WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhaust gases

  1. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  2. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  3. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  4. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2003-11-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O{sub 2} concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O{sub 2}) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO{sub x} gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO{sub x} but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  5. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  6. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  7. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  8. Toxicity of power vehicles exhaust gases using bio fuels of different composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, I.; Berjoza, D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to state the influence of different bio fuels on the surrounding environment using them in diesel motors. The work summarises information on the composition of toxic components in vehicle exhaust gases, their influence on the surrounding environment. Characteristic features of different biofuels are summarised as well as their application possibilities in diesel motors. Measuring devices and measuring methods of toxic components of exhaust gases have been classified. Different measuring regimes of diesel motor exhaust gases have been described. Research in automobile Renault, equipped with diesel motor, exhaust gas smokiness using different biofuels has been carried out (author)

  9. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  10. Device for the elimination of noxious components of exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, A

    1975-04-24

    A device for the removal of noxious components from the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine is described. It consists of a chemical reactor installed in the tail-pipe. Behind the reactor, in the flow direction of the exhaust gases, there is a catalytic temperature sensor whose electrical output is transmitted to an analyzer which provides a signal if the reactor fails. The temperature sensor is situated directly in the waste gas duct or in a branch of the tail-pipe which is supplied with air. There is also another, catalytically inactive, temperature sensor. A failure is signalled (a) if the chemical reactor has failed, and (b) if there is not enough oxygen in the exhaust gas to keep up a chemical reaction.

  11. A system recovering heat from exhaust gases. Abgasenergie-Rueckgewinnungseinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, E; Hultsch, H; Brendorp, W

    1990-08-16

    The proposed exhaust gas heat recovery system is provided with a hydraulic clutch (8) which is located between a gas tubine (2) to be driven by the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine (20) and a drive unit (18) of the internal combustion engine (20). A mechanical blocking device (6) prevents the turbine from running at explosion speed when the hydraulic clutch (8) is emptied or when the oil pressure of the hydraulic clutch drops below a certain minimum.

  12. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  13. Equipment for heating the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in order to improve afterburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki,

    1976-04-15

    The device described here serves to heat exhaust gases of internal combustion engines by heat exchange with hot gases and also, in cold engines, to raise the temperature of the fuel-air mixture drawn in by the engine. The device is installed next to the outlet opening of the engine. It consists of a burner to generate the hot gas, as well as a heat exchanger permitting heat supply to the exhaust gases and a hot-gas line leading to the intake line. Heating of the air is taken in leads to a better atomization of the mixture and thus to improved combustion. Heating of the exhaust gases improves afterburning. The burner generating the hot gas is shut off when the normal operational temperature of the engine is reached. The temperature is controlled by means of a temperature sensor installed in the device.

  14. Study of reaction between water and exhaust gases from diesel engines used in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazukhina, S.I.; Kalabin, G.V.; Romanov, V.S.

    1988-05-01

    A method of mathematical simulation, based on the principle of local equilibrium of the kinetic components, was proposed for formulating and solving problems related to the combustion of fuel and the treatment of exhaust gases from a diesel engine in underground workings. Results of a study of the effects of exhaust gas quantity and composition on the reaction between the gases and water are presented. It is shown that the kinetic model correlates well with the equilibrium model, adequately describes the process, and gives a reliable picture of the changes over a period of time. The proposed method can be used to study the gas emission with different fuel mixtures and liquid neutralizing agents with a view to reducing the toxicity of diesel-engine exhaust gases.

  15. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  16. Using date stone charcoal as a filtering medium for automobile exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahad, H.A.K.; Farhan, A.M. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering; Saleh, H.A. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    A thermal reactor was designed and built to produce coal from date stones by pyrolysis. Five specimens of coal have been prepared at different maximum charring temperatures. It was found that, as the temperature increases, the properties of coal are improved (the percentage of carbon content increases). It was also found that, at 700{sup o}C, the percentage of carbon content remains constant. The coal prepared at this temperature was used as a filtering medium in an adsorption filter to purify the exhaust gases of a two stroke spark ignition engine. The results showed that the filter has a high adsorption ability for CO and CO{sub 2} gases. An ORSAT apparatus was used to measure the concentration of CO and CO{sub 2} in the exhaust gases before and after the filter. The filter reduced the concentration of CO and CO{sub 2} by 62 and 59%, respectively. (author)

  17. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  18. Numerical investigation of a novel burner to combust anode exhaust gases of SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was a numerical investigation of the efficiency of the combustion process of a novel concept burner under different operating conditions. The design of the burner was a part of the development process of a complete SOFC based system and a challenging combination of technical requirements to be fulfilled. A Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a non-premixed burner was used to simulate combustion of exhaust gases from the anode region of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stacks. The species concentrations of the exhaust gases were compared with experimental data and a satisfactory agreement of the conversion of hydrocarbons was obtained. This validates the numerical methodology and also proves applicability of the developed approach that quantitatively characterized the interaction between the exhaust gases and burner geometry for proper combustion modelling. Thus, the proposed CFD approach can be safely used for further numerical optimisation of the burner design.

  19. Device for the catalytic after-burning of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas system of an internal-combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, K

    1975-06-19

    The invention deals with a device which protects the catalyst for the after-burning of exhaust gases against damage by high temperatures. When the catalyst temperature reaches a certain limiting value, a throttle is activated by an electrical control device influenced by a temperature sensor via a servomotor. The throttle valve opens a by-pass for the exhaust gases which had previously flowed through the system for catalytic after-burning. In order to prevent the throttle from rusting due to its rare use, it is regularly put into use after switching off the ignition of the internal-combustion engine by the still briefly present oil pressure in the engine via an oil pressure switch and the mentioned control device.

  20. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    OpenAIRE

    Galashov Nikolay; Tsibulskiy Svyatoslav; Mel’nikov Denis; Kiselev Alexandr; Gabdullina Al’bina

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG) of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT). Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion produ...

  1. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  2. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  3. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  5. Removal of main exhaust gases of vehicles by a double dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, M; Valdivia, R; Pacheco, J; Rivera, C; Alva, E; Santana, A; Huertas, J; Lefort, B; Estrada, N

    2012-01-01

    Because the health effects and their contribution to climate change, the emissions of toxic gases are becoming more controlled. In order to improve the diminution of toxic gases to the atmosphere, several techniques have been developed; here it will be focus only to automotive emissions. This work deals about the treatment of toxic gases emitted from vehicles by a non-thermal plasma. Several tests were done in a 4-cylinder 2002/Z16SE motor to characterize the vehicle emissions. With these results gas mixture simulating the exhaust gases vehicles, was used in experiments at different conditions employing a double dielectric barrier reactor for their treatment. The removal efficiencies superior to 90% show the competence of the non-thermal plasma reactor to treat these gases. Experimental results are explained with the aid of a simple chemical model that suggests a possible mechanism of degradation of toxic gases. The plasma reactor employed could works at 12V supplied without difficulty by a vehicle battery.

  6. Efficiency of utilization of heat of moisture from exhaust gases of heat HRSG of CCGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the technology of utilizing the heat of exhaust gas moisture from heat recovery steam gases (HRSG of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT. Particular attention focused on the influence of the excess air factor on the trapping of the moisture of the exhaust gases, as in the HRSG of the CCGT its value varies over a wider range than in the steam boilers of the TPP. For the research, has been developed a mathematical model that allows to determine the volumes of combustion products and the amount of water vapor produced according to a given composition of the burned gas and determine the amount of moisture that will be obtained as a result of condensation at a given temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the condensation heat exchanger (CHE. To calculate the efficiency of the HRSG taking into account the heat of condensation of moisture in the CHE an equation is derived.

  7. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  8. Simulation on Toxic Gases in Vehicle Exhaust Equipped with Modified Catalytic Converter : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and global warming is a major issue nowadays. One of the main contributors to be the emission of harmful gases produced by vehicle exhausts lines. The harmful gases like NOx, CO, unburned HC and particulate matter increases the global warming, so catalytic converter plays a vital role in reducing harmful gases. Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. This research deals with the gas emission flow in the catalytic converter involving the heat transfer, velocity flow, back pressure and others chemical reaction in the modified catalytic converter by using FeCrAl as a substrate that is treated using the ultrasonic bath and electroplating techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain a quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. The description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software was simulated in this research in order to provide better efficiency and ease the reusability of the catalytic converter by comparing experimental data with software analysing data. The result will be expected to demonstrate a good approximation of gas emission in the modified catalytic converter simulation data compared to experimental data in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter. Therefore studies on simulation of flow through the modified catalytic converter are very important to increase the accuracy of the obtained emission result.

  9. Method to remove NO/sub x/ from combustion exhaust gases. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, M.; Iwata, T.

    1975-11-13

    The invention to remove NO/sub x/ from combustion exhaust gases is proposed by means of an example and a drawing. The exhaust gas is washed with an aqueous 30% ammonium sulfite solution (pH = 6.1 - 6-6.5, d = 50 to 55/sup 0/C) and then reduced with waste ammonia in the catalyst bed at 200 to 450/sup 0/C. The total SO/sub 2/ is removed in the prewash procedure and the NH/sub 3/ required for the reduction is transferred from the washing solution to the exhaust gas. The washing solution is regenerated with coke gas containing NH/sub 3/ (150 to 500 ppM NH/sub 3/). Iron ore, tinder, hammer scale, iron-contained dust, copper oxide, chromium oxide, cobalt oxide, and vanadium oxide are suitable as catalyst for the reduction process.

  10. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines -- International Activities Survey (EngToxIn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other combustion -- and industrial processes contain different gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not regarded by the respective legislations; some new substances may appear, due to the progressing technical developments and new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. The toxical effects of exhaust gases as whole aerosols (i.e. all gaseous components together with particle matter and nanoparticles) can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. On several places researchers showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used up to date. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It bears potentials of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives short information about the activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about research of information sources. It can be stated that there are worldwide a lot of activities concerning health effects. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and rarely the results can be directly compared to each other. Nevertheless there also are some common lines and with appropriate efforts there are possible ways to establish the harmonised biological test procedures.

  11. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  12. Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

    2013-03-01

    The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

  13. A composition for protection the stylobate in high-rise construction from the harmful effects of car exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    In large cities, high-rise buildings are usually located along highways with heavy traffic. The study was carried out with the aim of creating a material for protection the stylobate of a high-rise building from the harmful effects of car exhaust gases. A polymer-silicate composition based on schungite and schungisite components is proposed. The composition has the properties of a wall material resistant to the corrosive environment of car exhaust gases. The results of the composition studies are presented. The possibility of increase the durability of exterior slabs for stylobate walls of high-rise buildings is substantiated, provided the proposed material is applied.

  14. Passive smoking of cigarettes compared to inhalation of exhaust gases; Meeroken door uitlaatgassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Doorn, R. [Afdeling Medische Milieukuinde, GGD Rotterdam en omstreken, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    A comparison has been made between the consequences of inhaling exhaust gases and passive smoking of cigarettes. In both cases it concerns the inhalation of combustion products with irritating and toxic properties. [Dutch] Er is een vergelijking gemaakt tussen de gevolgen van het inademen van uitlaatgassen en het meeroken van sigaretten. In biede gevallen gaat het om verbrandingsproducten met irriterende en toxische eigenschappen.

  15. Impact of the injection dose of exhaust gases, on work parameters of combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    This article is another one from the series in which were presented research results indicated the possible areas of application of the pneumatic injection using hot combustion gases proposed by Professor Jarnuszkiewicz. This publication present the results of the control system of exhaust gas recirculation. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of exhaust gas recirculation to the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine on the basis of laboratory measurements. All measurements were performed at a constant engine speed. These conditions correspond to the operation of the motor operating an electrical generator. The study was conducted on the four-stroke two-cylinder engine with spark ignition. The study were specifically tested on the air injection system and therefore the selection of the rotational speed was not bound, as in conventional versions of operating parameters of the electrical machine. During the measurement there were applied criterion which used power control corresponding to the requirements of load power, at minimal values of engine speed. Recirculation value determined by the following recurrent position control valve of the injection doses inflator gas for pneumatic injection system. They were studied and recorded, the impact of dose of gases recirculation to the operating and ecological engine parameters such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, efficiency, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

  16. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  17. Removing method for radon gas exhausted from nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    A centrifugal separator is disposed in the midway of an exhaustion pipe of a nuclear fuel handling facility, and exhausted gases are sent into a rotational cylinder of the separator. Radon gases in the midway of exhaustion are separated from the exhaustion gases by the centrifugal force of the separator and caused to stagnate at the periphery of the circumferential wall of the rotational cylinder. At the same time, the exhaustion gases having the radon gases separated therefrom are exhausted from the periphery of a rotational shaft of the rotational cylinder. Then, the radon gases stagnated in the rotational cylinder are decayed depending on the half-decay time. With such procedures, the radon gases can be removed continuously without discharging them to the outside. Further, it is preferred that an exhaustion blower or the like for putting the inside of the nuclear fuel handing facility to a negative pressure is disposed as in a conventional case. Further, a plurality of centrifugal separators may be disposed to exhaustion pipes, to remove radon gases in the exhaust gases by a multi stage way. Radon gases can be removed in a saved space with no requirement for exchange of adsorbents or temperature control. (T.M.)

  18. Selective gas exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method capable of evacuating gases at an exhaustion rate which varies depending on the kind of gases. For example, in a thermonuclear experimental device, a hydrogen gas exhaustion rate is determined to 0 and an exhaustion rate for other impure gases is made greater. Namely, a baffle plate is cooled to a temperature to a level at which the vapor pressure of gases to evacuate a baffle plate is required in a pump incorporating a baffle plate, for example, a cryopump or a sorption pump. In this case, the level of the vapor pressure required for evacuating the exhaustion gas ingredients is 1 x 10 -8 Torr or less, preferably, 1 x 10 -9 Torr. In a thermonuclear experimental device, a gas having a lower boiling point next to hydrogen is neon, but neon is scarcely present in natural world. Nitrogen has a lower boiling point next thereto, and if the temperature is lowered to such a level that the vapor pressure for evacuating gases such as nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon or methane having a boiling point at or lower than nitrogen is required. Then, evacuation rate sufficient for gases other than hydrogen gas can be obtained. (I.S.)

  19. Presentation of different possibilities for the cleaning of exhaust gases from waste incinerators; Darstellung verschiedener Moeglichkeiten zur Reinigung von Abgasen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Christian [LAB GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    This contribution describes different methods of purification of exhaust gases from waste incinerators. The following technical procedures are considered: dry sorption procedure, quasi-dry procedure, wet scrubbing procedure, hybrid procedure. Subsequently, the author of this contribution reports on criteria for the selection of exhaust gas cleaning systems.

  20. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  1. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  2. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  3. Temperature monitoring of vehicle engine exhaust gases under vibration condition using optical fibre temperature sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W Z; Suna, T; Grattana, K T V; Shen, Y H; Wei, C L; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2006-01-01

    Two optical approaches, comprising and contracting both the fluorescence decay lifetime and the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) methods, were developed and evaluated for temperature monitoring of exhaust gases for use on a vehicle engine. The FBGs used in the system were written into specially designed Bi-Ge co-doped photosensitive fibres, to enable them to sustain high temperatures to over 800 0 C, which is far beyond that of FBGs written into most commercial photosensitive fibres. The sensors were subjected to a range of vibration tests, as a part of an optical exhaust monitoring network under development, and results from the test carried out are reported

  4. Retention of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the exhaust gases by radiolysis, a modern method of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macarie, Rodica; Zissulescu, Ecaterina; Martin, Diana; Radoiu, Marilena

    2000-01-01

    Industry, especially the power industry, is a great generator of gaseous pollutants (SO x , NO x , CO 2 , CO). The oxides are responsible for the 'acid rains' which have a great negative impact on the environment, human beings and animals, while CO 2 emissions contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. Retention of the sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the exhaust gases can be carried out either by conventional methods (using chemical adsorbents) or by non-conventional ones (radiolysis). Recently, non-conventional methods have bee given priority, including exhaust gas irradiation with an accelerated electron beam as a more efficient alternative to the gas desulfurization. In order to increase the efficiency of the accelerated electron beam injected into the exhaust gas, the effect of microwave utilization has been investigated. The company S.C. ICPET S.A.-Bucuresti, in cooperation with INFLPR-Bucuresti, investigated the retention by radiolysis of the sulfur and nitrogen oxides from a synthetic mixture of exhaust gases in an installation developed in the laboratory by means of accelerated electron beams, microwaves and by the accelerated electron beams and microwave combined. The paper presents the results obtained in the laboratory experiments and the advantages of radiolysis in comparison with the chemical conventional methods, namely: simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x , solid by-products that can be used as fertilizers in agriculture, simple technologies that do not imply catalysts or adsorbents, no waste waters. (authors)

  5. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  6. DETERMINATION OF CO2 MASSES IN THE EXHAUST GASES OF THE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru COSOFRET

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reducing CO2 emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect is currently under attention of the relevant international bodies. In the field of maritime transport, in 2011 International Maritime Organization (IMO has taken steps to reduce emissions of CO2 from the exhaust gases of marine diesel engines on ships, by imposing their energy efficiency standards. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated by using to power it diesel and different blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The purpose of the study was to determine the formulas for calculating the mass flow rates of CO2 from exhaust gases’ concentrations experimentally determined. Determining the mass flow of CO2 is necessary to calculate the energy efficiency coefficient of the ship to assess the energy efficiency of the board of the limits imposed by the IMO.

  7. Lead on vegetation as indicator of air pollution due to automobile exhaust's gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impens, R; Deroanne-Bauvin, J; Tilman, J

    1974-01-01

    Lead is regarded as an undesirable air contaminant. It's effects on health are well documented. Lead levels in air are very high in cities. Analyses have been performed on soils and urban vegetation (trees, shrubs and plants growing in city parks or near urban highways) from fifteen sites in Brussels. The collections were made from 72 to actually, at each site. The sites gave a very wide range of traffic density. A very significant correlation of lead concentration with density and characteristics of urban traffic was found. A continuous survey of lead levels on vegetation is a good indicator of air pollution caused by automobile exhaust's gases in urban and suburban areas.

  8. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Hirschberg, M.M.; Fabian, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  9. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Hirschberg, M M; Fabian, P [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  10. Device for removing radioactive solids in wet gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Miyo, Hiroaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable removal and decontamination of radioactive solids in wet gases simply, easily and securely by removing radioactive solids in gases by filteration and applying microwaves to filters to evaporate condensed moistures. Constitution: Objects to be heated such as solutions, sludges and solids containing radioactive substances are placed in an evaporation vessel and a microwave generator is operated. Microwaves are applied to the objects in the evaporation vessel through a shielding plate and filters. The objects are evaporated and exhausted gases are passed through the filters and sent to an exhaust gas processing system by way of an exhaust gas pipe. Condensed moistures deposited on the filters which would otherwise cause cloggings are evaporated being heated by the microwaves to prevent cloggings. The number of stages for the filters may optionally be adjusted depending on the extent of the contamination in the exhaust gases. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Radiation chemical studies on the electron-beam treatment of exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washino, Masamitsu; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Nishimura, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobutake

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes the radiation chemical studies on the synthetic models of exhaust gases which has been done in JAERI-Takasaki. Radiation-induced reactions of low concentrations of SO 2 and NO was studied in dry and moist mixtures of N 2 and O 2 . SO 2 was oxidized to H 2 SO 4 only in the moist mixtures. Oxidation of NO and reduction of NO 2 took place simultaneously and approached to a radiation-chemical stationary state in the dry N 2 -O 2 systems. NO was easily oxidized to NO 2 and finally to HNO 3 in the moist systems. Addition of NH 3 in the mixture enhanced the NO-removing reactions and suppressed the NO 2 - and HNO 3 -formations. A set of reaction mechanisms deduced is proposed. The reaction proceeds by the mechanism of such indirect effect of radiation as the energies absorbed by the main components are transferred and utilized effectively to the SO 2 - and NO sub(x)-removing reactions. (author)

  12. The viewpoints of chemical air pollution caused by traffic subsystems and presented by the example of emission measurements of trucks' exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaric, D. [Vocational College of Traffic and Transport Maribor (Slovenia)

    2011-07-01

    For a long time, experts have been emphasizing that we are in an era in which dangerous climatic changes are getting more and more notable. We have been witnessing large climatic changes caused by greenhouse gases for several years. The use of different ways of transport has a bad influence on the environment in which we daily live and work, and on human health and nature, too. For that reason, we cannot treat the safety of the transportation means only through the technical impeccability of the devices which make possible direct execution of particular technological phases in different traffic subsystems. Ecological impacts of particular traffic subsystems are very complex, and have a long-term impact on our everyday existence. Despite this we still do not devote enough attention to this. We have been aware that traffic, especially road and air traffic, is one of the largest sources of emissions of harmful exhaust gases of combustion engines and particles into the environment. The environmental impact of traffic is especially large due to greenhouse gases, which are part of exhaust gases being produced by internal combustion engines. In addition to that, there are many more toxic components in exhausted gases. For effective reduction of harmful emissions in transport, a wide spectrum of analysis and measurements must be carried out. In 2007, the first realistic freight vehicle measurements in the Republic of Slovenia were published. The TRAENVIA project precisely evaluated some types of transportation emissions, especially on long freight distances and reached some comprehensive goals: measure and compare real emissions caused by different transport means in real terms of traffic flow, to evaluate the influence of those emissions on the environment and air quality, to evaluate the contribution of the transport sector in urban areas to air pollution, to evaluate the influence on the air quality for several means of transport, to evaluate potential possibilities and

  13. Corrosion of stainless steels in the condensate emitted from cooled exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, S.

    2004-01-01

    The research of stainless steels 316L and 304L exposed to the water condensate forming in cooled exhausted gases and containing the aggressive sulfate and chloride ions was presented in this article. It was assumed, that after 200 days and nights of their exposition to the condensate significant losses of steel 316L created with speed of 1,6 mm/yearly were taking place. Such a tremendous speed of corrosion has come from a porous layer construction, containing beside magnetite and spinels also chlorides and sulfates. The presence of about 2% of molybdenum in steel due to the bonding of sulfur near the phase border with the metallic base reduced profoundly the corrosion effects; while the exposed at the same time and under the same conditions steel without molybdenum of type 304L was corroding with the speed of nearly 13 mm/yearly. (author)

  14. Impact of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases on Environmental Pollution and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine particles that can be found in the exhaust gases of dieselengines and have a diameter of 2. 5 !Jl1l and ultra-fine particlesof 0.1 !Jl1l in diameter are mainly products of the combustionprocess. Experiments on animals have proven that theparticulates from the ambient air can cause damage to thelungs and can even end fatally. Therefore, it is necessary to reducethe mass of fine particles in the atmosphere and the numberof ultra-fine particles. Numerous studies of experiments onanimals have proven the toxicity of these particles. The air saturatedby particles resulted in cardio-pulmonary diseases in animalmodels. The epidemiological studies have shown the interdependenceof the increase in mortality and morbidity, especiallyin the elderly and persons suffering from respiratory ailmentsand cardio-vascular diseases. A hypothesis has been setthat the ultra-fine particles cause inflammatory reactions in alveoliand interstitium resulting in the increase of blood coagulationand deterioration of the condition in persons sufferingfrom the problems in cardio-vascular system.

  15. Lead absorption in sheep fed forage contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, R; Bovay, E; Luginbuehl, H R; Loenig, H

    1972-01-01

    For a period of 24 weeks three sheep received hay contaminated with lead deposits from motor vehicle exhaust gases. The aim of this study was to compare the lead accumulation in different organs and tissues of two young sheep (I and II) consuming every day forage containing 8 and 73 ppM lead respectively (= milligrams per kg of dried substance). A third animal (III) was fed with forage containing 73 ppM Pb and received in addition water with 200 mg Pb/liter. The analyses made after slaughtering of the animals revealed a marked accumulation of lead in the liver, the bones of the pelvis, the kidneys, and the spleen. However, a notable proportion of lead is also excreted with the urine and feces. Histological studies revealed some changes in the hepatocytes of animals II and III. These lesions were more significant in animal III, which received the highest level of lead, than in animal II. It is possible that these alterations have been caused by toxic substances.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  17. Study of a method for reducing fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars when using the “climate control” system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the issue of improving the fuel economy and environmental friendliness of motor vehicles which serve the administrative and management personnel of the oil and gas industry. It is established that fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of cars when using the “climate control” system depend on the effective ambient temperature, the color of the opaque car body elements, the power of the car engine and the interior volume. However, the simplest controlled factor is the color of the opaque car body elements, which is characterized by the coefficient of light reflection. In the course of experimental studies, we established the dependences of a change in fuel consumption and a share of reducing emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars with the “climate control” system on the coefficient of light reflection. A method has been developed to reduce fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with the exhaust gases of passenger cars using the “climate control” system, which involves painting the vehicle roof white and allows reducing fuel consumption by 5.5-10.3%, and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances by 0.8-2.3%.

  18. Toxicity of Exhaust Gases and Particles from IC-Engines – International Activities Survey (EngToxIn). 2nd Information Report for IEA Implementing Agreement AMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, J. [University for Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Exhaust gases from engines, as well as from other technical combustion processes contain gaseous, semi volatile and solid compounds which are toxic. Some of these compounds are not yet limited by the respective legislations; but may need to be based on ongoing health research findings and some new substances did appear recently, due to the progressing technical developments providing new systems of exhaust gas aftertreatment. A new approach described here is that the toxic effects of exhaust gases as an aerosol containing gaseous components as well as particulate matter and nanoparticles can be investigated in a global way, by exposing the living cells, or cell cultures to the aerosol, which means a simultaneous superposition of all toxic effects from all active components. At several research sites it has been showed, that this method offers more objective results of validation of toxicity, than other methods used until now. It also enables a relatively quick insight in the toxic effects with consideration of all superimposed influences of the aerosol. This new methodology can be applied for all kinds of emission sources. It also bears the potential of giving new contributions to the present state of knowledge in this domain and can in some cases lead to a change of paradigma. The present report gives information about activities concerning the research on toxicity of exhaust gases from IC-engines in different countries. It also gives some ideas about the available information sources. The general situation and the basic information have not changed much so the chapters 1 and 2 are repeated from the last year report, [1] with only a few modifications. We observe fast increasing research activities concerning health effects worldwide. They have different objectives, different approaches and methodologies and sometimes the results can be directly compared to each other. There are mostly common lines and with appropriate efforts there might be possible ways to

  19. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP)

  20. Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold with Ceramic Coating for Reduction of Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, J.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Nathc, Rajdeep; Kumar, Prasanth

    2017-05-01

    Exhaust manifold plays an important role in the exhaust system, the manifold delivers the waste toxic gases to a safe distance and it is used to reduce the sound pollution and air pollution. Exhaust manifold suffers with lot of thermal stress, due to this blow holes occurs in the surface of the exhaust manifold and also more noise is developed. The waste toxic gases from the multiple cylinders are collected into a single pipe by the exhaust manifold. The waste toxic gases can damage the material of the manifold. In this study, to prevent the damage zirconia powder has been coated in the inner surface and alumina (60%) combined with titania (40%) has been used for coating the outer surface of the exhaust manifold. After coating experiments have been performed using a multiple-cylinder four stroke stationary petrol engine. The test results of hardness, emission, corrosion and temperature of the coated and uncoated manifolds have been compared. The result shows that the performance is improved and also emission is reduced in the coated exhaust manifold.

  1. Vacuum exhaustion system for thermonuclear reactor and cryopump thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-01-01

    An impurity removing device is connected to a gas exhaust side of a plasma vacuum vessel by way of a gate valve, a cryopump is connected to the exit side of the device by way of an exit valve, a fuel transfer line is disposed for transferring fuels to a fuel purification system and a vacuum pump line is disposed to an exhaust gas line. Further, a tritium monitor is disposed to an exhaustion line and the line on the side of the exit of the monitor is branched into two ways, in which a tritium transfer pipe is disposed to one of them and an atmosphere release pipe is disposed on the other of them by way of an atmosphere releasing valve. Further, a condensation shebron is disposed for flowing in and out fuel isotope gases discharged from the plasma vacuum vessel, and a funnel discharge pipe is disposed for discharging a liquefied and condensed fluid. Since the gases to be exhausted are liquefied and condensed without coagulation or coagulation products are removed while operating the pump, the exhaust gases are processed continuously to reduce tritium inventory and make the regeneration step unnecessary and remarkably improve the heat efficiency. (N.H.)

  2. Influence of atmospheric 14CO2 on determination of the ratio of biogenic carbon to fossil one in exhaust gases using accelerator mass spectrometry. Experimental evaluation for industrial flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Saito, Masaaki; Nagakawa, Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 was evaluated on the determination of biogenic carbon ratios in industrial flue gases using accelerated mass spectrometry(AMS). Bioethanol, n-hexane, and their mixtures were combusted with a four-stroke engine, and 14 CO 2 in exhaust gases was analyzed by AMS. The experimental biogenic carbon ratio determined by ASTM D6866 method was 1.2 times higher than the theoretical value of mixed fuel containing 3.18% biogenic carbons. In general, the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 taken in combustion gases is neglected. It seems that the error cannot be neglected under international trading of emission allowances, where a large amount of carbons in the fuel were evaluated. The experimental value became to be the theoretical value by subtracting the amount of atmospheric 14 C from that of the samples. As the contents of biofuel increased, the experimental biogenic carbon ratios reached the theoretical values and the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 decreased. We recommend that the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 should be corrected when fuel samples contain low amounts of 14 C. (author)

  3. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaoui, M.; Ghorbel, F.; Boujelbene, M.; El Feki, A.; Makni-Ayadi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  4. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  5. Exhaust gas cleaning system for handling radioactive fission and activation gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.

    1975-01-01

    An exhaust gas cleaning system utilizing the principle of delaying radioactive gases to permit their radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere, comprising an adsorbent for adsorbing radioactive gas and a container for containing the adsorbent and for constraining gas to flow through the adsorbent, the adsorbent and the container forming simultaneously an adsorptive delay section and a mechanical delay section, by means of a predetermined ratio of volume of voids in the adsorbent to total volume of the container containing the adsorbent, for delaying radioactive gas to permit its radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is described. A method of using an adsorbent for cleaning a radioactive gas containing an isotope which is adsorbed by the adsorbent and containing an isotope whose adsorption by the adsorbent is low as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed and which is short-lived as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed, comprising constraining the gas to flow through the adsorbent with the retention time for the isotope which is adsorbed being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere and with the retention time for the isotope of relatively low adsorption and relatively short life being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is also described. (U.S.)

  6. Reduction of exhaust gases an fuel consumption. Impacts on air qulity and greenhouse effect; Abgas- und Verbrauchsverringerung. Auswirkungen auf Luftqualitaet und Treibhauseffekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, N. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    The book includes contributions on European exhaust gas limits for stationary and mobile pollution sources, challenges for the automotive industry, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and fine dust emissions of power plants, potential for emission reductions of modern engines, comparison of CO{sub 2} avoidance costs with costs for mitigation measures, CO{sub 2} saving potentials in buildings, characterization of diesel particulates, concepts for emission reductions, development of air quality and greenhouse gases, impact of fine dust and NO{sub 2} on public health, new combustion processes based on new fuel specifications.

  7. Experimental studies of impact of exhaust gas recirculation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the problem of reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions in exhaust gases (EG) of diesel engine by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Based on the carried out study the influence of EGR on technical-and-economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine was found as well as main directions of ...

  8. Heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 in the radiation chemical purification of exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants from oxides of nitrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, T.S.; Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Tokmacheva, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions associated with numerical modeling of the heterogeneous oxidation of SO 2 in exhaust gases of thermoelectric power plants, induced by irradiation of the gas with a flux of fast electrons, are discussed. In constructing a mathematical model of the process it is considered that a phase equilibrium exists between the gas and the aerosol drops formed in the gas under the radiation influence, and the rate of the process is determined by the rate of liquid-phase oxidation of SO 2 by nitrogen dioxide in dissolved form. 7 refs., 4 figs

  9. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results

  12. Air flow quality analysis of modenas engine exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman A., B.; Mohamad Syafiq A., K.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Khairunizam W. A., N.; Hazry, D.; Afendi, Mohd; Daud, R.; Rahman, M. D. Tasyrif Abdul; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation process being conducted to determine the air flow effect between the original exhaust system and modified exhaust system. The simulations are conducted to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases that will affect the performance of the engine. The back flow pressure in the original exhaust system is predicted toward this simulation. The design modification to the exhaust port, exhaust pipe, and exhaust muffler has been done during this simulation to reduce the back flow effect. The new designs are introduced by enlarging the diameter of the exhaust port, enlarge the diameter of the exhaust pipe and created new design for the exhaust muffler. Based on the result obtained, there the pulsating flow form at the original exhaust port that will increase the velocity and resulting the back pressure occur. The result for new design of exhaust port, the velocity is lower at the valve guide in the exhaust port. New design muffler shows that the streamline of the exhaust flow move smoothly compare to the original muffler. It is proved by using the modification exhaust system, the back pressure are reduced and the engine performance can be improve.

  13. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  14. Selective Transformation of Various Nitrogen-Containing Exhaust Gases toward N2 over Zeolite Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; Liu, Ning; Lei, Zhigang; Chen, Biaohua

    2016-03-23

    In this review we focus on the catalytic removal of a series of N-containing exhaust gases with various valences, including nitriles (HCN, CH3CN, and C2H3CN), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxides (NO(x)), which can cause some serious environmental problems, such as acid rain, haze weather, global warming, and even death. The zeolite catalysts with high internal surface areas, uniform pore systems, considerable ion-exchange capabilities, and satisfactory thermal stabilities are herein addressed for the corresponding depollution processes. The sources and toxicities of these pollutants are introduced. The important physicochemical properties of zeolite catalysts, including shape selectivity, surface area, acidity, and redox ability, are described in detail. The catalytic combustion of nitriles and ammonia, the direct catalytic decomposition of N2O, and the selective catalytic reduction and direct catalytic decomposition of NO are systematically discussed, involving the catalytic behaviors as well as mechanism studies based on spectroscopic and kinetic approaches and molecular simulations. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are given. In the present work, emphasis is placed on the structure-performance relationship with an aim to design an ideal zeolite-based catalyst for the effective elimination of harmful N-containing compounds.

  15. The effect of exhaust plume/afterbody interaction on installed Scramjet performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas Alan

    1988-01-01

    Newly emerging aerospace technology points to the feasibility of sustained hypersonic flight. Designing a propulsion system capable of generating the necessary thrust is now the major obstacle. First-generation vehicles will be driven by air-breathing scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. Because of engine size limitations, the exhaust gas leaving the nozzle will be highly underexpanded. Consequently, a significant amount of thrust and lift can be extracted by allowing the exhaust gases to expand along the underbody of the vehicle. Predicting how these forces influence overall vehicle thrust, lift, and moment is essential to a successful design. This work represents an important first step toward that objective. The UWIN code, an upwind, implicit Navier-Stokes computer program, has been applied to hypersonic exhaust plume/afterbody flow fields. The capability to solve entire vehicle geometries at hypersonic speeds, including an interacting exhaust plume, has been demonstrated for the first time. Comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data shows good agreement in all cases investigated. For moderately underexpanded jets, afterbody forces were found to vary linearly with the nozzle exit pressure, and increasing the exit pressure produced additional nose-down pitching moment. Coupling a species continuity equation to the UWIN code enabled calculations indicating that exhaust gases with low isentropic exponents (gamma) contribute larger afterbody forces than high-gamma exhaust gases. Moderately underexpanded jets, which remain attached to unswept afterbodies, underwent streamwise separation on upswept afterbodies. Highly underexpanded jets produced altogether different flow patterns, however. The highly underexpanded jet creates a strong plume shock, and the interaction of this shock with the afterbody was found to produce complicated patterns of crossflow separation. Finally, the effect of thrust vectoring on vehicle balance has

  16. Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, António; Santos, Helder; Costa, Mário

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy

  17. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  18. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  19. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  20. Experimental and thermodynamical analyses of the diesel exhaust vortex generator heat exchanger for optimizing its operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a vortex generator heat exchanger is used to recover exergy from the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine. Twenty vortex generators with 30° angle of attack are used to increase the heat recovery as well as the low back pressure in the exhaust. The experiments are prepared for five engine loads (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of full load), two exhaust gases amount (50 and 100%) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). After a thermodynamical analysis on the obtained data, an optimization study based on Central Composite Design (CCD) is performed due to complex effect of engine loads and water mass flow rates on exergy recovery and irreversibility to reach the best operating condition. - Highlights: • A vortex generator heat exchanger is used for diesel exhaust heat recovery. • A thermodynamic analysis is performed for experimental data. • Exergy recovery, irreversibility are calculated in different exhaust gases amount. • Optimization study is performed using response surface method

  1. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  2. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E L; Holopainen, J; Kaerenlampi, L [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J; Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  3. Computer exergonomics of power plants without exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yantovskii, E I; Zvagolsky, K N; Gavrilenko, V A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Energy Research

    1992-01-01

    The outlines and preliminary evaluations of some power cycles are presented. Instead of the external combustion, the internal one in artificial air, the mixture of oxygen in flue gases, is proposed. It seems to be a radical solution to the problem of atmospheric protection due to transfer of all the emissions to brine flows in the hydrolithosphere. The use of new, steam-like turbines with elevated temperatures as in modern gas turbines gives the hope to compensate the efficiency decline, caused by oxygen production. All the evaluations are restricted by the thermodynamics only, without any cost appraisal. Use is made of the exergy analysis branch, referred to as exergonomics. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  5. Compact high-speed MWIR spectrometer applied to monitor CO2 exhaust dynamics from a turbojet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez Álvarez, R.; Fernández Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.; Archilla, V.; Jiménez, A.; Mercader, D.; González, A.; Entero, A.

    2013-05-01

    Dfgfdg Due to international environmental regulations, aircraft turbojet manufacturers are required to analyze the gases exhausted during engine operation (CO, CO2, NOx, particles, unburned hydrocarbons (aka UHC), among others).Standard procedures, which involve sampling the gases from the exhaust plume and the analysis of the emissions, are usually complex and expensive, making a real need for techniques that allow a more frequent and reliable emissions measurements, and a desire to move from the traditional gas sampling-based methods to real time and non-intrusive gas exhaust analysis, usually spectroscopic. It is expected that the development of more precise and faster optical methods will provide better solutions in terms of performance/cost ratio. In this work the analysis of high-speed infrared emission spectroscopy measurements of plume exhaust are presented. The data was collected during the test trials of commercial engines carried out at Turbojet Testing Center-INTA. The results demonstrate the reliability of the technique for studying and monitoring the dynamics of the exhausted CO2 by the observation of the infrared emission of hot gases. A compact (no moving parts), high-speed, uncooled MWIR spectrometer was used for the data collection. This device is capable to register more than 5000 spectra per second in the infrared band ranging between 3.0 and 4.6 microns. Each spectrum is comprised by 128 spectral subbands with aband width of 60 nm. The spectrometer operated in a passive stand-off mode and the results from the measurements provided information of both the dynamics and the concentration of the CO2 during engine operation.

  6. Heat transfer modeling in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lujan Martinez, José Manuel; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer from the hot gases to the wall in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines is underestimated using steady state with fully developed flow empirical correlations. This fact is detected when comparing measured and modeled pressure pulses in different positions in the exhaust system. This can be explained taking into account that classical expressions have been validated for fully developed flows, a situation that is far from the flow behavior in reciprocating interna...

  7. A Research on The Exhaust Emission of The Gasoline Engines in Tekirdag

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Durgut; S. Arin; E.Kilic

    2006-01-01

    The exhaust gases as a result of combustion in internal combustion engines, sump ventilatory systemand vaporization of fuel system are the pollution sources caused by the vehicles. Preventing the pollution inits source is the main method for controlling the pollution: In this study, the exhaust emissions of 1844vehicles with gasoline were examined randomly applied to measuring station. The measured CO, CO2 HC,O2 values were discussed in their suitability to the limits determined by Turkish St...

  8. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska, Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  9. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  10. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  11. Design and experimental study on desulphurization process of ship exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyang; Hao, Shan; Zhou, Junbo; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    This desulfurization process involves removing sulfur oxides with seawater or alkaline aqueous solutions and then treating the effluent by aeration and pH adjustment before discharging it into the ocean. In the desulfurization system, the spray tower is the key equipment and the venturi tubes are the pretreatment device. The two stages of plates are designed to fully absorb sulfur oxides in exhaust gases. The spiral nozzles atomize and evenly spray the desulfurizers into the tower. This study experimentally investigated the effectiveness of this desulfurization process and the factors influencing it under laboratory conditions, with a diesel engine exhaust used to represent ship exhaust. The experimental results show that this process can effectively absorb the SO2 in the exhaust. When the exhaust flow rate was 25 m3/h and the desulfurizer flow rate was 4 L/min, the sulfur removal efficiency (SRE) reached 99.7%. The flow rate, alkalinity, and temperature of seawater were found to have significant effects on the SRE. Adjusting seawater flow rate (SWR) and alkalinity within certain ranges can substantially improve the SRE.

  12. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  13. On Gas Dynamics of Exhaust Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Winroth, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    With increasing effects of global warming, efforts are made to make transportation in general more fuel efficient. When it comes to internal combustion engines, the most common way to improve fuel efficiency is through ‘downsizing’. Downsizing means that a smaller engine (with lower losses and less weight) performs the task of a larger engine. This is accomplished by fitting the smaller engine with a turbocharger, to recover some of the energy in the hot exhaust gases. Such engine systems nee...

  14. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  15. Radiation treatment of combustion gases: formulation and test of a reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busi, F.; D'Angelantonio, M.; Mulazzani, Q.G.; Raffaelli, V.; Tubertini, O.

    1985-01-01

    A generalized kinetic mechanism for radiation induced oxidation of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases in the absence of sulfur dioxide is formulated. The responses obtained by the mathematical simulation are in good agreement with reported experimental results. (author)

  16. Turning Vanes in Exhaust Duct Flow: Study for Energy Efficiency, Optimization and Pressure Drop Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    engine cycle. However, much is to be gained by researching and studying the effects of reducing backpressure on the engine by the exhaust gases. In many...in maintenance on the exhaust duct, and the effectiveness of WHR devices downstream of the 90o bend. To evaluate the problem of backpressure in...the front-end of the engine (air intake and the actual combustion cycle itself), the amount of resources for

  17. Evaluation of exhaust system for gaseous waste from the source production laboratory for radiotherapy - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.C.B. de; Costa, O.L.; Feher, A.; Geraldo, B.; Carvalho, V.S.; Barbosa, N.K.O.; Vicente, R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Exhaust systems in fume hood for chemicals and hazardous materials as radioactive substances are of great importance for the protection of the Occupationally Exposed Individual and the environment. They protect against external contaminations by particulate matter, volatile and against inhalation of radioactive gases. This work intends to evaluate the exhaustion system of the Laboratory of Production of Radioactive Sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN). (author)

  18. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  19. The determination of aldehydes in the exhaust gases of LPG fuelled engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.A.F.M.; Burtner, C.W.J.; Visser, H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust gas of a LPG fuelled engine is drawn through two bubblers in series in an ice bath, and filled with saturated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 2M HCl. After heating the derivatives are extracted with toluene-cyclohexane and 1l samples injected on-column on a OV1 capillary column. Using an

  20. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  1. Effect of the synthetic zeolite modification on its physicochemical and catalytic properties in the preparation of the catalysts effectively removing sulphur dioxide from exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcewicz-Kuba Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the research results of the influence of modification deSONOx type catalyst of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the process of the hard coal combustion. The addition of zeolite catalysts modified by transition metal ions: V, Mg, activated by zinc sorbent with or without graphite addition caused the deeper burning of coal grains. The addition of the deSOx catalysts to the coal resulted in lowered sulphur dioxide emission. The addition of unmodified zeolite to coal during combustion reduced sulphur dioxide emission at about 5%. The modification of the support by both V and Mg reduced the amount of sulphur dioxide significantly. The obtained results of SO2 removal from exhaust gases were from 34.5% for Sip/Mg to 68.3% for Sip/V.

  2. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  3. Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

  4. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.K.; Aris, I.; Mahmod, S.; Sidek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NO x , O 2 and CO 2 , were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  5. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  6. Portable Gas Analyzer Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Patrolling and Examining Gas Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.

  7. Supporting design information for portable exhauster installation at tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides supporting calculations and equipment dedication plans for portable exhausters and ductwork installed on tanks S-109, SX-102/103, BY-105/106, S-101/102, and S-107. The exhausters will ventilate the tanks during saltwell pumping to prevent the potential accumulation of flammable gases

  8. New Structured Packing CUB for Purification of Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Novikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New structured packing for heat and mass transfer processes named CUB is presented in our article. The packing can be applied in packed towers for exhaust gas cleaning instead random packing, for example, rings type that are the most used in such processes. The advantages of the new packing over random packing are lower pressure drop, capability of purification and as a consequence long-term service of the packing. The researches of intensity of liquid-phase mass-transfer in packed bed depending on liquid spray rate and gas velocity were carried out. Obtained data show that packing CUB is more effective than the most popular type of structured packing under all other conditions being equal. As experimental data shown heat transfer coefficient was up by 17% and mass transfer coefficient was up by 51%. We found out optimal geometry of cross section of the new packing, namely, number of elements and parameters of one element. The new construction of structured packing is applicable for both type of column cross-section round and square.

  9. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators; Bergtechnische Verwertung von Abgasreinigungsrueckstaenden aus Verbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werthmann, Rainer [K+S Entsorgung GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Abfallchemie und Zulassungen

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust gas purification of a household incinerator or a substitute fuel power plant intends to remove dust, heavy metal compounds and acid harmful gases from the exhaust gas in order to comply with the immission-control legal limits. The particulate matter contains volatile heavy metal chlorides which precipitate as a solid matter. The enhanced amount of water-soluble salts is conspicuous. The concentration of soluble components is limited to 10,000 mg/L in the 1:10 eluate due to the landfill regulation. Thus, the residues of exhaust gas cleaning are predestined for an underground waste disposal in salt mines. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators.

  11. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  12. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two ''off the shelf'' units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow

  13. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid moisture condensation. A filter pair loading of 1 mg is typically proportional to a 0.1 g/bhp-hr..., the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This may be achieved by... sampling zone in the primary dilution tunnel and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the...

  15. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  16. Balance of greenhouse gases emission in the life cycle of ethanol fuel; Balanco de emissao de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cinthia Rubio Urbano da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    The environmental focus of the use of biofuels is the reduction of green houses gases emissions through automobile exhaust; furthermore, the European Union has discussed the necessity of the requirement these reduction between 30 to 50% compared with the gasoline cycle. Inside this context, this paper joins and compares recent studies about green house gases emission balance of environmental life cycle of ethanol fuel derived form corn, wheat and sugar cane with the goal of recognize the reduction these emissions from the use of ethanol in function of the different alternatives of production. Results show that production of ethanol from sugar cane results higher reduction of green house gases emission compared with the gasoline. Ethanol from corn and ethanol from wheat meet, in the current conditions of Canadian production and use, the least requirement of 30% of saved emission. (author)

  17. New methods for removal of pollutants from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braestrup, F.

    2009-06-15

    Different spinel-type oxides were investigated as possible cathode materials for the electrochemical reduction of NO{sub x} gases (NO and NO{sub 2}) in an all solid oxide electrochemical cell. Three different series of spinel-type oxides, with the following composition, were analyzed: Ni{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0), NiCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) and MgMn{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0). Furthermore were spinel-type oxides of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} also analyzed. The compounds were characterized with X-ray diffraction, dilatometry and resistivity measurements. Selected ones were also characterized with X-ray adsorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and neutron diffraction. Cone-shaped electrodes were fabricated for all of the materials and measurements were performed in different gases of NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and mixtures of these. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured in the temperature range from 300 deg. C to 600 deg. C depending on materials. Current ratios of NO over O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} over O{sub 2} showed that a number of spinels have high apparent selectivities with ratios of 20 or more. Electrodes having the highest cathodic activity were used to fabricate symmetrical cells and 3-electrode pellets. These were used for further characterization and measurements on gas conversion. The materials used for this purpose were MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and results show that both materials can convert NO to NO{sub 2} and back again during polarization. However, the overall NO{sub x} level stayed almost unchanged during that process. A 3-electrode pellet with a ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode, was infiltrated with BaO improve the activity in NO, however, the gas conversion was still very low. The effect of BaO in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} could not be determined as BaO reacted

  18. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  19. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  20. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Solid state electrochemical sensors that measure nitrogen oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust have been investigated in order to help meet future on-board diagnostic (OBD) regulations for diesel vehicles. This impedancemetric detection technology consists of a planar, single cell sensor design with various sensing electrode materials and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte. No reference to ambient air is required. An impedance analysis method yields a signal that is proportional to t...

  1. On-line Analysis of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Dabill, D.; Cocker, J.; Rajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 2830-2838 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : diesel exhaust analysis * NOx compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2004

  2. Method of start-up operation of a liquefaction and distillation apparatus for processing waste gases containing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masakazu; Tani, Akira; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; An, Bunzai; Kanazawa, Toshio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To enable reduction of cooling time, simplification of maintenance, and release of cooling gas outside system. Structure: In starting of the liquefaction and distillation apparatus, liquid nitrogen is introduced into the tower bottom of a rectification tower from a liquid nitrogen tank through a liquid nitrogen supply line to vaporize the liquid nitrogen with help of heat entered from outside and a heater. The vaporized nitrogen gas moves up while cooling the interior of the rectification tower and is guided by a vacuum pump from the top of tower toward the purifying gas line and low temperature heat exchanger and disharging into atmosphere. When the interior of the apparatus is sufficiently cooled in a manner as described above, the liquid nitrogen supply line is closed, the liquid nitrogen is fed to a condenser, and the waste gases containing the radioactive rare gases from the raw exhaust supply line are introduced into the rectification tower for entry of normal operation. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  4. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  5. HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D Petković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-stationary heat transfer in engine exhaust system. During the research, some of constructional parameters of exhaust system were adopted and optimized at environmental temperature of 22 C. The combination of design parameters giving best results at low environmental temperatures was observed. The results showed that the temperature in the environment did not have any significant influence on pre-catalyst light-off time.

  6. Study on the impact of industrial flue gases on the PCDD/Fs congener profile in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgiel, Małgorzata; Chrząszcz, Ryszard; Maślanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emissions from combustion processes from sinter, medical, waste and sewage waste incineration plants on the PCDD and PCDF congener profile in ambient air in Krakow (city in Poland). The subject matter of the study were air samples from the outskirts and the city center. It was found that in flue gases from industrial sources and in ambient air the share of PCDF congeners in relation to the total content of PCDD/Fs was higher than the share of PCDDs. However, in air samples collected in the city center, this relationship was reversed. The PCDD congener profiles in flue gases and in air samples are comparable. However, in the samples from the city centre, the share of OCDD is significantly higher and amounts to about 80%. The PCDF congener shares show higher spatial diversity, although in all the analyzed air samples, ODCF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HpCDF dominated. Analyzing the share of congeners in regard to the sum of PCDDs/Fs a mutual resemblance of air from the suburbs, exhaust gases from the sinter ore and sewage sludge incinerator plant was observed. The study showed a similarity between the profile of congeners in air from the city centre and exhaust gases from the medical waste incinerator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tritium Aspects of Fueling and Exhaust Pumping in Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Magnetically confined fusion plasmas generate energy from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions that produce energetic 3.5 MeV alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. Since the DT fusion reaction rate is a strong function of plasma density, an efficient fueling source is needed to maintain high plasma density in such systems. Energetic ions in fusion plasmas are able to escape the confining magnetic fields at a much higher rate than the fusion reactions occur, thus dictating the fueling rate needed. These lost ions become neutralized and need to be pumped away as exhaust gas to be reinjected into the plasma as fuel atoms.The technology to fuel and pump fusion plasmas has to be inherently compatible with the tritium fuel. An ideal holistic solution would couple the pumping and fueling such that the pump exhaust is directly fed back into pellet formation without including impurity gases. This would greatly reduce the processing needs for the exhaust. Concepts to accomplish this are discussed along with the fueling and pumping needs for a DT fusion reactor.

  8. Exhaust emissions and electric energy generation in a stationary engine using blends of diesel and soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Roberto G.; Oliveira, Jorge L.; Oliveira, Paulo Cesar P.; Oliveira, Cesar D.; Fellows, Carlos E.; Piamba, Oscar E.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes an experimental investigation concerning the electric energy generation using blends of diesel and soybean biodiesel. The soybean biodiesel was produced by a transesterification process of the soybean oil using methanol in the presence of a catalyst (KOH). The properties (density, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane index, copper strip corrosion, conradson carbon residue and ash content) of the diesel and soybean biodiesel were determined. The exhaust emissions of gases (CO, CO 2 ,C x H y ,O 2 , NO, NO x and SO 2 ) were also measured. The results show that for all the mixtures tested, the electric energy generation was assured without problems. It has also been observed that the emissions of CO, C x H y and SO 2 decrease in the case of diesel-soybean biodiesel blends. The temperatures of the exhaust gases and the emissions of NO and NO x are similar to or less than those of diesel. (author)

  9. Developing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Models to Evaluate Available Energy in Exhaust Systems of Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández-Yáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal energy under different engine conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is becoming a very valuable tool for numerical predictions of exhaust flows. In this work, a methodology to build a simple three-dimensional (3D model of the exhaust system of automotive internal combustion engines (ICE was developed. Experimental data of exhaust gas in the most used part of the engine map in passenger diesel vehicles were employed as input for calculations. Sensitivity analyses of different numeric schemes have been conducted in order to attain accurate results. The model built allows for obtaining details on temperature and pressure fields along the exhaust system, and for complementing the experimental results for a better understanding of the flow phenomena and heat transfer through the system for further energy recovery devices.

  10. Prospects and Challenges in Application of Radiation for Treating Exhaust Gases. Working Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution are receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Besides improving conventional technologies, new ones are still being developed. Among them technologies for multipollutant control are of great interest. The electron beam flue gas treatment technology (EBFGT) is one of the most promising technologies for simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. The process was originally invented in Japan in 1970's. Later on, the process was investigated at the pilot scale plants in USA, Germany, Japan, China, Republic of Korea and Poland. This resulted in construction of commercial scale installation in Poland treating approximately 270,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of flue gases with the efficiency reaching up to 95% for SOx and up to 70% for NO{sub x}. The by-product of the process is a high quality fertilizer. The advantages of the technology has been clearly demonstrated both from technological and economical points of view. Recently an important research program has been realized in Maritza East 2 pilot plant in Bulgaria and another one considering application of electron beam technology for treatment of flue gas from heavy oils burning has been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. Apart of the research programs, new industrial plants are concerned. Another implementation of the EBFGT technology of industrial scale is the plant that is being constructed in Jingfeng Power Plant in Beijing (China) and should be put into operation soon. Another commercial plant (Sviloza Thermal Power plant in Svishtov, Bulgaria) is in the design phase. The IAEA has been supporting the activities by establishing the Technical Cooperation Projects (e.g. POL/8/014, BUL/8/014) and through organizing Advisory Group Meetings, Consultants Meeting, Symposium, Technical Meetings, and Coordinated Research Projects. The Technical Meeting on “Prospects and Challenges in Application of Radiation for Treating Exhaust Gases” held on 14-18 May 2007 in Warsaw

  11. Prospects and Challenges in Application of Radiation for Treating Exhaust Gases. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution are receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Besides improving conventional technologies, new ones are still being developed. Among them technologies for multipollutant control are of great interest. The electron beam flue gas treatment technology (EBFGT) is one of the most promising technologies for simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. The process was originally invented in Japan in 1970's. Later on, the process was investigated at the pilot scale plants in USA, Germany, Japan, China, Republic of Korea and Poland. This resulted in construction of commercial scale installation in Poland treating approximately 270,000 Nm 3 /h of flue gases with the efficiency reaching up to 95% for SOx and up to 70% for NO x . The by-product of the process is a high quality fertilizer. The advantages of the technology has been clearly demonstrated both from technological and economical points of view. Recently an important research program has been realized in Maritza East 2 pilot plant in Bulgaria and another one considering application of electron beam technology for treatment of flue gas from heavy oils burning has been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. Apart of the research programs, new industrial plants are concerned. Another implementation of the EBFGT technology of industrial scale is the plant that is being constructed in Jingfeng Power Plant in Beijing (China) and should be put into operation soon. Another commercial plant (Sviloza Thermal Power plant in Svishtov, Bulgaria) is in the design phase. The IAEA has been supporting the activities by establishing the Technical Cooperation Projects (e.g. POL/8/014, BUL/8/014) and through organizing Advisory Group Meetings, Consultants Meeting, Symposium, Technical Meetings, and Coordinated Research Projects. The Technical Meeting on “Prospects and Challenges in Application of Radiation for Treating Exhaust Gases” held on 14-18 May 2007 in Warsaw, Poland

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  13. Off-design dynamic model of a real Organic Rankine Cycle system fuelled by exhaust gases from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, N.; Rech, S.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2015-01-01

    ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) represent an effective option to exploit low grade heat fluxes, the characteristics of which not only affect design, but also performance and stability during operation. This paper presents a detailed design and off-design dynamic model of a superheated regenerative ORC system using the exhaust gases of an industrial process. The point of view is that of a designer who has to predict the system behavior both at steady-state and transient operation to get a reliable and efficient operation. Real physical and operating characteristics of all components are considered, with particular attention to the geometries of shell-and-tube commercial heat exchangers to properly simulate mass and thermal inertias. A suitable control system is chosen to govern the off-design operation taking into account all real operating constraints. Results show a slight decrease in gross system efficiency (less than 1% point) either varying the oil mass flow rate (in the range 80–110%) at constant temperature of the cold sink or this temperature (of 10 °C) at constant oil mass flow rate. Simulation of the transient behavior demonstrates the effectiveness of the control system on ORC stability under variation of the hot source mass flow rate and cold sink temperature. - Highlights: • A detailed off-design dynamic model of a regenerative ORC system is presented. • The model includes real geometries of commercial shell-and-tube heat exchangers. • High efficiency of the ORC system is obtained at partial load in the range 80–110%. • Variations of the evaporator volume does not significantly affect system stability.

  14. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  15. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  16. Thermal analysis on x-ray tube for exhaust process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rao Ratnala, Srinivas; Veeresh Kumar, G. B.; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    It is great importance in the use of X-rays for medical purposes that the dose given to both the patient and the operator is carefully controlled. There are many types of the X- ray tubes used for different applications based on their capacity and power supplied. In present thesis maxi ray 165 tube is analysed for thermal exhaust processes with ±5% accuracy. Exhaust process is usually done to remove all the air particles and to degasify the insert under high vacuum at 2e-05Torr. The tube glass is made up of Pyrex material, 95%Tungsten and 5%rhenium is used as target material for which the melting point temperature is 3350°C. Various materials are used for various parts; during the operation of X- ray tube these waste gases are released due to high temperature which in turn disturbs the flow of electrons. Thus, before using the X-ray tube for practical applications it has to undergo exhaust processes. Initially we build MX 165 model to carry out thermal analysis, and then we simulate the bearing temperature profiles with FE model to match with test results with ±5%accuracy. At last implement the critical protocols required for manufacturing processes like MF Heating, E-beam, Seasoning and FT.

  17. A novel approach to scavenging anesthetic gases in rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Jeffrey C; Krageschmidt, Dale A; Blanco, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal procedures using gas anesthetics may amass elevated waste gas concentrations in operating rooms if controls are not implemented for capturing and removing the vapors. Area sampling using an infrared analyzer indicated isoflurane concentrations likely to exceed occupational exposure guidelines. Our study showed environmental concentrations of oxygen as high as 40% and isoflurane concentrations >100 ppm when no controls or merely passive controls were utilized. These extraneous isoflurane emissions were determined to be originating from the pre-procedural induction process as well as the gas delivery nose cone. A novel waste gas collection cylinder was designed to enclose the gas delivery nose cone and animal head during the administration of anesthetic gases. The vented cylinder utilized a house vacuum to remove the waste anesthetic gases from the surgical field. A commercially available induction chamber designed to be actively and externally exhausted was used to lower concentrations during the induction process. With implementation of local exhaust ventilation controls, waste anesthetic gas concentrations decreased to below recommended occupational exposure levels. In vitro (sham) testing compared favorably to in vivo measurements validating the reduction capability of active ventilation during rodent anesthetic administration. In vivo isoflurane reductions for the induction chamber emissions, the operating room, and the surgeon's breathing zone were 95%, 60%, and 53%, respectively. The same measurements for an in vitro procedure were 98%, 84%, and 87%, respectively.

  18. Drying apparatus with catalytic combustion of the exhaust gases and with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, E C

    1975-11-20

    The invention applies to a drying kiln whose charge is dried by a heating gas flow. In order to conserve energy, the thermal energy is transferred back from the catalytically oxydized exhaust gas flow to the heating gas flow. This is done by means of a heat exchanger which contains a heat transfer liquid whose pressure is set to make its boiling temperature the same as the maximum permissible heating gas temperature. The fuel supply to the heating gas burner is controlled by a temperature sensor across a control mechanism.

  19. [Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Varchmin-schultheiss, Karin; Schmeling, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

  20. Research on the Efficiency of Side Exhausters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Tetsman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the relevant technology of environmental protection which includes an effective collection, disposal and control of aerosol and gases contaminants removed from the evaporating surfaces of electroplating tanks. The task of the paper is to help with finding the new ways of collecting and disposing aerosol pollution and to reduce the quantity of equipment and service costs. The article also discusses pollution formation and sorts and performance of side draft and slot hoods for vapour capture. Besides, the paper deals with the formation of vapour over the tank and the features of benefit that depend on absorber‘s shape. Exhaust velocity and its dependencies are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Filterstoffes zur Reinigung von industriellen oder Brennkraftmaschinen-Abgasen und ein hiernach hergestellter Filterstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumbalek, A.

    1986-01-02

    This is a process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. The filter material is manufactured from the mineralized combustion product of peel of tropical fruits burnt at a temperature of 820/sup 0/C to 840/sup 0/C in an oxidising atmosphere excluding the production of carbon, particularly using banana skins and orange peels, which product is granulated with carrier materials or compressed.

  2. System catalytic neutralization control of combustion engines waste gases in mining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Solnitsev, R. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the problems solution of the atmospheric air pollution with the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engines, used in mining technologies. Such engines are used in excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, diesel locomotives in loading and unloading processes and during transportation of minerals. NOx, CO, CH emissions as the waste gases occur during engine operation, the concentration of which must be reduced to the standard limits. The various methods and means are used for the problem solution, one of which is neutralization based on platinum catalysts. A mathematical model of a controlled catalytic neutralization system is proposed. The simulation results confirm the increase in efficiency at start-up and low engine load and the increase in the catalyst lifetime.

  3. The effects of spin in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laloee, F.; Freed, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Low-density gases, in which atoms are separated by large distances, have long provided an enjoyable playground for physicists. One might suppose the pleasure of the playground would by now have been exhausted by the very simplicity of low-density gases. Recent work by a number of investigators including the author shows that this is not the case low-density gases continue to serve up a rich variety of phenomena as well as counterintuitive surprises. In particular, the macroscopic properties of a gas composed of individual hydrogen or helium atoms can under special circumstances by changed dramatically by quantum-mechanical effects. According to quantum theory, the nucleus of an atom behaves in a way similar to a rotating top, which has angular momentum about its axis of rotation; that is, the nucleus has spin, known more precisely as spin angular momentum. If the atoms of a gas are spin-polarized, so that their nuclei all have their spins pointing in the same direction, the viscosity of the gas can be changed enormously and so can its ability to conduct heat. Quantum-mechanical correlations among the nuclei called spin waves, which up to now had been observed only in certain liquids and solids such as magnets, can also arise. The changes are large enough for one to say the quantum-mechanical effects have caused the gas to take on entirely new properties. In a certain sense it is amazing to think that polarizing the nuclear spins can have any effect on the macroscopic properties of the gas, since the nuclear spins are son weakly coupled to the outside world. Yet the observations are in full agreement with with theory. Moreover, because spin-polarized gases are still fairly simple systems, they can be understood in terms fundamental principles, something that is still not possible to do in the case of liquids and solids

  4. Comparative Analysis of Monitoring Devices for Particulate Content in Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The installation and operation of continuous particulate emission monitors in industrial processes has become well developed and common practice in industrial stacks and ducts over the past 30 years, reflecting regulatory monitoring requirements. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment is installed not only for regulatory compliance, but also for the monitoring of plant performance, calculation of emissions inventories and compilation of environmental impact assessments. Particulate matter (PM entrained in flue gases is produced by the combustion of fuels or wastes. The size and quantity of particles released depends on the type of fuel and the design of the plant. The present work provides an overview of the main industrial emission sources, a description of the main types of monitoring systems offered by manufacturers and a comparative analysis of the currently available technologies for measuring dust releases to atmosphere.

  5. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, J L; Kracko, D; Brower, J; Doyle-Eisele, M; McDonald, J D; Lund, A K; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition-concentration-response database of mice exposed by inhalation to the exhausts and other complex mixtures. The five gases were the predictors most important to MART models best fitting the vascular responses. Mice on high-fat diet were exposed 6 h/d, 7 d/week for 50 d to clean air or a mixture containing 30.6 ppm CO, 20.5 ppm NO, 1.4 ppm NO₂, 0.5 ppm SO₂, and 2.0 ppm NH₃ in air. The gas concentrations were below the maxima in the preceding studies but in the range of those in exhaust exposure levels that caused significant effects. Five indicators of stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses were measured in aortic tissue. The exposure increased all five response indicators, with the magnitude of effect and statistical significance varying among the indicators and depending on inclusion or exclusion of an apparent outlying control. With the outlier excluded, three responses approximated predicted values and two fell below predictions. The results generally supported evidence that the five gases drove the effects of exhaust, and thus supported the potential of the MART approach for identifying putative causal components of complex mixtures.

  6. Comparative effects of MTBE and ethanol additions into gasoline on exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chong-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Mei; Pei, Yi-Qiang; Fan, Guo-Liang; Xu, Guan-Peng

    The effects of the additives of ethanol (EA) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in various blend ratios into the gasoline fuel on the exhaust emissions and the catalytic conversion efficiencies were investigated in an EFI gasoline engine. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, THC and NO X) and the unregulated exhaust emissions (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, unburned EA and MTBE) before and after the three-way catalytic converter were measured. The experimental results showed that EA brought about generally lower regulated engine-out emissions than MTBE did. But, the comparison of the unregulated engine-out emissions between both additives was different. Concretely, the effect of EA on benzene emission was worse than that of MTBE on the whole, which was a contrast with formaldehyde emission. The difference in the acetaldehyde comparison depended much on the engine operating conditions, especially the engine speed. Both EA and MTBE were identified in the engine exhaust gases only when they were added to the fuel, and their volume fraction increased with blend ratios. The catalytic conversion efficiencies of the regulated emissions for the EA blends were in general lower than those for MTBE blends, especially at the low and high engine speeds. There was little difference in the catalytic conversion efficiencies for both benzene and formaldehyde, while distinct difference for acetaldehyde.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of NOx gases using TiO2-containing paint: a real scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggos, Th; Bartzis, J G; Liakou, M; Gobin, C

    2007-07-31

    An indoor car park was appropriately equipped in order to test the de-polluting efficiency of a TiO(2)-containing paint in an indoor polluted environment, under real scale configuration. Depollution tests were performed in an artificially closed area of the parking, which was polluted by a car exhaust during the testing period. The ceiling surface of the car park was covered with white acrylic TiO(2)-containing paint (PP), which was developed in the frame of the EU project 'PICADA' (Photocatalytic Innovative Coverings Application for Depollution Assessment). The closed area was fed with car exhaust gases. As soon as the system reached steady state, the UV lamps were turned on for 5h. The difference between the final and the initial steady state concentration indicates the removal of the pollutants due to both the photocatalytic paint and car emission reduction. Results showed a significant photocatalytic oxidation of NO(x) gases. The photocatalytic removal of NO and NO(2) was calculated to 19% and 20%, respectively, while the photocatalytic rate (microgm(-2)s(-1)) ranged between 0.05 and 0.13 for NO and between 0.09 and 0.16 for NO(2).

  8. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    . Challenges with this technology include dosing the appropriate amount of urea to reach sufficient NOx conversion, while at the same time keeping NH3- slip from the exhaust system below the legislation. This requires efficient control algorithms. The focus of this thesis is modelling and control of the SCR...... parameters were estimated using bench-scale monolith isothermal data. Validation was done by simulating the out-put from a full-scale SCR monolith that was treating real engine gases from the European Transient Cycle (ETC). Results showed that the models were successfully calibrated, and that some......, and simulating the system....

  9. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  10. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  11. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat; Impact de l'exposition chronique aux gaz d'echappement d'origine automobile sur certains biomarqueurs touchant la fonction hormonale sexuelle male, la fonction renale et l'hemogramme chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaoui, M.; Ghorbel, F.; Boujelbene, M.; El Feki, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecophysiologie Animale (Tunisia); Makni-Ayadi, F. [Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Lab. de Biochimie (Tunisia)

    2000-09-01

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  12. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on some combustion characteristics of dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2003-03-01

    Combustion pressure rise rate and thermal efficiency data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. The experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion and the thermal efficiency at different EGR ratios. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and having an exhaust gas recycling system is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data and crank angle data are stored in a PC for offline analysis. The effects of EGR ratio, engine speeds, loads, temperature of recycled exhaust gases, intake charge pressure and engine compression ratio on combustion noise and thermal efficiency are examined for the dual fuel engine. The combustion noise and thermal efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when EGR is used in the dual fuel engine. (Author)

  13. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  14. Radiation-chemical removal of exhaust gases of thermal power stations from nitrogen and sulfur oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Gerasimova, T.S.; Tokmacheva, I.P.; Fadeev, S.A.; Faminskaya, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Problem related to numerical simulation of kinetic processes occuring in waste flue gases of heat and power plants when they are treated by fast electrons are considered. The system of gas-phase chemical reactions describing kinetics of NO transformation in the presence of ammonia was studied. Different groups of reactions resulting in SO 2 oxidation were analyzed. Results of the calculations are compared with experimental data

  15. Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

  16. Fundamental study of manganese dioxide for catalytic recombustion of exhaust gas of motor car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyamada, T

    1974-01-01

    The catalytic activities of five manganese dioxide preparations were tested in a pulse reactor to assess their carbon monoxide-oxidizing capability in relation to the catalytic afterburning of automobile exhaust gases. Catalysts prepared from manganese sulfate showed diminished catalytic activity as a result of sulfate poisoning. Higher oxidation activity was obtained with a catalyst prepared by precipitating the permanganate salt in acidic solution. Two forms of carbon monoxide adsorption were demonstrated, each with a characteristic activation energy and reaction temperature.

  17. Prediction of emissions and exhaust temperature for direct injection diesel engine with emulsified fuel using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKKÜLÜNK, Görkem; AKDOĞAN, Erhan; AYHAN, Vezir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust gases have many effects on human beings and the environment. Therefore, they must be kept under control. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which is concerned with the prevention of marine pollution, limits the emissions according to the regulations. In Emission Control Area (ECA) regions, which are determined by MARPOL as ECAs, the emission rates should be controlled. Direct injection (DI) diesel engines are commonly used as a prop...

  18. Portable Exhauster Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the tasks that are involved in preparing the ''standby'' portable exhauster to support Interim Stabilization's schedule for saltwell pumping. A standby portable exhaust system will be assigned to any facility scheduled to be saltwell pumped with the exception of 241-S farm, 241-SX farm or 241-T farm. The standby portable exhauster shall be prepared for use and placed in storage. The standby portable exhaust system shall be removed from storage and installed to ventilate tanks being pumped that reach 25% LFL. There are three tasks that are evaluated in this document. Each task shall be completed to support portable exhaust system installation and operation. They are: Pre Installation Task; Portable Exhaust System Storage Task; and Portable Exhaust System Installation and Operation Task

  19. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  20. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  1. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Thomas, Ronald F.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Bass, Virginia; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Richards, Judy E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Andrews, Debora [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m{sup 3}), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses

  2. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  3. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  4. Sensor for automatic continuous emission control of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M

    1976-02-01

    For continuous in-situ measurements of exhaust gases, a laboratory model of a gas sensor has been designed and constructed with a particular view to a maintenance-free operation in adverse environments. The equipment operates on the basis of specific, frequency-selective gas absorption in the infrared and uses the single beam dual wavelength method, thus achieving a high degree of independence from external interferences like intensity loss by window contamination or dust within the absorption path. Additional function control circuits enable maintenance-free operation also over longer time periods. The equipment is in principle capable of operating in a wide wavelength range. By selecting the SO/sub 2/ absorption band at 4.0 ..mu..m wavelength and by a unique design of the electronic signal-processing circuits, measurements of SO/sub 2/ concentrations within exhaust ducts have been made possible which are free from interference of existing other gas constituents also present like CO, O/sub 2/, NO/sub (x)/, and water. The measuring range with an absorption path of 10 m covers concentrations from 0.2 to 5 g/normal m/sup 3/ at a maximum uncertainty of 2.5 percent of the maximum value. The equipment has been tested inside a chimney of a 150 MW power plant burning fossil fuel.

  5. Analytical electron microscopy of combustion particles: a comparison of vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, A.; Johansen, B.V.; Schwarze, P.E.; Namork, E.

    2005-01-01

    Particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Since combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke are common constituents of ambient air, the morphology and elemental composition of particles from these two sources were analysed and compared using single particle analysis. Ambient air particles were collected in locations dominated by vehicle exhaust or residential wood smoke. To verify the source contributions to the ambient air samples, particles were collected directly from the combustion sources. All particulate samples were analysed on carbon extraction replica by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Carbon aggregates were the only particles identified to originate from combustion sources and accounted for more than 88% of the particle numbers in the ambient air samples from both sources. The carbon aggregates were therefore further analysed with respect to morphology and elemental composition on germanium extraction replica. Carbon aggregates from vehicle exhaust were characterised by higher levels of Si and Ca compared to wood smoke aggregates that contained higher levels of K. The S content in aggregates from both sources was probably caused by interaction with gases in the air. Furthermore, the diameters of primary particles from vehicle exhaust were significantly smaller (27±7 nm) than the diameters for wood smoke (38±11 nm). The observed differences in elemental profiles and primary particle diameters for vehicle exhaust and wood smoke may influence the health effects caused by these particles

  6. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  7. Acidic gases (CO_2, NO_2 and SO_2) capture and dissociation on metal decorated phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Anlong; Kuang, Minquan; Yuan, Hongkuan; Wang, Guangzhao; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The light metal decorated phosphorene sheets are very effective for capture of CO_2, NO_2 and SO_2 because of large adsorption energies. • The adsorption energy is obviously dependent on the amount of electrons transferred between acidic gases and metal decorated phosphorene. • Pt-decorated phosphorene can effectively catalyze the dissociation of acidic gas. - Abstract: Density functional theory is employed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of several acidic gases (CO_2, NO_2 and SO_2) on metal (Li, Al, Ni and Pt) decorated phosphorene. The results show that light metal (Li, Al) decorated phosphorene exhibits a strong adsorption of acidic gases, i.e., the adsorption energy of CO_2 on Li decorated phosphorene is 0.376 eV which is the largest in all adsorption of CO_2 on metal decorated phosphorene and Al decorated phosphorene is most effective for capture of NO_2 and SO_2 due to large adsorption energies of 3.951 and 3.608 eV, respectively. Moreover, Li and Al light metals have stronger economic effectiveness and more friendly environment compared with the transition metals, the strong adsorption ability of acidic gases and low price suggest that Li, Al decorated phosphorene may be useful and promising for collection and filtration of exhaust gases. The reaction energy barriers of acidic gases dissociated process on Pt decorated phosphorene are relatively low and the reaction processes are significantly exothermic, indicating that the dissociation process is favorable.

  8. Particle exhaust of helium plasmas with actively cooled outboard pump limiter on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Loarer, T.; Chatelier, M.; Guilhem, D.; Lutz, T.; Nygren, R.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The superconducting tokamak Tore Supra was designed for long-pulse (30-s) high input power operation. Here observations on the particle-handling characteristics of the actively cooled modular outboard pump limiter (OPL) are presented for helium discharges. The important experimental result was that a modest pumping speed (1 m 3 /s) of the OPL turbomolecular pump (TMP) provided background helium exhaust. This result came about due to a well-conditioned vessel wall with helium discharges that caused no wall outgasing. The particle accountability in these helium discharges was excellent, and the well-conditioned wall did not play a significant role in the particle balance. The helium density control, 25% density drop with OPL exhaust efficiency of ∼1%, was possible with TMP although this may not be the case with reactive gases such as deuterium. The observed quadratic increase of the OPL neutral pressure with helium density was consistent with an improvement of the particle control with increasing plasma density

  9. Exhaust gas emission from ships in Norwegian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, F.; Fiskaa, G.

    1991-02-01

    For the following vessel categories bunker consumption and emission of greenhouse gases and SO 2 has been calculated: Norwegian coastal trade, domestic ferries, fishing vessels (Norwegian), Norwegian military vessels, inter-coastal ferries, import and export, ships iron-ore from Narvik and Soviet vessels in transit. The carbon emission (CO 2 as carbon) within 12 nautical miles has been calculated to 0.621 MtC (Mega ton carbon) and to 1.0 MtC within the economic zone for these vessel categories. The calculated ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption in this study deviates from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway and OECD/IEA figures by up to 25%. This large deviation supports the need for a uniform method to calculate ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption. Scenarios for the emission outlook for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005 are discussed and calculated. With 1988 as present level it is possible, according to these scenarios, to reduce the emission of NO x by close to 40% and SO 2 by 85%. Reduction of greenhouse- and SO 2 components in the exhaust gases from ships is today technically possible, but the demand for further research and development is significant. Compared with land-based low-emission technologies, the offshore technologies are years behind. 21 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapour and Vehicle Engine Exhaust Gases Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Cheng, P.; Španěl, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2002), s. 1124-1134 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT-MS * petrol * vehicle exhaust gas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2002

  12. Sampling and preparation method for mutagenicity test of exhaust gas from municipal waste incinerator; Haikibutsu shokyakuro hai gas no hen`i gensei shiken no tameno shiryo saishu/chosei hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H. [Kanagawa Environmental Research Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Urano, K. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1994-09-10

    It is well known that many kinds of hazardous organic compounds in incinerator exhaust gases. In this study, a simple sampling method to test mutagenicity on exhaust gases in flue and its extracting and its solvent converting methods by organic solvents were examined. In sampling 100 to 300 l at about 2 l/min in aspirating speed of the extract gases, the most of mutagenic substance were collected almost completely by condensed water and qualtz wool column. And, the collected materials into the condensed water could almost perfectly recovered by extracting the condensed water with about its one fourth volume of ethylacetate on vibrating once in 5 min., extracting the quartz wool column on flowing 20 ml of ethylacetate at the speed of about 3 ml/min., and others. After mixing such effluents and dewatering with about 5 g of sodium sulfate, they are evaporated out ethylacetate and resolved with 5 ml of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to execute Ames mutagenicity test. As a result, more than about 3000 net rev./Nm{sup 3} of the mutagenicity was estmated on TA 98 strain. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Treatment and storage of radioactive gases from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, K.H.; Schwarzbach, R.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of exhaust air from nuclear facilities aimed at retaining or separating the radionuclides of iodine, xenon, and krypton as well as of tritium and carbon-14 and their storage are of special interest in connection with increasing utilization of nuclear power in order to reduce releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere. The state of the art and applicability of potential processes of separating volatile fission and activation products from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants are reviewed. Possibilities of ultimate storage are presented. An evaluation of the current stage of development shows that processes for effective separation of radioactive gases are available. Recent works are focused on economy and safety optimization. Long-term storage, in particular of extremely long-lived radionuclides, needs further investigation. (author)

  14. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Heland, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R. [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M. [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D.H. [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  15. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K; Heland, J [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D H [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  16. A laboratory investigation on the influence of adsorbed gases and particles from the exhaust of a kerosene burner on the evaporation rate of ice crystals and the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, K; Mitra, S K; Pruppacher, H R [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory experiments are described during which the influence of the exhausts of a kerosene burner on microphysical processes were studied. In one experimental investigation the evaporation rates of polluted ice crystals were compared with the evaporation rates of pure ice crystals. During another experimental investigation the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles was studied. The results show that the evaporation rate of polluted ice crystals was significantly reduced and also that ice nucleation takes place between -20 and -38 deg C. (author) 7 refs.

  17. A laboratory investigation on the influence of adsorbed gases and particles from the exhaust of a kerosene burner on the evaporation rate of ice crystals and the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, K.; Mitra, S.K.; Pruppacher, H.R. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory experiments are described during which the influence of the exhausts of a kerosene burner on microphysical processes were studied. In one experimental investigation the evaporation rates of polluted ice crystals were compared with the evaporation rates of pure ice crystals. During another experimental investigation the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles was studied. The results show that the evaporation rate of polluted ice crystals was significantly reduced and also that ice nucleation takes place between -20 and -38 deg C. (author) 7 refs.

  18. Development and testing of a dedusting filter system for exhaust gases of domestic small firing systems for the combustion of biomass and waste materials; Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Abreinigungsfilters fuer das Abgas haeuslicher Kleinfeuerungsanlagen fuer die Verbrennung von Biomasse und Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleysa, Mohammadshayesh

    2012-07-01

    The author describes the development of a dedusting filter system which should be suitable for the dedusting of exhaust gases in domestic small firing installations with a power output of 40 kW. This filter system should undoubtedly enable the necessary capture efficiency. It should be implemented with little technical complexity as well as low maintenance and cost-effectivity. The dedusting filter system is tested in connection with a wood gasification boiler as well as a pellet incinerator. The quantities and parameters of smoke gas, the pressure losses, the precipitation capacity, the economic efficiency and the practical suitability of the dedusting filter system are investigated. Furthermore, the author determines the necessary factors for the design and dimensioning of dedusting filter systems.

  19. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  20. EVALUATION OF EMISSION OF CO, NO AND NOX IN EXHAUST OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH FUEL ADDITIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Rodrigo de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has emerged as major global problems. In the last decade, the development of new engines, the use of different forms of treatment of exhaust gases and the increase in fuel quality were used to reduce pollutants (regulated or not. Among the various developments to reduce emissions, the use of oxygenated additives to diesel and paraffin is a quick and effective measure to reduce pollutants. In this work we studied the influence of oxygenated compounds (diethyl ether (DEE, 1-dodecanol (DOD, 2-methoxy-acetate (MEA and terc-butanol (TERC and paraffin (heptane (HEPT and n- hexadecane (CET added to diesel in order to improve the quality of CO, NO and NOx in the exhaust of diesel engine, single cylinder. The fuels used in the studies are formulations of diesel reference, here named S10, which contains low sulfur (

  1. Effects of rocket exhaust products in the thermosphere and ionsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit circularization maneuver at apogee. The second stage engines deposit 9 x 10 31 H 2 O and H 2 molecules between 74 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit circularization burn deposits 9 x 10 29 exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0 + ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. For purposes of computer model verification, a computation is included representing the Skylab I launch, for which observational data exist. The computations and data are compared, and the computer model is described

  2. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  3. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  4. Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of safety valves operating with different gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, V.; Marinoni, F.; Bassi, F.; Franchina, N.; Savini, M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the effect related to the expansion of different gases throughout safety relief valves is carried out both numerically and experimentally. The considered gases are air, argon and ethylene, representative of a wide range of specific heat ratios. A first experimental campaign performed in air and argon on a safety relief valve characterized by connection 1/2″ × 1″ and orifice designation D (diameter 10 mm) according to API 526 showed significant reduction both in disc lift and in exhausted mass flow rate, at the nominal overpressure, when operating with argon. In order to gain a deeper insight into the physics involved and to evaluate the valve behavior with other gases, an extensive numerical testing has been performed by means of an accurate CFD code based on discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Numerical results are at first validated against measurements obtained in air on a 2″ J 3″ safety relief valve proving a remarkable accuracy of the computational method. Then the validated solver is applied on the same computational grid using argon and ethylene as working fluids. The three gases are considered as thermally perfect gases. A critical discussion based on the numerical results allows to clarify the fluid dynamic and physical reasons causing the observed trends both in the opening force and in the discharge coefficient. The main conclusion is that particular care must be taken when a safety valve operates with a fluid characterized by a specific heat ratio greater than the one of the gas used during type testing. -- Highlights: ► Effects of different gases on the discharge capacity and operational characteristics on safety relief valves. ► Influence of different specific heat ratio on safety relief valves discharge coefficient. ► Skilful application of Discontinuous Galerkin CFD solver to safety valves performances prediction

  5. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  6. The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Emission of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limyaa Mahdi Asaad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder variable compression ratio spark ignition engine type PRODIT was used in this study. The  experiments  were  conducted  with  gasoline  fuel  (80  octane  No.at  equivalence  ratio  (Ø  =1.  This study examined the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on emission. It was conducted at engine speeds (1500, 1900, 2300 and 2700 r.p.m..The  exhaust  gases  were  added  in  volumetric  ratios  of  10%,  20%  and  30%  of  the  entering  air/fuel charge. The results showed that the EGR addition decreases the CO2 concentrations, in the same time CO and HC concentrations increase remarkably.  NOx concentration decreased highly with the increase of EGR percentage at variable engine speeds and constant torque. Also, it decreased when the engine run  at  constant  speed  and  variable  engine  torque.  The  exhaust  gas  temperature  decreased  with increasing EGR ratio.

  7. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  8. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  9. Emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the Manaus city due to burning of fossil fuels; Emissao de gases poluentes na atmosfera urbana da cidade de Manaus devida a queima de combustiveis fosseis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br; Chaar, Jamal da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (ICE/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas

    2009-07-01

    This paper intends to think over the impacts of pollutants gases in the atmosphere of the city of Manaus, caused by the thermal, the main electricity source in the State of Amazonas. The focus of the study is the urban atmosphere where physical and chemical phenomenon accelerate the effects of increased concentration of some components and secondary pollutants, which are produced due to human activities. It is based on two studies: monitoring the exhaust gas applied at a factory in the district of Aparecida, located in the urban area, and monitoring conducted by the energy operating company, about the influence of exhaust gas around the district of Mauazinho, also in urban area. It is a preliminary research that seeks to demonstrate the inconsistency of some studies and the need to make progress in search for more efficient methods and techniques. This is an important step toward a policy of environmental management that will complement future studies about air pollution in the city. (author)

  10. The KALPUREX-process – A new vacuum pumping process for exhaust gases in fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giegerich, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.giegerich@kit.edu; Day, Christian

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new vacuum pumping process for fusion power plants has been developed and is presented in this paper. • This process works continuously and non-cryogenic what leads to a strong reduction of the tritium inventory in the fuel cycle. • This pumping process is based on the use of a liquid metal (mercury) as working fluid and is called KALPUREX process. • The KALPUREX process is the technical realization of the DIR concept using a set of three vacuum pumps (metal foil pump/diffusion pump/liquid ring pump). • This paper discusses the arrangement of the pumps and also the required infrastructure for operation. - Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing a continuously working and non-cryogenic pumping solution for torus exhaust pumping of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) including Direct Internal Recycling (DIR). This full pumping system consists of three pumps, namely a metal foil pump for gas separation, a linear diffusion pump as primary pump and a liquid ring pump as backing pump. The latter two pumps apply mercury as working fluid due to its perfect tritium compatibility. This asks for a baffle system on both sides of the pumping train to control working fluid vapour and to avoid any mercury propagation in the machine. In this paper, the arrangement of all torus pumps required for a power plant reactor as well as the corresponding infrastructure and its effect on the DEMO machine design is presented and discussed. The full pumping process is called ‘Karlsruhe liquid metal based pumping process for fusion reactor exhaust gases’ (KALPUREX process, patent pending)

  11. The KALPUREX-process – A new vacuum pumping process for exhaust gases in fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giegerich, Thomas; Day, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new vacuum pumping process for fusion power plants has been developed and is presented in this paper. • This process works continuously and non-cryogenic what leads to a strong reduction of the tritium inventory in the fuel cycle. • This pumping process is based on the use of a liquid metal (mercury) as working fluid and is called KALPUREX process. • The KALPUREX process is the technical realization of the DIR concept using a set of three vacuum pumps (metal foil pump/diffusion pump/liquid ring pump). • This paper discusses the arrangement of the pumps and also the required infrastructure for operation. - Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing a continuously working and non-cryogenic pumping solution for torus exhaust pumping of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) including Direct Internal Recycling (DIR). This full pumping system consists of three pumps, namely a metal foil pump for gas separation, a linear diffusion pump as primary pump and a liquid ring pump as backing pump. The latter two pumps apply mercury as working fluid due to its perfect tritium compatibility. This asks for a baffle system on both sides of the pumping train to control working fluid vapour and to avoid any mercury propagation in the machine. In this paper, the arrangement of all torus pumps required for a power plant reactor as well as the corresponding infrastructure and its effect on the DEMO machine design is presented and discussed. The full pumping process is called ‘Karlsruhe liquid metal based pumping process for fusion reactor exhaust gases’ (KALPUREX process, patent pending)

  12. Effect of air-polluting gases on plant metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I

    1972-01-01

    Among the air-polluting gases, SO/sub 2/, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and fluorine are those whose action is studied most. This review tries to show the connection between the well-known macroscopic symptoms, on the one hand, the the primary point of attack at the enzymatic level, the changes in the plant's metabolism, and the microscopic and electronmicroscopic results, on the other. PAN and ozone, which originate through the action of sunlight on auto-exhausts, cause the strong oxidizing character of this type of smog. Their primary point of attack seems to be their oxidizing effect on protein SH-groups. PAN in special oxidizes the SH-groups of a photoreducible disulfide containing chloroplast protein, thus blocking photosynthesis. SO/sub 2/, which originates from combustion of coal and petroleum as well as from roasting of sulfur-containing ores, causes the reductive character of this type of smog. SO/sub 2/ has a special position among the air-polluting gases because it can be incorporated without damaging effect into the normal sulfur metabolism up to a certain level. After exceeding this limit, it causes a rapid depression of photosynthesis. F/sup -/ is bound as a salt in the cell wall or in the cell vacuole and is thereby prevented from its damaging effect on metabolic processes up to a certain level. Upon exceeding this, it acts mainly on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. In a few examples it is shown in which way the collapse of cell compartmentation causes the loss of regulatory mechanisms of the cell. The influence of internal (genetic conditions, physiological age etc.) and external (light, temperature, humidity etc.) factors on the general metabolism, and, in this way, on the sensitivity of the plant to air-polluting gases, is shown. 195 references.

  13. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  14. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined

  16. Investigation of baffle configuration effect on the performance of exhaust mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsayed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using baffles in exhaust mufflers is known to improve their transmission loss. The baffle cut ratio should affect the muffler performance analogous to a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. To the authors’ knowledge, there is no previous assessment reported in literature of the effects that the baffle cut ratio configuration has on acoustic response and back pressure. This investigation presents a parametric study on the effect of baffle configuration on transmission loss and pressure drop predicted. The effect of (i the baffle cut ratio and baffle spacing, (ii the number of baffle holes, and (iii the hole distribution for their effect on transmission loss was investigated. Results show that decreasing the baffle cut ratio tends to increase the transmission loss at intermediate frequencies by up to 45%. Decreasing the spacing between muffler plates was shown to enhance the muffler transmission loss by 40%. To assess the baffle effect on flow, the OpenFoam CFD libraries were utilized using the thermal baffle approach model. Baffles were found to cause sudden drop in fluid temperature in axial flow direction. The outlet exhaust gases temperature was found to decrease by 15% as the baffle cut ratio changed from 75% to 25%.

  17. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.

    1977-01-01

    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  18. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  19. Tritium recovery and separation from CTR plasma exhausts and secondary containment atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, R.C. III; Watson, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experimental successes have generated increased interest in the development of thermonuclear reactors as power sources for the future. This paper examines tritium containment problems posed by an operating CTR and sets forth some processing schemes currently being evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An appreciation of the CTR tritium management problem can best be realized by recalling that tritium production rates for various fission reactors range from 2 x 10 4 to 9 x 10 5 Ci/yr per 1000 MW(e). Present estimates of tritium production in a CTR blanket exceed 10 9 Ci/yr for the same level of power generation, and tritium process systems may handle 10 to 20 times that amount. Tritium's high permeability through most materials of construction at high temperatures makes secondary containment mandatory for most piping. Processing of these containment atmospheres will probably involve conversion of the tritium to a nonpermeating form (T 2 O) followed by trapping on conventional beds of desiccant material. In a similar fashion, all purge streams and process fluid vent gases will be subjected to tritium recovery prior to atmospheric release. Two tritium process systems will be required, one to recover tritium produced by breeding in the blanket and another to recover unburned tritium in the plasma exhaust. Plasma exhaust processing will be unconventional since the exhaust gas pressure will lie between 10 -3 and 10 -6 torr. Treatment of this gas stream will entail the removal of small quantities of protium and helium from a much larger deuterium-tritium mixture which will be recycled. (U.S.)

  20. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  1. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  4. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Beaudet, Y.; Lazure, L.; Menard, L.; Turcotte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  5. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  6. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  7. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  8. Catalytic reduction of NOx in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic removal of NO x in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO x and up to 90% of engine NO x emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO x reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH 3 , urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO x removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO x reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO x under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO x reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO x efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h -1 ; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h -1 . Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO x reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also produced by human activities. Some, such as industrial gases, are exclusively human made. What are the types ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial gases: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 Nitrogen ...

  10. [Gases in vitreoretinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janco, L; Vida, R; Bartos, M; Villémová, K; Izák, M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the importance and benefits of using gases in vitreoretinal surgery. The gases represent a wide group of substances used in eye surgery for more than 100 years. The role of intraocular gases in vitreoretinal surgery is irreplaceable. Their use is still considered to be the "gold standard". An important step in eye surgery was the introduction of expanding gases--sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbons into routine clinical practice. The most common indications for the use of intraocular gases are: retinal detachment, idiopathic macular hole, complications of vitreoretinal surgery and others. The introduction of intraocular gases into routine clinical practice, along with other modern surgical techniques resulted in significant improvement of postoperative outcomes in a wide range of eye diseases. Understanding the principles of intraocular gases use brings the benefits to the patient and physician as well. Due to their physical and chemical properties they pose far the best and most appropriate variant of intraocular tamponade. Gases also bring some disadvantages, such as difficulties in detailed fundus examination, visual acuity testing, ultrasonographic examination, difficulties in application of intravitreal drugs or reduced possibility of retina laser treatment. The gases significantly change optical system properties of the eye. The use of gases in vitreoretinal surgery has significantly increased success rate of retinal detachment surgery, complicated posterior segment cases, trauma, surgery of the macula and other diseases.

  11. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.F.A.; Harbour, P.J.; Hotston, E.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  12. Acidic gases (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) capture and dissociation on metal decorated phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Anlong, E-mail: alkuang@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Kuang, Minquan; Yuan, Hongkuan; Wang, Guangzhao; Chen, Hong [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yang, Xiaolan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The light metal decorated phosphorene sheets are very effective for capture of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} because of large adsorption energies. • The adsorption energy is obviously dependent on the amount of electrons transferred between acidic gases and metal decorated phosphorene. • Pt-decorated phosphorene can effectively catalyze the dissociation of acidic gas. - Abstract: Density functional theory is employed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of several acidic gases (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) on metal (Li, Al, Ni and Pt) decorated phosphorene. The results show that light metal (Li, Al) decorated phosphorene exhibits a strong adsorption of acidic gases, i.e., the adsorption energy of CO{sub 2} on Li decorated phosphorene is 0.376 eV which is the largest in all adsorption of CO{sub 2} on metal decorated phosphorene and Al decorated phosphorene is most effective for capture of NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} due to large adsorption energies of 3.951 and 3.608 eV, respectively. Moreover, Li and Al light metals have stronger economic effectiveness and more friendly environment compared with the transition metals, the strong adsorption ability of acidic gases and low price suggest that Li, Al decorated phosphorene may be useful and promising for collection and filtration of exhaust gases. The reaction energy barriers of acidic gases dissociated process on Pt decorated phosphorene are relatively low and the reaction processes are significantly exothermic, indicating that the dissociation process is favorable.

  13. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.

    2007-06-01

    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  14. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  15. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  16. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  17. Vacuum exhaust duct used for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo; Kondo, Mitsuaki; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a vacuum exhaust duct used for a thermonuclear device. A cylindrical metal liners is lined with a gap to the inside of a vacuum exhaust duct main body. Bellows are connected to both ends of the metal liners and the end of the bellows is welded to the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Futher, a heater is mounted to the metal liner on the side of the vacuum exhaust duct main body, and the metal liner is heated by the heater to conduct baking for the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Accordingly, since there is no requirement for elevating the temperature of the vacuum exhaust duct upon conducting baking, the vacuum exhaust duct scarcely suffers substantial deformation due to heat expansion. Further, there is also no substantial deformation for the bellows disposed between the outer circumference of the vacuum vessel and a portion of a vacuum exhaust duct, so that the durability of the bellows is greatly improved. (I.S.)

  18. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  19. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  20. Economic Hazardous Gases Management for SOX Removal from Flue Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaack, S.L.; Mohi, M.A.; Mohamed, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hazardous gases emerging from industries accumulate as pollutants in air and falls as acid rains resulting also in water and soil pollution. To minimize environmental pollution, the present process is suggested in order to desulfurize flue gases resulting from burning fuel oil in a 100/MWh steam power plant. The process makes use of the cheap Ca C O 3 powder as the alkaline material to sequistre the sulphur oxide gases. The resulting sulphur compounds, namely calcium sulphate and gypsum have a great market demand as reducing and sulphiting agents in paper industry and as an important building material. About 44000 ton of gypsum could be produced yearly when treating flue gases resulting from a 100 MWh unit burning fuel oil. Feasibility study shows that a great return on investment could be achieved when applying the process. 1 fig

  1. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine exhaust. 1065.130 Section 1065... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.130 Engine exhaust. (a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This...

  3. Device for purifying exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Kiyoshi.

    1973-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the reliability in collection of krypton even on accident in liquidizing distillation tower. Constitution: Exhaust gas flows through active carbon adsorption tower where short half-life rare gas in exhaust gas is separated by adsorption, then through heat exchanger, then continuous distillation tower where krypton 85 is separated, then through batch distillation tower where krypton 85 is condensed, and then flows into storing cylinder. On accident in liquidizing distillation tower, at the first period exhaust gas flows through series connected active carbon adsorption tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to cooling type adsorption tower, at the next period exhaust gas flows through tower, krypton 85 adsorbed in adsorption tower being transferred to tower. (M. K.)

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  5. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible if installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (2) Horizontal dry exhaust pipes are...) They are installed in compliance with §§ 116.405(c) and 116.970 of this chapter. (b) The exhaust pipe...

  6. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  7. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  8. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  9. Development and testing of a washing process for exhaust gas of stationary operated internal combustion engines. Final report. Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Verfahrens der Abgaswaesche fuer stationaere Verbrennungsmotoren. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutelle, R; Huss, R; Wimberger, H J

    1986-01-01

    An exhaust gas washer for stationary operated diesel engines has been developed and tested in combination with a heat pump. The exhaust gas is washed with its own condensate in a packed column. The condensate circulation is performed by mammoth pumps. The pollutant emissions have been reduced depending on operating conditions (speed, temperature, pH of the condensate) by the following rates: HC by 30-85%, aldehydes by 35-99%, phenols by 50-80%, PAH by 80-95%, soot by 25-70%, SO/sub 2/ by 65-90%, NOsub(x) by 5-20%. It has been possible to reduce the NOsub(x) emissions by 75% at an inconsiderably increased fuel consumption by recycling exhaust gases. But higher soot emissions have to be accepted in this case. The condensate is completely degradable in a septic tank after being mixed with waste water containing phosphate. With 42 refs., 13 tabs., 32 figs.

  10. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  11. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products (HEAO-C, Skylab and SPS-HLLV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, D.; Stone, S.N.; Duncan, L.M.; Behnke, R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper reviews the current state of our understanding of the problem of ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical effects of the exhaust gases from large rockets, with particular emphasis on the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) proposed for use in the construction of solar power satellites. The currently planned HLLV flight profile calls for main second-stage propulsion confined to altitudes below 124 km, and a brief orbit-circularization maneuver at apogee. The second-stage engines deposit 9 x 10 31 H 2 O and H 2 molecules between 56 and 124 km. Model computations show that they diffuse gradually into the ionospheric F region, where they lead to weak but widespread and persistent depletions of ionization and continuous production of H atoms. The orbit-circularization burn deposits 9 x 10 29 exhaust molecules at about 480-km altitude. These react rapidly with the F2 region 0 + ions, leading to a substantial (factor-of-three) reduction in plasma density, which extends over a 1000- by 2000-km region and persists for four to five hours. Also described are experimental airglow and incoherent-scatter radar measurements performed in conjunction with the 1979 launch of satellite HEAO-C, together with prelaunch and post-launch computations of the ionospheric effects. Several improvements in the model have been driven by the experimental observations. The computer model is described in some detail

  12. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  13. Pressure releasing device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mika.

    1994-01-01

    In the present invention, dose rate to public caused by radioactive rare gases can be decreased. That is, a reactor container contains a reactor pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core. There are disposed a pressure releasing system for releasing the pressure in the reactor pressure vessel to the outside, and a burning device for burning gases released from the pressure releasing system. An exhaustion pipe is disposed to the pressure releasing system. A burning device is disposed to the exhaustion pipe. It is effective to dispose a ventilation port at a portion of the exhaustion pipe upstream of the burning device. In addition, the burning device may preferably be disposed in a multi-stage in the axial direction of the exhaustion pipe. With such procedures, hydrogen in gases discharged along with the release of the pressure in the container is burned. Buoyancy is caused to the exhaustion gases by heat energy upon burning. Since the exhaustion gases can reach a higher level by the buoyancy, the dose rate due to the rare gases can be reduced. (I.S.)

  14. Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and also essential according to create each of toxic exhaust gases are the subject of the paper. Moreover, empirical relationships, by means of which it is possible to determine the time of creation of the individual components of toxic exhaust gases, are presented. For example, one of the mechanisms for prompt formation of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons graphic illustration of formation as a function of crank angle is described. At the conclusion, the summary and significance of information on creation mechanisms of toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines are presented.

  15. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  16. MANAGEMENT PROCESS OF CULTIVATION OF MICROORGANISMS ON DYNAMICS OF TEMPERATURE OF A BIOMASS AND CONCENTRATION OF OXYGEN IN EXHAUST GASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On an example of industrial production of baking yeast the way of automatic control of process of cultivation of microorganisms is stated. The way provides management of aeration of a biomass on the set speed of change of its concentration and temperatures in view of speed of change of concentration of oxygen in the fulfilled gases.

  17. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.

    2015-01-01

    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  18. Performance evaluation of a novel personalized ventilation-personalized exhaust system for airborne infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Sekhar, S C; Cheong, K W D; Raphael, B

    2015-04-01

    In the context of airborne infection control, it is critical that the ventilation system is able to extract the contaminated exhaled air within the shortest possible time. To minimize the spread of contaminated air exhaled by occupants efficiently, a novel personalized ventilation (PV)-personalized exhaust (PE) system has been developed, which aims to exhaust the exhaled air as much as possible from around the infected person (IP). The PV-PE system was studied experimentally for a particular healthcare setting based on a typical consultation room geometry and four different medical consultation positions of an IP and a healthy person (HP). Experiments using two types of tracer gases were conducted to evaluate two types of PE: Top-PE and Shoulder-PE under two different background ventilation systems: Mixing Ventilation and Displacement Ventilation. Personalized exposure effectiveness, intake fraction (iF) and exposure reduction (ε) were used as indices to evaluate the PV-PE system. The results show that the combined PV-PE system for the HP achieves the lowest intake fraction; and the use of PE system for the IP alone shows much better performance than using PV system for the HP alone. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Toward a List of Molecules as Potential Biosignature Gases for the Search for Life on Exoplanets and Applications to Terrestrial Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, S; Bains, W; Petkowski, J J

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of exoplanets are known to orbit nearby stars. Plans for the next generation of space-based and ground-based telescopes are fueling the anticipation that a precious few habitable planets can be identified in the coming decade. Even more highly anticipated is the chance to find signs of life on these habitable planets by way of biosignature gases. But which gases should we search for? Although a few biosignature gases are prominent in Earth's atmospheric spectrum (O2, CH4, N2O), others have been considered as being produced at or able to accumulate to higher levels on exo-Earths (e.g., dimethyl sulfide and CH3Cl). Life on Earth produces thousands of different gases (although most in very small quantities). Some might be produced and/or accumulate in an exo-Earth atmosphere to high levels, depending on the exo-Earth ecology and surface and atmospheric chemistry. To maximize our chances of recognizing biosignature gases, we promote the concept that all stable and potentially volatile molecules should initially be considered as viable biosignature gases. We present a new approach to the subject of biosignature gases by systematically constructing lists of volatile molecules in different categories. An exhaustive list up to six non-H atoms is presented, totaling about 14,000 molecules. About 2500 of these are CNOPSH compounds. An approach for extending the list to larger molecules is described. We further show that about one-fourth of CNOPSH molecules (again, up to N = 6 non-H atoms) are known to be produced by life on Earth. The list can be used to study classes of chemicals that might be potential biosignature gases, considering their accumulation and possible false positives on exoplanets with atmospheres and surface environments different from Earth's. The list can also be used for terrestrial biochemistry applications, some examples of which are provided. We provide an online community usage database to serve as a registry for volatile molecules

  20. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  1. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  2. Children's Exhaustive Readings of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Alexandre; Tieu, Lyn; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Questions, just like plain declarative sentences, can give rise to multiple interpretations. As discussed by Spector & Egré (2015), among others, questions embedded under know are ambiguous between "weakly exhaustive" (WE), "intermediate exhaustive" (IE), and "strongly exhaustive" (SE) interpretations (for…

  3. Mass spectral chemical fingerprints reveal the molecular dependence of exhaust particulate matters on engine speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Zongshan; Tian, Yong; Liu, Kun; Jie, Feifan; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matters (PMs) emitted by automobile exhaust contribute to a significant fraction of the global PMs. Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (EAPCI-MS) was developed to explore the molecular dependence of PMs collected from exhaust gases produced at different vehicle engine speeds. The mass spectral fingerprints of the organic compounds embedded in differentially sized PMs (e.g., 0.22-0.45, 0.45-1.00, 1.00-2.00, 2.00-3.00, 3.00-5.00, and 5.00-10.00μm) generated at different engine speeds (e.g., 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000r/min) were chemically profiled in the mass range of mass to charge ratio (m/z) 50-800. Organic compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, and esters, were detected in all the PMs tested, with varied concentration levels for each individual PM sample. At relatively low engine speeds (≤1500r/min), the total amount of organic species embedded in PMs of 0.22-1.00μm was greater than in PMs of other sizes, while more organic species were found in PMs of 5.00-10.00μm at high engine speeds (≥3000r/min), indicating that the organic compounds distributed in different sizes of PMs strongly correlated with the engine speed. The experimental data showed that the EAPCI-MS technique enables molecular characterization of PMs in exhaust, revealing the chemical dependence of PMs on the engine speeds (i.e., the combustion conditions) of automobiles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Characterization of metallic micro sieves for gas purification on the example of fine dedusting of exhaust gases of wood burning firing systems; Charakterisierung metallischer Mikrosiebe zur Gasreinigung am Beispiel der Feinentstaubung von Holzfeuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Esther

    2011-07-15

    Metallic micro sieves are a promising filter media for fine particulate-removal from gas streams due to their flexible and precisely adaptable pore geometry and their material properties. A current field of application is the particle removal from exhaust gas from biomass heating appliances. The generated aerosol particles are considerably smaller than 1 {mu}m. As a consequence they pose a significant health risk. In order to promote new developments in the field of gas cleaning, this study explores the filtration characteristics of metallic micro sieves theoretically and practically. For the purpose of the design layout of micro sieve filters, the fundamental process of the filtration kinetics, that is the time-dependent development of filtration efficiency and pressure drop, were displayed in a physically based and algebraically solvable calculation model. The filtration kinetics is subdivided in three parts: The flow and the capture of particles in micro sieves (instant of time 0), the dynamic accrue of the pores due to captured particles (phase 1) and the build-up of a filter cake (phase 2). Each section was covered by the formulation of separate mathematic solutions or by further development respectively adaption of existing models. Both the section models and the total model were in good compliance with experimental results. The model as well as the experimental results were used to assess possible applications in the field of the removal of fine particulate matter from exhaust gases of wood fired heating appliances. Exemplary for a wood fired heating appliance with a heating capacity of 100 kW, the required filter surface and achievable filtration efficiencies were calculated. Due to present high particle concentrations, relatively big pore diameters between 15 and 20 {mu}m are sufficient to obtain significant filtration efficiencies above 99 % after a short operation time. Adequate micro sieve porosities of more than 5 % are available. Thus, the realization

  5. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G M; Wilke, G; Stahl, E

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this book derives from a symposium on the 5th and 6th of June 1978 in the ''Haus der Technik'' in Essen. Contributions were made to separation with supercritical gases, fluid extraction of hops, spices and tobacco, physicochemical principles of extraction, phase equilibria and critical curves of binary ammonia-hydrocarbon mixtures, a quick method for the microanalytical evaluation of the dissolving power of supercritical gases, chromatography with supercritical fluids, the separation of nonvolatile substances by means of compressed gases in countercurrent processes, large-scale industrial plant for extraction with supercritical gases, development and design of plant for high-pressure extraction of natural products.

  6. Ion-ion Recombination and Chemiion Concentrations In Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    Jet aircraft emit large quantities of ultrafine volatile aerosols, as well as soot parti- cles, into the environment. To determine the long-term effects of these emissions, a better understanding of the mechanisms that control particle formation and evolution is needed, including the number and size dispersion. A recent explanation for aerosol nucleation in a jet wake involves the condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, and cer- tain organic compounds, onto charged molecular clusters (chemiions) generated in the engine combustors (Yu and Turco, 1997). Massive charged aggregates, along with sulfuric acid and organic precursor vapors, have been detected in jet plumes under cruise conditions. In developing the chemiion nucleation theory, Yu and Turco noted that ion-ion recombination in the engine train and jet core should limit the chemiion emission index to 1017/kg-fuel. This value is consistent with ion-ion recombination coefficients of 1×10-7 cm3/s over time scales of 10-2 s. However, the evolution of the ions through the engine has not been adequately studied. The conditions at the combustor exit are extreme-temperatures approach 1500 K, and pressures can reach 30 atmospheres. In this presentation, we show that as the combustion gases expand and cool, two- and three-body ion-ion recombination processes control the chemiion concentration. The concepts of mutual neutralization and Thomson recombination are first summarized, and appropriate temperature and pressure dependent recombination rate coefficients are derived for the aircraft problem. A model for ion losses in jet exhaust is then formulated using an "invariance" principle discussed by Turco and Yu (1997) in the context of a coagulating aerosol in an expanding plume. This recombina- tion model is applied to estimate chemiion emission indices for a range of operational engine conditions. The predicted ion emission rates are found to be consistent with observations. We discuss the sources of variance in chemiion

  7. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  8. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  9. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  10. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  11. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  12. Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

    2014-05-01

    A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24 h exposure to DEPs of 200 nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO(2)) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200 μg/mL). NO(2) levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THIN FILM-BASED SENSOR FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS, NH3, AND CO DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  14. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  15. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  16. Investigating the ionosphere response to exhaust products of “Progress” cargo spacecraft engines on the basis of Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpynev B.G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The FSUE Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash, Rocket and Space Corporation “Energia”, and Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS jointly conducted the active space experiment “Radar-Progress” in 2007–2015. During this experiment, the Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar was used to study space-time characteristics of ionospheric disturbances generated by exhaust products of Progress cargo spacecraft engines. As the basic effect during exhaust product injection we consider the formation of new centers for recombination of ambient ionospheric ions O+ on molecules of water and carbon dioxide. This produces an ionization “hole” in the region of injection. In nighttime conditions when the ma-jority of experiments were performed, this hole was filled with hydrogen ions from the plasmasphere, thus changing the ion composition in the vicinity of the hole and incoherent scatter spectra. For successful observation of the ioni-zation hole dynamics, the critical factors are the degree of filling of the antenna pattern with exhaust products and the velocity of the thermospheric neutral wind, which makes exhaust gases move from the antenna pattern. These two factors lead to poor repeatability of successful experiments. Successful experiments recorded a decrease in electron density up to 35 % in the hole that existed for 30 min. The lifetime of the region with high concentration of H+ ions can be as long as one hour.

  17. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  18. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  19. Modeling the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia over a Vanadia-based catalyst from heavy duty diesel exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Man Young

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation for prediction of NO X conversion over a commercial V 2 O 5 catalyst with NH 3 as a reductant was performed for a heavy duty diesel engine applications. The chemical behaviors of the SCR reactor are described by using the global NO X kinetics including standard, fast, and NH 3 oxidation reactions with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism incorporated into the commercial Boost code. After introducing mathematical models for the SCR reaction with specific reaction parameters, the effects of various parameters such as space velocities, the O 2 , H 2 O, NO 2 , and NH 3 concentrations on the NOx conversion are thoroughly studied and validated by comparing with the experimental data available in the literature. It is found that NO X conversion increases with decreasing space velocity, H 2 O concentration, and NH 3 /NO X ratio, and increasing O 2 concentration and NO 2 /NO X ratio. The study shows that not only is the present approach adopted is flexible in treating performance of the commercial V 2 O 5 based SCR catalyst, it is also accurate and efficient for the prediction of NO X conversion in diesel exhaust environments. - Highlights: ► To find the reaction parameters for LH mechanism over a commercial V2O5 catalyst. ► To investigate the effects of various parameters on the SCR NO X conversion. ► To present benchmark solutions on SCR behavior with diesel exhaust environments.

  20. Gases emissions and excess air measurements for performance analysis of a wood stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Canto, Sergio Aruana Elarrat; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Maneschy, Carlos Edilson de Almeida; Santos, Tiago da Silva; Gazel, Hussein Felix [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: aruana@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br, cemaneschy@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    Millions of people in Africa, Central and South America and Asia rely on rudimentary and inefficient wood stove that causes respiratory diseases and demand for large quantity of biomass from native forest. The international agents as World Bank, UNESCO and International Energy Agency has pointed out the relevancy of wood stove. Research on this subject has been done by Shell Foundation and Aprovecho Research Center that indicates Rocket Stove technology as the most promising and able to provide efficiency together with low cost. This work presents performance results obtained from one wood rocket stove manufactured by a Brazilian company named Ecofogao. The stove performance was measured characterizing the amount of energy supplied to the stove in the biomass and characterizing the eluding gases. The incoming energy was quantified through the high heating value for the Jabot (using a bomb calorimeter) plus the Ultimate Analysis (content of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen), Proximate Analysis (content of moisture, fixed carbon, volatiles and ash) and the mass flow rate of biomass feed to the stoven. The leaving energy in the exhaustion gases was quantified measuring its temperature and composition immediately at the exit of the stoven what is the inlet of chimney. The results show the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO in the concentration ranges of (0.9% to 6.30%), (14.30% to 19.90%) and (0.17% to 2.50%) respectively. The excess air is in the range (3.33 to 23.33) based on carbon dioxide measurements in the eluted gases. These results provided information to promote also further improvements on the stoven design. (author)

  1. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    completeness of the partial fuel oxidation reaction up to 100%. Nitrogen was found to be the most effective gas for the synthesis gas production by a plasmatron. The preliminary experiments of introducing the reformation products into a diesel engine resulted in ∼25% NOx cut in the exhaust gas flow. A simulation experiment with the pure hydrogen addition to the inlet of a diesel engine showed that both components of the synthesis gas H 2 and CO fed into the engine play significant role in cutting NOx content in the engine's emission. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with propylene and decane as reductants in the presence of excess air over (Fe, Co-Pt)/ZSM-5 catalyst was conducted to remove NOx from Diesel exhaust gases. The SO 2 effect and deactivation test over above catalyst were also executed. ZSM-5 supported Co, Pt, Fe mixed oxide catalyst showed about 80% of conversion in the presence of NO. However, the activity was decreased when the catalyst was wash coated onto the ceramic monolith. We found that the deNOx activity over the catalyst was strongly depended on the amount of reductant. Therefore, the amount reductant and how to feed the reductant into the system should be considered as important factors to remove NOx. In order to develop the high removal NOx activity at low temperature and maintain the stable activity at the real exhaust gases condition, metallosilicate and Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts have been used. In case of metallosilicate catalyst, the deNOx activity was low at the oxidation atmospheric condition. When the Pt was ion-exchanged with ZSM-5, the H-form of ZSM-5 catalyst showed high deNOx activity. The effect of reductant type on deNOx activity exhibited that the olefin system provided more higher activity than octane system. The methane conversion observed in the presence of NO and excess O 2 over alumina supported Pt catalyst. In order to improve the activity and durability, the Co metal ion was added. The result showed that the Co-Pt catalyst gave

  2. Catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Das, R.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Engineering and Mining Machinery

    2001-10-11

    Catalytic removal of NO{sub x} in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO{sub x} and up to 90% of engine NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO{sub x} reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH{sub 3}, urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO{sub x} removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO{sub x} reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO{sub x} reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO{sub x} efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h{sup -1}; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h{sup -1}. Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO{sub x} reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  3. Method for storing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Atsushi; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshio; Soya, Masataka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To safely and securely store radioactive rare gases for a long period of time. Structure: The waste gases produced in nuclear power plant are cooled by a cooler and then introduced into a low temperature adsorbing device so that the gases are adsorbed by adsorbents, and then discharged into atmosphere through the purifying gas discharge line. When the radioactive rare gases reach a level of saturation in the amount of adsorption, they are heated and extracted by a suction pump and heated by a heater. The gases are then introduced into an oxygen-impurity removing device and the purified rare gases containing no oxygen and impurities are cooled by a cooler and fed into a gas holder. When the amount of radioactive rare gases stored within the gas holder reaches a given level, they are compressed and sealed by a compressure into a storing cylinder and residual gases in the piping are sucked and recovered into the gas holder, after which the cylinder is removed and stored in a fixed room. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemori, M; Eguchi, N

    1975-01-07

    An exhaust gas recirculation device to reduce nitrogen oxides emission from internal combustion engines is described. The recirculation is achieved by employing a tube connecting between the exhaust pipe and intake tube. A throttle valve is installed within the exhaust pipe between the muffler and recirculation tube, and regulated by exhaust gas temperature. Whenever the gas temperature is high, the valve closes and increases the gas flow to the intake tube. A temperature sensor is installed within the exhaust pipe and controls a solenoid or magnetic air valve linking to the throttle valve through a relay. The recirculation tube can be cooled by a fan to improve the engine power.

  5. Ionospheric effects of rocket exhaust products: Skylab and HEAO-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.; Duncan, L.M.; Stone, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is about ionospheric F-layer depletions produced by chemical reactions with exhaust gases from large rockets. It describes a 2-dimensional computer model of the ionosphere, and it compares model results with experimental data on the structure and variability of the natural ionosphere, as well as data on ionospheric holes produced by the launches of Skylab (May, 1973) and HEAO-C (September, 1979). It also describes measurements made in conjunction with the HEAO-C launch. The computer model includes an approximate representation of thermospheric tidal winds and E fields in addition to vertical motions associated with diurnal changes in temperature. The computed ionospheric structure is sensitive to all the above. For a small number of cases, results are compared of computations of the normal diurnal variations of ionospheric structure with incoherent scatter and total electron content data. Computations of ionospheric depletions from the Skylab and HEAO-C launches are in satisfactory agreement with the observations. The winds appear to be essential for interpretation of the Skylab results

  6. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  7. Reciprocating Expander for an Exhaust Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle for a Passenger Car Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoko Shonda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, on average, two thirds of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted through the exhaust gases and the cooling liquid. The recovery of this energy would enable a substantial reduction in fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate a heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle. The key component in such a system is the expander, which has a strong impact on the system’s performance. A survey of different expander technologies leads us to select the reciprocating expander as the most promising one for an automotive application. This paper therefore proposes a steady-state semi-empirical model of the expander device developed under the Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The ambient and mechanical losses as well as internal leakage were taken into account by the model. By exploiting the expander manufacturer’s data, all the parameters of the expander model were identified. The model computes the mass flow rate, the power output delivered and the exhaust enthalpy of the steam. The maximum deviation between predictions and measurement data is 4.7%. A performance study of the expander is carried out and shows that the isentropic efficiency is quite high and increases with the expander rotary speed. The mechanical efficiency depends on mechanical losses which are quite high, approximately 90%. The volumetric efficiency was also evaluated.

  8. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  9. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  10. Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski Antoni; Kowalski Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitroge...

  11. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  12. Diesel exhaust emissions : health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    Despite modern day ventilation, underground miners are exposed to diesel particulate matter (DPM) composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulphates, metals and ashes. Diesel exhaust contains over 40 air contaminants that have been recognized as toxic, carcinogenic or reproductive and developmental hazards. Nearly all components of diesel exhaust interact with the human body at the bloodstream or tissue level. This presentation discussed the following 4 potential levels of threat posed by the physical and chemical nature of diesel exhaust: (1) cancer of the lungs and bladder, (2) toxins that affect the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune system as well as the liver and kidneys, (3) fine particulate matter that can cause premature death and an increase in respiratory illness, and (4) nitrogen oxides that contribute to increased ozone and smog. Non-cancer health effects from short-term exposure include acute irritation and respiratory symptoms. This presentation also referred to cancer risk assessments of diesel exhaust by national, state, and world health organizations. Particulate exposure standards for Canada, Quebec, Ontario and the United States were listed along with the percentage of DPM samples in excess of various exposure limits in 2008 according to Canadian underground mine data. DPM concentration levels in mines are in the range that environmental agencies would consider high for general population exposure. Solutions for underground mines include pollution control at the source; use of modern engines with certification for underground mining; emissions based maintenance; exhaust treatment; use of clean or alternative fuels such as hydrogen; regular sampling and monitoring; ventilation; training and technology transfer; and regulations. tabs., figs.

  13. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  14. 40 CFR 60.41c - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... steam generating unit that simultaneously produces both electrical (or mechanical) and thermal energy... (such as a stationary gas turbine, internal combustion engine, or kiln) provides exhaust gas to a steam..., kiln, etc.) to allow the firing of additional fuel to heat the exhaust gases before the exhaust gases...

  15. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  16. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  17. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  18. Remote sensing FTIR-system for emission monitoring and ambient air control of atmospheric trace gases and air pollutants; Remote sensing FTIR-System zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung atmosphaerischer Spurengasse und Luftschadstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, T; Mosebach, H; Bittner, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer K300, based on the double-pendulum interferometer, is due to its optical design particularly suitable for high resolution remote sensing emission and transmission (long path monitoring) measurements of air pollutants and atmospheric trace gases in the field. The applications encompass direct emission measurements of hot flue gases and aircraft engine exhaust as well as surveillance of industrial complexes and waste disposal sites and ambient air control of e.g. traffic polluted sites. For direct emission measurements the infrared radiation of hot gases is utilized. Monitoring of cold diffuse emissions (e.g. at waste disposal sites) and ambient air control is carried out applying a bistatic transmission configuration with an artificial infrared source (glowbar) facing the instrument from a distance up to several hundred meters (long-path monitoring). Following a short introduction of the measurement technique and system, results from the above mentioned applications, obtained during several field studies are depicted and discussed. 19 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  20. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1978-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  2. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  3. 40 CFR 89.301 - Scope; applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart B of part 89. (b) Exhaust gases, either raw or dilute, are sampled while the test engine is operated using an 8-mode test cycle on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust gases receive specific component analysis determining concentration of pollutant, exhaust volume, the fuel flow, and the power output during...

  4. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  5. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  6. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  7. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gaseous and particulate matter from marine vessels gain increasing attention due to their significant contribution to the anthropogenic burden of the atmosphere, implying the change of the atmospheric composition and the impact on local and regional air quality and climate (Eyring et al., 2010). As ship emissions significantly affect air quality of onshore regions, this study deals with various aspects of gas and particulate plumes from marine traffic measured near the Elbe river mouth in northern Germany. In addition to a detailed investigation of the chemical and physical particle properties from different types of commercial marine vessels, we will focus on the chemistry of ship plumes and their changes while undergoing atmospheric processing. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of the Lower Elbe which is passed on average, daily by 30 ocean-going vessels reaching the port of Hamburg, the second largest freight port of Europe. During 5 days of sampling from April 25-30, 2011 170 commercial marine vessels were probed at a distance of about 1.5-2 km with high temporal resolution. Mass concentrations in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 and number as well as PAH and black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM1 were measured; size distribution instruments covered the size range from 6 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory aerosol in the submicron range was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gas concentrations in the air and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of ship information for each vessel including speed, size, vessel type, fuel type, gross tonnage and engine power was recorded via Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. Although commercial marine vessels powered by diesel engines consume high

  8. Optical system for CO and NO gas detection in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.; De Vittorio, M.; Passaseo, A.; Lomascolo, M.; De Risi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental characterization of an innovative optical system for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitride oxide (NO) in the exhaust manifold of otto and diesel engines is reported. A photodetector based on gallium nitride (GaN) and an UV light source are integrated in a chamber of analysis and form the detection system. The UV light source, consisting of a spark produced by an arc discharge, induces electronic transitions in the gas molecules flowing between the light source and the GaN photodetector. The transitions modify the fraction of light in the UV spectral region which is detected by the GaN photodetector, as a function of the species concentration. By means of its structural properties, gallium nitride (GaN) allows to operate at high temperature and high speed and to work in situ in the exhaust manifold of combustion engines at temperatures as high as 600 o C, at which the deposited organic residuals on the detector can be oxidized. This assures a clear surface necessary for a real time optical measurement of the species concentration to be used for a closed loop control of the fuel injection process. The system was applied to the detection of CO and NO with concentration between 0% and 2% in a buffer of pure nitrogen gas, showing an increase in the measured photocurrent as a function of the above gases

  9. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Spicer

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  10. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  11. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust-A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerer, A.; Schmatloch, V.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 deg. C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms -1 ), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition

  12. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  13. Method of contacting solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-08-06

    A continuous method is described for contacting solids and gases. The process involves passing a confined stream of gases through an extended path including a treating zone and imposing a pressure on the stream of gases at least sufficient to overcome the resistence of said path to the flow of said gases. A solid in finely divided form is then introduced into said stream of gases, maintaining a vertical column of finely divided solid in fluidized state of a height which will produce a pressure at the column bottom at least equal to the gas pressure at the point of entry of the solids into the stream. The solids then pass from the bottom of the column into the stream.

  14. Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation control systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Keating, Edward J.

    2018-05-01

    An engine control system of a vehicle includes a fuel control module that controls fuel injection of a first cylinder of an engine based on a first target air/fuel ratio that is fuel lean relative to a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and that controls fuel injection of a second cylinder of the engine based on a second target air/fuel ratio that is fuel rich relative to stoichiometry. The first cylinder outputs exhaust to a first three way catalyst (TWC), and the second cylinder outputs exhaust to an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve. An EGR control module controls opening of the EGR valve to: (i) a second TWC that reacts with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust and outputs ammonia to a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst; and (ii) a conduit that recirculates exhaust back to an intake system of the engine.

  15. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Considerations over the effects caused by a heat recovery system for exhaust gases, adapted to gas turbines originally designed for the operation in a simple cycle; Consideraciones sobre los efectos causados por un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape, adaptado a turbinas de gas disenadas originalmente para operar bajo un ciclo simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta Escobar, Cesar A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This article sets out the considerations on what a heat recovery system from exhaust gases, to already installed and in operation gas turbines, and that were not originally designed to operate with this system, can cause. The potential effects are set forth on the control systems, on the combustion chambers, and in the gas turbine blades, utilized for natural gas pumping or power generation in land installations or in offshore platforms in trying to adapt to them a regenerative cycle or a heating system. Observed effects, fundamentally in the flame stability loop, flow velocity, thermal intensity coefficient, air/fuel relationships and mass flow. Also are presented the consequences that primary production system would suffer, mainly due to the natural gas pumping reduction, the space availability, the fuel consumption, and the maximum amount of heat susceptible to be recovered, comparing the requirements of this in the system. [Espanol] En este articulo se plantean las consideraciones sobre lo que puede provocar un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape adaptado a turbinas de gas ya instaladas, operando y que no fueron disenadas originalmente para operar con este sistema. Se plantean los probables efectos en los sistemas de control, en las camaras de combustion y en los empaletados de las turbinas de gas usadas para bombeo de gas natural o generacion electrica en instalaciones de tierra o plataformas marinas, al tratar de adaptarseles un ciclo regenerativo o un sistema para calentamiento. Efectos observados, fundamentalmente, en el LOOP de estabilidad de flama, velocidad del flujo, coeficiente de intensidad termica, relaciones aire-combustible y flujo masico. Tambien se presentan las consecuencias que sufriria el sistema primario de produccion debido, principalmente, a la reduccion del bombeo de gas natural, a la disponibilidad de espacio, al consumo de combustible y a la cantidad maxima de calor susceptible de recuperarse, comparada con los

  17. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  18. CARCINOGENICITY OF EXHAUST GASES OF AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vnukova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor transport is the basic consumer of fuel from oil and determining in ecological pollu-tion of atmosphere in urban areas. The most dangerous to the person are joint influences of super toxins: oxides of nitrogen, cancerogenic hydrocarbons and firm particles. It is shown that the use of modern fuel with increased contents of aromatic hydrocarbons aggravates this environmental problem.

  19. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  20. Experiment and CFD simulation of exhaust tube in highvoltage circuit breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high-voltage circuit breaker, the exhaust tube connects the arc zone with the exhaust volume. During the arc interruption process, the exhaust tube transports the hot gas from the arc interruption zone to the exhaust volume through its distributed holes. The design of a high performance exhaust tube in the circuit breaker development aims for well controlled hot gas evacuation mass flow and pressure waves. In this paper, the exhaust tube behaviour is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. To verify the CFD simulation, a basic experimental study with pressure measurements at different positions of the exhaust tube is performed. Further, the design parameters influencing the exhaust tube behaviour and circuit breaker performance are investigated and discussed.

  1. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  2. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  3. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  4. Kinetic considerations of three-way catalysis in automobile exhaust converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botas, J.A.; Gutierrez-Ortiz, M.A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, M.P.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.A.; Gonzalez-Velasco, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of three-way catalysts is highly dependent on the reactants present in the automobile exhaust gases (CO, NO x , HC, O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 ) as well as their relative concentration. Thus, the influence of each reactant on the kinetic behavior of the whole mixture makes difficult to establish the accurate kinetics of the system. Activity experiments carried out close to the real operation conditions (GHSV, concentration, etc.) with a Pt/CeO 2 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst supplied data on the CO and HC oxidation and NO reduction reactions in environments formed by different reactant combinations (from binary mixtures to the whole mixture simulating the real conditions at the automobile converter).The obtained results have shown notable variations in the oxidation/reduction mechanisms depending on the presence (or absence) of components in the environment. The presence of water always promoted the three-way activity of the catalyst. The compensation effect applied to the CO, NO and HC conversions confirmed that kinetic expressions obtained with partial mixtures (not very close to the real converter environment) have only limited application for determining the whole kinetic scheme occurring in the automobile converters

  5. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  6. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  7. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  8. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    , they can migrate far away from their source and they can even spread into the blood circulation and the brain. Transition metals on the surface of particles together with carcinogenic compounds found in the PM have been shown to cause cancer. Diesel ultra-fine particles are mainly elemental carbon, organic carbon and sulphuric acid. Sulphur still exists in diesel fuel in certain regions and if the amount of sulphur in the fuel is reduced, particles are reduced as well. Metallic compounds originate mainly from the lubrication oil, but also from the fuel and engine wear. In urban areas the amounts of particles are usually higher than in rural areas. Regulations for air quality in urban areas have been set to protect people living in the cities. Regulations are also becoming stricter in the field of internal combustion engines and particle numbers along with their mass are regulated in the EURO 6 standard. Diesel PM can be reduced by several means. Reformulating the fuel and lubrication oil directly influences PM emissions while different aftertreatment systems can be used to remove PM from the engine exhaust gases. With a well-optimized injection system, burning is more complete and PM emissions are also reduced. Exposure to particles can be decreased by avoiding busy roads where the level of particles is usually high, having a hobby that involves less exertion and decreasing exercise time. Outdoor activities should be reduced when PM concentration in the air is high. (orig.)

  9. Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Bermúdez, V.; Guardiola, C.

    2004-06-01

    In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.

  10. Determination of aldehydes and ketones with high atmospheric reactivity on diesel exhaust using a biofuel from animal fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R.; Monedero, E.; Guillén-Flores, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biodiesel from animal fats appears as an alternative for conventional diesel in automotive consumption. Animal fats are classified into three categories, although only one of them can be used for biodiesel production, according to regulation. Due to its novelty, researchers testing animal-fat biodiesel on diesel engines focus only on regulated emissions. In this paper, the experiments carried out analyze carbonyl compounds emissions, due to its highly atmospheric reactivity, to complete the characterization of the total emissions in this kind of biofuel. Two fuels, a reference petro-diesel and a pure animal-fat biodiesel, were tested in a 4-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine Nissan Euro 5 M1D-Bk. Samples were collected in 4 different operating modes and 3 points along the exhaust line. The analyses of samples were made in a high performance liquid chromatography, following the method recommended by the CARB to analyze air quality. Results show, on the one hand, a significant rise in carbonyl emissions, almost three times at the mode with highest hydrocarbon emissions, when biodiesel is used. On the other hand, on average, a reduction of 90% of carbonyl emissions when exhaust gases go through the different post-treatment systems installed. Despite this reduction, specific reactivity does not decrease substantially.

  11. Numerical calculation on infrared characteristics of the special vehicle exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Li, Xiao-xia; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    For mastery of infrared radiation characteristics and flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, first, a physical model of the special vehicle exhaust system is established with the Gambit, and the mathematical model of flow field is determined. Secondly, software Fluent6.3 is used to simulated the 3-D exterior flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, and the datum of flow field, such as temperature, pressure and density, are obtained. Thirdly, based on the plume temperature, the special vehicle exhaust space is divided. The exhaust is equivalent to a gray-body. A calculating model of the vehicle exhaust infrared radiation is established, and the exhaust infrared radiation characteristics are calculated by the software MATLAB, then the spatial distribution curves are drawn. Finally, the numerical results are analyzing, and the basic laws of the special vehicle exhaust infrared radiation are explored. The results show that with the increase of the engine speed, the temperature of the exhaust pipe wall of the special vehicle increases, and the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas flow field increase, which leads to the enhancement of the infrared radiation intensity

  12. Simply scan--optical methods for elemental carbon measurement in diesel exhaust particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, James A

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Irradiation technologies used for combustion gases and diluted sulfurous gases decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Z, Loreto

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of irradiation technology used for ambient decontamination is presented here. The system is adequate fort gas and liquid effluents and solid wastes. In particular, the characteristics and applications of the irradiation done with an electron beam to gas effluent is described, mainly to clean combustion gases and other industrial gases containing sulfur and nitrogen oxides, S O x and N O x , respectively. This technology permits the remove of these contaminants and the acquisition of a solid byproduct, an ammonia sulfate-nitrate, apt for fertilizer applications. (author)

  14. Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  15. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  16. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  17. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  18. Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    interacting Fermi gases has topological properties similar to the conventional chiral p- wave state. These include a non-zero Chern number and the...interacting cold gases with broad impacts on the interfaces with condensed matter and particle physics . Applications and experiments of some of the physics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0016 Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions Wensheng Vincent Liu UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Final Report 12/02/2015

  19. Fault tree analysis of Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, E.V.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Project S-4404, Upgrade Canyon Exhaust Systems, is a $177 million project with the purpose of upgrading the Exhaust Systems for both F and H Canyon Facilities. This upgrade will replace major portions of the F and H-Canyon exhaust systems, downstream of their respective sand filters with higher capacity and more reliable systems. Because of the high cost, DOE requested Program Control ampersand Integration (PC ampersand I) to examine specific deletions to the project. PC ampersand I requested Nuclear Processes Safety Research (NPSR) to perform an analysis to compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed exhaust system and specific proposed exhaust system alternatives. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis and compare failure rates for the existing F ampersand H Canyon exhaust systems with the proposed project exhaust system and proposed project alternatives. Based on fault tree analysis, two conclusions are made. First, D ampersand D activities can be eliminated from the project with no significant decrease to exhaust system safety. Deletion of D ampersand D activities would result in a cost savings of $29 million. Second, deletion of DOE Order 6430.1A requirements regarding DBAs would decrease exhaust system safety by a factor of 12

  20. Overestimation of on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory caused by exhaust plumes of a vehicle ahead in dense traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Hee; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Hyeok; Yook, Se-Jin; Jeon, Sangzin; Kwon, Sangil; Kim, Jeongsoo; Lee, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h -1 in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO 2 and NO x concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS measured exhaust gases at the tailpipe for input data of the CFD simulations. After the CFD method was verified with experimental results of the SUV, dispersion of exhaust plumes emitted from a bus and a sedan was numerically analyzed. More dilution of the exhaust plume was observed at higher vehicle speeds, probably because of eddy diffusion that was proportional to turbulent kinetic energy and vehicle speed. The CO 2 and NO x concentrations behind the emitter vehicle showed less overestimation as both the distance between the two vehicles and their background concentrations increased. If the height of the ML inlet is lower than 2 m and the ML travels within 20 m behind a SUV and a sedan ahead at 20 km h -1 , the overestimation should be considered by as much as 200 ppb in NO x and 80 ppm in CO 2 . Following a bus should be avoided if possible, because effect of exhaust plumes from a bus ahead could not be negligible even when the distance between the bus and the ML with the inlet height of 2 m, was more than 40 m. Recommendations are provided to avoid the unintended influence of exhaust plumes from vehicles ahead of the ML during on-road measurement in urban dense traffic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  2. Source apportionment of particulate matter and trace gases near a major refinery near the Houston Ship Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Henry W.; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Flynn, James H.; Erickson, Mathew H.; Lefer, Barry L.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    From February 7 to 27, 2015, a mobile air quality laboratory was deployed to a location proximate to a major refinery, the Port of Houston, and several neighborhoods to conduct measurements of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter. Two statistical models were utilized to apportion the sources of pollution impacting this site and the denizens of the nearby neighborhoods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the organic signal of the aerosol mass spectra, resulting in five factors totaling an average of 4.1 μg/m3 of the organic aerosol: hydrocarbon-like (0.67 μg/m3), cooking (0.35 μg/m3) biomass burning (1.14 μg/m3), low-volatility oxidized (1.15 μg/m3), and semi-volatile oxidized (0.78 μg/m3). Principal component analysis was performed on daytime and nighttime data, including concentrations from PMF output, of other PM1 components, and of trace gases. This generated five daytime and five nighttime factors that explained 74.5% and 73.0% of the variance, respectively. The most important factors impacting this site were from mobile source exhaust and petrochemical aromatic compound emissions. Together these two factors also constitute most of the observed carcinogens.

  3. Three-dimensional approach to exhaust gas energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekavčnik, M.; Ogorevc, T.; Katrašnik, T.; Rodman-Oprešnik, S.

    2012-06-01

    Presented work is based on an extensive CFD simulation of the exhaust stroke of a single-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine with the exhaust manifold attached. Since the dynamics of the exhaust flow are extremely 3D, an innovative approach to calculate the local entropy generation is developed and implemented in the discussed 3D numerical model. It allows temporal and spatial determination of critical regions and periods of entropy generation in the process with objective to reduce it.

  4. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  5. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  6. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  7. Reale Gase, tiefe Temperaturen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir werden uns in diesem Kapitel zunächst mit der van der Waals'schen Zustandsgleichung befassen. In dieser Gleichung wird versucht, die Abweichungen, die reale Gase vom Verhalten idealer Gase zeigen, durch physikalisch motivierte Korrekturterme zu berücksichtigen. Es zeigt sich, dass die van derWaals-Gleichung geeignet ist, nicht nur die Gasphase, sondern auch die Phänomene bei der Verflüssigung von Gasen und den kritischen Punkt zu beschreiben.

  8. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  9. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (see § 36.23(b)(2)). (3) In lieu of a space-place flame arrester, an exhaust-gas cooling box or... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for measuring the total back pressure in the system. The connection also shall be suitable for temporary attachment...

  10. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  11. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  12. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  13. Throat gases against the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2006-01-01

    The steel production needs carbon consumption and generates carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gases. It represents about 6 % of the greenhouse gases emissions in the world. That is why the steel industry began last year a research program, Ideogaz, to reduce its CO 2 releases. The first results on the throat gases recovery seems very promising: it uses 25 % less of carbon. The author presents the program and the main technical aspects of the method. (A.L.B.)

  14. Performance and emission comparison of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by producer gases with varying hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohon Roy, Murari [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogen content in producer gas on the performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual-fuel engine. Two types of producer gases were used in this study, one with low hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 13.7%) and the other with high hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 20%). The engine was tested for use as a co-generation engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant injection pressure and injection quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion. Better combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x}) were obtained with the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas than with the low H{sub 2}-content producer gas, especially under leaner conditions. Moreover, a broader window of fuel-air equivalence ratio was found with highest thermal efficiencies for the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas. (author)

  15. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saastamoinen Peppiina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%. Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment

  16. Design basis and requirements for 241-SY modular exhauster mechanical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new ventilation system is being installed to serve as the K-1 primary exhauster. The existing K-1 primary exhauster will then become the backup. This ventilation system services waste tanks 241-SY-101, 102 and 103. The nominal flow rate through the ventilation system is 1,000 cfm. The new ventilation system will contain a moisture eliminator, a heater, a prefilter, two stages of HEPA filtration, an exhaust fan, a stack and stack sampling system. The purpose of this document is to serve as the design and functional requirements for the mechanical installation of the new 241-SY modular exhauster. The mechanical installation will include modifying the existing ductwork (i.e., installing a ''T'' to connect the new exhauster to the existing system), modifying the existing condensate drain lines to accommodate the new lines associated with the new exhauster, a maintenance platform near the stack of the new exhauster, guy wires and guy wire footings to support the stack of the new exhauster, as well as other miscellaneous tasks associated with the mechanical installation design effort

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  18. Gases in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Pacer, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Interest continues to grow in the use of helium and radon detection as a uranium exploration tool because, in many instances, these radiogenic gases are the only indicators of deeply buried mineralization. The origin of these gases, their migration in the ground, the type of samples and measurement techniques are discussed. Case histories of comparative tests conducted on known uranium deposits at three geologically diverse sites in the United States of America are also presented. (author)

  19. Wavelength-Agile Optical Sensor for Exhaust Plume and Cryogenic Fluid Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott T.; Chiaverini, Martin J.; Gramer, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Two optical sensors developed in UW-Madison labs were evaluated for their potential to characterize rocket engine exhaust plumes and liquid oxygen (LOX) fluid properties. The plume sensor is based on wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy A device called a chirped white pulse emitter (CWPE) is used to generate the wavelength agile light, scanning, for example, 1340 - 1560 nm every microsecond. Properties of the gases in the rocket plume (for example temperature and water mole fraction) can be monitored using these wavelength scans. We have performed preliminary tests in static gas cells, a laboratory GOX/GH2 thrust chamber, and a solid-fuel hybrid thrust chamber, and these initial tests demonstrate the potential of the CWPE for monitoring rocket plumes. The LOX sensor uses an alternative to wavelength agile sensing: two independent, fixed-wavelength lasers are combined into a single fiber. One laser is absorbed by LOX and the other not: by monitoring the differential transmission the LOX concentration in cryogenic feed lines can be inferred. The sensor was successful in interrogating static LOX pools in laboratory tests. Even in ice- and bubble-laden cryogenic fluids, LOX concentrations were measured to better than 1% with a 3 microsec time constant.

  20. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  1. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  2. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  3. Baking exhaustion device in thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Mitsunori.

    1987-02-02

    Purpose: To rapidly remove tritium and impurity from the vacuum region in the access port of the baking exhaustion device in a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Each of the gaps at the boundary between a fixed shielding member and a blanket module and at the boundary between the blanket and a divertor is made extremely small so as to minimize the neutron streaming from plasmas. Accordingly, in the case of evacuating the vacuum region in the access port, the gap conductance is extremely poor and the exhaustion speed is low. Then, baking pipeways for flowing high temperature fluids are embedded to the surface layer at the position facing to the vacuum region and the plasma evacuation duct and the vacuum region are connected with an evacuation duct of the access port. By flowing high temperature fluids in the pipeways and conducting evacuation, baking exhaustion can be carried out rapidly. (Kamimura, M.).

  4. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  5. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  6. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  7. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  8. Decreasing the exhaust outlet temperatures on a class III bus with the lowest impact on the exhaust backpressure and the fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, E.; Ozturk, Y.; Dileroglu, S.

    2017-07-01

    The focus of this study is to determine the most appropriate exhaust tail pipe form among three different type of designs with respect to their temperature loss efficiency for a 9.5m intercity bus equipped with an Euro VI diesel engine and an automated transmission. To provide lower temperatures at the exhaust outlet, mentioned designs were submitted on to a CFD simulation using Ansys Fluent 17.1, while for manufactured products, temperature measurement tests were conducted in an environmental chamber with Omega K-type thermocouples, and Flir T420 thermal camera was used to monitor outer surface temperature distributions to make a comparison between theoretical and practical results. In order to obtain these practical results, actual tests were performed in an environmental chamber with a constant ambient temperature during the vehicle exhaust emission system regeneration process. In conclusion, an exhaust tail pipe design with a diffuser having a circular contraction and expansion forms is designated since it was the most optimized option in terms of temperature loss efficiency, inconsiderable exhaust backpressure increase and manufacturing costs.

  9. Exhaustive Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress Alteration of Erythrocyte Oxygen Release Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Yueming; Zhao, Yajin; Li, Yaojin; Ren, Yang; Wang, Ruofeng; Zhao, Mingzi; Hao, Yitong; Liu, Haibei; Wang, Xiang

    2018-05-24

    The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Biochemical studies suggested that exhaustive running significantly increased oxidative injury parameters in TBARS and methaemoglobin levels. Furthermore, exhaustive running significantly decreased anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that erythrocytes oxygen release ability also significantly increased due to elevated 2,3-DPG level after exhaustive running. Kinetic analysis indicated that exhaustive running resulted in significantly decreased T50 value. We presented evidence that exhaustive running remarkably impacted thermodynamics and kinetics properties of RBCs oxygen release. In addition, changes in 2,3-DPG levels and band-3 oxidation and phosphorylation could be the driving force for exhaustive running induced alterations in erythrocytes oxygen release thermodynamics and kinetics properties.

  10. Radioactive gas waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Koichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive gas waste processing device which extracts exhaust gases from a turbine condensator in a BWR type reactor and releases them after decaying radioactivity thereof during temporary storage. The turbine condensator is connected with an extracting ejector, a preheater, a recombiner for converting hydrogen gas into steams, an off gas condensator for removing water content, a flow rate control valve, a dehumidifier, a hold up device for removing radiation contaminated materials, a vacuum pump for sucking radiation decayed-off gases, a circulation water tank for final purification and an exhaustion cylinder by way of connection pipelines in this order. An exhaust gas circulation pipeline is disposed to circulate exhaust gases from an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the recycling water tank to an exhaust gas exit pipeline of the exhaust gas condensator, and a pressure control valve is disposed to the exhaust gas circulation pipeline. This enable to perform a system test for the dehumidification device under a test condition approximate to the load of the dehumidification device under actual operation state, and stabilize both of system flow rate and pressure. (T.M.)

  11. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  12. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  13. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  14. Exhaustible-resource theory and the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.L.

    1982-01-01

    Exhaustible-resource theory has been developed rapidly by economists since the OPEC shocks of 1973-1974 and the theory now provides a framework for analyzing the optimal production pattern for resource commodities. However, applications of the theory to particular markets, such as crude oil, have not provided accurate predictions due no doubt to theoretical problems in explaining exploration and discovery events, market organization changes, and uncertainty. This thesis investigated the uranium market in an effort to determine how well the exhaustible-resource theory explains the past price and quantity time paths of this energy resource, and what might be expected in the future. The exhaustible-resource theory was first developed in a form appropriate to an application to the uranium market. An econometric simulation model that combines the history of uranium price formation and the exhaustible-resource theory was developed to forecast future uranium prices. The model was designed not only to reflect the physical processes of drilling activities, changing reserves, production, and prices of uranium through individual equations, but also to account for the interaction of all these interrelationships at the same time

  15. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  16. Gases and carbon in metals. Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Hehn, W.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1981-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'Gases and Carbon in Metals' which supplements the data compilation in the book 'Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen' (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore, it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. (orig./GE)

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF A GASOLINE ENGINE EXHAUST GAS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The engine exhaust gas behaviour is strongly influencing the engine performance. This paper presents the modelling and analysis of four stroke - gasoline engine exhaust gas systems. An automotive example is considered whereby the pulsating exhausts gas flow through an exhaust pipe and silencer are considered over a wide range of speeds. Analytical procedures are outlined enabling the general analysis and modelling of vehicle engine exhaust gas systems also in this paper present...

  18. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  19. Process to refine flyash captured from pulverized coal fired boilers and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowy, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a separating and refining process for particulate that has been removed from the exhaust gases of an organic fuel combustion process. It includes determining relative sizes of carbon rich and carbon lean particles that are found in the exhaust gases for the combustion process; supplying the particulate matter from the exhaust of the combustion process; providing a means for conveying the particulate matter between the following steps; separating, by size, coarse and fine particles in the exhaust particulate so as to yield carbon rich and carbon lean fractions

  20. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  1. Exhaust gas purifying system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, H; Saito, Z

    1976-10-07

    The exhaust gas purification system is a so-called three-way catalytic converter. It consists of an oxidation converter, a reduction converter, or a thermal converter. An exhaust sensor made up of an oxygen sensor, a carbon sensor, a carbon monoxide sensor, hydrocarbon sensor, or a nitrogen peroxide sensor, tests the composition of the exhaust and controls the air-fuel feed system in dependence of the exhaust mixture in such a manner that in the intake system an air-fuel mixture is taken in which the stoichiometric air-fuel relation is produced. Moreover, a thermostatically controlled air intake device is built into the fuel injection system which supplies the air of the fuel injection system with a relatively consistent temperature.

  2. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  3. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  4. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  5. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  6. 40 CFR 86.1342-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust sample in sampling solution, µg/ml. (vii) VAE = Volume of sampling solution for dilute exhaust... sampling solution, µg/ml. (xiii) VAA = Volume of sampling solution for dilution air formaldehyde sample, ml... paragraph (d)(3) of this section): Wet concentration = Kw × dry concentration. Where: (1)(i) For English...

  7. Identification of the sources of organic compounds that decalcify cement concrete and generate alcohols and ammonia gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoto, Takashi [Technical Research Institute, Obayashi Road Corporation, 4-640 Shimokiyoto, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-0011 (Japan); Moriyoshi, Akihiro [Material Science Laboratory, Hokkaido University, 2-1-9-10 Kiyota, Kiyota-ku, Sapporo, 004-0842 (Japan); Sakai, Kiyoshi [Department of Environmental Health, Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, 1-11 Hagiyama-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8615 (Japan); Shibata, Eiji [Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute-cho, Aichi, 480-1195 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    This study identifies the emission sources of various types of airborne organic compounds, which deteriorate cement concrete by penetrating into the concrete together with moisture. The study used high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry. The results show that the types of organic compounds contained in decalcified cement concrete were very similar to those found in the total suspended compounds in the air, and that the source of the emissions was particles of exhaust from diesel vehicles and radial tires used in summer. Such organic compounds include substances suspected of having endocrine disrupting properties. Hydrolysis occurs when these substances penetrate into highly alkaline cement concrete, and leads to deterioration of the cement concrete and the release of alcohols and ammonia gases which pollute indoor air and may be a cause of the sick building syndrome. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-7 Exhaust gas boilers. (a) Construction...

  9. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine... methane) is a satisfactory substitute for pure methane in these tests. (c) Coupling or adapter. The...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  11. 14C-labeled diesel exhaust particles: chemical characteristics and bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Dutcher, J.S.; Brooks, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Little is known about the deposition, retention and biological fate of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust particles. In the studies reported here, a one-cylinder diesel engine was operated on diesel fuel spiked with 14 C-benzene, 14 C-hexadecane or 14 C-dotriacontane to generate 14 C-labeled diesel exhaust. Approximately 1% of the exhaust radioactivity was associated with the particulate phase of diesel exhaust. Chemical fractionation of the particle extract showed the 14 C to be present in each of the various chemical class fractions collected. Serum removed approx. 60% of the dichloromethane extractable radioactivity from these diesel particles while saline removed only approx. 6%. This suggested that the organic compounds may be removed from diesel particles in vivo. Future inhalation exposures of rodents to 14 C-labeled diesel exhausts are planned to gain additional information on the health risk of human exposure to diesel exhaust

  12. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  13. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 229 / Tuesday... 98 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9493-9] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors...

  14. 76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 150 / Thursday...-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9443-1] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... provisions in the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial...

  15. Infrared thermography application on predictive maintenance for exhaust fan motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Wayan Widiana; Jakaria; Artadi Heru; Mulyono

    2013-01-01

    To determine the condition of the exhaust fan motor in terms of heat dissipation, predictive maintenance needs to be done. One way is to use infrared thermography. The method used is an infrared thermography with qualitative technique which the analysis focused on the distribution patterns of heat captured by the infrared camera. From measurement results expected to be obtained data of the heat distribution occurs in the motor exhaust fan so it can be given treatment or further improvements recommendations to avoid failure of the operation. Results of measurements on the motor exhaust fan 9 and the motor exhaust fan 10 indicates that there is excessive heat dissipation (over heating). The recommendation given is increasing the motor capacity of 11 kW to 18 kW with a consideration of the addition load on exhaust fan system and age of motor more than 22 years. (author)

  16. Work plan for new SY tank farm exhauster, on-site fabrication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement SY tank farm exhauster unit is a new piece of equipment, designed to replace the existing SY tank farm K1 Ventilation System exhauster unit. This work plan describes the shop fabrication activities associated with the receiving, assembly, repair, modification, and testing of the new SY tank farm primary exhauster. A general list of these activities include, but are not limited to: repair all shipping damages, including procurement of replacement parts; fabricate hardware needed to install exhauster in the field (e.g., Vent duct tie-in, duct concrete footings/hangers, stack concrete footings, etc.); incorporate equipment modification as provided by WHC Engineering (e.g., Rewire the Alarm Annunciator Cabinet as fail-safe, connections between the exhauster and stack sample cabinet, etc.); test the entire exhauster unit, to the extent possible, prior to field installation; and prepare exhauster unit for transfer to and installation at SY tank farm

  17. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  18. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-01-01

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases

  19. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  20. Noise Radiation Of A Strongly Pulsating Tailpipe Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peizi, Li; Genhua, Dai; Zhichi, Zhu

    1993-11-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve the problem of the propagation of a strongly pulsating flow in an exhaust system tailpipe. For a strongly pulsating exhaust, the flow may shock at the pipe's open end at some point in a pulsating where the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. The method fails if one insists on setting the flow pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure as the pipe end boundary condition. To solve the problem, we set the Mach number equal to 1 as the boundary condition when the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. For a strongly pulsating flow, the fluctuations of flow variables may be much higher than their respective time averages. Therefore, the acoustic radiation method would fail in the computation of the noise radiation from the pipe's open end. We simulate the exhaust flow out of the open end as a simple sound source to compute the noise radiation, which has been successfully applied in reference [1]. The simple sound source strength is proportional to the volume acceleration of exhaust gas. Also computed is the noise radiation from the turbulence of the exhaust flow, as was done in reference [1]. Noise from a reciprocating valve simulator has been treated in detail. The radiation efficiency is very low for the pressure range considered and is about 10 -5. The radiation efficiency coefficient increases with the square of the frequency. Computation of the pipe length dependence of the noise radiation and mass flux allows us to design a suitable length for an aerodynamic noise generator or a reciprocating internal combustion engine. For the former, powerful noise radiation is preferable. For the latter, maximum mass flux is desired because a freer exhaust is preferable.

  1. Permeability of cork to gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  2. Application of the FTIR system K300 for the emission and immission measurement of atmospheric trace gases and harmful substances in the air: examples of cases and results. Anwendung des FTIR-Systems K300 zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung atmosphaerischer Spurengase und Luftschadstoffe: Fallbeispiele und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, T [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Mosebach, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Bittner, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1993-01-01

    The K300 double oscillation interferometer used for the investigations is a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer which, due to its special optical design, is very suitable for high resolution remote sensing emission and immission (long-path monitoring) measurements of harmful substances in the air and atmospheric trace gases, when used in the field. The spectrum of applications extends from the direct measurement of hot chimney waste gases and of engine exhaust gases via the monitoring of industrial plants or waste dumps (diffuse emission) to the immission measurement of sites with heavy traffic. For direct emission measurements, the infrared characteristic radiation of hot waste gases is used; for the measurement of cold diffuse emission or immission, one measures against an artificial infrared source of radiation, which can be erected at a distance of several hundred metres from the equipment (bistatic configuration, socalled long-path monitoring). The results of different applications, which were obtained in the context of various campaigns of measurements, are shown after a short introduction of the system. (orig./BBR)

  3. Catalytic exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H

    1973-09-01

    Recent achievements and problems in the development of exhaust control devices in the USA are reviewed. To meet the 1976 emission standards, catalytic systems for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and for the reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water are needed. While oxidizing catalysts using platinum, palladium, copper, vanadium, and chromium appplied on alumina or ceramic materials are more or less effective in emission control, there are no catalytic devices for the reduction of nitrogen oxides with the required useful life of 25,000 to 50,000 miles as yet available. In the case of platinum catalysts on monolithic supports, the operating temperature of 650 to 750/sup 0/C as required for the oxidation process may cause inactivation of the catalysts and fusion of the support material. The oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons is inhibited by high concentrations of CO, nitric oxide, and hydrocarbons. The use of catalytic converters requires the use of lead-free or low-lead gasoline. The nitrogen oxides conversion efficiency is considerably influenced by the oxygen-to-CO ratio of the exhaust gas, which makes limitation of this ratio necessary.

  4. [Alteration of textilfibres by explosion gases expelled distant from the muzzle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, W; Kijewski, H

    1976-03-24

    This paper presents the reconstruction of an unusual case of suicide. After raiding a branch-bank a robber fled shooting with his Sauer-Western revolver caliber .44 magnum at the pursuing policemen and succeeded in wrestling a pistol Walther caliber 7,65 mm from them. Under the fire of sub-machine guns he destroyed himself by a shot to the neck. Our investigations concerned a textile damage at the front of the sweater of the deceased surrounded by primer residue, showing characteristics of a close-up shot. The damage was identified as effect of explosion gases exhausting far-off the muzzle. The distance between this injury and the bullet hole corresponded with the length of the barrel of the Sauer-Western revolver and could be used for identification; it confirmed the diagnosis of a close-up shot at the neck, too. Collateral experiments with shots from distant ranges developed spadiceous melt figures of textile fibers around the bullet hole, the appearance of which is considered proof for a close-up shot commonly.

  5. 40 CFR 89.401 - Scope; applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart B of this part. (b) Exhaust gases, either raw or dilute, are sampled while the test engine is operated using the appropriate test cycle on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust gases receive specific... the power output during each mode. Emissions are reported as grams per kilowatt hour (g/kW-hr). (c...

  6. Effect of CO2 supply strategy on specific energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of CO2-dosing with exhaust gases on the efficiency of glasshouse tomato production. The paper shows that it can be recommended to ensure a continuing CO2 supply during the warm period. The discussion focuses on exhaust gases as a CO2 source, but the results also

  7. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  8. Psychic and moral exhaustion in primary care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Brandão Bacci Pegoraro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To report the experience of developing a workshop proposal to assist local managers with the identification, management and prevention of primary care workers' psychic and moral exhaustion. METHOD The workshop was developed through a literature review performed between November 2014 and June 2015. The temporal cut considered studies of the ten previous years. The selection included studies describing collective interventions for situations generating psychic and moral exhaustion, preferably in primary care services. RESULTS Thirty-five articles were analyzed. The workshop provides five meetings with an average duration of one hour. The themes are: awareness; recognizing personal stress; dealing with personal stress; recognizing team stress; and dealing with team stress. The workshop is based on five key principles: detection and coping; attention to interpersonal relationships; communication; self-knowledge and mindfulness. CONCLUSION Psychic and moral exhaustion may reflect negatively on workers' health, the care, and the organization. The proposal of measures to recognize, deal with and prevent psychic and moral exhaustion is relevant and strategic in the constant search for improvement of satisfaction and quality.

  9. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  10. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  11. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total hydrocarbons plus impurities or.... (2) Mixtures of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and... check gases shall contain propane with 350 ppmC ±75 ppmC hydrocarbon. The three oxygen interference...

  12. Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.

    2007-01-01

    We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed

  13. Use of gases in dairy manufacturing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-06-13

    Use of gases (air, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) has been practiced in the manufacture of dairy products (i.e., ice cream, whipped cream and butter) to improve their texture, mouthfeel and shelf-life extension. Many attempts have also been made to incorporate other gases such as hydrogen, nitrous oxide, argon, xenon, and helium into the dairy systems for various product functionalities such as whipping, foaming, texture, aroma enhancement, and therapeutic properties. The gases can be dissolved in aqueous and fat phases or remain in the form of bubbles stabilized by protein or fat particles. The gas addition or infusion processes are typically simple and have been used commercially. This review focuses on the use of various gases in relation to their individually physical properties along with their specific roles in manufacturing and controlling quality of dairy products. It also recaps on how gases are included in the dairy systems. The information is important in understanding of addition of specific gas(es) into food systems, particularly dairy products, that potentially provide intervention opportunities for modifying and/or creating innovative food structures and functionalities.

  14. Plant for removing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Buzai; Kanazawa, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The outline of the pilot plant to remove and recover radioactive rare gases generated from nuclear power plants, reprocessing installations for nuclear fuel, nuclear research installations, etc. is described below. Among the studies of various processes such as liquefaction and distillation, absorption into solvents, active carbon adsorption, diaphragm method, etc., the liquefaction and distillation process by rectification at low temperature has been positively developed. It is in the stage of practical application for removing rare gases in waste gases from reprocessing and nuclear power plants. This is the process with high safety and excellent rare gas removing capability. Further research and development have been also made for selective adsorption and desorption method at low temperature which is very efficient as there is no release of long life nuclides such as Krypton-85. Rare gases recovered by the above mentioned removal systems must be stored safely for a long time as their half lives are long and specific radioactivities are high. The study has been made continuously on the storage methods including adsorption in cylinders and remotely automatically sealing storing system. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Neuropsychological sequelae of work-stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Skogsliden, Sofia; Karlson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess long-term cognitive performance after substantial recovery from work-stress-related exhaustion, in relation to subjective cognitive complaints and return to active work. In total, 54 patients previously diagnosed with work-stress-related exhaustion participated in a neuropsychological examination ∼2 years after initial sick leave. Most participants were substantially recovered at follow-up, with only 13% still meeting the criteria for exhaustion disorder suggested by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. When participants' scores on 14 neuropsychological tests were compared to a matched group of 50 controls, the former patient group showed lower performance mainly on attention tests of the reaction time type, but also slightly lower scores on visuo-spatial constructional ability. However, the former patient group performed better than controls on two memory tests and, in part, on a test of simultaneous capacity. Self-ratings of everyday cognitive problems remained significantly higher in the former patient group than among controls, but the extent of self-rated cognitive problems was generally unrelated to performance on the neuropsychological tests. No relationship between performance on these tests and the extent of work resumption was observed. In summary, persons with previous work-stress-related exhaustion showed persistent signs of a minor attention deficit, despite considerable general recovery and return to work.

  16. Automatic continuous dew point measurement in combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1986-08-01

    Low exhaust temperatures serve to minimize energy consumption in combustion systems. This requires accurate, continuous measurement of exhaust condensation. An automatic dew point meter for continuous operation is described. The principle of measurement, the design of the measuring system, and practical aspects of operation are discussed.

  17. Critical Temperature Differences of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Various Helium-Based Binary Mixture Working Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    Thermoacoustic prime movers are energy conversion devices which convert thermal energy into acoustic work. The devices are environmentally friendly because they do not produce any exhaust gases. In addition, they can utilize clean energy such as solar-thermal energy or waste heat from internal combustion engines as the heat sources. The output mechanical work of thermoacoustic prime movers are usually used to drive a thermoacoustic refrigerator or to generate electricity. A thermoacoustic prime mover with low critical temperature difference is desired when we intend to utilize low quality of heat sources such as waste heat and sun light. The critical temperature difference can be significantly influenced by the kinds of working gases inside the resonator and stack's channels of the device. Generally, helium gas is preferred as the working gas due to its high sound speed which together with high mean pressure will yield high acoustic power per unit volume of the device. Moreover, adding a small amount of a heavy gas to helium gas may improve the efficiency of thermoacoustic devices. This paper presents numerical study and estimation of the critical temperature differences of a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with various helium-based binary-mixture working gases. It is found that mixing helium (He) gas with other common gases, namely argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), at appropriate pressures and molar compositions, reduce the critical temperature differences to lower than those of the individual components of the gas mixtures. In addition, the optimum mole fractions of Hegas which give the minimum critical temperature differences are shifted to larger values as the pressure increases, and tends to be constant at around 0.7 when the pressure increases more than 2 MPa. However, the minimum critical temperature differences slightly increase as the pressure increases to higher than 1.5 MPa. Furthermore, we found that the lowest

  18. Perceived social support and emotional exhaustion in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counsellors have been identified as a group of professionals at elevated risk of burnout in general and emotional exhaustion in particular. Considering the nature of the illness, ... the quality of the services they provide. Key words: Emotional exhaustion, perceived social support, burnout syndrome, demographic variables.

  19. Excess-pressure suppression device in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reliably decrease the radioactivity of radioactive gases when they are released externally. Constitution: The exit of a gas exhaust pipe for discharging gases in a reactor container, on generation of an excess pressure in the reactor container upon loss of coolant accident, is adapted to be always fluided in the cooling tank. Then, the exhaust gases discharged in the cooling tank is realeased to the atmosphere. In this way, the excess pressure in the reactor container can be prevented previously and the radioactivity of the gases released externally is significantly reduced by the scrubbing effect. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  1. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  2. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Da; Qiu Zhijun; Lu Rongrong; Qiu Huiyuan; Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analytical sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust of Shanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its corresponding x-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There are many kinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harmful to people, such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. The authors found that the lead concentration was 6820 μg/g and the bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leaded gasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. The authors have also detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its content varies from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highest reached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while the leaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to the human beings

  3. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document

  4. Work-related exhaustion and telomere length: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ahola

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR -based method.After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016 than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009. The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008.These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.

  5. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  6. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be..., hydrogen, methane, nitrogen, oxides of nitrogen, and aldehydes, or any other constituent prescribed by MSHA...

  7. Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  9. Analysis of the use of waste heat obtained from coal-fired units in Organic Rankine Cycles and for brown coal drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Kochaniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions have created a need for new energy technologies. One way to meet these new requirements is to optimise the efficiency of power units. This paper presents two energy technologies that, if used, will increase the efficiency of electricity generation. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of brown coal-fired units is by drying the coal that is fed into the boiler. Here, we describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. This paper also presents an analysis of the feasibility of and potential for using waste heat obtained from exhaust gases to feed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Several low-temperature working fluids were considered, which were selected based on properties that were best suited for these types of cycles. The impact of these working fluids on the efficiency and capacity of the ORC was also examined. The calculations for ORCs fed with waste heat obtained from exhaust gases from hard coal- and brown coal-fired boilers were compared. -- Highlights: ► We describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. ► The impact of using different working fluids with a low boiling point is examined. ► We describe integrating the ORC with the power unit. ► The use of waste heat from boiler exhaust gases to dry brown coal is proposed. ► We demonstrate a possible increase in power unit efficiency.

  10. A Low Cost Ferritic Stainless Steel Microalloyed by Higher Nb for Automotive Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Erhu; Wang, Xuelin; Shang, Chengjia

    Automotive engine exhaust gas after combustion of fuel, and the gas will be liquefied in the rear of automotive exhaust system. A lot of corrosive anions existing in the condensate make corrosion of the exhaust system materials. Therefore, once pitting perforation, automotive exhaust system will fail directly. In 1980s, automotive exhaust manifold was made of Si-Mo ductile iron, mufflers and the tail pipe were made of carbon steel or aluminized steel. But with higher emission standards carried out, the improvement of engine performance and the higher exhaust temperature as well as the needs of the automotive light-weighting, we need the higher corrosion resistance of the material for automotive exhaust systems to meet the requirements.

  11. Solubility of gases in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, R.J.; Japas, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the primary circuits of the PWR, it is usual to find apolar gases such as the noble gases like, nitrogen, hydrogen (deuterium) and oxygen. These gases enter into the circuit partly due to failures in the fuel elements, accidental entries of air into the system and corrosion processes and radiolisis in the coolant media. For the operation of several auxiliary systems in the primary circuit, it is important to know the solubility of these gases in the flux of the circuit and the evaluation of physicochemical processes that take place. A cell has been built that allows to carry out determinations of solubility in the range of 350 deg C and 100 Mega Pascal. Three alternative experimental techniques have been developed to determine the solubility of the gases which are compared to each other. Measures of solubility of argon in H2O and D2O have been made in a wide range of temperatures. (V.B.) [es

  12. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  13. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Halfaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO 2 and 15 ppm-NH 3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  14. Laser-aided diagnostics of plasmas and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, K

    2000-01-01

    Updated and expanded from the original Japanese edition, Laser-Aided Diagnostics of Gases and Plasmas takes a unique approach in treating laser-aided diagnostics. The book unifies the subject by joining applications instead of describing each application as a totally separate system. In taking this approach, it highlights the relative strengths of each method and shows how they can complement each other in the study of gases and plasmas.The first part of the book presents a general introduction to the laser-aided study of gases and plasmas, including the various principles and hardware needed for each method, while the second part describes the applications of each general system in detail.Beneficial to a wide spectrum of academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a solid examination of the various options and methods available when involved in the analysis and diagnostics of gases and plasmas.

  15. Granular Gases: Probing the Boundaries of Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhirsch, I.

    1999-01-01

    The dissipative nature of the particle interactions in granular systems renders granular gases mesoscopic and bearing some similarities to regular gases in the ''continuum transition regime'' where shear rates and/or thermal gradients are very large). The following properties of granular gases support the above claim: (i). Mean free times are of the same order as macroscopic time scales (inverse shear rates); (ii). Mean free paths can be macroscopic and comparable to the system's dimensions; (iii). Typical flows are supersonic; (iv). Shear rates are typically ''large''; (v). Stress fields are scale (resolution) dependent; (vi). Burnett and super-Burnett corrections to both the constitutive relations and the boundary conditions are of importance; (vii). Single particle distribution functions can be far from Gaussian. It is concluded that while hydrodynamic descriptions of granular gases are relevant, they are probing the boundaries of applicability of hydrodynamics and perhaps slightly beyond

  16. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  17. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  19. Properties of gases, liquids, and solutions principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume ll-Part A: Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solutions ponders on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as effective tools in examining the molecular, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation pro

  20. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  1. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  2. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  3. Fuel gases in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachiche, B.; Elandaloussi, H.

    1996-01-01

    For a country like Algeria, fuel gases represent an important economical challenge. To answer the increasing energy demand in the transportation sector, the use of fuel gases allows to preserve the petroleum reserves and to create specific industrial structures devoted to LPG-f (liquefied petroleum gas-fuel) and NGV (natural gas for vehicles). This paper presents the energy policy of Algeria, its reserves, production, and exportations of hydrocarbons and the internal rational use of energy sources according to its economic and environmental policy and to its internal needs. The energy consumption of Algeria in the transportation sector represents 2/3 of the petroleum products consumed in the internal market and follows a rapid increase necessary to the socio-economic development of the country. The Algerian experience in fuel gases is analysed according to the results of two successive experimentation periods for the development of NGV before and after 1994, and the resulting transportation and distribution network is described. The development of LPG-f has followed also an experimental phase for the preparation of regulation texts and a first statement of the vehicles conversion to LPG-f is drawn with its perspectives of development according to future market and prices evolutions. (J.S.)

  4. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized... exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or (iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the...

  5. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  6. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  7. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  8. Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani Firoozabadi, M.; Shahbakhti, M.; Koch, C.R.; Jazayeri, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature

  9. Two studies on the effects of small exhaust fans on indoor air quality: Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems; Indoor air quality, exhaust fan mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Overall, the findings show that exhaust fans basically provide small amounts of ventilation compensation. By monitoring the common indoor air pollutants (radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor), it was found that the quality of the indoor air was not adversely affected by the use of exhaust fans. Nor did their use provide any measurable or significant benefits since no improvement in air quality was ascertained. While exhaust fans of this small size did not increase radon, which is the contaminant of most concern, the researchers caution that operation of a larger fan or installation in a very tight home could result in higher levels because depressurization is greater. The daily energy consumption for use of these appliances during the heating season was calculated to be 1.5 kilowatt hours or approximately 3% of the energy consumption in the study homes. The information collected in this collaborative field study indicates that the use of these particular ventilation systems has no significant effect on indoor air quality

  10. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  11. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, Boris; Julklang, Wittaya

    2014-01-01

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  12. History of chemically and radiatively important atmospheric gases from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the organization, instrumentation, datasets, data interpretation, modeling, and accomplishments of the multinational global atmospheric measurement program AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment. AGAGE is distinguished by its capability to measure globally, at high frequency, and at multiple sites all the important species in the Montreal Protocol and all the important non-carbon-dioxide (non-CO2 gases assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (CO2 is also measured at several sites. The scientific objectives of AGAGE are important in furthering our understanding of global chemical and climatic phenomena. They are the following: (1 to accurately measure the temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic gases that contribute the majority of reactive halogen to the stratosphere and/or are strong infrared absorbers (chlorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons – CFCs, bromocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons – HCFCs, hydrofluorocarbons – HFCs and polyfluorinated compounds (perfluorocarbons – PFCs, nitrogen trifluoride – NF3, sulfuryl fluoride – SO2F2, and sulfur hexafluoride – SF6 and use these measurements to determine the global rates of their emission and/or destruction (i.e., lifetimes; (2 to accurately measure the global distributions and temporal behaviors and determine the sources and sinks of non-CO2 biogenic–anthropogenic gases important to climate change and/or ozone depletion (methane – CH4, nitrous oxide – N2O, carbon monoxide – CO, molecular hydrogen – H2, methyl chloride – CH3Cl, and methyl bromide – CH3Br; (3 to identify new long-lived greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases (e.g., SO2F2, NF3, heavy PFCs (C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16, and C8F18 and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs; e.g., CH2  =  CFCF3 have been identified in AGAGE, initiate the real-time monitoring of these new gases, and reconstruct their past histories from AGAGE, air archive, and firn air measurements; (4

  13. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as √(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  14. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  15. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    backpressure can decrease engine power by ~1% per inch Hg.27 A specific exhaust heat exchanger design would need to take this effect into account...Materials. 2009;39:2142–2148. 4. Sprouse III C, Depcik C. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery...Adams TG. Effect of exhaust system design on engine performance. 1980. SAE Technical Paper No. 800319. 16 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 2/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. The separate volume (2/2) included drawings of valve, fire detector, orifice, thermocouple, motor control equipment, etc. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 1/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. The plant at installation site has been run since 1995, having a production capacity of 50,000-60,000 tons. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. (NEDO)

  18. Particle and Power Exhaust in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Ding, Fang; Yu, Yaowei; Gan, Kaifu; Liang, Yunfeng; Xu, Guosheng; Xiao, Bingjia; Sun, Youwen; Luo, Guangnan; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiangang; Wan, Baonian; Maingi, Rajesh; Guo, Houyang; Garofalo, Andrea; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    A total power injection up to 0.3GJ has been achieved in EAST long pulse USN operation with ITER-like water-cooling W-monoblock divertor, which has steady-state power exhaust capability of 10 MWm-2. The peak temperature of W target saturated at t = 12 s to the value T 500oC and a heat flux 3MWm-2was maintained. Great efforts to reduce heat flux and accommodate particle exhaust simultaneously have been made towards long pulse of 102s time scale. By exploiting the observation of Pfirsch-Schlüter flow direction in the SOL, the Bt direction with Bx ∇B away from the W divertor (more particles favor outer target in USN) was adopted along with optimizing the strike point location near the pumping slot, to facilitate particle and impurity exhaust with the top cryo-pump. By tailoring the 3D divertor footprint through edge magnetic topology change, the heat load was dispersed widely and thus peak heat flux and W sputtering was well controlled. Active feedback control of total radiative power with neon seeding was achieved within frad = 17-35%, exhibiting further potential for heat flux reduction with divertor and edge radiation. Other heat flux handling techniques, including quasi snowflake configuration, will also be presented.

  19. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  20. Determination of the radioiodine species in the exhaust air of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the selective I 2 sorption materials DSM 10 and DSM 11 measurements were performed with radioiodine species samplers in the exhaust air of a research reactor and of several nuclear power stations (BWR, PWR). The radioiodine species samplers were used upstream and downstream of iodine filters (containment exhaust air stand-by filter, shutoff room exhaust air filter) as well as in the exhaust air of the stack. The results obtained by use of DSM 10 and DSM 11 generally agreed. The percentage of aerosol iodine was low in all cases ( [de

  1. Exhaustive Search for Sparse Variable Selection in Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Hikaru; Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Uemura, Makoto; Ikeda, Shiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-04-01

    We propose a K-sparse exhaustive search (ES-K) method and a K-sparse approximate exhaustive search method (AES-K) for selecting variables in linear regression. With these methods, K-sparse combinations of variables are tested exhaustively assuming that the optimal combination of explanatory variables is K-sparse. By collecting the results of exhaustively computing ES-K, various approximate methods for selecting sparse variables can be summarized as density of states. With this density of states, we can compare different methods for selecting sparse variables such as relaxation and sampling. For large problems where the combinatorial explosion of explanatory variables is crucial, the AES-K method enables density of states to be effectively reconstructed by using the replica-exchange Monte Carlo method and the multiple histogram method. Applying the ES-K and AES-K methods to type Ia supernova data, we confirmed the conventional understanding in astronomy when an appropriate K is given beforehand. However, we found the difficulty to determine K from the data. Using virtual measurement and analysis, we argue that this is caused by data shortage.

  2. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  3. Gases for an SSC muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Carter, J.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1990-01-01

    Recent measurements of electron drift velocities as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N are reported for a number of unitary gases and the mixtures CO 2 /CH 4 and NH 3 /CF 4 /Ar. Calculated values of the mean electron energy as a function of E/N are also reported for unitary gases and mixtures of CO 2 /CH 4 . 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. Method and apparatus for removing radioactive gases from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frumerman, R.; Brown, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method for removing radioactive gases from a nuclear reactor including the steps of draining coolant from a nuclear reactor to a level just below the coolant inlet and outlet nozzles to form a vapor space and then charging the space with an inert gas, circulating coolant through the reactor to assist the release of radioactive gases from the coolant into the vapor space, withdrawing the radioactive gases from the vapor space by a vacuum pump which then condenses and separates water from gases carried forward by the vacuum pump, discharging the water to a storage tank and supplying the separated gases to a gas compressor which pumps the gases to gas decay tanks. After the gases in the decay tanks lose their radioactive characteristics, the gases may be discharged to the atmosphere or returned to the reactor for further use

  5. Thermodynamics, Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Askerov, Bahram M

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.

  6. AC BREAKDOWN IN GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron- emission (multipactor) region, and (3) the low-frequency region. The breakdown mechanism in each of these regions is explained. An extensive bibliography on AC breakdown in gases is included.

  7. 40 CFR 90.413 - Exhaust sample procedure-gaseous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-analysis values. (3) Measure and record HC, CO, CO2, and NOX concentrations in the exhaust sample bag(s...-analysis values. (7) Collect background HC, CO, CO2, and NOX in a sample bag (for dilute exhaust sampling...: (1) For dilute grab (“bag”) sample analysis, the analyzer response must be stable at greater than 99...

  8. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... probe may not be greater than 0.10 cm. The fitting that attaches the probe to the exhaust pipe must be... the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  9. 40 CFR 89.412 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe. (2) The... sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC analyzer and the NOX analyzer must be... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  10. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not be greater than 0.10 cm. The fitting that attaches the probe to the exhaust pipe shall be as... internally to the different analyzers. (2) Heat the sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and...

  11. Kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

  12. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Method of processing radioactive rare gase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagusagawa, Atsushi; Tuda, Kazuaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a safety processing method without using mechanical pumps or pressure-proof containers and, accordingly, with no risk for the leakage of radioactive rare gas. Method: A container filled with zeolige is inserted with a cover being opened into an autoclave. Meanwhile, krypton-containing gases are supplied to an adsorption tower filled with adsorbents, cooled, adsorbed and then heated to desorb adsorbed krypton. The krypton-containing gases are introduced due to the pressure difference to the autoclave thereby causing krypton to adsorb at ambient temperature to zeolite. Then, the inside of the autoclave is heated to desorb krypton and adsorbed moistures from zeolite and the pressure is elevated. After sending the gases under pressure to the adsorption tower, the zeolite-filled container is taken out from the autoclave, tightly closed and then transferred to a predetermined site. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Catalytic removal of methane and NO{sub x} in lean-burn natural-gas engine exhaust; Elimination par catalyse du methane et des NO{sub x} dans les echappements de moteur au gaz naturel a basse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Satokawa, S.; Yahagi, M.; Yamaseki, K.; Hoshi, F.; Uchida, H.; Yokota, H. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a new catalytic system to reduce the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) contained in the exhaust gases from a lean-burn natural-gas engine. Catalytic oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO in the exhaust has been studied for noble metals supported on alumina. (1) A low-loading catalyst comprising platinum supported on alumina (Pt/alumina) was efficient for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons without methane. The CO conversions were maintained at more than 98 % for 20,000 hours over the Pt/alumina. (2) A catalyst comprising platinum and palladium supported on alumina (Pt-Pd/alumina) exhibited higher levels of oxidation of hydrocarbons (including methane) than a catalyst comprising only palladium supported on alumina (Pd/alumina). Its oxidation also lasted longer. The combined effects of the platinum and palladium metals achieved high sulfur dioxide resistance. Increasing the palladium content in the Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst increased the level of oxidation and extended the lifetime of the catalyst. (3) A catalyst comprising silver supported on alumina (Ag/alumina) was effective at reducing the amount of NO{sub X} by using the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas. The NO{sub x} conversions over Ag/alumina were maintained at more than 30 % for 3,500 hours. We describe a total clean-up system consisting of a Ag/alumina catalyst and a Pt-Pd/alumina catalyst in series on the exhaust gas stream. (authors)

  15. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  16.   Exhaustion of Rights and Common Principles of European Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    of Market Integration. On the basis of case law on the concept of "consent" from the Trade Marks-Directive a Common Principle is then established. According to this, the legal framework for understanding the exhaustion rules is IPR and not national contract law. The Principle would seem to have horizontal......This article discusses whether or not Common Principles exist in EU law regarding exhaustion of rights ("first sale"). Traditionally, the law of the EU-countries conceptualized exhaustion in two different ways: Either "Contract" (e.g. UK law) or "Principle of exhaustion" (e.g. German law).  Whereas...

  17. Heat exhaustion in a deep underground metalliferous mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J; Bates, G P

    2000-03-01

    To examine the incidence, clinical state, personal risk factors, haematology, and biochemistry of heat exhaustion occurring at a deep underground metalliferous mine. To describe the underground thermal conditions associated with the occurrence of heat exhaustion. A 1 year prospective case series of acute heat exhaustion was undertaken. A history was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Pulse rate, blood pressure, tympanic temperature, and specific gravity of urine were measured before treatment. Venous blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical variables, during the acute presentation and after recovery. Body mass index (BMI) and maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) were measured after recovery. Psychrometric wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and air velocity were measured at the underground sites where heat exhaustion had occurred. Air cooling power and psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature were derived from these data. 106 Cases were studied. The incidence of heat exhaustion during the year was 43.0 cases/million man-hours. In February it was 147 cases/million man-hours. The incidence rate ratio for mines operating below 1200 m compared with those operating above 1200 m was 3.17. Mean estimated fluid intake was 0.64 l/h (SD 0.29, range 0.08-1.50). The following data were increased in acute presentation compared with recovery (p value, % of acute cases above the normal clinical range): neutrophils (p air velocity was 0.54 m/s (SD 0.57, range 0.00-4.00). Mean air cooling power was 148 W/m2 (SD 49, range 33-290) Mean psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature was 31.5 degrees C (SD 2.0, range 25.2-35.3). Few cases (air velocity > 1.56 m/s, air cooling power > 248 W/m2, or psychrometric wet bulb globe temperature air cooling power > 250 W/m2 at all underground work sites.

  18. PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ASD EXHAUST DISPERSION AROUND HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the use of a wind tunnel to physically model the dispersion of exhaust plumes from active soil depressurization (ASD) radon mitigation systems in houses. he testing studied the effects of exhaust location (grade level vs. above the eave), as house height, roo...

  19. Process for separating radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awada, Yoshihisa.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely separate and recover raw gases such as krypton which requires radioactive attenuation by a long term storage. Structure: A mixture of krypton and xenon is separated by liquefaction from raw gases at a first distillation column, using latent heat of liquid nitrogen. The krypton and xenon mixture separated by liquefaction at the first distillation column is separated into krypton and xenon, by controlling operation pressure of a second distillation column at about 3 - 5 atm., using sensible heat of low temperature nitrogen gas discharged from a top of the first distillation column and a condenser. (Aizawa, K.)

  20. The ideal gases of tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, St.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of statistical mechanics of particles slower than light has been considered from the point of view of the application of this formalism for the description of tachyons. Properties of ideal gases of tachyons have been discussed in detail. After finding general formulae for quantum, Bose and Fermi gases the classical limit has been considered. It has been shown that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs. The tachyon gas of bosons violates the third principle of thermodynamics. Degenerated Fermi gas has been considered and in this case the entropy vanishes at zero temperature. Difficulties of formulating covariant statistical mechanics have been discussed

  1. Parametric study on ship’s exhaust-gas behavior using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunho Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of design parameters related to a ship’s exhaust-gas behavior was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD for an 8,000 TEU container carrier. To verify the numerical methods, the results were studied by comparing with experimental results. Several test conditions, i.e. various load conditions of ship, wind angle, deckhouse breadth, radar mast height, and exhaust-pipe height and shape were considered for a ship’s exhaust gas flow around the 8,000 TEU container carrier. The influence of the design parameters on contamination by the exhaust gas was quantified, after which the principal parameters to avoid contamination were selected. Finally, the design guideline of yP/H = 2 was suggested to avoid the contamination from the ship’s exhaust gas using the CFD results, model tests, and sea trials.

  2. Variation of particle exhaust with changes in divertor magnetic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e. the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null or double-null (DN) and (2) the direction of the of B x ∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the B x ∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of B x ∇B and E x B ion particle drifts in the scrape-off layer and divertor(s) play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density. These results have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  3. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  4. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  5. Experimental and theoretical analysis of effects of atomic, diatomic and polyatomic inert gases in air and EGR on mixture properties, combustion, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions of a pilot-ignited NG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu; Dou, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The specific heat ratio of the mixture increases with increasing Ar. • The thermal efficiency increases first and then decreases with increasing Ar. • Mechanisms of reducing NOx emissions are different for different dilution gases. • A suitable inert gas should be used to meet different requirements. - Abstract: Argon (Ar), nitrogen (N_2) and carbon dioxide (CO_2), present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and air, are common atomic, diatomic and polyatomic inert gases, separately. As dilution gases, they are always added into the intake charge to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, directly or along with EGR and air. This paper presents the effects of Ar, N_2 and CO_2 on mixture properties, combustion, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions of pilot-ignited natural gas engines. Thermodynamic properties of the air-dilution gas mixture with increasing dilution gases, including density, gas constant, specific heat ratio, specific heat capacity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, were analyzed theoretically using thermodynamic relations and ideal gas equations based on experimental results. The thermal and diluent effects of dilution gases on NOx emissions were investigated based on Arrhenius Law and Zeldovich Mechanism, experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty, 6-cylinder, turbocharged, pilot-ignited natural gas engine. The resulted show that adding different inert gases into the intake charge had different influences on the thermodynamic properties of the air-dilution gas mixture. No great change in combustion phase was found with increasing dilution ratio (DR) of Ar, while the flame development duration increased significantly and CA50 moved far away from combustion top dead center (TDC) obviously with increasing DR for both of N_2 and CO_2. Adding Ar was superior in maintaining high thermal efficiencies than CO_2 and N_2, but adding CO_2 was superior in maintaining

  6. Virial Coefficients from Unified Statistical Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension and Equivalence of Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Mehedi Faruk, Mir

    2016-09-01

    From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas.

  7. Virial Coefficients from Unified Statistical Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension and Equivalence of Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Faruk, Mir Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas. (paper)

  8. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  9. Gas-Dynamic Designing of the Exhaust System for the Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Yu; Goriachkin, E.; Volkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Each gas turbine engine is tested some times during the life-cycle. The test equipment includes the air brake that utilizes the power produced by the gas turbine engine. In actual conditions, the outlet pressure of the air brake does not change and is equal to atmospheric pressure. For this reason, for the air brake work it is necessary to design the special exhaust system. Mission of the exhaust system is to provide the required level of backpressure at the outlet of the air brake. The backpressure is required for the required power utilization by the air brake (the air brake operation in the required points on the performance curves). The paper is described the development of the gas dynamic canal, designing outlet guide vane and the creation of a unified exhaust system for the air brake. Using a unified exhaust system involves moving the operating point to the performance curve further away from the calculated point. However, the applying of one exhaust system instead of two will significantly reduce the cash and time costs.

  10. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  11. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  12. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Wen Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC; SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE; exhaustive exercise (E; and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE. The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1190 - How do I determine compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Emission rate of PM, kg/Mg (lb/ton) of melt. C = Concentration of PM, g/dscm (gr/dscf). Q = Volumetric flow rate of exhaust gases, dscm/hr (dscf/hr). K 51 = Conversion factor, 1 kg/1,000 g (1 lb/7,000 gr). P... = 30.03. Q = Volumetric flow rate of exhaust gases, dscm/hr (dscf/hr). K1 = Conversion factor, 1 kg/1...

  14. Validated analytical modeling of diesel engine regulated exhaust CO emission rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed F Faris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Albeit vehicle analytical models are often favorable for explainable mathematical trends, no analytical model has been developed of the regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate for trucks yet. This research unprecedentedly develops and validates for trucks a model of the steady speed regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate analytically. It has been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate is based on (1 CO2 dissociation, (2 the water–gas shift reaction, and (3 the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon. It has been found as well that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on CO2 dissociation is considerably less than the rate that is based on the water–gas shift reaction. It has also been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on the water–gas shift reaction is the dominant source of CO exhaust emission. The study shows that the average percentage of deviation of the steady speed–based simulated results from the corresponding field data is 1.7% for all freeway cycles with 99% coefficient of determination at the confidence level of 95%. This deviation of the simulated results from field data outperforms its counterpart of widely recognized models such as the comprehensive modal emissions model and VT-Micro for all freeway cycles.

  15. Burn injuries related to motorcycle exhaust pipes: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzavakis, Ioannis; Frangakis, Constantine E; Charalampopoulou, Ava; Petridou, Eleni

    2005-05-01

    To identify measures that should reduce the incidence of burn injuries resulting from motorcycle exhaust pipes through epidemiological analysis of such injuries. During a 5-year period, 251 persons who suffered burn injuries related to motorcycle exhaust pipes have contacted four major hospitals belonging to the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) operating since 1996 in Greece. These burn injuries were studied in relation to person, environment and vehicle characteristics. The estimated countrywide incidence of burns from motorcycle exhaust pipes was 17 per 100,000 person-years (208 per 100,000 motorcycle-years). The incidence was two times higher for children than for older persons and among the latter it was 60% higher among females than among males. Most of burn injuries (70.5%) concerned motorcycle passengers, mainly when getting on or off motorcycle, with peak incidence during summer. The most frequent location of burn wounds was below the knee and particularly the right leg. It was estimated that the risk of motorcycle exhaust pipe burns when wearing shorts could be reduced by 46% through wearing long pants. Among the victims 65.3% experienced second degree burns. Motorcycle exhaust burns could be substantially reduced by systematically wearing long pants, by incorporating in the design of motorcycles external thermo resistant shields with adequate distance to the exhaust pipe, and by avoiding riding with children on motorcycles.

  16. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  17. Which climate gases is it the most important to reduce?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godal, Odd; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2002-01-01

    If the Kyoto Protocol had used another method for comparing the various climate gases, Norway might have had to implement more and more expensive measures. The selection of methods may be important for the making of new agreements after Kyoto. Calculations show the importance of the comparison methods for the various climate gases in negotiating new climate agreements. The Kyoto Protocol regulates the total emission of climate gases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), laughing gas (N 2 O) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), and halo fluoro carbons and perfluoro carbon. It is up to each country to choose which of these gases to concentrate on, and a tool is therefore needed to compare the effects of the various gases. In the Kyoto agreement, this is done by means of the global warming potential (GWP) of each gas over a period of 100 years. But different climate gases have different atmospheric residence times and it is not evident how the gases must be compared. Reducing the emission of methane has a strong and short-term effect while reducing the emission of carbon dioxide has a weaker but more lasting effect. Researchers have suggested other ways of comparison than the one used in the Kyoto Protocol. Among other things one may calculate the global warming potential for another time horizon than 100 years. Researchers at Cicero have investigated the consequences of two other ways of weighing climate gases: GWP(20) with time horizon of 20 years gives more weight to short-lived gases like methane, while GWP(500) with a time horizon of 500 years is more favourable to the long-lived gases. To see how much the selection of comparing method means in practice, the consequences for Norway using GWP(20) or GWP(500), have been calculated

  18. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Xia; Duan, Wen-Shan

    2012-11-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  19. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan-Xia; Duan Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity

  20. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim...... location is less important for the case studied. The choice of sampling strategy to obtain a representative background concentration is essential as substantial differences on direct capture efficiency are found. Recommendations are given......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  1. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide Enhances Removal of NOx from Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Pilot scale experiments have demonstrated a method of reducing the amounts of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted by industrial boilers and powerplant combustors that involves (1) injection of H2O2 into flue gases and (2) treatment of the flue gases by caustic wet scrubbing like that commonly used to remove SO2 from combustion flue gases. Heretofore, the method most commonly used for removing NOx from flue gases has been selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which the costs of both installation and operation are very high. After further development, the present method may prove to be an economically attractive alternative to SCR.

  3. Electron thermalization in rare gases and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, I.K.; Kimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution and temperature dependence of electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) are studied in pure rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) as well as in their mixtures by using solutions of the Boltzmann equation. A clear difference between the gases having the Ramsauer endash Townsend (RT) minimum in the momentum-transfer cross section, (RT gases: Ar, Kr, and Xe), and those without the RT minimum (non-RT gases: He and Ne) is pointed out. The influence of the position and the depth of the RT minimum on the EDF and time evolution is studied for three different initial electron energies. A formula proposed for describing thermalization time in a mixture is tested on (i) a non-RT endash non-RT gas mixture, (ii) a RT endash non-RT mixture and (iii) a RT endash RT gas mixture. The linear combination of the reciprocal thermalization times in gas mixture with the component concentrations as weighting factors is found to be valid for gases with a similar energy dependence of the momentum-transfer cross section, σ m , and also for all rare-gas binary mixtures if the initial electron energy is sufficiently below the RT minimum. Conspicuous deviations from the linear relationship are observed in mixtures of gases whose energy dependence of σ m (or the stopping cross section) are different, and theoretical rationales for these findings are provided. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  5. Relativistic quantum thermodynamics of ideal gases in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, H; Pimentel, B M; Tomazelli, J L

    1999-11-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  6. Relativistic Quantum Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases in 2 Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Blas, H.; Pimentel, B. M.; Tomazelli, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  7. Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnert, R.

    1982-01-07

    The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.

  8. A Hybrid approach for aeroacoustic analysis of the engine exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana, Y; Munjal, ML

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid approach for prediction of noise radiation from engine exhaust systems. It couples the time domain analysis of the engine and the frequency domain analysis of the muffler, and has the advantages of both. In this approach, cylinder/cavity is analyzed in the time domain to calculate the exhaust mass flux history at the exhaust valve by means of the method of characteristics, avoiding the tedious procedure of interpolation at every mesh point and solving a number...

  9. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  10. Optimization of valve opening process for the suppression of impulse exhaust noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxiang; Zhao, Shengdun

    2017-02-01

    Impulse exhaust noise generated by the sudden impact of discharging flow of pneumatic systems has significant temporal characteristics including high sound pressure and rapid sound transient. The impulse noise exposures are more hazardous to hearing than the energy equivalent uniform noise exposures. This paper presents a novel approach to suppress the peak sound pressure as a major indicator of impulsiveness of the impulse exhaust noise by an optimization of the opening process of valve. Relationships between exhaust flow and impulse noise are described by thermodynamics and noise generating mechanism. Then an optimized approach by controlling the valve opening process is derived under a constraint of pre-setting exhaust time. A modified servo-direct-driven valve was designed and assembled in a typical pneumatic system for the verification experiments comparing with an original solenoid valve. Experimental results with groups of initial cylinder pressures and pre-setting exhaust times are shown to verify the effects of the proposed optimization. Some indicators of energy-equivalent and impulsiveness are introduced to discuss the effects of the noise suppressions. Relationship between noise reduction and exhaust time delay is also discussed.

  11. Effective collision frequency of electrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, P.; Chang, J.-S.; Claude, A.; Yau, A.W.; Hobson, R.M.; Ogram, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electron-neutral collision frequency in the noble gases has been calculated using recent numerical results for momentum transfer cross sections by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. In all these gases, except for argon, good agreement is obtained with most previously published experimental and theoretical data. Mean free path, mobilities and diffusion coefficients are also calculated from the resulting effective collision frequencies. The empirical formulae are presented for an electron temperature dependence of the electron-neutral collision frequency for all noble gases up to Tsub(e) < approximately 25.000 K. (author)

  12. Exhaustion and Emotional Demands in China:A Large-Scale Investigation across Occupations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Z.Peng

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese economy moves toward a market-based model,employees are likely to face more emotional demands and exhaustion at work.However,there are some unique aspects to the emotional demands of work in the Chinese cultural context.We investigate emotional demands and exhaustion in China with a large-scale sample across the six major occupations identified by the Holland classification system.Results show that incumbents of social and enterprising jobs face higher emotional demands.Unexpectedly,exhaustion differs significantly between conventional and other types of jobs.Building on the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model,job crafting and the cultural context,we propose that the nonlinear relationship of emotional demands and exhaustion exists only when emotional intelligence is low.Our study may inform practitioners and policy makers in Chinese enterprises about emotional demands and exhaustion for various occupations and the importance of selection and training programs in emotional intelligence.

  13. Geodesics in thermodynamic state spaces of quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, H.; Obata, T.; Hara, H.

    2002-01-01

    The geodesics for ideal quantum gases are numerically studied. We show that 30 ideal quantum state is connected to an ideal classical state by geodesics and that the bundle of geodesics for Bose gases have a tendency of convergence

  14. Display rule "regulators": the relationship between supervisors and worker emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Steffanie L; Moynihan, Lisa M

    2005-09-01

    This field study examined the effect of supervisory regulation of display rules--the rules about what kind of emotion to express on the job (R. Ekman, 1992; A. Rafaeli & R. I. Sutton, 1987)--on the emotional exhaustion of subordinates. On the basis of a sample of 940 call center employees, the authors found that worker emotional exhaustion varied across supervisors within jobs, suggesting that emotion work is influenced at the supervisory, rather than job, level. Moreover, the authors found that the importance supervisors place on interpersonal job demands of their workers was positively related to worker emotional exhaustion. Worker career identity moderated the interpersonal-job-demands--emotional-exhaustion relationship, but self-efficacy did not. Study conclusions and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of Fine Particles in an Urban Atmosphere—Relationships with Meteorological Parameters and Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhao; Zhu, Zhongmin; Gong, Wei; Xiang, Hao; Fang, Ruimin

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric fine particles (diameter industrial emissions. To reveal the characteristics of fine particles in an industrial city of a developing country, two-year measurements of particle number size distribution (15.1 nm–661 nm), meteorological parameters, and trace gases were made in the city of Wuhan located in central China from June 2012 to May 2014. The annual average particle number concentrations in the nucleation mode (15.1 nm–30 nm), Aitken mode (30 nm–100 nm), and accumulation mode (100 nm–661 nm) reached 4923 cm−3, 12193 cm−3 and 4801 cm−3, respectively. Based on Pearson coefficients between particle number concentrations and meteorological parameters, precipitation and temperature both had significantly negative relationships with particle number concentrations, whereas atmospheric pressure was positively correlated with the particle number concentrations. The diurnal variation of number concentration in nucleation mode particles correlated closely with photochemical processes in all four seasons. At the same time, distinct growth of particles from nucleation mode to Aitken mode was only found in spring, summer, and autumn. The two peaks of Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles in morning and evening corresponded obviously to traffic exhaust emissions peaks. A phenomenon of “repeated, short-lived” nucleation events have been created to explain the durability of high particle concentrations, which was instigated by exogenous pollutants, during winter in a case analysis of Wuhan. Measurements of hourly trace gases and segmental meteorological factors were applied as proxies for complex chemical reactions and dense industrial activities. The results of this study offer reasonable estimations of particle impacts and provide references for emissions control strategies in industrial cities of developing countries. PMID:27517948

  16. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster's operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently ∼4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased

  17. 75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the Final Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to require reporters... Numbers GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HFC...

  18. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Ultracold Dipolar Gases in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Trefzger, C.; Menotti, C.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type m...

  20. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped