a low sulfur content (LS-DF). Diesel exhaust particles were sampled on filters from the diluted and cooled exhaust of a test engine at five different speeds and loads. Filters were weighed for total particulate matter, Soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane and the content of insoluble material determined. The soluble organic fraction was analysed for polynuclear aromatic compounds. Mutagenicity was determined using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100. Compared with DF, the exhaust particles of LS-DF, RME and SME contained less insoluble material, which consisted mainly of the carbon cores of diesel exhaust particles. The concentrations of individual polynuclear aromatic compounds varied widely among the different exhaust extracts, but total concentrations of the compounds were approximately double for DF and SME compared with LS-DF and RME. In TA98 significant increases in mutation rates were obtained for the soluble organic fractions of all fuels for engines running at full speed (load modes A and D), but for DF revertants were 2- to 10-fold more frequent as compared with LS-DF, RME and SME. Revertant frequencies for DF and partly for LS-DF were also elevated in TA100, while RME and SME gave no significant increase in mutations. The results indicate that diesel exhaust particles from RME, SME and LS-DF contain less black carbon and total polynuclear aromatic compounds and are significantly less mutagenic in comparison with DF. A high sulfur content of the fuel and high engine speeds (rated power) and loads are associated with an increase in mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles.

  11. Exploitation of the residue of foundry exhauster powder in ceramics for covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentina, Luiz Veriano Oliveira Dalla; Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Knop, Wanessa Rejane; Semptikovski, Simone Claudiano

    2010-01-01

    The work evaluates the possibility of the use the exhauster powder generated in the foundry process in ceramic mass atomized semigre type. This residue was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis (DSC, TG). Formulations were prepared with different exhauster powder content. The sintered materials between 1000°C at 1 200 deg C. The results showed of the scanning electron microscopy and the characterization of the technological properties (water absorption, linear shrinkage and apparent density) had demonstrated the viability of the use of this residue. Through experiments it was observed that the exhauster powder promoted an increment in the sintering degree, and raised texts of this they increase of the porosity and intensification in the color of the new material. That is, it is possible to incorporate small amounts of the exhauster powder in substitution the substances cousins of natural origin. (author)

  12. The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and work-family conflict on exhaustion: evidence from physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayfur, Ozge; Arslan, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Emotional exhaustion, argued to be burnout's core dimension, can manifest itself as decreased productivity and job dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine how lack of reciprocity, lack of supervisory support, high workload, and work-family conflict affect emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from 295 physicians working at private and public hospitals in Antalya and İstanbul, Turkey. The survey included lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload, WFC items, and exhaustion subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventrory: General Survey (MBI:GS). The proposed model was tested using AMOS 17, which enables assessment of hypothesized relations and degree of fit between data and model. Workload and lack reciprocity were found to increase emotional exhaustion, while supervisory support alleviated the exhaustion physicians experienced. As expected, workload increased work-family conflict. Quite unexpectedly, workload was associated with lack of reciprocity; meaning, physicians more likely perceive their efforts go unappreciated and their patient relationships are inequitable (i.e. investing more than receiving) when they perceive a high workload. In addition, supervisory support was also associated with lack of reciprocity. Physicians experiencing inadequate supervisory support tend to describe their patient relationships in negative terms and perceive inequitable relations. Physicians who do not receive either adequate supervisory support or patient appreciation tend to feel emotionally exhausted. Moreover, both workload and work-family conflict increase physicians' exhaustion. Suggestions to reduce workload and social problems in hospitals are offered to reduce exhaustion.

  13. The CSF and arterial to internal jugular venous hormonal differences during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ott, Peter; Dela, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    the brain (a-v diff) of hormones that could influence its carbohydrate uptake (n= 9). In addition, neuroendocrine activity and a potential uptake of hormones via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were assessed by lumbar puncture postexercise and at rest (n= 6). Exercise increased the arterial concentration...... protein (HSP72), insulin, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. The findings indicate that for maximal exercise, the concentration of noradrenaline is increased within the brain, whereas blood borne hormones and cytokines are seemingly unimportant. The results support the notion that the exercise......Strenuous exercise increases the cerebral uptake of carbohydrate out of proportion to that of oxygen, but it is unknown whether such enhanced carbohydrate uptake is influenced by the marked endocrine response to exercise. During exhaustive exercise this study evaluated the a-v differences across...

  14. Coronary artery disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  15. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...

  16. Changes of whole-body power, muscle function, and jump performance with prolonged cycling to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jordan P R; Mawston, Grant A; Cairns, Simeon P

    2012-12-01

    To quantify how whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures change during prolonged cycling and recovery and determine whether there are relationships between the different fatigue measures. Ten competitive or recreationally active male cyclists underwent repeated 20-min stages of prolonged cycling at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion. Whole-body peak power output (PPO) was assessed using an all-out 30-s sprint 17 min into each cycle stage. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout. Isometric and isokinetic muscle-function tests were made between cycle stages, over ~6 min, and during 30-min recovery. Drop-jump measures were tested at exhaustion and during recovery. PPO initially increased or was maintained in some subjects but fell to 81% of maximum at exhaustion. RPE was near maximal (18.7) at exhaustion, with the time to exhaustion related to the rate of rise of RPE. PPO first started to decline only when RPE exceeded 16 (ie, hard). Peak isometric and concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) for the quadriceps fell to 86% and 83% of pretest at exhaustion, respectively. In contrast, the peak concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) of the hamstrings increased by 10% before declining to 93% of maximum. Jump height fell to 92% of pretest at exhaustion and was correlated with the decline in PPO (r = .79). Muscle-function and jump-performance measures did not recover over the 30-min postexercise rest period. At exhaustion, whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures had all fallen by 7-19%. PPO and drop-jump decrements were linearly correlated and are appropriate measures of maximal performance.

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M’Sadak Y, Makhlouf M and El Amrouni S

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... 2851. 6093. 3.1.2. Physico-chemical characterization. The physicochemical characteristics vary across different pomace oil extraction systems. (classic, press and continuous). Classical system. Table 2. Qualitative Characterization of pomace exhausted by the classical system. Parameters. Abbreviation.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number... specify speed and torque points, measure pressure while the engine produces maximum power. Use an exhaust... separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the...

  19. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  20. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314 ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  1. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  2. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    . To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  3. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  4. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  5. Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional labour strategies, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour among Korean fitness employees. Three hundred and sixty-six (n=366) fitness employees participated in a self-administered survey aimed at measuring the impact of ...

  6. Exposure of aconitase to smoking-related oxidants results in iron loss and increased iron response protein-1 activity: potential mechanisms for iron accumulation in human arterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talib, Jihan; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    of the cytosolic isoform to iron response protein-1, which regulates intracellular iron levels. We show that exposure of isolated aconitase to increasing concentrations of HOSCN releases iron from the aconitase [Fe-S]4 cluster, and decreases enzyme activity. This is associated with protein thiol loss...... and modification of specific Cys residues in, and around, the [Fe-S]4 cluster. Exposure of HCAEC to HOSCN resulted in increased intracellular levels of chelatable iron, loss of aconitase activity and increased iron response protein-1 (IRP-1) activity. These data indicate HOSCN, an oxidant associated with oxidative...... stress in smokers, can induce aconitase dysfunction in human endothelial cells via Cys oxidation, damage to the [Fe-S]4 cluster, iron release and generation of IRP-1 activity, which modulates ferritin protein levels and results in dysregulation of iron metabolism. These data may rationalise, in part...

  7. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of ...

  8. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days. ...... pressure during high salt intake and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal NO formation during elevated NaCl intake....... pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS vs. LS (102.3±1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9±0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases...... during the awake phase (night) that were larger in COX-2(-/-) on HS diet compared to COX-2(+/+). Water intake, diuresis, Na(+) and osmolyte excretions and NOx and cGMP excretions were significantly and similarly elevated with HS in COX-2(-/-) and COX-2(+/+). In summary, C57BL6 mice exhibit a salt intake...

  9. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  10. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Persson, Roger; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2016-09-29

    The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors

  11. Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1980-01-01

    The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

  12. Right ventricular dysfunction in early systemic hypertension: a tissue Doppler imaging study in patients with high-normal and mildly increased arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrinelli, Roberto; Canale, Maria Laura; Giannini, Cristina; Talini, Enrica; Penno, Giuseppe; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Di Bello, Vitantonio

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the relationship between increasing systemic blood pressure (BP) and right ventricular (RV) function. Ninety-eight never-treated, nonobese patients with BP values varying from the optimal to the mild hypertensive range. Peak early diastolic (Em) and systolic (Sm) velocities were recorded at the tricuspid and mitral annuli by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI); global RV and left ventricular (LV) structure and function by conventional echo-Doppler sonography; insulin sensitivity by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Data were analyzed by 24-h systolic BP (cut-offs 117 and 130 mmHg), thus partitioning an optimal BP from an intermediate high-normal and an upper mildly increased BP stratum. Em decreased in the mid-third and decelerated further in association with reduced Sm in the upper BP tertile; both correlated negatively to septal thickness and positively to homologous TDI-derived LV indices. RV and LV indices of global ventricular function, estimated pulmonary pressure, HOMA did not differ by systemic BP. RV diastolic and systolic function deteriorates in response to slightly increased systemic BP. The process paralleled homologous changes at the LV side and was driven by interventricular septum remodeling, perhaps as a reflection of its role in RV function and biventricular interdependence. Insulin sensitivity seemed to play no relevant role.

  13. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  14. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    During cycling before (PRE) and after exhaustion (POST) different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV) is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST) and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HR LT ), LOW = HR ≤ HR LT ) despite identical average HR. Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min -1 ) and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min -1 . Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R) interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1-5 at 30 W and 60 rpm) were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1-5). An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion), one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity) and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects ( p exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational cardiac autonomic modulation pattern occurs during PRE-exhaustion if compared to POST-exhaustion cycling. The different autonomic modes during these phases might be the result of different afferent and/or central inputs to the cardiovascular control centers in the brainstem.

  15. Performance investigation and design optimization of a thermoelectric generator applied in automobile exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jing-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator system is proposed. • Based on the system reliability, the counter flow cooling pattern is recommended. • There exists an optimal thermoelectric unit number to maximize system output power. • Better performance is predicted with less thermoelectric materials consumption. - Abstract: This work develops a multiphysics thermoelectric generator model for automobile exhaust waste heat recovery, in which the exhaust heat source and water-cooling heat sink are actually modeled. Special emphasis is put on the non-uniformity of temperature difference across thermoelectric units along the streamwise direction, which may affect the performance of exhaust thermoelectric generator systems significantly. The main findings are: (1) The counter flow cooling pattern is recommended, although it cannot elevate the overall output power as compared with the parallel flow counterpart, it reduces the temperature non-uniformity effectively, and hence ensures the system reliability. (2) The temperature non-uniformity strikingly deteriorates the output power of thermoelectric unit along the streamwise direction; meanwhile, an additional lateral heat conduction effect exists within the exhaust channel wall, the both mechanisms leads to that the maximum output power of the system is not enhanced but is actually reduced when too many thermoelectric units are adopted. (3) When the exhaust channel length is fixed, the maximum output power of the system can be elevated by increasing the thermoelectric unit number but keeping thermoelectric unit spacing unchanged. This means that the system performance can be improved under the condition of less thermoelectric materials consumption.

  16. Ganoderma tsugae Hepatoprotection against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Teng Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been shown that accelerated apoptosis is involved in post-exercise lymphocytopenia and tissue damage after high-intensity exercise. Ganoderma tsugae (GT is one of the well-known medicinal mushrooms that possess various pharmacological functions. This mushroom has traditionally been used for health promotion purposes. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effects of GT on exhaustive exercise-induced liver damage. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and designated as exhaustive exercise only (E, exhaustive exercise with low dosage (EL, medium dosage (EM and high dosage (EH GT at 0, 0.1875, 0.9375 and 1.875 g/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days all rats were euthanized immediately after an exhaustive running challenge on a motorized treadmill. The rat livers were immediately harvested. Evidence of apoptotic liver cell death was revealed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and caspases mediated cascade events. DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis process, can be examined using TUNEL assay. A few TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, compared to the exercise only group, were observed in the livers from exhaustive animals supplemented with GT. Immunoblot analysis also showed that caspase-6-mediated specific cleavage of lamin A/C was increased significantly in the livers of group E, but was significantly decreased in the EM and EH groups. Our observations demonstrate that GT possesses anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective potential after exhaustive exercise.

  17. Ganoderma tsugae hepatoprotection against exhaustive exercise-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Yang, Suh-Ching; Chan, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2013-01-29

    Several studies have been shown that accelerated apoptosis is involved in post-exercise lymphocytopenia and tissue damage after high-intensity exercise. Ganoderma tsugae (GT) is one of the well-known medicinal mushrooms that possess various pharmacological functions. This mushroom has traditionally been used for health promotion purposes. This study investigates the hepatoprotective effects of GT on exhaustive exercise-induced liver damage. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and designated as exhaustive exercise only (E), exhaustive exercise with low dosage (EL), medium dosage (EM) and high dosage (EH) GT at 0, 0.1875, 0.9375 and 1.875 g/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days all rats were euthanized immediately after an exhaustive running challenge on a motorized treadmill. The rat livers were immediately harvested. Evidence of apoptotic liver cell death was revealed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspases mediated cascade events. DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis process, can be examined using TUNEL assay. A few TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, compared to the exercise only group, were observed in the livers from exhaustive animals supplemented with GT. Immunoblot analysis also showed that caspase-6-mediated specific cleavage of lamin A/C was increased significantly in the livers of group E, but was significantly decreased in the EM and EH groups. Our observations demonstrate that GT possesses anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective potential after exhaustive exercise.

  18. Decreasing the exhaust outlet temperatures on a class III bus with the lowest impact on the exhaust backpressure and the fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, E.; Ozturk, Y.; Dileroglu, S.

    2017-07-01

    The focus of this study is to determine the most appropriate exhaust tail pipe form among three different type of designs with respect to their temperature loss efficiency for a 9.5m intercity bus equipped with an Euro VI diesel engine and an automated transmission. To provide lower temperatures at the exhaust outlet, mentioned designs were submitted on to a CFD simulation using Ansys Fluent 17.1, while for manufactured products, temperature measurement tests were conducted in an environmental chamber with Omega K-type thermocouples, and Flir T420 thermal camera was used to monitor outer surface temperature distributions to make a comparison between theoretical and practical results. In order to obtain these practical results, actual tests were performed in an environmental chamber with a constant ambient temperature during the vehicle exhaust emission system regeneration process. In conclusion, an exhaust tail pipe design with a diffuser having a circular contraction and expansion forms is designated since it was the most optimized option in terms of temperature loss efficiency, inconsiderable exhaust backpressure increase and manufacturing costs.

  19. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous location...

  20. A genetic risk score of 45 coronary artery disease risk variants associates with increased risk of myocardial infarction in 6041 Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, N T; Borglykke, A; Allin, K H

    2015-01-01

    with age as time scale was adjusted for sex, BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus and smoking status. Analyses were also stratified either by sex or median age (below or above 45 years of age). We estimated GRS contribution to MI prediction by assessing net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated...... in men (1.06 (1.01-1.12), p = 0.02) and in individuals above the median of 45.11 years of age (1.06 (1.00-1.12), p = 0.03). There was no interaction between GRS and gender (p = 0.90) or age (p = 0.83). The GRS improved neither NRI nor IDI. CONCLUSION: The GRS of 45 GWAS identified risk variants increase...... the risk of MI in a Danish cohort. The GRS did not improve NRI or IDI beyond the performance of conventional European SCORE risk factors....

  1. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P supplied ammonia (PET) was unaffected (P.......05). BCAA intake led to a massive glutamine release from the muscle (cirrhotic patients, P supplied ammonia in both the patients with cirrhosis and in the healthy...

  2. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  3. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia, and...

  4. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  5. 34 CFR 110.39 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 110.39 Section... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.39 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...

  6. 38 CFR 18.550 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.550 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act. Administrative...

  7. 45 CFR 91.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 91.50... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  8. 45 CFR 90.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 90.50..., Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 90.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) The agency shall provide in its regulations that a complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  9. 12 CFR 1780.56 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1780.56 Section 1780.56 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING... Posthearing Proceedings § 1780.56 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as...

  10. 14 CFR 1252.410 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1252..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1252.410 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  11. 12 CFR 1777.27 - Exhaustion and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion and review. 1777.27 Section 1777.27... 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.27 Exhaustion and review. (a) Judicial review—(1) Review of certain actions... in section 1369D of the 1992 Act (12 U.S.C. 4623). (b) Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In...

  12. 10 CFR 4.340 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4.340 Section 4.340... Act of 1975, as Amended Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.340 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...

  13. 12 CFR 908.66 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 908.66 Section 908.66 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Proceedings § 908.66 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as to any issue...

  14. 45 CFR 1156.21 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1156.21... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1156.21 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  15. 41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  16. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 17... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.339 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  17. 44 CFR 7.949 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.949 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  18. 24 CFR 26.53 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 26.53 Section 26.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Hearings § 26.53 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In order to fulfill the requirement of exhausting...

  19. 10 CFR 1040.89-13 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1040.89-13 Section... Investigation, Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-13 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  20. 24 CFR 146.45 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 146.45 Section 146.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  1. 29 CFR 35.40 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 35.40 Section 35.40... Enforcement Procedures § 35.40 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action under the Act following the exhaustion of administrative remedies. Administrative remedies are...

  2. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... malfunctions) upon the aerodynamic control of the airplane may not result in any condition that would require..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval is...

  3. Exhaust air cleaning of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rufan.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes requirements, design criteria and major equipments of exhaust air cleaning for PWR nuclear power plants. The particularity of exhaust air cleaning for NPP is stressed in this paper. Finally, the exhaust air cleaning systems of Qinshan NPP are briefly introduced

  4. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...

  5. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  6. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  7. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  8. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline......, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant...

  9. Vertebral Artery Stump Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Dembo, Tomohisa; Hara, Wataru; Tajima, Takashi; Yamashita, Minako; Oji, Satoru; Nomura, Kyoichi

    2018-03-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a well-documented embolic source for ischemic stroke. However, few cases have been reported of a similar condition - termed vertebral artery stump syndrome - which affects the posterior circulation after vertebral artery origin occlusion. We herein report a case of infarction of the right superior cerebellar artery and left posterior inferior cerebellar artery territories due to vertebral artery stump syndrome. In this interesting case, a turbulent flow at the distal side of the vertebral artery occlusion was captured on ultrasonography, and was identified as the probable mechanism of vertebral artery stump syndrome.

  10. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  11. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  12. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  13. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Traumatic cervical artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents. TCAD are increasingly recognized, and incidences of up to 0.86% for internal carotid and 0.53% for traumatic vertebral artery dissections (TVAD) among blunt trauma victims are reported. Diagnostic evaluation for TCAD is mandatory in the presence of (1) hemorrhage of potential arterial origin originating from the nose, ears, mouth, or a wound; (2) expanding cervical hematoma; (3) cervical bruit in a patient >50 years of age; (4) evidence of acute infarct at brain imaging; (5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack, or (6) Horner syndrome, neck or head pain. In addition, a number of centers screen asymptomatic patients with blunt trauma for TCAD. Catheter angiography is the standard of reference for diagnosis of TCAD. Color duplex ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance angiography are noninvasive screening alternatives, but each method has its diagnostic limitations compared to catheter angiography. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may prevent ischemic stroke, but bleeding from traumatized tissues may offset the benefits of antithrombotic treatment. Endovascular therapy of dissected vessels, thrombarterectomy, direct suture of intimal tears, and extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered in exceptional cases. Neurological outcome is probably worse in TCAD compared to spontaneous CAD, although it is unclear whether this is due to dissection-induced ischemic stroke or associated traumatic lesions.

  15. Association between uterine artery Doppler blood flow changes and arterial wall elasticity in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wowern, Emma; Andersson, Jakob; Skarping, Ida Dalene; Howie, Maria Teresa; Olofsson, Per

    2017-10-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry changes and increased arterial stiffness are associated with preeclampsia. We aimed to investigate the relation between UtA velocimetry changes and arterial stiffness in pregnant women. Doppler velocimetry and photoplethysmographic digital pulse wave analysis (DPA) were performed in 173 pregnant women in the second or the third trimester, where UtA Doppler pulsatility index (PI), diastolic notching, and UtA score (UAS) combining notching and high PI were calculated. DPA stiffness parameters representing large arteries were ejection elasticity index (EEI) and b/a, small arteries dicrotic index (DI) and d/a, and global stiffness the aging index (AI). One hundred and thirty women had normal Doppler and 43 had diastolic notching, of whom nine had high PI. DI indicated increased stiffness in small arteries when notching was present (p = 0.044) and showed a significant but weak correlation to UAS (p = 0.025, tau 0.12). EEI and b/a indicated increased large artery stiffness (p ≤0.014), d/a small artery stiffness (p = 0.023), and AI a systemic stiffness (p = 0.040) when high PI. High UtA PI was associated with increased systemic arterial stiffness, whereas notching was related to increased stiffness in small arteries only. This indicates pathophysiological differences between the two Doppler parameters.

  16. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  17. Interventional therapy of complications after liver transplantation: hepatic artery thombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linsun; Shi Haibin

    2008-01-01

    Resolution of the complications after liver transplantation is one of the important factors related to prognosis. Hepatic artery thombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation can lead directly to trans- planted liver undergone necrosis, biloma formation and liver functional exhaustion. The early diagnosis with Color Doppler which should be the first method of choice, CTA, MRA and angiography could lead to exact demonstration, and proper treatment can result in better prognosis. The microinvasive techniques such as local thrombolysis, balloon dilatation and stent placement are safe and effective for treatment of hepatic artery thombosis. The vascular reconstruction and oxygen hyperbaric are effective therapeutic methods. Repeat liver transplantation is still the last important choice for survival. (authors)

  18. Exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelil, Abdellali; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible. Here, we describe a strategy, called DALEL, for the exhaustive search of linear sequence information encoded in proteins that bind to a common partner. We applied DALEL to explore binding specificity of SH3 domains in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using only the polypeptide sequences of SH3 domain binding proteins, we succeeded in identifying the majority of known SH3 binding sites previously discovered either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, we discovered a number of sites with both non-canonical sequences and distinct properties that may serve ancillary roles in peptide recognition. We compared DALEL to a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in the blind identification of known binding sites of the human Grb2 SH3 domain. We also benchmarked DALEL on curated biological motifs derived from the ELM database to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing the enrichment of the motifs. Our strategy can be applied in conjunction with experimental data of proteins interacting with a common partner to identify binding sites among them. Yet, our strategy can also be applied to any group of proteins of interest to identify enriched linear motifs or to exhaustively explore the space of linear information encoded in a polypeptide sequence. Finally, we have developed a webserver located at http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca/dalel, offering user-friendly interface and providing different scenarios utilizing DALEL.

  19. The incorporation of exhauster powder mass in ceramics atomised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, W.R.; Valentina, L. Dalla; Folgueiras, M.V.; Semptikovski, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    Inside the context of alternative search for the use of industrial waste as natural raw for the industrial ceramic, this work had the objective to evaluate the possibility of the use of exhauster powder generated in the foundry process. The characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis, noting that it is a powder with a high content of fine and compatible with the composition of ceramic bodies. Formulations were prepared with different exhauster powder content. The sintered materials at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C were characterized according technological properties as water absorption, linear shrinkage, bulk density and apparent density. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that it is possible to use the waste. It was observed that the waste increase the density in sintering process, and with high levels of waste occurs an increase of the porosity and intensification in the color of the new material. (author)

  20. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  1. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  2. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  3. Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Haley; Reis, Cesar; Sharip, Akbar; Reis, Wenes; Zhao, Yong; Sinclair, Ryan; Beeson, Lawrence

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the toxicity of diesel exhaust produced by bio- and fossil diesel combustion in human lung cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Müller, Loretta; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Alternative fuels are increasingly combusted in diesel- and gasoline engines and the contribution of such exhausts to the overall air pollution is on the rise. Recent findings on the possible adverse effects of biodiesel exhaust are contradictive, at least partly resulting from the various fuel qualities, engine types and different operation conditions that were tested. However, most of the studies are biased by undesired interactions between the exhaust samples and biological culture media. We here report how complete, freshly produced exhausts from fossil diesel (B0), from a blend of 20% rapeseed-methyl ester (RME) and 80% fossil diesel (B20) and from pure rapeseed methyl ester (B100) affect a complex 3D cellular model of the human airway epithelium in vitro by exposing the cells at the air-liquid interface. The induction of pro-apoptotic and necrotic cell death, cellular morphology, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory responses were assessed. Compared to B0 exhaust, B20 exhaust decreased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses, whereas B100 exhaust, depending on exposure duration, decreased oxidative stress but increased pro-inflammatory responses. The effects are only very weak and given the compared to fossil diesel higher ecological sustainability of biodiesel, it appears that - at least RME - can be considered a valuable alternative to pure fossil diesel.

  5. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  6. Coronary Artery-Bypass-Graft Surgery Increases the Plasma Concentration of Exosomes Carrying a Cargo of Cardiac MicroRNAs: An Example of Exosome Trafficking Out of the Human Heart with Potential for Cardiac Biomarker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Emanueli

    Full Text Available Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs. Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG surgery, we investigated if: 1 exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2 circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac miRs correlate with cardiac troponin (cTn, the current "gold standard" surrogate biomarker of myocardial damage.The concentration of exosome-sized nanoparticles was determined in serial plasma samples. Cardiac-expressed (miR-1, miR-24, miR-133a/b, miR-208a/b, miR-210, non-cardiovascular (miR-122 and quality control miRs were measured in whole plasma and in plasma exosomes. Linear regression analyses were employed to establish the extent to which the circulating individual miRs, exosomes and exosomal cardiac miR correlated with cTn-I. Cardiac-expressed miRs and the nanoparticle number increased in the plasma on completion of surgery for up to 48 hours. The exosomal concentration of cardiac miRs also increased after CABG. Cardiac miRs in the whole plasma did not correlate significantly with cTn-I. By contrast cTn-I was positively correlated with the plasma exosome level and the exosomal cardiac miRs.The plasma concentrations of exosomes and their cargo of cardiac miRs increased in patients undergoing CABG and were positively correlated with hs-cTnI. These data provide evidence that CABG induces the trafficking of exosomes from the heart to the peripheral circulation. Future studies are necessary to investigate the potential of circulating exosomes as clinical biomarkers in cardiac patients.

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Activation Decreases Mean Arterial Pressure, Plasma Interleukin-6, and COX-2 While Increasing Renal CYP4A Expression in an Acute Model of DOCA-Salt Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter L. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α activation by fenofibrate reduces blood pressure and sodium retention during DOCA-salt hypertension. PPAR-α activation reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6. Fenofibrate also induces cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A and increases 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE production. This study tested whether the administration of fenofibrate would reduce blood pressure by attenuating plasma IL-6 and renal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, while increasing expression of renal CYP4A during 7 days of DOCA-salt hypertension. We performed uni-nephrectomy on 12–14 week old male Swiss Webster mice and implanted biotelemetry devices in control, DOCA-salt (1.5 mg/g treated mice with or without fenofibrate (500 mg/kg/day in corn oil, intragastrically. Fenofibrate significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and plasma IL-6. In kidney homogenates, fenofibrate increased CYP4A and decreased COX-2 expression. There were no differences in renal cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily c, polypeptide 23 (CYP2C23 and soluble expoxide hydrolase (sEH expression between the groups. Our results suggest that the blood pressure lowering effect of PPAR-α activation by fenofibrate involves the reduction of plasma IL-6 and COX-2, while increasing CYP4A expression during DOCA-salt hypertension. Our results may also suggest that PPAR-α activation protects the kidney against renal injury via decreased COX-2 expression.

  8. The relationship between UK hospital nurse staffing and emotional exhaustion and job dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheward, Louisa; Hunt, Jennifer; Hagen, Suzanne; Macleod, Margaret; Ball, Jane

    2005-01-01

    To explore the relationship between nurse outcomes (dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion) and nurse workload, nurse characteristics and hospital variables. Concern about the impact of restructuring of nurse staffing, and reports of nurse shortages, on nurse and patient outcomes led to the research being reported on in this article. A questionnaire survey of registered nurses in Scotland and England. A questionnaire survey of the hospitals in which these nurses worked. Respondents in the two countries were similar in terms of demographic, work and employment characteristics. Significant relationships were found using the combined English and Scottish data between nurse patient ratios and (1) emotional exhaustion and (2) dissatisfaction with current job reported by nurses. Increasing numbers of patients to nurses was associated with increasing risk of emotional exhaustion and dissatisfaction with current job.

  9. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  10. Workplace Bullying and Presenteeism: The Path Through Emotional Exhaustion and Psychological Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Mariana; Ferreira, Aristides I; Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Paula C

    2017-06-01

    Workplace bullying is an increasing phenomenon that concerns managers and employees. However, few studies have investigated how workplace bullying relates with work-related exhaustion and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the intervening variables of emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing in the direct and indirect relationships between workplace bullying and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism. In a cross-sectional study, we tested a structural equation model using web survey data of 353 workers from a service company, with the variables: workplace bullying (Quine, 1999), emotional exhaustion (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI), psychological wellbeing (GHQ-28), and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism (SPS-6). All variables presented acceptable psychometric evidence. The final model revealed a reasonable fit. Workplace bullying was significantly and positively related to emotional exhaustion, which in turn, was significantly related to the loss of psychological wellbeing. Workplace bullying, emotional exhaustion, and the loss of psychological wellbeing were negatively related to concentration (avoiding distraction). Emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing mediated the studied structural relationships. Our study contributes to theory and practice, since occupational health professionals should be aware that burnout and the loss of wellbeing may be related to workplace bullying and that productivity loss due to presenteeism may be a warning sign. Leaders can understand the underlying mechanism that explains employees' productivity loss due to presenteeism by addressing workplace bullying and its negative relation with emotional exhaustion and wellbeing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. Feasibility study of a scroll expander for recycling low-pressure exhaust gas energy from a vehicle gasoline engine system

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Xu, Hongming

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of vehicles on the road has led to a rapid increase in fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions, so the challenges in fuel efficiency improvement and reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions have always been on the top agenda of the automotive industry. The paper presents a feasibility study of recovering the low-pressure exhaust gas energy via by-pass connection of a scroll expander to the engine system exhaust. The paper starts with the description of the proposed new exhaust e...

  12. Altered Daytime Fluctuation Pattern of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Strong Association with Persistently Elevated Plasma Insulin, Increased Insulin Resistance, and Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lalić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD (group A, 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B, 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C, and 12 healthy controls (group D. The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P<0.05 and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P<0.001. HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01. Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01, while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

  13. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles.

  14. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  15. Infrared measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Caroline; Ohmer, Phillip; Wendelstein, Norbert; Stein, Karin

    2017-10-01

    In the fields of early warning, one is depending on reliable analytical models for the prediction of the infrared threat signature: By having this as a basis, the warning sensors can be specified as suitable as possible to give timely threat approach alerts. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of measurement trials that have been carried out in 2015, where the exhaust plume of launch vehicles has been measured under various atmospheric conditions. The gathered data will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of the plume signature.

  16. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y.; Rotmans, Joris I.; Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Parlevliet, Karien J.; Krediet, Ray T.; Boeschoten, Els W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis

  17. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  18. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  19. Investing exhaustible resource rents and the path of consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.; Hartwick, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a brief analysis of the concept of maintaining capital intact in an economy with 2 capital goods: one produced, and one an exhaustible oil stock. Oil stock supplies a vital input flow to the economy every day. The authors characterized dollar-valued national wealth and income. The magnitude of net investment has become pivotal in measuring the sustainability of an economy. This study linked the investment of exhaustible resource rents to growth in a model with energy consumption varying through time, as in a model of optimal savings. Dollar-valued net national product was set out for the economy with the essential, but wasting oil stock. The study applied the principle of maintaining capital intact and locally unchanging consumption. The percentage change in net investment or genuine savings, relative to the market rate of interest, determines whether current consumption is rising, constant, or declining. In the case of utility discount rates, it was observed that at a point of locally unchanging consumption, the net investment equals the prevailing market rate of interest, and the level of net investment is negative. The consumption increases when the percentage change in net investment is lower than the market rate of interest, and the reverse is true when consumption decreases. The connection between zero net investment and constant consumption was clarified. The sign of current net investment was found to be a good indicator of the direction of national wealth and income. 15 refs

  20. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  1. TCV experiments towards the development of a plasma exhaust solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B. P.; Harrison, J. R.; Labit, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Lunt, T.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Verhaegh, K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Innocente, P.; Maurizio, R.; Pericoli, V.; Sheikh, U.; Spolare, M.; Vianello, N.; the TCV Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-12-01

    Research towards a plasma exhaust solution for a fusion power plant aims at validating edge physics models, strengthening predictive capabilities and improving the divertor configuration. The TCV tokamak is extensively used to investigate the extent that geometric configuration modifications can affect plasma exhaust performance. Recent TCV experiments continue previous detachment studies of Ohmically heated L-mode plasmas in standard single-null configurations, benefitting from a range of improved diagnostic capabilities. Studies were extended to nitrogen seeding and an entire suite of alternative magnetic configurations, including flux flaring towards the target (X divertor), increasing the outer target radius (Super-X) and movement of a secondary x-point inside the vessel (X-point target) as well as the entire range of snowflake configurations. Nitrogen seeding into a snowflake minus configuration demonstrated a regime with strong radiation in the large region between the two x-points, confirming EMC3-Eirene simulations, and opening a promising path towards highly radiating regimes with limited adverse effects on core performance.

  2. Plurivascular Lesions in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemen Piroska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occlusive arterial disease, regardless of etiology, is a progressive chronic disease with multiple vessel involvement. The importance of obstructive arterial disease is that it leads to an increased mortality and morbidity of other cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the presence of a lesion on a certain artery should lead to the identification of other lesions on the carotid and coronary arteries. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and severity of lesions in peripheral arterial disease of different etiologies, and also to study its association with multivessel lesions at the level of the coronary tree and the carotid arteries.

  3. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k- ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  4. Brain Activation Patterns at Exhaustion in Rats That Differ in Inherent Exercise Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Teresa E.; Brooks, Leah R.; Gilligan, Lori J.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5–15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15–51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  5. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  6. Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves cycling performance carried out until the volitional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaresco Gambassi, Bruno; Gomes de Santana Barros Leal, Ylana; Pinheiro Dos Anjos, Edson R; Antonelli, Bruna A; Gomes Gonçalves E Silva, Daniela C; Pires de Mélo Montenegro, Iracema H; di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo, Rita; Correia Moura, Isis S; Schwingel, Paulo A

    2017-11-17

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are among the most investigated nutritional ergogenic aids, and may be consumed in different forms, e.g., mouth rinse with carbohydrate solution (MRCS). In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MRCS on the performance of physically active individuals undergoing a physical exercise session carried out until the volitional exhaustion. This is a counter-balanced randomized study, with a double-blind design. The sample consisted of twenty-one physically active healthy men with a mean (±SD) of age of 22.4 (±2.7) years old, 76.7 (±6.0) cm of height,12.1% (±3.7) of body fat mass, and 23.9 (±2.4) kg/m2 of body mass index. After familiarizing the participants with the protocol (cycle ergometer, with oral mouth rinse procedure) and assessing the maximal lactate steady state the cycling exercise was performed until the volitional exhaustion in the following conditions: without mouth rinse (CONTROL), PLACEBO and MRCS. Time to reach exhaustion was statistically different (pminutes; PLACEBO: 57,4 ± 30,6 minutes; MRCS: 70,9 ± 30,3 minutes). The administration of MRCS was shown to be effective in improving cycling performance, increasing the time to exhaustion until the volitional exhaustion. Thus, the use of methodology proposed by the present study may help coaches and practitioners improve the performance of physically active young adults.

  7. A mixed methods study of emotional exhaustion: Energizing and depleting work within an innovative healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Cindy L; Taborda-Whitt, Caitlin; Frazer, Monica; Schellinger, Sandra; White, Katie M; Kaasovic, Jason; Nelson, Brenda; Chant, Allison

    2017-11-01

    This mixed methods study documents emotional exhaustion experiences among care team members during the development of an innovative team approach for caring for adults with serious illness. A mixed methods study design was employed to examine depleting work experiences that may produce emotional exhaustion, and energizing aspects of the work that may increase meaningfulness of work, thus reducing emotional exhaustion. The population studied included team members involved in care for adults with serious illness (n = 18). Team members were surveyed quarterly over an 18-month period using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The MBI measures burnout, defined as the inability to continue work because of the interactional toll of the work. Analyses of MBI data show that although overall levels of burnout are low, 89% of team members reported moderate/high levels of emotional exhaustion during at least one survey period. In order to understand the kinds of work experiences that may produce or ameliorate emotional exhaustion, qualitative interviews were also conducted with team members at the end of the 18-month period. Major qualitative findings indicate that disputes within the team, environmental pressures, and standardisation of meaningful work leave team members feeling depleted. Having authentic relationships with patients, working as a team, believing in the care model, and practicing autonomy and creativity help team members to restore their emotional energy. Supports for team members' well-being are critical for continued innovation. We conclude with recommendations for improving team members' well-being.

  8. Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are

  9. Carotid artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a blocked artery and places a tiny wire mesh (stent) in the artery to keep it open. ... Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical ...

  10. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Overview The arteries which supply blood to the leg originate from the aorta and iliac vessels. Review ...

  11. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  12. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  13. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  14. On the exhaust of electromagnetic drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.grahn@comsol.fi [COMSOL, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Annila, Arto, E-mail: arto.annila@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biosciences, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Kolehmainen, Erkki, E-mail: erkki.t.kolehmainen@jyu.fi [Department of Chemistry, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster’s cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion.

  15. Aircraft exhaust aerosol formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Aerosol formation and growth in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft at an altitude of approximately 9 km, burning fuels with 2 ppmm sulfur (`low`) and 266 ppmm (`high`) sulfur has been modeled using an aerosol dynamics model for nucleation, vapor condensation and coagulation, coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code to treat plume dilution and turbulent mixing. For both the `low` and `high` sulfur fuels, approximately 60% of the available water had condensed within the first 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. The contrail particle diameters ranged between 0.4 to 1.6 {mu}m. However, the size distributions as a function of radial position for the `low` sulfur plume were broader than the corresponding distributions for the `high` sulfur plume. The model results indicate for a fuel sulfur mass loading of 2 ppmm, sulfuric acid remains a viable activating agent and that the differences in the contrail particle size distributions for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 260 ppmm would be difficult to detect. (author) 12 refs.

  16. A Study on the Model of Traffic Flow and Vehicle Exhaust Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of traffic flow in cities causes traffic congestion and accidents as well as air pollution. Traffic problems have attracted the interest of many researchers from the perspective of theory and engineering. In order to provide a simple and practical method for measuring the exhaust emission and assessing the effect of pollution control, a model is based on the relationship between traffic flow and vehicle exhaust emission under a certain level of road capacity constraints. In the proposed model, the hydrocarbons (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx are considered as the indexes of total exhaust emission, and the speed is used as an intermediate variable. To verify the rationality and practicality of the model, a case study for Beijing, China, is provided in which the effects of taxi fare regulation and the specific vehicle emission reduction policy are analyzed.

  17. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  18. HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D Petković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-stationary heat transfer in engine exhaust system. During the research, some of constructional parameters of exhaust system were adopted and optimized at environmental temperature of 22 C. The combination of design parameters giving best results at low environmental temperatures was observed. The results showed that the temperature in the environment did not have any significant influence on pre-catalyst light-off time.

  19. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Nested Case–Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanic, Claudine M.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron E.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Schleiff, Patricia L.; Travis, William D.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Wacholder, Sholom; Attfield, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure–response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between quantitative estimates of exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study in a cohort of 12 315 workers in eight non-metal mining facilities, which included 198 lung cancer deaths and 562 incidence density–sampled control subjects. For each case subject, we selected up to four control subjects, individually matched on mining facility, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth year (within 5 years), from all workers who were alive before the day the case subject died. We estimated diesel exhaust exposure, represented by respirable elemental carbon (REC), by job and year, for each subject, based on an extensive retrospective exposure assessment at each mining facility. We conducted both categorical and continuous regression analyses adjusted for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding variables (eg, history of employment in high-risk occupations for lung cancer and a history of respiratory disease) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death (case subjects)/reference date (control subjects). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We observed statistically significant increasing trends in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative REC and average REC intensity. Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass in Octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yen Chien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD has increased with the expansion of life span among the elderly population in the world. Hence, the issue of the coronary artery bypass in octogenarians has attracted more attention. Recent literature about the topic revealed nearly the same excellent results as those in the younger population under the newly developed operative techniques and improving concept in perioperative management and postoperative care. In this article, we review the current status of the procedure that was thought to be dangerous in the earlier era, including its risk factors, result, and benefit.

  1. Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekavčnik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katrašnik, T.; Rodman-Oprešnik, S.

    2012-06-01

    Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

  2. Management of Renal Artery Stenosis - an Update | Alhadad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the renal vasculature in eliciting renovascular hypertension (RVH) was established in 1934, when Goldblatt et al. [1] in a classical experimental study demonstrated that partial obstruction of the renal artery increased mean arterial blood pressure (BP). The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is ...

  3. Diesel engine exhaust accelerates plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullmann, Maja; Albrecht, Catrin; van Berlo, Damiën; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Wahle, Tina; Boots, Agnes W; Krutmann, Jean; Cassee, Flemming R; Bayer, Thomas A; Schins, Roel P F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate

  4. Modulation of pulmonary inflammatory responses and anti-microbial defenses in mice exposed to diesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and has been shown to increase the severity of infectious and allergic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on pulmonary inflammation, mediator production and ...

  5. Job resources and emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of learning opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruysseveldt, J. van; Verboon, P.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands increase and job resources decrease emotional exhaustion in employees. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism for this, in order to provide a deeper insight into the role of job resources in this energy-depletion process. We

  6. Molecular and cellular insights into T cell exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, E. John; Kurachi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    In chronic infections and cancer, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This scenario is often associated with the deterioration of T cell function: a state called ‘exhaustion’. Exhausted T cells lose robust effector functions, express multiple inhibitory receptors and are defined by an altered transcriptional programme. T cell exhaustion is often associated with inefficient control of persisting infections and tumours, but revitalization of exhausted T cells can reinvigorate immunity. Here, we review recent advances that provide a clearer molecular understanding of T cell exhaustion and reveal new therapeutic targets for persisting infections and cancer. PMID:26205583

  7. T-cell exhaustion in allograft rejection and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Edward B; Stehlik, Christian; Ansari, M Javeed

    2015-02-01

    The role of T-cell exhaustion in the failure of clearance of viral infections and tumors is well established. There are several ongoing trials to reverse T-cell exhaustion for treatment of chronic viral infections and tumors. The mechanisms leading to T-cell exhaustion and its role in transplantation, however, are only beginning to be appreciated and are the focus of the present review. Exhausted T cells exhibit a distinct molecular profile reflecting combinatorial mechanisms involving the interaction of multiple transcription factors important in control of cell metabolism, acquisition of effector function and memory capacity. Change of microenvironmental cues and limiting leukocyte recruitment can modulate T-cell exhaustion. Impaired leukocyte recruitment induces T-cell exhaustion and prevents allograft rejection. Preventing or reversing T-cell exhaustion may lead to prevention of transplant tolerance or triggering of rejection; therefore, caution should be exercised in the use of agents blocking inhibitory receptors for the treatment of chronic viral infections or tumors in transplant recipients. Further definition of the role of T-cell exhaustion in clinical transplantation and an understanding of the mechanisms of induction of T-cell exhaustion are needed to develop strategies for preventing allograft rejection and induction of tolerance.

  8. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  9. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  10. Throughput Enhancement of Car Exhaust Fabrication Line by Applying MOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanash, E. A. H.; Karim, A. N. M.; Tanjong Tuan, Saravanan; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.

    2017-03-01

    In the fiercely competitive world market of today, manufacturers are facing increasingly tougher challenges and are compelled to find ways for productivity enhancement wherever possible in the whole supply chain. Nevertheless there are many facets in business process which can be explored for possible improvement, an immediate focus goes for the involved processes to re-engineer the activities in different workstations for an efficient and balanced assembly or fabrication line. In this paper an industrial case on fabrication line of a car exhaust system is presented to illustrate the scope of improvement by applying the MOST (Maynard’s Operation Sequence Technique) in streamlining the activities followed by assembly line balancing (ALB). The whole process of conducting various tasks is investigated to find out the lapses or wastes, to search for better option and to set the standard times for the tasks. Then individual workstation time is worked out by summing up the standard times of the involved tasks or activities and the concept of ALB is attempted to balance the fabrication line. So by possible reduction or elimination of the identified wastes or lapses workstation times including the bottleneck station are lowered. As a result the throughput of car exhaust systems is enhanced. According to the current practice, the Takt time is set at 3 minutes. However, upon an analysis through use of the MOST, the bottleneck station time is found to be as low as 1.27 minutes. Thus an opportunity of meeting the current level of demand with significantly lower workforce (with 2 operators instead of 5) is revealed. Alternatively, if necessary, an increased workload can be assigned for the current level of workforce. Moreover, with proper distribution of activities among the workstations using the concept of ALB, the line efficiency is found to be improved. So the line balance loss in the current setup of production line is also possible to be largely reduced. Thus daily

  11. A Predictive Model for Life Assessment of Automotive Exhaust Mufflers Subject to Internal Corrosion Failure due to Exhaust Gases Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, H.; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Stokes, K.

    2016-01-01

    A study has been presented of pitting corrosion on internal walls of automotive exhaust muffler due to exhaust gases condensation. The problem mainly exists in the rear section of exhaust system close to tail end pipe such as muffler, especially when the temperature of muffler does not go up during short distance run or winter. The water vapor condenses on the muffler's inner wall in the form of water droplets. The dissolution of corrosive gases which are coming from internal combustion of en...

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  13. Potential of bio-drying applied to exhausted grape marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimentation was carried out to study the behavior of exhausted grape marc during the bio-drying process. This process was chosen as an alternative to the typical grape marc thermal drying approach. The aim was to reduce the moisture level thanks to the biological exothermal reactions, and to increase the energy content in the biodried grape marc. The target was the generation of a product interesting for energy options. For the development of the research, a biological pilot reactor and a respirometric apparatus were used. Results demonstrated that bio-drying can decrease the water content saving the original energy content. The final material could be assumed like a solid recovered fuel, class 5:1:1 with a very low potential rate of microbial self-heating.

  14. Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thirumalai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in the skeletal muscle of male albino rats subjected to strenuous exercise programme. Methods: Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to exhaustive swimming exercise programme daily for a period of five days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exercised animals. Results: The elevated levels of TBARS and conjugated dienes indicated the oxidative stress in the gastrocemius muscle of the exercised animals. The depleted activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in the exercise animals indicated the increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidative defense system in the muscle. Conclusions: The study suggests that prolonged strenuous exercise programme can induce oxidative stress and therefore an optimal level of exercise schedule should be advocated to obtain the maximum benefit of exercise programme.

  15. Diffusion of lead in automobile exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, S.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, H.; Tanizaki, A.

    1970-01-01

    The pattern of diffusion of lead from automobile exhaust gas was investigated by studying the amount of lead adhering to or contained in leaves of ginkgo trees growing along less-travelled roads that cross a busy highway. Samples were dried at 100 C, then pulverized, and a definite portion wet-digested. After extraction by dithizone, lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same routine was followed for surface soil at the root of the trees. Leaves at heights of 3 and 6 m were examined. At one of the two sampling sites, the lead content in surface soil tended to decrease with distance from the trunk highway. At both sites, the amount of lead in leaves was found in larger amounts in the leaves at the lower level. Also, those leaves collected in October contained more lead than those assembled earlier in the year.

  16. Optimal Population and Exhaustible Resource Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean

    2018-01-01

    A large literature considers the optimal size and growth rate of the human population, trading off the utility value of additional people with the costs of a larger population. In this literature, an important parameter is the social weight placed on population size; a standard result is that a planner with a larger weight on population chooses larger population levels and growth rates. We demonstrate that this result is conditionally overturned when an exhaustible resource constraint is introduced: if the discount rate is small enough, the optimal population today decreases with the welfare weight on population size. That is, a more total-utilitarian social planner could prefer a smaller population today than a more average-utilitarian social planner. We also present a numerical illustration applied to the case of climate change, where we show that under plausible real-world parameter values, our result matters for the direction and magnitude of optimal population policy.

  17. T Cell exhaustion in protozoan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigley, Jason P.; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Moretto, Magali M.; Khan, Imtiaz A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoan parasites cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to chemotherapeutic agents is limited. Although parasites initially evoke a robust immune response, subsequent immunity fails to clear infection, ultimately leading to the chronic stage. This enigmatic situation was initially addressed in chronic viral models, where T cells lose their function, a phenomenon referred to as ’exhaustion‘. However, recent studies demonstrate that this paradigm can be extended to protozoan diseases as well, albeit with notable differences. These studies have revealed that T cell responses generated against Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium sp. and Leishmania sp. can become dysfunctional. This Review discusses T cell exhaustion in parasitic infection, mechanisms of development, and a possible role in disease outcome. PMID:22832368

  18. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME......This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  19. [Management of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groha, P; Schunkert, H

    2015-09-01

    Arterial hypertension is one of the most frequent diseases in the western world and is one of the three most important risk factors for heart diseases. The 2013 guidelines of the European Societies of Hypertension and Cardiology (ESH/ESC) provide a clear action plan for evidence-based diagnostics and therapeutic measures in hypertensive subjects and simplify target blood pressures across various patient groups. Non-pharmacological options play a central role in the treatment of arterial hypertension. The indications for drug therapy arise from three criteria including the level of hypertension, risk profile of the patient, as well as response to non-pharmacological therapy. For the first choice monotherapy five substance groups are available: diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin (AT) 1 receptor antagonists and calcium antagonists. By combination therapy, the responder rate can be significantly increased with respect to a normalization of blood pressure. A true treatment resistance, in which the therapeutic goal is not reached in spite of a triple combination with maximum dosage, is extremely rare. Further treatment options are combinations of four drug classes and changes of medication. Hypertensive emergencies require a rapid intervention; nevertheless, the magnitude of blood pressure lowering can greatly vary depending on the individual clinical picture.

  20. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Thomas, Ronald F.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Bass, Virginia; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Richards, Judy E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Andrews, Debora [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m{sup 3}), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses

  1. Local and Systemic CD4+ T Cell Exhaustion Reverses with Clinical Resolution of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Hawkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the Th1 immune response in sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells has revealed reduced proliferative capacity and cytokine expression upon TCR stimulation. In other disease models, such cellular dysfunction has been associated with a step-wise, progressive loss of T cell function that results from chronic antigenic stimulation. T cell exhaustion is defined by decreased cytokine production upon TCR activation, decreased proliferation, increased expression of inhibitory cell surface receptors, and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. We characterized sarcoidosis CD4+ T cell immune function in systemic and local environments among subjects undergoing disease progression compared to those experiencing disease resolution. Spontaneous and TCR-stimulated Th1 cytokine expression and proliferation assays were performed in 53 sarcoidosis subjects and 30 healthy controls. PD-1 expression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Compared to healthy controls, sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells demonstrated reductions in Th1 cytokine expression, proliferative capacity (p<0.05, enhanced apoptosis (p<0.01, and increased PD-1 expression (p<0.001. BAL-derived CD4+ T cells also demonstrated multiple facets of T cell exhaustion (p<0.05. Reversal of CD4+ T cell exhaustion was observed in subjects undergoing spontaneous resolution (p<0.05. Sarcoidosis CD4+ T cells exhibit loss of cellular function during progressive disease that follows the archetype of T cell exhaustion.

  2. Genotoxic damage in mine workers exposed to diesel exhaust, and the effects of glutathione transferase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gaskell, M; Martin, E A

    2005-01-01

    . The study confirms an increased level of DNA damage in workers exposed to exhaust from truck-driving in the mine. However, the results of the environmental and biological monitoring of 1-NP did not correlate, suggesting that inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust is not reflected by an increase in 1-NP......This study was performed in an Estonian shale-oil mine with the purpose to develop and apply a number of biomarkers for occupational diesel-exhaust exposure monitoring. Increased breathing-zone exposures to exhaust from operators of diesel-powered trucks in the mine was confirmed...... in the environmental monitoring part of the study, showing a 7.5-fold higher exposure to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in 50 underground workers compared with 42 surface workers [P.T.J. Scheepers, D. Coggon, L.E. Knudsen, R. Anzion, H. Autrup, S. Bogovski, R.P. Bos, D. Dahmann, P. Farmer, E.A. Martin, V...

  3. Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7. PMID:22754710

  4. [Behavior of arterial pressure during sports activity: track running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, P; Mos, L; Di Marco, A; Mormino, P; Munari, L; Del Torre, M; Valle, F; Pessina, A C; Dal Palù, C

    1987-08-01

    In 6 normotensive and 14 borderline or mild hypertensive runners the intraarterial blood pressure (BP) changes determined by a maximal bicycle ergometric test and by an exhaustive run performed in outdoor conditions were recorded by means of the portable Oxford system. During running systolic BP attained higher values than during bicycle ergometry, while diastolic BP decreased during running and remained unchanged during ergometry. The highest BP values were recorded soon after starting running, then they progressively declined to increase once again during the final sprinting. Beat to beat analysis of the pressure tracings showed a peculiar pattern of the phasic waves throughout the run: continuous cyclic oscillations of pulse pressure were detected, as the variations of systolic blood pressure were not paralleled by those of the diastolic. The frequency of these rhythmic oscillations varied from 6-7 to 24-27/minute and was not related to respiration rate. The shape of these oscillations prompted us to investigate whether they were due to the "beat" phenomenon, that is to the combined effect of two waves with a nearly equal frequency. To verify this hypothesis 10 athletes during the run carried around the chest a Teruflex container filled with saline. The amplitude of the BP changes recorded in the container ranged from +/- 10 to +/- 50 mmHg. They were added by means of a computer to the BP tracing recorded during bicycle ergometry. The resultant wave was similar to that recorded in the radial artery during running.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany. During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001, indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001 and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022. Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01. Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01. Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with

  6. Elevated arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis is not related to arterial endothelin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Gülberg, V; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension have a hyperkinetic systemic circulation. A number of circulating vasoactive peptides, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), are elevated and, recently, increased arterial compliance has been described in these patients. The aim of the present...... study was to investigate a potential relation between altered arterial compliance and arterial ET-1 in patients with cirrhosis. As ET-1 may be manipulated by somastostatin, the study includes infusion of octreotide in a subset of patients. METHODS: A total of 67 patients with cirrhosis and 27 controls...... were studied during a haemodynamic investigation. Arterial ET-1 was determined by two different radioimmunoassays and arterial compliance was determined as the stroke volume/pulse pressure index. RESULTS: Arterial compliance was elevated by 32%-40% in the cirrhotic patients as compared to the controls...

  7. Dexamethasone stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood indicates glucocorticoid-receptor hypersensitivity in job-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Gerber, Markus; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Beck, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Work-related stress can lead to various health problems ranging from job-related exhaustion to psychiatric and somatic diseases. Biomarkers of job-related exhaustion could help to improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms and might be useful to guide prevention and treatment strategies. The present study included 12 male cases suffering from job-related exhaustion and 12 matched healthy controls. Severity of exhaustion was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Whole genome expression profiles derived from whole blood cells (baseline and following glucocorticoid-receptor (GR) stimulation with 1.5mg dexamethasone p.o.) and corresponding plasma cortisol levels were analyzed. All cases participated in regular aerobic exercise for 12 consecutive weeks and were then re-assessed at follow-up for exhaustion symptoms as well as for cortisol levels and gene expression profiles. At baseline, we found increased basal cortisol levels and an enhanced suppression of plasma cortisol concentrations following dexamethasone in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1.6-fold more transcripts were significantly regulated by dexamethasone in cases as compared to controls. At follow-up after 12 weeks of regular exercise training which was accompanied by significantly improved exhaustion severity scores, cortisol levels and gene expression profiles of cases normalized to the levels observed in controls. In conclusion, we detected GR-induced neuroendocrine and gene expression changes in cases suffering from job-related exhaustion which are in line with an increased sensitivity of GR function. This GR dysregulation normalized with symptom recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  9. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPARγ2 is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contradictory results have been reported regarding the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ2 and coronary artery disease (CAD. We sought to estimate the inconsistent results by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies in English or Chinese publications were identified by screening MEDLINE, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM. 22 studies including 8948 cases and 14427 controls were selected. A random-effects model was applied to combine the divergent outcomes of the individual studies, while addressing between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: The Pro12Ala polymorphism of control population followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all studies (P>0.05. Overall, a marginal increased risk of CAD under the recessive genetic model (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.04, OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.01-1.69, P(heterogeneity = 0.67, I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.04,OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01-1.68, P(heterogeneity = 0.68, I(2 = 0% was observed. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, carriers of AlaAla homozygotes had a significant increased risk for CAD among Caucasians (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.01, OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.08-1.96, P(heterogeneity = 0.48, I(2 = 0%; AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.02,OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.07-1.93, P(heterogeneity = 0.46, I(2 = 0%. After dividing into population source, the CAD risk magnitude of hospital-based studies was distinctly strengthened under the recessive model (P = 0.03,OR = 1.85,95%CI 1.07-3.19, P(heterogeneity = 0.87,I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (P = 0.03,OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.06-3.16, P(heterogeneity = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. There was no observable publication bias as reflected by funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test (t = -0.12, P = 0.91. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians.

  10. Different manifestation of irradiation induced coronary artery disease detected with coronary computed tomography compared with matched non-irradiated controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendael, A.R. van; Daniels, L.A.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Smit, J.M.; Rosendael, P.J. van; Schalij, M.J.; Bax, J.J.; Scholte, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients who received chest irradiation for treatment of a malignancy are at increased risk for the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Little is known about the anatomical coronary artery plaque characteristics of irradiation induced coronary artery disease

  11. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  12. Experimental studies of impact of exhaust gas recirculation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the problem of reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions in exhaust gases (EG) of diesel engine by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Based on the carried out study the influence of EGR on technical-and-economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine was found as well as main directions of ...

  13. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light duty trucks: ER06OC93.051 Where: (1) YWM = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., THC... the dilute exhaust sample as calculated from the integrated THC traces, in ppm carbon equivalent. (B... dilute exhaust, ft3. (x) VDM=Volume of methanol sample withdrawn from dilution air, ft3. (xi) CS=GC...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  15. 44 CFR 5.58 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 5.58 Section 5.58 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. Any person making a request to FEMA for records under this part shall...

  16. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...

  17. 33 CFR 331.12 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 331.12 Section 331.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS § 331.12 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. No...

  18. 25 CFR 67.12 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 67.12 Section 67.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT SEMINOLE INDIANS OF FLORIDA § 67.12 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. The...

  19. 29 CFR 4003.7 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4003.7 Section 4003.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL RULES FOR ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW OF AGENCY DECISIONS General Provisions § 4003.7 Exhaustion of administrative...

  20. 43 CFR 4.314 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4.314 Section 4.314 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Applicable to Proceedings on Appeal Before the Interior Board of Indian Appeals § 4.314 Exhaustion of...

  1. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  2. 5 CFR 1208.21 - VEOA exhaustion requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VEOA exhaustion requirement. 1208.21 Section 1208.21 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... THE VETERANS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ACT VEOA Appeals § 1208.21 VEOA exhaustion requirement. Before...

  3. 29 CFR 4901.17 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4901.17 Section 4901.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INTERNAL AND... Procedure for Formal Requests § 4901.17 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. If the disclosure officer...

  4. 45 CFR 617.15 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 617.15 Section 617.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... ASSISTANCE FROM NSF § 617.15 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action...

  5. Exhaustion in University Students and the Effect of Coursework Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    Although researchers have examined exhaustion extensively in occupational studies, this work-specific variable--despite its widespread acceptance and negative outcomes--has received little attention in regard to university students and their coursework. Objective: The author examined the severity of exhaustion in students and the relationship…

  6. 7 CFR 400.56 - Administrative appeal exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal exhaustion. 400.56 Section 400.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE... Administrative appeal exhaustion. The insured may appeal the approved APH yield in accordance with the procedures...

  7. 7 CFR 400.453 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 400.453 Section 400.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE...-Compliance § 400.453 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. All administrative remedies contained herein or...

  8. 28 CFR 32.8 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 32.8 Section 32.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS' DEATH, DISABILITY, AND EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE BENEFIT CLAIMS General Provisions § 32.8 Exhaustion of administrative...

  9. Relations between Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion and Students' Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the effects of emotional exhaustion among teachers have primarily focused on its relations with teacher-related outcome variables but little research has been done for examining its relations with student outcomes. Therefore, this study examines the relations between teachers' emotional exhaustion and educational outcomes…

  10. 26 CFR 301.7430-1 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 301.7430-1 Section 301.7430-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7430-1 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) In general. Section 7430(b...

  11. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  12. 40 CFR 7.175 - Exhaustion of administrative remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.175 Exhaustion of administrative remedy. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Age Discrimination... district in which the recipient is found or transacts business; (ii) A complainant prevailing in a civil...

  13. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine...

  14. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of leaflets and leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight of Vinca rosea and Ruellia tuberosa were studied. The treatment of exhaust pollutants produced significant effects on root, shoot growth, number of leaflet and leaf ...

  15. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES DIESEL EXHAUST GAS MONITORING § 70.1900 Exhaust Gas... equipment on the longwall or shortwall face when mining equipment is being installed or removed; and (4) In...

  16. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  17. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  18. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  19. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  20. Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years......), and to characterize and quantify subclinical atherosclerosis in their relatives. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the impact of common genetic risk variants on the age of onset, familial clustering and disease severity. In study I, 143 patients with early- onset CAD were recruited from the Western Denmark Heart...... the advances in genetic techniques has led to an increased understanding of the genetic background of CAD, which may potentially be translated into clinical use. The studies of this thesis aimed to investigate the burden of conventional risk factors and control in early-onset CAD (i.e.