WorldWideScience

Sample records for exhaust gas emissions

  1. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS EMISSION IN THE MARINE TWO-STROKE SLOW-SPEED DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Lalić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem of exhaust emissions of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engines. After establishing marine diesel engine regulations and defining the parameters influencing exhaust emissions, the simulation model of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engine has been developed. Furthermore, the comparison of numerical and experimentally obtained data has been performed, resulting in achieving the model validity at 100% load, which represents a requirement for further exhaust gas analysis. Deviations obtained at the real engine and the model range from 2% to 7%. An analysis of the influential parameters such as compression ratio, exhaust valve timing and fuel injection timing has been performed. The obtained results have been compared and conclusions have been drawn.

  3. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  4. The Problems of Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Panasiuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the environmental impact of shipping and air pollution caused by ships. The paper presents the development of regulations on air pollution caused by ships and describes the efficiency of methods for reducing emissions.

  5. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  6. Compensation of the exhaust gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtay, Delia; Weilenmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Instantaneous emission models of vehicles describe the amount of emitted pollutants as a function of the driving state of the car. Emission measurements of chassis dynamometer tests with high time resolution are necessary for the development of such models. However, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement line last significantly longer than 1 s. In a simplified approach, the transport dynamics can be divided into two parts: a perfect time delay, corresponding to a piston-like transport of the exhaust gas, and a dynamic part, corresponding to the mixing of gases by turbulence along the way. This determines the occurrence of emission peaks that are longer in time and lower in height at the analyzer than they actually are in the vehicle at their location of formation. It is shown here how the sharp emission signals at their location of formation can be reconstructed from the flattened emission signals recorded at the analyzer by using signal theory approaches. A comparison between the reconstructions quality when using the raw or the dilution analyzer system is also given.

  7. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

  8. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  9. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  10. Unanticipated benefits of automotive emission control: reduction in fatalities by motor vehicle exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, M

    1994-05-23

    In 1970, before the implementation of strict controls on emissions in motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG), the annual USA incidence of fatal accidents by carbon monoxide in the MVEG was approximately 800 and that of suicides approximately 2000 (somewhat less than 10% of total suicides). In 1987, there were approximately 400 fatal accidents and approximately 2700 suicides by MVEG. Accounting for the growth in population and vehicle registration, the yearly lives saved in accidents by MVEG were approximately 1200 in 1987 and avoided suicides approximately 1400. The decrease in accidents continues unabated while the decrease in expected suicides by MVEG reached a plateau in 1981-1983. The reasons for this disparity are discussed. Juxtaposition of these results with the projected cancer risk avoidance of less than 500 annually in 2005 (as compared with 1986) plainly shows that, in terms of mortality, the unanticipated benefits of emission control far overshadow the intended benefits. With the spread of MVEG control these benefits will accrue worldwide.

  11. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  12. Simultaneous reduction in cloud point, smoke, and NOx emissions by blending bioethanol into biodiesel fuels and exhaust gas recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, T; Nakajima, T.; HIRAGA, K.

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared with other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable-oil-based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the current authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the exhaust gas recirculation ...

  13. Influence of cooled exhaust gas recirculation on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Alexander, Jim; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    On fuel perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) provides cleaner emissions and also facilitates lean burn signifying less fuel consumption and emissions. Lean burn technology can attain better efficiencies and lesser combustion temperatures but this temperature is quite sufficient to facilitate formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for NOx reduction has been considered allover but extremely little literatures exist on the consequence of EGR on lean burn LPG fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine. The following research is carried out to find the optimal rate of EGR addition to reduce NOx emissions without settling on performance and combustion characteristics. A single cylinder diesel engine is altered to operate as LPG fuelled SI engine at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and arrangements to provide different ratios of cooled EGR in the intake manifold. Investigations are done to arrive at optimum ratio of the EGR to reduce emissions without compromising on performance. Significant reductions in NOx emissions alongside HC and CO emissions were seen. Higher percentages of EGR further diluted the charge and lead to improper combustion and thus increased hydrocarbon emissions. Cooled EGR reduced the peak in-cylinder temperature which reduced NOx emissions but lead to misfire at lower lean limits.

  14. Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

  15. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emission Characteristic of SI Engine using Hydrogen and CNG Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitnaware, Pravin Tukaram; Suryawanshi, Jiwak G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper shows exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on multi-cylinder bi-fuel SI engine using blends of 0, 5, 10 and 15% hydrogen by energy with CNG. All trials are performed at a speed of 3000, 3500 and 4000 rpm with EGR rate of 0, 5, 10 and 15%, with equal spark timing and injection pressure of 2.6 bar. At specific hydrogen percentage with increase in EGR rate NOx emission reduces drastically and increases with increase in hydrogen addition. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission decreases with increase in speed and hydrogen addition. There is considerable improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) at 15% EGR rate. At 3000 rpm, 5% EGR rate with 5% hydrogen had shown maximum cylinder pressure. Brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c) increased with increase in EGR rate and decreased with increase in hydrogen addition for all speeds.

  16. Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arulprakasajothi; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Radhakrishnan, Santhanakrishnan

    2018-02-21

    In this study, the effect of blending pentanol to biodiesel derived from mahua oil on emissions and performance pattern of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mode was examined and compared with diesel. The purpose of this study is to improve the feasibility of employing biofuels as a potential alternative in an unmodified diesel engine. Two pentanol-biodiesel blends denoted as MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20 which matches to 10 and 20 vol% of pentanol in biodiesel, respectively, were used as fuel in research engine at 10 and 20% EGR rates. Pentanol is chosen as a higher alcohol owing to its improved in-built properties than the other first-generation alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Experimental results show that the pentanol and biodiesel blends (MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20) have slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (0.2-0.4%) and lower brake-specific fuel consumption (0.6 to 1.1%) than that of neat biodiesel (MOBD100) at all engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission and smoke emission are reduced by 3.3-3.9 and 5.1-6.4% for pentanol and biodiesel blends compared to neat biodiesel. Introduction of pentanol to biodiesel reduces the unburned hydrocarbon (2.1-3.6%) and carbon monoxide emissions (3.1-4.2%) considerably. In addition, at 20% EGR rate, smoke, NO X emissions, and BTE drop by 7.8, 5.1, and 4.4% respectively. However, CO, HC emissions, and BSFC increased by 2.1, 2.8, and 3.8%, respectively, when compared to 0% EGR rate.

  17. Numerical analysis of C.I engine to control emissions using exhaust gas recirculation and advanced start of inject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kashyap Chowdary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As major limitation of diesel engines is the high soot and nitrogen oxide emissions which cannot be reduced totally with only conventional catalytic converters today, varying fuel characteristics became a focus of interest to meet the pollution emission legislations as they require very few or no changes in existing engine model. The present work deals with, numerical analysis of combined effect of Advanced Start of Injection (SOI and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR on performance and emissions which were studied, by performing numerical analysis on a Caterpillar 3401 single cylinder C.I engine model at constant speed using diesel as fuel via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures and validated with experimental data. The SOI is advanced from 11° Crank angle bTDC to 14.5° Crank angle bTDC and EGR as a fraction is increased from 0% to 10%. The modified conditions of these parameters resulted in simultaneous reduction of NOx and Soot.

  18. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... regulations, the FAA proposed and the EPA accepted the idea that referring to these engines as exceptions to...

  19. Aircraft specific exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecht, M.; Deidewig, F.; Doepelheuer, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this work to calculate essential species of aircraft emissions has been approached by a combination of different tasks. First of all engine performance and emission correlation has been modelled taking sea level static measurements from the engine certification process as a reference. At second a flight simulation program has been modified to couple aircraft and engine performance along a flight mission profile. By this for a selected number of aircraft/engine combinations the emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and HC as well as fuel burn for short, medium and long haul flights have been calculated and finally adapted to a specified format of flight distance and altitude increments. Sensitivity studies of the change of emissions along the cruise section showed a 30% decrease of the NO{sub x} emission rate until the end of cruise. Differences of ambient air temperature from ISA conditions will have a substantial impact on NO{sub x}, CO and HC emissions rather than on mission fuel. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  20. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  1. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  2. Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures aimed at restricting this method of suicide. The prevention measures identified were catalytic converters (introduced to reduce carbon monoxide for environmental reasons); in-cabin sensors; exhaust pipe modification; automatic idling stops; and helpline signage at suicide "hotspots." Catalytic converters are now in 90% of new vehicles worldwide and literature supports them being associated with a reduction in exhaust-gassing suicides. There remain, however, accounts of exhaust-gas fatalities in modern vehicles, whether accidentally or by suicide. These deaths and also crashes from fatigue could potentially be prevented by in-cabin multi-gas sensors, these having been developed to the prototype stage. Helpline signage at an exhaust-gassing suicide "hotspot" had some success in reducing suicides. The evidence on method substitution and whether a reduction in MVEG suicides causes a reduction in total suicides is inconsistent.

  3. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  4. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  5. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  6. Reduction of diesel engine emissions through the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas; Senkung von Diesel-Emissionen durch Rueckfuehrung von gekuehltem Abgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklungsteam Abgaswaermeuebertrager

    1997-09-01

    More stringent exhaust regulations for diesel engines which will come into force in Europe (Euro III, 1999) and the USA (2004) will necessitate new methods of reducing emissions, one of which entails the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas. By this process, a certain volume of the exhaust gas is bled off upstream of the turbine, cooled by the engine coolant and remixed with the combustion air down-stream of the intercooler. By contrast with other methods of exhaust gas purification, such as a lean-NO{sub x} catalytic converter, this process needs no second activating agent, such as urea, and, in comparison with a modification of the combustion process, only slightly more fuel. The heat transfer system developed by Behr, which uses the engine coolant to cool the exhaust gas, is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and pressures in the forward section of the exhaust system, is resistant to the sulphuric acid in diesel condensation and, despite its compact design, exhibits a low level of flow resistance. Its exceptional cooling capacity is achieved by a new heat transfer system employing `winglet` turbulence generators. These reduce deposits of soot and other particles on the walls of the heat exchanger to a considerable extent, thereby contributing to its long-term efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die Einfuehrung neuer, strengerer Abgasvorschriften fuer Dieselmotoren 1999 in Europa und 2004 in den USA ruecken neue Techniken zur Emissionssenkung ins Blickfeld. Eine davon ist die gekuehlte Abgasrueckfuehrung, die eine Emissionssenkung bei nur minimalem Anstieg des Kraftstoffverbrauchs erlaubt. An den Waermeuebertrager fuer solch ein System werden hinsichtlich kompakter Bauweise und Leistung, Temperaturbestaendigkeit, Verschutzungs-Unempfindlichkeit und Korrosionsbestaendigkeit hohe Anforderungen gestellt. Der von Behr entwickelte Abgas-Kuehlmittel-Waermeuebertrager erfuellt diese Anforderungen und zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Leistungsdichte aus. Dies

  7. Exhaust gas emission from two-stroke engines in private cars and motorcycles in West Germany. Abgasemissionen von Zweitaktmotoren in Personenkraftwagen und Motorraedern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, C. (Rheinisch-Westfaelischer Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e.V., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik)

    1990-01-01

    The proportion of motorised cycles is only about 10% of the stock of cars in West Germany, but their harmful emission are not negligible, as these two-wheeled vehicles are mainly driven in towns or near towns. The emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides and also of particle-bound, polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons was therefore determined in the driving cycle and at constant speeds. The results obtained can be seen from many diagrams. Some measures to reduce the emission of harmful substances were tried on a series of 2-stroke engines (250 cc). These included postcombustion, oxidation catalyst, blowing in additional air, manually controlled additional carburettor or a combination of these measures. From our present state of knowledge, a simple 2-stroke engine cannot comply with the requirements regarding exhaust gas emission behaviour and fuel consumption. Such a 2-stroke engine will in future have to have direct, electronically controlled injection and probably a combined slot and valve controlled common flow flushing, together with a catalytic exhaust gas treatment system. (orig.).

  8. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... velocity, is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, and is computed continuously... ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with the square root of the... determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative...

  9. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  10. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.

    1997-05-01

    Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862

  12. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  14. Effect of nozzle hole size coupling with exhaust gas re-circulation on the engine emission perfomance based on KH-ACT spray model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To research an effective measure of reducing the Soot and NOx in engine at the same time, different nozzle hole diameters coupled with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR were adopted in this study based on KH-ACT spray breakup model, which takes the aerodynamic-induced ,cavitation-induced and turbulence-induced breakup into account. The SAGE detailed chemistry combustion and the new atomization model used in the simulation have been verified with the experiment data from a YN4100QBZL engine. Different diesel nozzles was adopted in the study combined with different EGR rates ranging from 0% to 40%. The simulation results show that the NOx emission could be reduced effectively for both small(0.1mm and large(0.15mm diesel nozzle when increasing EGR ratio. The soot emission increases for the small nozzle hole size as the EGR increasing. However, when it comes to the large diesel nozzle, the emission increases slightly first and decrease quickly when the EGR rate above 20%.

  15. Study on direct measurement of diesel exhaust gas flow rate. Development of ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter; Diesel hai gas ryuryo no chokusetsu sokuteiho ni kansuru kenkyu. Choonpa hai gas ryuryokeino kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, A.; Takamoto, M.; Yamzaki, H. [National Research Laboratory of Meteology, Tsukuba (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Arai, S.; Shimizu, K. [Kaijo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-25

    The partial flow dilution method is one of the typical measurement methods for particulate matter emission from diesel engines. In this method, exhaust gas at a transient flow rate should be transferred to a dilution tunnel at a constant ratio of exhaust gas. The present partial flow dilution method is used under steady-state engine operating conditions in lieu of direct flow rate measurement of exhaust gas. A more practical control of exhaust emission is, however, required world widely; therefore development of an exhaust gas flowmeter is indispensable in the partial flow dilution method for transient engine operating conditions. An ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter has been developed and been demonstrated to be capable of measuring the exhaust gas flow rate with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  16. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2012-10-18

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  18. 4th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 4. internationales FORUM Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Lectures of the conference addressed the following topics: European and US American pollution regulations, particulate measuring systems, emission factors for vehicles, particulate emission abatement through simulation and optimization, selective catalytic reduction in heavy duty diesel trucks, filters, combustion properties, performance assessment, contribution of biofuels. (uke)

  19. Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reimer, Nils; Jochmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, a dramatic decline of the Arctic sea-ice extent is observed which results in an increase of shipping activities. Even though this provides commercial and social development opportunities, the resulting environmental impacts need to be investigated and monitored. In order to understand the impact of shipping in arctic areas, the method described in this paper determines the travel time, fuel consumption and resulting exhaust emissions of ships navigating in arctic waters. The investigated case studies are considering ship particulars as well as environmental conditions with special focus on ice scenarios. Travel time, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission were investigated for three different vessels, using different passages of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in different seasons of years 1960, 2000 and 2040. The presented results show the sensitivity of vessel performance and amount of exhaust emissions to optimize arctic traffic with respect to efficiency, safety and environmental impact.

  20. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a biogas/n-heptane fueled HCCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kozarac, Darko

    2016-09-12

    The use of highly reactive fuel as an ignition promoter enables operation of biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at low intake temperatures with practical control of combustion phasing. In order to gain some insight into this operation mode the influence of addition of n-heptane on combustion, performance, emissions and control of combustion phasing of a biogas fueled HCCI engine is experimentally researched and presented in this paper. Additionally, the performance analysis of the practical engine solution for such operation is estimated by using the numerical simulation of entire engine. The results showed that the introduction of highly reactive fuel results with a significant change in operating conditions and with a change in optimum combustion phasing. The addition of n-heptane resulted in lower nitrogen oxides and increased carbon monoxide emissions, while the unburned hydrocarbons emissions were strongly influenced by combustion phasing and at optimal conditions are lowered compared to pure biogas operation. The results also showed a practical operation range for strategies that use equivalence ratio as a control of load. Simulation results showed that the difference in performance between pure biogas and n-heptane/biogas operation is even greater when the practical engine solution is taken into account.

  3. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The system and...

  4. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...

  5. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  6. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  7. Relationship between vehicle emissions laws and incidence of suicide by motor vehicle exhaust gas in Australia, 2001-06: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Studdert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG. Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001-06 with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area--postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs--and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD. The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006 during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006 and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006, respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6

  8. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines...

  10. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  11. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  12. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  13. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  14. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  15. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Hence, in order to meet the envi- ronmental legislations, it is highly desirable to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas. 275 .... (i) Hot EGR: Exhaust gas is recirculated without being cooled, resulting in increased intake ... is mounted on the inlet pipe between the air filter and the inlet manifold of the engine as shown in ...

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation dispersion analysis using in-cylinder pressure measurements in automotive diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Luján, José M.; Climent, H.; Pla Moreno, Benjamín; Rivas Perea, Manuel Eduardo; Francois, Nicolas-Yoan; BORGES ALEJO, JOSE; Soukeur, Zoulikha

    2015-01-01

    Current diesel engines are struggling to achieve exhaust emissions regulations margins, in certain cases penalizing the fuel consumption. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) continues to be employed as a technique to reduce NOx emissions. EGR dispersion between cylinders is one important issue when a high pressure (HP) loop is used. Different techniques have been developed in order to analyze the EGR dispersion between cylinders in an engine test bench. In this paper a methodology using the i...

  17. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  18. Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

  19. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling and...

  20. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drum type exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must automatically... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  1. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  2. CATALYTIC REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR POST-COMBUSTION DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Ahmet; EMİROĞLU, Alaattin Osman

    2016-01-01

    Stiff exhaust emission regulations set for limiting the air pollution caused by motor vehicles have oriented the producers and researchers to investigate new techniques to reduce exhaust emissions. The main pollutants caused by diesel engines are particle matters (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxides (CO). Among the preventive actions to keep the emissions caused by motor vehicles at a certain level are enhancing the fuel quality, preventing the pollutant format...

  3. Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-02-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

  4. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko -Jen

    2015-09-15

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  5. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  6. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynamic...... models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst...

  7. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  8. Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

  9. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  10. Simplified prediction of soot emissions in the exhaust of gas turbines operated at atmospheric pressure; Prediction simplifiee des emissions de suie a la sortie des chambres de combustion des turbines a gaz operees a la pression atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsogo, J. [College de la garde cotiere du Canada, Departement de genie maritime, Sydney (Canada); Kretschmer, D. [Universite Laval, Departement de genie mecanique, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    In previous works [1, 2], a correlation for the prediction of soot in gas turbine exhaust has been presented. The development of the correlation is based on 300 of experimental data for a total of 19 fuels burned both at atmospheric and high pressure (0.1 to 0.9 MPa) and two scales (1/2 and 1/3) of a Laval type combustion chamber. With the wide range of fuels burned in the experiment giving a smoke number variation from 0 to 100, the accuracy of the correlation (Standard Deviation of 40%) is acceptable for most purposes Later on the correlation has been improved using data from the full scaled combustion chamber as shown in [3]. A detailed analysis of the correlation is undertaken within the present work for the case of the experiments at atmospheric pressure. The result is a simplification of the correlation presented in [3] without a major deterioration of the standard deviation. This result leads to a simplification of the previous proposed soot formation and oxidation model within gas turbine combustors (operated at atmospheric pressure) and limits the analysis of the phenomenon on essential functional parameters as well. Gas turbines are generally used in aircraft, ships, and in stationary production of electricity, heat and vapor. (author)

  11. Damage of natural stone tablets exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    Natural stone tablets were exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions to assess urban stone damage. Cylindrical test specimens (3 cm in diameter) were made from travertine, non-porous limestone, porous limestone, rhyolite tuff, sandstone, andesite, granite and marble. The samples were exposed to exhaust gas that was generated from diesel engine combustion (engine type: RÁBA D10 UTSLL 160, EURO II). The operating condition of the internal combustion engine was: 1300 r/m (app 50%). The exhaust gas was diverted into a pipe system where the samples were placed perpendicular to main flow for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours, respectively. The exhaust emission was measured by using AVL particulate measurement technology; filter paper method (AVL 415). The stone samples were documented and selective parameters were measured prior to and after exhaust gas exposure. Density, volume, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mineral composition and penetration depth of emission related particulate matter were recorded. The first results indicate that after 10 hours of exposure significant amount of particulate matter deposited on the stone surface independently from the surface properties and porosity. The black soot particles uniformly covered all types of stones, making hard to differentiate the specimens.

  12. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... model. Four different models in the automotive diesel exhaust gas cleaning system are presented briefly. Based on the presented methodology, it is discussed which changes are needed to the models to create a modular model of the whole catalytic system....

  13. Exhaust emissions from ships at berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

  14. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  15. Impact of Freeway Weaving Segment Design on Light-duty Vehicle Exhaust Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Shuyan; Li, Tiezhu

    2017-06-21

    In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving. As a result, the exhaust emissions within a weaving segment ought to be varied from those on a basic segment. However, existing emission models usually rely on vehicle operation information, and computer a generalized emission result, regardless of road configuration. This research is proposed to explore the impacts of weaving segment configuration on vehicle emissions, identify important predictors for emission estimations, and develop a nonlinear Normalized Emission Factor (NEF) model for weaving segments. An on-board emission test was conducted to twelve subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. Vehicles' activity information, road conditions, and real-time exhaust emissions were collected by On-Board Diagnosis (OBD), a smartphone based roughness app, and a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), respectively. Five feature selection algorithms were used to identify the important predictors for the response of NEF and the modeling algorithm. The predictive power of four algorithm based emission models was tested by 10-fold cross validation. Results showed that emissions are also susceptible to the type and length of a weaving segment. Bagged decision tree algorithm was chosen to develop a 50 grown tree NEF model, which provided 0.0051 validation error. The estimated NEFs are highly correlated to the observed NEFs in the training dataset as well as in the validation dataset with the R values of 0

  16. Portable Gas Analyzer Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Patrolling and Examining Gas Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.

  17. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  18. On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

  19. Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matters and nitric oxides emissions, is one of the biggest problems of current transportation. In the near future the emission of diesel particulate matters will become one of the most important factors that will affect the trend of engine development. Ambient airborne particles have adverse environmental and health effects and therefore their concentration in the air is regulated. Recent medical studies showed that different particle properties are important (for example: number/concentration, active surface, chemical composition/morphology and may take role in the responsibility for their human health impact. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in urban areas. Studying health effects and diesel engine particulate properties, it has been concluded that they are a complex mixture of solids and liquids. Biological activity of particulate matter may be related to particle sizes and their number. The paper presents the activities of UN-ECE working group PMP on defining the best procedure and methodology for the measurement of passenger cars diesel engines particle mass and number concentrations. The results of inter-laboratory emissions testing are presented for different engine technologies with special attention on repeatability and reproducibility of measured data. .

  20. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  1. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  2. Model Tests of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Gas Eductor Systems for Gas Turbine Powered Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    of Mechanical Engineering Dean of Science and Engineering 2 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California Rear Admiral Isham Linder J. R. Borsting...impingement on mast-mounted equipment within the exhaust gas plume and the infra-red signature of the hot exhaust gas. An effective means of reducing

  3. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  4. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)

    2011-07-28

    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  5. Development of alternative ship propulsion in terms of exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new emission limits for exhaust emissions of ship engines contributes to the development of new powertrain solutions. New solutions in the simplest approach concern the reduction of the concentration of sulfur in motor fuels. Typically, the aforementioned fuels have a lower value of viscosity which causes a number of supply system problems. It is becoming more and more common to use fuel cells in engine rooms of various types of marine vessels. Unlike conventional systems that use internal combustion engines, these systems have zero exhaust emissions. Hydrogen, methanol, methane and other substances may be used as a fuel in fuel cells. However, so far the best operating parameters are manifested by cells powered by hydrogen, which is associated with difficulties in obtaining and storing this fuel. Therefore, the use of turbine engines allows the obtaining of large operating and environmental advantages. The paper presents a comparison of the ecological parameters of turbine and piston engines.

  6. Multicomponent remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions by dispersive IR and UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M.; Kiyomiya, Eileen S.; Kumar, Sasi; Lappas, Anastasios M.; Lord, Harry C., III

    2000-12-01

    Direct remote sensing of vehicle exhaust emissions under real-world driving conditions is desirable for a number of reasons, including: identifying high emitters, investigating the chemical composition of the exhaust, and probing fast reactions in the plume. A remote sensor, incorporating IR and UV spectrometers, was developed. The IR spectrometer consists of a grating system mounted on a synchronous motor, optically interfaced to a room temperature PbSe detector. UV-vis measurements are made with a CCD array spectrometer. Eight optical passes through the exhaust plume allow rapid and sensitive monitoring of the exhaust stream emitted by moving vehicles on a car-by-car basis. The combination of these two techniques resulted in unprecedented, direct measurement capability of over 25 pollutants in the exhaust plume. Emissions from a fleet of vehicles powered by a range of fuels (gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and methanol) were tested. The exhaust from hot gasoline- and methanol-powered cars contained high levels of NH3, up to 1500 ppm. These emissions were up to 14 times higher than the corresponding NOx emissions. Unlike most previous work, NOx was measured as the sum of NO and NO2; N2O was also measured. Field testing at a southern California freeway on-ramp was conducted over a one week period, totaling >4,500 measurements. It was found that 66.4% of the emitted NH3 was produced by 10% of the fleet, following the (gamma) - distribution that has been reported for criteria pollutants. Mean NH3 emission rates were calculated at 138 mg km-1, nearly twice as high was previous estimates.

  7. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... immediately at full load and speed. The preliminary liquid-fuel-injection rate shall be such that the exhaust... Investigation has shown that for practical purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a high percentage of..., or torque converters ordinarily are not required in the coupling train. ...

  8. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  9. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  11. Relationship between the variations of hydrogen in HCNG fuel and the oxygen in exhausted gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Yaom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the mixing ratio between hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG in hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fuel (HCNG gives different results in terms of engine performances, fuel consumption, and emission characteristics. Therefore, the engine performance using HCNG as fuel can be optimized if the mixing ratio between the two fuels in HCNG can be adjusted in real time while the engine is being operated. In this research, the relationship between the amount of oxygen in the exhausted gas and the mixing composition between the hydrogen and CNG in HCNG is investigated based on the equilibrium equation of combustion. It is found that the main factors affecting the amount of oxygen in exhausted gas when using HCNG as fuel include the error from the air-fuel-ratio (AFR control, the error from the HCNG composition control, and the intended change of the HCNG composition. Theoretically, the amount of the oxygen in the exhaust should increase by 0.78% for every 5% addition of H2 at stoichiometric condition. This value can be higher or lower for lean and rich engine operation, respectively. The experimental results found that at the equivalent ratio around 0.8 the amount of O2 in the exhaust gas increases about 1.23% for every 5% H2 addition, which inclines with the proposed calculations.

  12. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  13. [Poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas: 22 cases study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Min; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Ming-Chang; He, Meng

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the case characteristics of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas and provide references for forensic identification and prevention of such accidents. Twenty-two cases of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas in Minhang District during 2004 to 2013 were collected. Some aspects such as general conditions of deaths, incidence time, weather, field investigation, and autopsy were retrospectively analyzed. In the 22 cases, there were 15 males and 16 females. The age range was between 2 and 82 years old. The major occurring time was in January or February (8 cases in each) and the cases almost occurred in small area room (21 cases). There was wide crack next to the exhaust port when the gas water heater was been used in all cases. There are more prone to occurrence of exhaust gas poisoning of imperfect combustion of natural gas in small area room with a ventilation window near the exhaust port of gas water heated. It shows that the scene of combustion exhaust gas poisoning should be more concerned in the cold season.

  14. Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa [Kocaeli University, Technical Education Faculty, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Erdil, Ahmet [Kocaeli University, Engineering Faculty, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale University, Engineering Faculty, 71450 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the applicabilities of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been investigated for the performance and exhaust-emission values of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesels from different feedstocks and petroleum diesel fuels. The engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel-fuels (No. 1 and No. 2), biodiesels (from soybean oil and yellow grease), and their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were used as experimental results. The fuels were tested at full load (100%) at 1400-rpm engine speed, where the engine torque was 257.6Nm. To train the network, the average molecular weight, net heat of combustion, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, C/H ratio and cetane number of each fuel are used as the input layer, while outputs are the brake specific fuel-consumption, exhaust temperature, and exhaust emissions. The back-propagation learning algorithm with three different variants, single layer, and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. By using weights in the network, formulations have been given for each output. The network has yielded R{sup 2} values of 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 4.2 for the training data, while the R{sup 2} values are about 0.99 and the mean % errors are smaller than 5.5 for the test data. The performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, using biodiesel blends with No. 2 diesel fuel up to 20%, have been predicted using the ANN model. sing the ANN model. (author)

  15. Study of exhaust and noise emissions reduction on a single spray direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Sahara, Masanori; Takamori, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeru (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    In order to materialize the automobile use small direct injection diesel engine (DI), the reduction in both exhaust emission and noise, as studied, was explained in summary. The DI, as excellent in fuel consumption characteristics, was studied to be adopted to the small automobile, with the materialization of small DI to be about 600cc in capacity per cylinder. However the further diminution in dimension had not been materialized yet, because of the aggravation in exhaust emission and vibration noise. Then a single spray DI, characterized by the approximate sphericity in shape of combustion chamber and adoption of cast iron made piston and two-stage spring nozzle, was prototypically made, with optimizing the combustion in characteristics, decreasing HC in exhaust quantity by modifying the injection system, doing also NOx in exhaust quantity by adopting the lag angle at injection time and EGR, modifying the structure to lower the noise, and adopting an air heater to improve the cold start-up in performance. As a result, the present ten-mode exhaust gas regulation and noise level target were achieved, with the improvement in cold start-up and warm-up properties. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  17. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent. (5)(i) CH3OHmass = Methanol...,000,000) (3) Carbon monoxide mass: COmass = Vmix × DensityCO × (COconc/1,000,000) (4) Carbon dioxide... of HC in exhaust gas. (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC=576.8 g/m3-carbon atom (16.33 g/ft3-carbon...

  18. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  19. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  20. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and speeds...

  1. Assessment of exhaust emissions from carbon nanotube production and particle collection by sampling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Hofmann, Mario; Hallock, Marilyn; Ellenbecker, Michael; Kong, Jing

    2015-11-01

    This study performed a workplace evaluation of emission control using available air sampling filters and characterized the emitted particles captured in filters. Characterized particles were contained in the exhaust gas released from carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Emitted nanoparticles were collected on grids to be analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CNT clusters in the exhaust gas were collected on filters for investigation. Three types of filters, including Nalgene surfactant-free cellulose acetate (SFCA), Pall A/E glass fiber, and Whatman QMA quartz filters, were evaluated as emission control measures, and particles deposited in the filters were characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to further understand the nature of particles emitted from this CNT production. STEM analysis for collected particles on filters found that particles deposited on filter fibers had a similar morphology on all three filters, that is, hydrophobic agglomerates forming circular beaded clusters on hydrophilic filter fibers on the collecting side of the filter. CNT agglomerates were found trapped underneath the filter surface. The particle agglomerates consisted mostly of elemental carbon regardless of the shapes. Most particles were trapped in filters and no particles were found in the exhaust downstream from A/E and quartz filters, while a few nanometer-sized and submicrometer-sized individual particles and filament agglomerates were found downstream from the SFCA filter. The number concentration of particles with diameters from 5 nm to 20 µm was measured while collecting particles on grids at the exhaust piping. Total number concentration was reduced from an average of 88,500 to 700 particle/cm(3) for the lowest found for all filters used. Overall, the quartz filter showed the most consistent and highest particle reduction control, and exhaust particles containing nanotubes were successfully

  2. Performance and Reliability of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Khalil, Zohir, and Farid (2010) investigated heat transfer related to swirling and non- swirling flows through sudden pipe expansions at constant pumping... swirl in air flow in a tube for a concentric double- pipe heat exchanger. The use of a snail entrance feature increased the Nusselt number in the...exhaust gas WHRU. 14. SUBJECT TERMS waste heat recovery, heat recovery performance, swirling flow , pressure drop penalty, temperature

  3. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  4. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  5. Effects of a flexible utilization of biogas on the electrical efficiency and the exhaust gas emissions from cogeneration plants; Auswirkungen einer flexiblen Biogasverwertung auf den elektrischen Wirkungsgrad und die Abgasemissionen von Blockheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappen, Simon Juan; Effenberger, Mathias [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technikfolgenabschaetzung

    2016-08-01

    The German Renewable Energy Act of 2014 implements improved conditions to support market and grid integration of renewable energies, which resulted in the generated electricity to be sold directly to the market. In supporting the application of start-stop procedure and part load condition (e.g. during operating reserve), new requirements need to be set for biogas driven eo-generation units (CGU). Seven CGUs were analyzed during on-field measurements in Bavaria. The following article shows how results of part load adjustments affect the electrical efficiency and emissions, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (C{sub n}H{sub m}). Under part load condition, the CGU showed a decrease in electrical efficiency and NO{sub x}-concentration. No significant changes have been identified in the exhaust treated emissions. In general, part load response leads to higher environmental impact. However, the environmental impact is expected to be low, since the application and extent of using flexible driving behavior is still limited. In contrast, stricter emission limit values set by TA Luft 2017 could impact the electrical efficiency and lead to higher costs for monitoring and exhaust treatment.

  6. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... outperformed the other control structures. The results were experimentally verified by implementing the tested controllers on a full-scale engine setup, and the results showed that coupling feedback with ANR based feedforward was yielding better performance. The PD controller showed good performance...... importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate...

  7. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-07

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  8. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  9. SUPERCHARGED ENGINE USING TURBINE STANDALONE EXHAUST GAS RECUPERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Matulić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid concept that increases the overall efficiency of the propulsion system on ships. The hybrid concept of the marine propulsion system was examined in 1D CFD internal combustion engine model where the turbine and compressor are not mechanically connected. Such a configuration makes possible different turbine designs than needed in the conventional turbocharger. The advantage is an increased recuperation of energy from exhaust gases. By means of computer simulation and optimization, this study proves that the hybrid concept significantly increases the propulsion system efficiency and lower emissions in maritime environment.

  10. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  11. {open_quotes}Experimental investigation of brown coal combustion with siumlated gas Turbine Exhaust Gas in a combined cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakaras, E.; Vourliotis, P.

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of this study is the experimental investigation of the brown coal combustion (brown coal with high sulphur content, e.g. {open_quotes}Megalopolis{close_quotes} lignite) in a lab-scale Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB). The fluidizing gas and the oxidant medium is the Simulated gas Turbine Exhaust flue Gas - {open_quotes}Vitiated Air{close_quotes} (STEG - V.A.). The STEG simulates the exhaust flue gas from the turbine MS 9/1 (FA) produced by EGT - GEC Alsthom (/1/). According to the IFRF experiments, the lowest O{sub 2} level allowed for stable combustion is 10%, concentration which corresponds to 88.4 % burnout in the IFRF experimental furnace. For the improvement of the coal burnout the presence of an oxidation catalyst is considered necessary in order, first, to avoid the incomplete combustion of the coal and second, to decrease the CO and C{sub x}H{sub y} emissions. The catalysts, supplied by KAT-TEC (/4/), are perovskit-type with TiO{sub 2} and Pt as stabilisers. The purposes of the trials are: (1) To examine the possibility to achieve the combustion of low grade brown coal under these conditions. (2) The investigation of the burnout behaviour as well as the resulting O{sub 2} CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub x}H{sub y} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  12. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.160-00 Exhaust emission test... official test cycle, is either conducted in an environmental test facility or under test conditions that...-00. (1) Drain and fill the vehicle's fuel tank to 40 percent capacity with test fuel. If a vehicle...

  13. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasada Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluate nine engine performance and emission parameters including Exhaust Gas Temperature (E.G.T, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, Brake Thermal Efficiency (B.The and various emissions like Hydrocarbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX and smoke. For the ANN modeling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model. A multi-layer perception (MLP network was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. It was found that ANN was able to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.980, 0.999, 0.985, 0.999, 0.999, 0.980, 0.999, and 0.999 for E.G.T, BSFC, B.The, HC, O2, CO2, CO, NOX, smoke respectively.

  14. Fiber-optic exhaust-gas sensor based on the fluorescence characteristics of Cu containing zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Jeffrey

    2000-03-01

    A single catalyst in the exhaust system can reduce the concentration of toxic gases emitted by automobiles if the engine is operated close to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. This is accomplished through the use of an electrochemical oxygen sensor in the exhaust stream. Near the stoichiometric point, this sensor produces a step-function response when the exhaust gas transitions from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich condition. This talk describes a different kind of sensor based on the use of copper-containing zeolites that produces a proportional output. Zeolites are a class of aluminosilicate materials that have an open 3D structure containing channels and cavities. The Al sites are negatively charged and are generally compensated by cations present during formation of the zeolite. Our experiments use a zeolite designated Cu-ZSM-5, which has the protons originally present in the ZSM-5 material replaced with cupric (Cu^+2) ions. Exposure of this zeolite to a reducing gas results in the conversion of some cupric ions to cuprous (Cu^+1) ions. Subsequent exposure of the zeolite to an oxidizing gas reverses this reaction. The use of this material as a gas sensor is based on the observation that cuprous ions produce a green fluorescent emission when exposed to blue light, whereas no fluorescence is observed from cupric ions. Monitoring the fluorescence of Cu-ZSM-5 placed in a gas stream can thus provide information on the gas's reductant-to-oxidant ratio. We present the results of high temperature in-situ fluorescence spectra, intensity, and reponse-time measurements performed on samples of Cu-ZSM-5 exposed to various O_2-reductant combinations and also discuss data obtained from a single-fiber prototype sensor fabricated using a sol-gel processing technique.(J.T. Remillard et al.), Appl. Opt. 38 5306 (1999).

  15. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Seigneur, Christian; Charron, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; Polo, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were diluted with filtered air and sampling was performed on filters and polyurethane foams (PUF) and (2) a Dekati Fine Particle Sampler (FPS) in which emissions were diluted with purified air and sampled with on-line instruments (PTR-ToF-MS, HR-ToF-AMS, MAAP, CPC). Significant differences in the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) measured by the instruments are observed. The differences can be explained by sampling artefacts, differences between (1) the time elapsed during sampling (in the case of filter and PUF sampling) and (2) the time elapsed from emission to measurement (in the case of on-line instruments), which vary from a few seconds to 15 min, and by the different dilution factors. To relate elapsed times and measured concentrations of OC, the condensation of SVOC between the gas and particle phases is simulated with a dynamic aerosol model. The simulation results allow us to understand the relation between elapsed times and concentrations in the gas and particle phases. They indicate that the characteristic times to reach thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases may be as long as 8 min. Therefore, if the elapsed time is less than this characteristic time to reach equilibrium, gas-phase SVOC are not at equilibrium with the particle phase and a larger fraction of emitted SVOC will be in the gas phase than estimated by equilibrium theory, leading to an underestimation of emitted OC if only the particle phase is considered or if the gas-phase SVOC are estimated

  16. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  17. Using GC×GC-ToF-MS to characterise SVOC from diesel exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Ramadhas, A. S.; Stark, C. P.; Liu, D.; Xu, H.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite intensive research over the last 20 years, a number of major research questions remain concerning the sources and properties of road traffic-generated particulate matter. There are major knowledge gaps concerning the composition of primary vehicle exhaust aerosol, and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These uncertainties relate especially to the semi-volatile component of the particles. Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) are compounds which partition directly between the gas and aerosol phases under ambient conditions, and include compounds with saturation concentrations roughly between 0.1 and 104 μg m-3. The SVOC in engine exhaust are typically hydrocarbons in the C15-C35 range. They are largely uncharacterised, other than the n-alkanes, because they are unresolved by traditional gas chromatography and form a large hump in the chromatogram referred to as Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM). In this study, samples were collected from the exhaust of a diesel engine with and without abatement devices fitted. Engine exhaust was diluted with air and collected using both filter and impaction (MOUDI), to resolve total mass and size resolved mass respectively. Particle size distribution was evaluated by sampling simultaneously with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). 2D Gas-Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was exploited to characterise and quantify the composition of SVOC from the exhaust emission. The SVOC was observed to contain predominantly n-alkanes, alkyl-cyclohexanes and aromatics; similar to both fresh lubricating oil and fuel. Preliminary results indicate that the contribution of diesel fuel to the exhaust SVOC composition is dominant at high speeds, and a more pronounced contribution from lubricating oil is observed at low speeds. Differences were also observed in the SVOC composition when using different fuel types, engine lubricants, starting temperatures and collecting samples with

  18. Gas turbine cogeneration: the use of heat pipes to recover exhaust gas energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, J. L.; Perella Balestieri, J. A.; Masanobu Tanisho, P.; Araujo Zanardi, M.; Murcia, N. [Paulista State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Heat pipe heat exchangers for the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbines for the simultaneous cogeneration of electricity were described. Technical and economic implications were reviewed. The overall conclusion was that cogeneration systems using heat pipe heat exchanger technology could be a useful alternative in the supply and use of energy, of particular interest for application in industrial, hospital, hotel or other large building system environment. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  20. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  1. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.

    A two dimensional, axisymmetric flowfield model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the Concorde engine on the formation and growth of volatile H2SO4/H2O aerosols in the near field plume. Rased on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, results are shown for between 2% and 20% conversion of the fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 and H2SO4) in engine. The primary motivation is to provide estimates for the changes in the number density and surface area density of sulfuric acid aerosols due to sulfur oxidation in the engine. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of sulfur emissions at the exhaust exit, in addition to soot properties, to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions.

  2. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  3. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear ...... Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability....

  4. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at the final temperature. Water in excess of that required for adiabatic saturation shall be... before the exhaust gas is diluted with air, shall not exceed 170 °F. or the temperature of adiabatic saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the test...

  5. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  6. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  7. Parametric study on ship’s exhaust-gas behavior using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunho Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of design parameters related to a ship’s exhaust-gas behavior was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD for an 8,000 TEU container carrier. To verify the numerical methods, the results were studied by comparing with experimental results. Several test conditions, i.e. various load conditions of ship, wind angle, deckhouse breadth, radar mast height, and exhaust-pipe height and shape were considered for a ship’s exhaust gas flow around the 8,000 TEU container carrier. The influence of the design parameters on contamination by the exhaust gas was quantified, after which the principal parameters to avoid contamination were selected. Finally, the design guideline of yP/H = 2 was suggested to avoid the contamination from the ship’s exhaust gas using the CFD results, model tests, and sea trials.

  8. Comparison of the mutagenicity of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles using leaded and unleaded gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D; Zhou, W; Ye, S H

    1999-06-01

    While unleaded gasoline has the advantage of eliminating lead from automobile exhaust, its potential to reduce the exhaust gas and particles, merits further examination. In the present studies, the concentrations of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon mono-oxides (CO) in emissions were analyzed on Santana engine Dynamometer under a standard test cycle, and total exhaust particles were collected from engines using leaded and unleaded gasoline. It was found that unleaded gasoline reduced the emissions of CO and HC, and decreased the quantity of vehicle exhaust particulate matters by 60%. With the unleaded gasoline, only 23 kinds of organic substances, adsorbed in the particles, were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) while 32 components were detected using the leaded gasoline. The results of in vitro Salmonella/microsomal test and micronucleus induction assay in CHL cells indicated that both types of gasoline increased the number of histidine-independent colonies and the frequencies of micronucleus induction; no significant difference was found in their mutagenicity.

  9. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  10. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  11. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  12. 40 CFR 1042.240 - Demonstrating compliance with exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions at the low-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified...

  13. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... my handheld engines meet? 1054.103 Section 1054.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.103 What exhaust emission...

  14. The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moselakgomo, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions Madumetja Moselakgomo, Mogesh Naidoo, Mosimanegape O. Letebele ABSTRACT: Poor urban traffic management such as poor intersection controls...

  15. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  16. Online characterization of regulated and unregulated gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions from two-stroke mopeds: a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M; Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Giechaskiel, B; Manfredi, U; Elsasser, M; Sklorz, M; DeCarlo, P F; Heringa, M F; Zimmermann, R; Martini, G; Krasenbrink, A; Vicet, A; Tournié, E; Prévôt, A S H; Astorga, C

    2012-03-02

    Two-stroke mopeds are a popular and convenient mean of transport in particular in the highly populated cities. These vehicles can emit potentially toxic gaseous and aerosol pollutants due to their engine technology. The legislative measurements of moped emissions are based on offline methods; however, the online characterization of gas and particulate phases offers great possibilities to understand aerosol formation mechanism and to adapt future emission standards. The purpose of this work was to study the emission behavior of two mopeds complying with different European emission standards (EURO-1 and EURO-2). A sophisticated set of online analyzers was applied to simultaneously monitor the gas phase and particulate phase of exhaust on a real time basis. The gaseous emission was analyzed with a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR; nitrogen species) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-ToF-MS; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: PAH), whereas the particulate phase was chemically characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS; organic, nitrate and chloride aerosol) and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon). The physical characterization of the aerosol was carried out with a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number concentration) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS; size distribution in real time). In order to extract underlying correlation between gas and solid emissions, principal component analysis was applied to the comprehensive online dataset. Multivariate analysis highlighted the considerable effect of the exhaust temperature on the particles and heavy PAH emissions. The results showed that the after-treatment used to comply with the latest EURO-2 emission standard may be responsible for the production of more potentially harmful particles compared to the EURO-1 moped emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  19. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  20. EVALUATION OF DISPERSED PARTICLE CONTENT IN EXHAUST GAS OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of an atmosphere due to hazardous substances emissions deteriorates ecological environment in the world. Exhaust gases of diesel engines are considered as one of the main environmental pollutants. At the moment it is not possible to determine rate and limits of threshold level of air pollution which do not affect human health. The paper considers current issues pertaining to regulation and control over dispersed particles. The most convenient measuring methods for investigations are those which provide the opportunity to obtain immediate results. However, from the legislative point of view, a gravimetric investigation method is a legitimate one which requires compliance with certain procedures of adjustments and calculations. The method presupposes availability of complicated system for sample dilution and its adjustment must include temperature and kinetic parameters of the measured flow. In order to ensure measuring accuracy and results reproducibility filter loading should be in a regulated range and dilution parameters should be chosen according to not only engine type but also according to its emissions rate. Methods for evaluation of a hot exhaust gas sample is characterized by higher response and the results correlate with indices of combustion efficiency. However, such approach does not account for a number of processes that take place during gas cooling in the environment. Therefore, in this case, measuring results are to be evaluated within certain boundary conditions with respect to the object of investigations. Difficulty in achievement of modern ecologocal standards is substantiated by complicated fractional composition and multiple stage process in formation of hazardous components. The paper presents calculated dependences between particles and smokiness and contains a comparative analysis. Methods for measurement and investigations of dispersed particles have analyzed on the basis of the results obtainesd during engine

  1. In optics humidity compensation in NDIR exhaust gas measurements of NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Buchner, Rainer; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA.......NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA....

  2. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  3. Real-world vehicle emissions as measured by in situ analysis of exhaust plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Christian; Loschke, Carmen; Wiedenhaus, Hanna; Klemm, Otto

    2017-10-01

    We conducted a 60-day roadside measurement campaign on a busy street in Münster, Germany, during summer 2016. We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NO x /CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios for size-resolved particle numbers per carbon dioxide (d(PN CO2-1)/dlogD) for about 10,000 plumes. The real-world fleet passing by the measurement station consisted of passenger cars (85%), buses (5.9%), light duty commercial vehicles (5.7%), trucks (1.7%), and motorcycles (1.6%). The median measured NO x /CO2 ratio was 3.33 g kg-1. The median measured PN/CO2 emission ratio for particles with diameters between 0.03 and 10 μm was 5.6 × 1014 kg-1. We compared our results with the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) and the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emission standards by employing traffic counts, assuming the diesel-to-gasoline ratios of vehicles according to registration statistics, and estimating that stop-and-go traffic occurred 65% of the time. Using a conservative estimate, our median ratios exceeded the HBEFA data by more than 65% for NO x /CO and by a factor of about 100 for PN/CO2. Furthermore, our median NO x emission per kilometer travelled (NO x  km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 emission limit for diesel cars by a factor of 3 and exceeded the Euro 6 limit by almost a factor of 7. Additionally, our median particle number emission (PN km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 and Euro 6 limits of diesel cars by a factor of almost 150. These results confirm the presumption that the emissions of a real-world traffic fleet comprehensively exceed the legal limits. Very likely, the widespread presence of defeat devices in vehicle emission control systems plays a major role in this discrepancy. This has a strong impact on the apparent inability of authorities to comply with the legal limits of the NO2

  4. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  5. NOx Monitoring in Humid Exhaust Gas Using Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine

    This PhD thesis is concerned with the measurement of NOX in moist exhaust gas onboard ships using non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. In such a measurement one of the major challenges is spectral interference from water vapour which is present in high concentrations in the exhaust. The Ph...... suggesting that it is possible but challenging to measure NOX in moist exhaust gas using NDIR. The characteristics of optical filters tend to change with temperature, and since this compromises the water signal balancing, much of the work presented in the thesis is devoted to the design of optical bandpass...

  6. 78 FR 34375 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... provided, unless the comment includes profanity, threats, information claimed to be Confidential Business... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the information will... characteristics, and measurement of exhaust emissions. One of the main issues in the study of vehicle emissions is...

  7. A Study on the Model of Traffic Flow and Vehicle Exhaust Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of traffic flow in cities causes traffic congestion and accidents as well as air pollution. Traffic problems have attracted the interest of many researchers from the perspective of theory and engineering. In order to provide a simple and practical method for measuring the exhaust emission and assessing the effect of pollution control, a model is based on the relationship between traffic flow and vehicle exhaust emission under a certain level of road capacity constraints. In the proposed model, the hydrocarbons (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx are considered as the indexes of total exhaust emission, and the speed is used as an intermediate variable. To verify the rationality and practicality of the model, a case study for Beijing, China, is provided in which the effects of taxi fare regulation and the specific vehicle emission reduction policy are analyzed.

  8. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  9. Method of calculation of exhaust gases emissions of biogas engine

    OpenAIRE

    Абрамчук, Ф. И.; Кабанов, А. Н.; Петров, Н. В.

    2013-01-01

    In article has been presented method allows to calculate content of harmful chemical species in exhaust gases of biogas engine. To determine the equilibrium composition of internal combustion engine with spark ignition is proposed to use a system of 10 equations with 10 unknowns based on six chemical reactions, 3 equations of material balance and Dalton’s law equation. The technique of algebraic solutions of system of nonlinear equations has been proposed. Comparison of results of calculation...

  10. Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, Detlef; Renner, Eberhard; Wolke, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The fraction of ambient PM10 that is due to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate sulfate and nitrate from the emissions of two large, brown-coal-fired power stations in Saxony (East Germany) is examined. The power stations are equipped with natural-draft cooling towers. The flue gases are directly piped into the cooling towers, thereby receiving an additionally intensified uplift. The exhausted gas-steam mixture contains the gases CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2, the directly emitted primary particles, and additionally, an excess of 'free' sulfate ions in water solution, which, after the desulfurization steps, remain non-neutralized by cations. The precursor gases NO2 and SO2 are capable of forming nitric and sulfuric acid by several pathways. The acids can be neutralized by ammonia and generate secondary particulate matter by heterogeneous condensation on preexisting particles. The simulations are performed by a nested and multi-scale application of the online-coupled model system LM-MUSCAT. The Local Model (LM; recently renamed as COSMO) of the German Weather Service performs the meteorological processes, while the Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport Model (MUSCAT) includes the transport, the gas phase chemistry, as well as the aerosol chemistry (thermodynamic ammonium-sulfate-nitrate-water system). The highest horizontal resolution in the inner region of Saxony is 0.7 km. One summer and one winter episode, each realizing 5 weeks of the year 2002, are simulated twice, with the cooling tower emissions switched on and off, respectively. This procedure serves to identify the direct and indirect influences of the single plumes on the formation and distribution of the secondary inorganic aerosols. Surface traces of the individual tower plumes can be located and distinguished, especially in the well-mixed boundary layer in daytime. At night, the plumes are decoupled from the surface. In no case does the resulting contribution of the cooling tower emissions to PM10

  11. Devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for a thermal oil heater in a palm oil refinery plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucherd, Panom; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for waste heat recovery of the exhausted flue gas of palm oil refinery plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the feed water which can save the fuel consumption of the coal fired steam boiler and the outlet temperature of flue gas will be controlled in order to avoid the acid dew point temperature and protect the filter bag. The decrease of energy used leads to the reduction of CO2 emission. Two designed economizer studied in this paper are gas in tube and water in tube. The gas in tube exchanger refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the flue gas flows in tube; this designed exchanger is used in the existing unit. The new designed water in tube refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the water flows in the tube; this designed exchanger is proposed for new implementation. New economizer has the overall coefficient of heat transfer of 19.03 W/m2.K and the surface heat transfer area of 122 m2 in the optimized case. Experimental results show that it is feasible to install economizer in the exhaust flue gas system between the air preheater and the bag filter, which has slightly disadvantage effect in the system. The system can raise the feed water temperature from 40 to 104°C and flow rate 3.31 m3/h, the outlet temperature of flue gas is maintained about 130 °C.

  12. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  13. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  14. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  15. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  16. 40 CFR 90.103 - Exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards Engine displacement class Hydrocarbons+oxides of nitrogen (HC+NOX) Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide... HC+NOX 143 119 96 72 CO 603 603 603 603 (1) Each engine displacement class has a unique set of... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission...

  17. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  18. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust - A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerer, A.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R. [Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry; Schmatloch, V. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 {sup circle} C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms{sup -1}), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition. (author)

  19. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  20. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  1. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  2. Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Neil A; Clark, Nigel N; Guffey, Steven E

    2009-03-30

    Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM) is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient conditions. On a per breath basis, however, the mass of particulate

  3. Investigation into pedestrian exposure to near-vehicle exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guffey Steven E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel particulate matter (DPM is known to have a negative impact on human health. Consequently, there are regulations and standards that limit the maximum concentrations to which persons may be exposed and the maximum concentrations allowed in the ambient air. However, these standards consider steady exposure over large spatial and time scales. Due to the nature of many vehicle exhaust systems, pedestrians in close proximity to a vehicle's tailpipe may experience events where diesel particulate matter concentrations are high enough to cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. Methods In order to quantify these exposure events, instruments which measure specific exhaust constituent concentrations were placed near a roadway and connected to the mouth of a mannequin used as a pedestrian surrogate. By measuring concentrations at the mannequin's mouth during drive-by events with a late model diesel truck, a representative estimate of the exhaust constituent concentrations to which a pedestrian may be exposed was obtained. Typical breathing rates were then multiplied by the measured concentrations to determine the mass of pollutant inhaled. Results The average concentration of diesel particulate matter measured over the duration of a single drive-by test often exceeded the low concentrations used in human clinical studies which are known to cause acute health effects. It was also observed that higher concentrations of diesel particulate matter were measured at the height of a stroller than were measured at the mouth of a mannequin. Conclusion Diesel particulate matter concentrations during drive-by incidents easily reach or exceed the low concentrations that can cause acute health effects for brief periods of time. For the case of a particularly well-tuned late-model year vehicle, the mass of particulate matter inhaled during a drive-by incident is small compared to the mass inhaled daily at ambient

  4. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  5. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    the emissions exceed the regulated limit significantly. The high CO emissions are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can ¿ in origin ¿ be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) from natural gas engines, thus CO emissions from producer gas engines are a measure of fuel...... passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are of similar order. When the environmental effect of the emissions is discussed, unburned hydrocarbons in the form of methane is a strong greenhouse gas (21 times higher...... than CO2) while CO only indirectly through photochemical reactions is involved in the production of the greenhouse gas ozone....

  6. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  7. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively.

  8. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  9. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  10. Accuracy of exhaust emission factor measurements on chassis dynamometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joumard, R.; Laurikko, J.; Han, T.L.; Geivanidis, S.; Samaras, Z.; Merétei, T.; Devaux, P.; André, J.-M.; Cornelis, E.; Lacour, S.; Prati, M.V.; Vermeulen, R.; Zallinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of 20 parameters on the measurement of light-vehicle emission factors on chassis dynamometer based on driving patterns, vehicle-related parameters, vehicle sampling, and laboratory-related parameters, was studied. The results were based on literature synthesis, ≈ 2700 specific tests

  11. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(5). (8)(i) Real time flow rate measurement and calculating devices are permitted under these... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...C = Total brake horsepower-hour (brake horsepower integrated with respect to time) for the cold...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions. 86.1823-01 Section 86.1823-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  13. Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels for the Port of Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, FB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Shifting challenges of air quality in South Africa, Bloemfontein, 1-2 October 2015 Estimation of exhaust emission from ocean-going vessels for the Port of Cape Town Farryn B. Moodley *1, 2 and Tirusha Thambiran 3, 4 1 uMoya-NILU Consulting, 29...

  14. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel greater than 10 inches. (E) Engine displacement greater than 50 cc. (F) The absence of a... engines that have total displacement of 70 cc or less to the exhaust emission standards in § 1051.615... first. For off-highway motorcycles with engines that have total displacement of 70 cc or less, the...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... from advertisements or other marketing materials for any engines in the engine family. (B) Your basic...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.107 - What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the useful life period for meeting exhaust emission standards? 1054.107 Section 1054.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... product warranty statements and marketing materials regarding engine life, in making this determination...

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Exhaust-Gas Ejectors for Ground Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-07-01

    a t insreasing length- diameter rat i o owing t o the di.:nfnieli:ng iniprovement i n energy t ransfer w i t 3 increacinz mixiEg l€iIc-th and...increaee i n horsopcwer results Prom the g rea t e r energy contalned i n the exhaust gas a t the higher powers; whereas, the increase of pressure...of the energy of the exhaust gas t o the cooling sir. drops are insuf f ic ien t f o r s a t i s f ac to ry cooling. a r e obtained f o r the

  18. Analysis on fuel economy improvement and exhaust emission reduction in a two-stroke engine by using an exhaust valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Takaharu; Okada, Kazunori

    1995-12-31

    A timing controlled auto-ignition name ``AR combustion`` could improve irregular combustion in the part load operation of conventional two-stroke engines. Their previous papers have suggested its idea and the drastic improvements in fuel consumption and HC emission proven through a bench experiments. This time, form a concept that improvements of a two-stroke engine should be done maintaining its original advantages, an AR combustion engine was developed by using a simple exhaust valve and maintaining engine`s original power output. This engine was mounted on a motorcycle and experimented in the ``Dakar rally``. As the results, good fuel economies exceeding a four-stroke rally model, excellent driveability and durability were proven, because of the improvement in the combustion and engine`s potential for the downsizing. The AR combustion engine, consequently, has good prospects for the practical use.

  19. 40 CFR 1051.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... catalytic converters, use a multiplicative deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. A multiplicative... considered in compliance with the applicable numerical exhaust emission standards in subpart B of this part... durability demonstration. (Note: if you participate in the ABT program in subpart H of this part, your FELs...

  20. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  1. 40 CFR 86.144-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... × (COconc/1,000,000) (4) Carbon dioxide mass: CO2mass=Vmix × DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/100) (5) Methanol mass... petroleum fuel with hydrogen to carbon ratio of 1.85:1. (C) COe= COem for methanol-fuel or natural gas-fuel...=Density of total hydrocarbon. (A) For gasoline-fuel, diesel-fuel and methanol fuel; DensityHC=16.33 g/ft3...

  2. Effects of Specific Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of Four Stroke Diesel Engine with CuO/Water Nanofluid as Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilraja S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx, exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.

  3. Non-intrusive measurement of emission indices. A new approach to the evaluation of infrared spectra emitted by aircraft engine exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, E.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik

    1997-12-31

    A non-intrusive method is used to determine the emission indices of a research aircraft`s engine in-flight. The principle is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer MIROR which was specifically designed and built for operation aboard aircrafts. This device measures the spectrum of the infrared radiation emitted by the hot exhaust gas under cruise conditions. From these spectra mixing ratios and emission indices can be derived. An extension to previously applied evaluation schemes is proposed: Whereas formerly the plume was assumed a homogeneous layer of gas, temperature and concentration profiles are now introduced to the evaluation procedure. (author) 5 refs.

  4. Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo[a]pyrene in most of the samples. Better recirculation between air and fuel in higher swirl numbers results in better combustion. In higher swirl numbers, the temperature of the combustion process increases which leads to a more complete combustion. Another result of higher swirl number is a longer residence time which allows the organic substances in the fuel to remain in the reaction longer and also leads to a more complete combustion. The preliminary results from particle analyzer show that the abundance ratio of smaller particles to larger particles increases at higher swirl numbers. For example, at swirl 86, the abundance ratio of 0.3 micron particles to 0.7 micron particles was 400 while at swirl 0, this ratio was 35. Smaller particles have higher specific surface area which allows for more PAH adsorption. The preliminary results show that operating the jet engine at higher swirl numbers can have positive or negative effects on particle-bound PAH emissions. Higher temperature and residence time as well as better mixture of fuel and air can reduce PAH emission while generating more small size particles can increase surface available for PAH

  5. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the square root of the bulk stream temperature.) (2) Flow totalizers for methanol and/or formaldehyde... instantaneous flow. A low response time temperature sensor is necessary for accurate flow calculation. ER06OC93... flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels...

  6. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot...... agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near...

  7. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  8. Histological examination of the rat after long-term exposure to subtoxic automotive exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, W; Neumann, H; Thron, H L; Schneider, H; Sarasa-Corral, J L

    1981-07-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, in recent years attention has increasingly been focused on the possible effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to investigate this problem further, the influence of long-term exhaust gas exposure on rats has been studied. One hundred Wistar rats of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 h/week up to 28 months to an atmosphere polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine, CO concentrations held constant at 90 ppm. A second group (50 rats) was exposed to 250 ppm for 6 months. Blood parameters and body weight were controlled. Specimens of CNS, heart, vessels, kidney etc. were investigated light microscopically. Focal necroses of the myocardium with inflammatory reactions as well as interstitial fibrosis were found in the heart muscle of the 90 ppm group. In the 250 ppm group endothelial proliferations, edema of the intima and deposits of proteoglycanes in the media were observed. We conclude that subtoxic concentrations of CO which only lead to slight morphologic changes may aggravate preexisting lesions caused by high risk conditions, e.g., hypertension or hypercholesteremia.

  9. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Brian R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 μm in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  10. Correction of Measured Taxicab Exhaust Emission Data Based on Cmem Modle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, T.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from urban road traffic mainly come from automobile exhaust. However, the carbon dioxide emissions obtained by the instruments are unreliable due to time delay error. In order to improve the reliability of data, we propose a method to correct the measured vehicles' carbon dioxide emissions from instrument based on the CMEM model. Firstly, the synthetic time series of carbon dioxide emissions are simulated by CMEM model and GPS velocity data. Then, taking the simulation data as the control group, the time delay error of the measured carbon dioxide emissions can be estimated by the asynchronous correlation analysis, and the outliers can be automatically identified and corrected using the principle of DTW algorithm. Taking the taxi trajectory data of Wuhan as an example, the results show that (1) the correlation coefficient between the measured data and the control group data can be improved from 0.52 to 0.59 by mitigating the systematic time delay error. Furthermore, by adjusting the outliers which account for 4.73 % of the total data, the correlation coefficient can raise to 0.63, which suggests strong correlation. The construction of low carbon traffic has become the focus of the local government. In order to respond to the slogan of energy saving and emission reduction, the distribution of carbon emissions from motor vehicle exhaust emission was studied. So our corrected data can be used to make further air quality analysis.

  11. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  12. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  13. Effects of equivalence ratio and dwell time on exhaust emissions from an experimental premixing prevaporizing burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.

    1975-01-01

    A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as 0.3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99 percent combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of 0.4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat higher equivalence ratios with shorter times.

  14. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  15. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): II. Uncertainty analyses of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David G.

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of future emissions are necessary for understanding the future health of the atmosphere, designing national and international strategies for air quality control, and evaluating mitigation policies. Emission inventories are uncertain and future projections even more so, thus it is important to quantify the uncertainty inherent in emission projections. This paper is the second in a series that seeks to establish a more mechanistic understanding of future air pollutant emissions based on changes in technology. The first paper in this series (Yan et al., 2011) described a model that projects emissions based on dynamic changes of vehicle fleet, Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard-Trend, or SPEW-Trend. In this paper, we explore the underlying uncertainties of global and regional exhaust PM emission projections from on-road vehicles in the coming decades using sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. This work examines the emission sensitivities due to uncertainties in retirement rate, timing of emission standards, transition rate of high-emitting vehicles called “superemitters”, and emission factor degradation rate. It is concluded that global emissions are most sensitive to parameters in the retirement rate function. Monte Carlo simulations show that emission uncertainty caused by lack of knowledge about technology composition is comparable to the uncertainty demonstrated by alternative economic scenarios, especially during the period 2010-2030.

  17. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepeau Gérald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1 its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2 its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  18. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and carbon dioxide and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the determination of oxides of nitrogen... mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 which has been bubbled through water at room temperature produces an... and filter shall be heated to maintain a sample gas temperature of 375°±10 °F (191°±6 °C) before the...

  19. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  20. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  1. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-02

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.

  2. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Enteric Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Tedeschi, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock directly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. For cost and practicality reasons, quantification of GHG has been through development of various types of mathematical models. This chapter addresses the utility and

  3. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms requires a comprehensive approach that integrates the impacts and interactions of all important sources and sinks. This approach requires some form of modeling. Types of models commonly used include empirical emission factors, pr...

  4. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  5. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  6. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    emissions. In reality, estimates of international scientific organizations such as the International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are in close agreement, with variation mainly arising on how GHG emissions are allocated to land use and land use...... change. Other estimates involve major deviations from international protocols, such as estimated global warming potential of CH4 or including respired CO2 in GHG emissions. These approaches also fail to differentiate short-term CO2 arising from oxidation of plant C by ruminants from CO2 released from...

  7. Particle Emissions from Domestic Gas Cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Livbjerg, Hans; Wagner, Ayten Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions...... of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7 nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to ∼10 nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small...

  8. 40 CFR 1039.102 - What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements § 1039.102 What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in model year 2014 and earlier? The exhaust emission standards of this section apply for 2014 and earlier model years. See § 1039.101 for exhaust emission standards that apply to later model years. See 40 CFR 89.112...

  9. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  10. The role of sulfur emission in volatile particle formation in jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, B.; Fahey, D. W.

    Recent in-situ emission measurements of the Concorde in the lower stratosphere point to a surprisingly efficient conversion of fuel sulfur to H2SO4 in the exhaust plume. By means of a comprehensive model, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles and precursors are calculated in the diluting aircraft wake. The results provide strong evidence that high levels of SO3 present in the nascent plume are required to explain the observations of large numbers of nanometer-sized aerosols. Limiting particle formation at emission to keep potential chemical effects on stratospheric ozone small will require control of the sulfur oxidation kinetics during fuel combustion. The similarities between super- and subsonic exhaust plumes suggest that the presence of SO3 in the latter will also be a key limiting factor in new aerosol production.

  11. [Emission Characteristics of Vehicle Exhaust in Beijing Based on Actual Traffic Flow Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Qu, Song

    2015-08-01

    The basic data of traffic volume, vehicle type constitute and speed on road networks in Beijing was obtained fly modei simulation and field survey. Based on actual traffic flow information and. emission factors data with temporal and spatial distribution features, emission inventory of motor vehicle exhaust in Beijing was built on the ArcGIS platform, meanwhile, the actual road emission characteristics and spatial distribution of the pollutant emissions were analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of passenger car was higher than 89% on each type of road in the urban, and the proportion of passenger car was the highest in suburban roads as well while the pickup truck, medium truck, heavy truck, motorbus, tractor and motorcycle also occupied a certain proportion. There was a positive correlation between the pollutant emission intensity and traffic volume, and the emission intensity was generally higher in daytime than nighttime, but the diurnal variation trend of PM emission was not clear for suburban roads and the emission intensity was higher in nighttime than daytime for highway. The emission intensities in urban area, south, southeast and northeast areas near urban were higher than those in the western and northern mountainous areas with lower density of road network. The ring roads in urban and highways in suburban had higher emission intensity because of the heavy traffic volume.

  12. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  13. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emission Accounting 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.; Kroeze, C.; Janssen, L.H.J.M.; Olivier, J.G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here, a more detailed analysis is made of differences between national emission estimates, including the second National Communications and global inventories such as EDGAR 2.0 and atmospheric concentration data. This follow-up report provides background information for IPCC expert meetings held on

  15. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  16. Accouting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Deemer, B. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Nietch, C. T.; Waldo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a `basis for future methodological development' due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions linked to the National Lakes Assessment.

  17. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  18. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  19. Primary particulate emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from idling diesel vehicle exhaust in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Hu, Qihou; Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Song, Wei; Sun, Yele; Bi, Xinhui; Yu, Jianzhen; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Zhonghui; He, Quanfu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; George, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In China diesel vehicles dominate the primary emission of particulate matters from on-road vehicles, and they might also contribute substantially to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In this study tailpipe exhaust of three typical in-use diesel vehicles under warm idling conditions was introduced directly into an indoor smog chamber with a 30m 3 Teflon reactor to characterize primary emissions and SOA formation during photo-oxidation. The emission factors of primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) for the three types of Chinese diesel vehicles ranged 0.18-0.91 and 0.15-0.51gkg-fuel -1 , respectively; and the SOA production factors ranged 0.50-1.8gkg-fuel -1 and SOA/POA ratios ranged 0.7-3.7 with an average of 2.2. The fuel-based POA emission factors and SOA production factors from this study for idling diesel vehicle exhaust were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in previous studies for idling gasoline vehicle exhaust. The emission factors for total particle numbers were 0.65-4.0×10 15 particleskg-fuel -1 , and particles with diameters less than 50nm dominated in total particle numbers. Traditional C 2 -C 12 precursor non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) could only explain less than 3% of the SOA formed during aging and contribution from other precursors including intermediate volatile organic compounds (IVOC) needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year? The exhaust emission standards of this section apply after the 2014 model year. Certain of these standards also apply for model year 2014 and... emission standards that apply to 2014 and earlier model years. Section 1039.105 specifies smoke standards...

  1. 40 CFR 1039.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE... deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. Except as specified...

  2. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  3. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  4. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the...

  6. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-12-01

    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  8. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  9. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  10. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  13. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  14. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  15. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock

    2017-04-01

    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  16. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  17. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    3Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Port St Lucie, Florida, 34987, USA. Accepted 9 August 2010. Methanogenic archaea ... making a contribution of less than 5% to global CH4 emissions. Furthermore, the review addresses questions ..... gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003).

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  19. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage;

  1. Detecting gas leaks by ultrasonic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Henriksen, Eigil

    1997-01-01

    The emission of noise in the frequency range 10 kHz to 25.6 kHz from an experimental gas leak in a flanged joint has been experimentally investigated. The overall conclusion is that the emitted noise is almost frequency independent in level within the considered frequency range.A small PC program...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  3. ANN based evaluation of the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke diesel engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    ...) to the evaluation of NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke Diesel engine. A concept is presented how to use the ANN as an alternative to direct measurements carried out on a ship at sea...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  5. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  6. A GM (1, 1) Markov Chain-Based Aeroengine Performance Degradation Forecast Approach Using Exhaust Gas Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ning-bo Zhao; Jia-long Yang; Shu-ying Li; Yue-wu Sun

    2014-01-01

    Performance degradation forecast technology for quantitatively assessing degradation states of aeroengine using exhaust gas temperature is an important technology in the aeroengine health management. In this paper, a GM (1, 1) Markov chain-based approach is introduced to forecast exhaust gas temperature by taking the advantages of GM (1, 1) model in time series and the advantages of Markov chain model in dealing with highly nonlinear and stochastic data caused by uncertain factors. In this ap...

  7. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  8. The Effect on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Adding Cotton Oil Methyl Ester to Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Ali; Ciniviz, Murat; Örs, İlker; Oğuz, Hidayet

    2016-01-01

    In the study, engine performance and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel and cotton oil methyl ester (COME) blends at proportions of 2%, %5 and 10% (v/v) have been investigated. The engine was fuelled with COME–diesel blends and pure diesel when running the engine at six different engine speed (1000,1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 rpm) and at full load. Test results are presented engine torque and specific fuel consumption (SCF) as engine performance, and Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbon (HC), smo...

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rd recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching FeCrAl as a substrate which treated using ultrasonic bath technique to improve the exhaust emission control. The modified catalytic converter preparation will involve the ultrasonic bath process of FeCrAl foil which has fabricated as metallic monolith coated by γ-Al2O3 powder. Nickel as catalyst material will be prepared using electroplating process. The oxidation test will be conducted using a tube and automatic furnace in temperature of 1100°C for 100 hours. Mitsubishi 4G93 1800cc Petrol E.F.I with a multi -gas analyzer equipped with a hydraulic dynamometer will be used for emission measurements of HC, CO, and NOx in varying speed and load for both conditions with and without catalytic converter. The result will expect the γ-Al2O3 as the washcoat material that fully embedded to FeCrAl substrate with the combination of ultrasonic and electroplating technique will effectively convert the CO, NOx and HC to CO2, NO2 and H2O which means that catalytic converter is effective to improve exhaust emission control of diesel engine. The FeCrAl substrate as a metallic catalytic converter which coated by γ-Al2O3 using ultrasonic and nickelelectroplating technique may improve the exhaust emission control.

  11. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

  12. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  13. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION... engine families certified under this part. Apply deterioration factors as follows: (1) Additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that do not use aftertreatment technology, use an...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology. Also, you may use an additive deterioration factor for exhaust emissions for a particular... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD... the deterioration factor. If the factor is less than one, use one. (2) Additive deterioration factor...

  15. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  16. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  17. Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, K; Heland, J; Lister, D H; Wilson, C W; Howes, R J; Falk, R S; Lindermeir, E; Birk, M; Wagner, G; Haschberger, P; Bernard, M; Legras, O; Wiesen, P; Kurtenbach, R; Brockmann, K J; Kriesche, V; Hilton, M; Bishop, G; Clarke, R; Workman, J; Caola, M; Geatches, R; Burrows, R; Black, J D; Hervé, P; Vally, J

    2000-01-20

    Nonintrusive systems for the measurement on test rigs of aeroengine exhaust emissions required for engine certification (CO, NO(x), total unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke), together with CO(2) and temperature have been developed. These results have been compared with current certified intrusive measurements on an engine test. A spectroscopic database and data-analysis software has been developed to enable Fourier-transform Infrared measurement of concentrations of molecular species. CO(2), CO, and NO data showed agreement with intrusive techniques of approximately ?30%. A narrow-band spectroscopic device was used to measure CO(2) (with deviations of less than ?10% from the intrusive measurement), whereas laser-induced incandescence was used to measure particles. Future improvements to allow for the commercial use of the nonintrusive systems have been identified and the methods are applicable to any measurement of combustion emissions.

  18. Investigation of diesel engine for low exhaust emissions with different combustion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodke Pundlik R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming stringent Euro-6 emission regulations for passenger vehicle better fuel economy, low cost are the key challenges for engine development. In this paper, 2.2L, multi cylinder diesel engine have been tested for four different piston bowls designed for compression ratio of CR 15.5 to improve in cylinder performance and reduce emissions. These combustion chambers were verified in CFD at two full load points. 14 mode points have been derived using vehicle model run in AVL CRUISE software as per NEDC cycle based on time weightage factor. Base engine with compression ratio CR16.5 for full load performance and 14-mode points on Engine test bench was taken as reference for comparison. The bowl with flat face on bottom corner has shown reduction 25% and 12 % NOx emissions at 1500 and 3750 rpm full load points at same level of Soot emissions. Three piston bowls were tested for full load performance and 14 mode points on engine test bench and combustion chamber ‘C’ has shown improvement in thermal efficiency by 0.8%. Combinations of cooled EGR and combustion chamber ‘C’ with geometrical changes in engine have reduced exhaust NOx, soot and CO emissions by 22%, 9 % and 64 % as compared to base engine at 14 mode points on engine test bench.

  19. Exhaust gas monitoring based on absorption spectroscopy in the process industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Shu, Xiao-wen; Kan, Rui-feng; Cui, Yi-ben; He, Ying; Xu, Zhen-yu; Geng, Hui; Liu, Jian-guo

    2009-07-01

    This non-invasive gas monitor for exhaust gas monitoring must has high reliability and requires little maintenance. Monitor for in-situ measurements using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near infrared, can meet these requirements. TDLAS has evolved over the past decade from a laboratory especially to an accepted, robust and reliable technology for trace gas sensing. With the features of tunability and narrow linewidth of the distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and by precisely tuning the laser output wavelength to a single isolated absorption line of the gas, TDLAS technique can be utilized to measure gas concentration with high sensitivity. Typical applications for monitoring of H2S, NH3, HC1 and HF are described here together by wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic(WMS-2F) detection. This paper will illustrate the problems related to on-line applications, in particular, the overfall effects, automatic light intensity correction, temperature correction, which impacted on absorption coefficient and give details of how effect of automatic correction is necessary. The system mainly includes optics and electronics, optical system mainly composed of fiber, fiber coupler and beam expander, the electron part has been placed in safe analysis room not together with the optical part. Laser merely passes through one-meter-long pipes by the fiber coupling technology, so the system itself has anti-explosion. The results of the system are also presented in the end, the system's response time is only 0.5s, and can be achieved below 1×10-5 the detection limit at the volume fraction, it can entirely replace the traditional methods of detection exhaust gas in the process industry.

  20. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  1. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Heland, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R. [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M. [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D.H. [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  2. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  3. THIN FILM-BASED SENSOR FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS, NH3, AND CO DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  4. Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas development (SGD) presents opportunities and risks with regards to air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a potential opportunity to reduce emissions, if shale gas replaces ‘dirtier’ (more emissions-intensive) fuels...

  5. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  6. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  7. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  8. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  9. Relationship between the variations of hydrogen in HCNG fuel and the oxygen in exhausted gas

    OpenAIRE

    Preecha Yaom; Sarawoot Watechagit

    2015-01-01

    The variation of the mixing ratio between hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) in hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fuel (HCNG) gives different results in terms of engine performances, fuel consumption, and emission characteristics. Therefore, the engine performance using HCNG as fuel can be optimized if the mixing ratio between the two fuels in HCNG can be adjusted in real time while the engine is being operated. In this research, the relationship between the amount of oxygen in ...

  10. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Paul Albert

    2010-11-01

    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

  11. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-02

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number.

  12. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  13. Effects of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System and Variable Nozzle Turbine Control on the Operating Parameters of an Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zamboni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of NOX emissions and fuel consumption are the main topics in engine development, forcing the adoption of complex techniques and components, whose interactions have to be clearly understood for proper and reliable operations and management of the whole system. The investigation presented in this paper aimed at the development of integrated control strategies of turbocharging, high pressure (HP and low pressure (LP exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems for better NOX emissions and fuel consumption, while analyzing their reciprocal influence and the resulting variations of engine quantities. The study was based on an extended experimental program in three part load engine operating conditions. In the paper a comparison of the behavior of the main engine sub-systems (intake and exhaust circuits, turbocharger turbine and compressor, HP and LP EGR loops in a wide range of operating modes is presented and discussed, considering open and closed loop approaches for variable nozzle turbine (VNT control, and showing how these affect engine performance and emissions. The potential of significant decrease in NOX emissions through the integration of HP and LP EGR was confirmed, while a proper VNT management allowed for improved fuel consumption level, if an open loop control scheme is followed. At higher engine speed and load, further actions have to be applied to compensate for observed soot emissions increase.

  14. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality

  15. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  16. Carbonaceous aerosol in jet engine exhaust: emission characteristics and implications for heterogeneous chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.P.; Kaercher, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Wessling (Germany). Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-08-01

    Characteristic parameters of black carbon aerosol (BC) emitted from jet engine were measured during ground tests and in-flight behind the same aircraft. Size distribution features were a primary BC mode at a model diameter D {approx} 0.045 {mu}m, and a BC agglomeration mode at D < 0.2 {mu}m. The total BC number concentration at the engine exit was 2.9 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} with good agreement between model results and in-flight measured number concentrations of non-volatile particles with D {>=} 0.014 {mu}m. A comparison between total number concentration of BC particles and the non-volatile fraction of the total aerosol at the exit plane suggests that the non-volatile fraction of jet engine exhaust aerosol consists almost completely of BC. In-flight BC mass emission indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 g BC (kg fuel){sup -1}. The measured in-flight particle emission value was 1.75 {+-} 0.15 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} with corresponding ground test values of 1.0-8.7 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}. Both size distribution properties and mass emission indices can be scaled from ground test to in-flight conditions. Implications for atmosphere BC loading, BC and cirrus interaction and the potential of BC for perturbation of atmospheric chemistry are briefly outlined. (author)

  17. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  18. Exhaustion of the gas next to the supermassive black hole of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Anne-Laure; Combes, Françoise

    2017-11-01

    New observations performed at the IRAM Plateau de Bure reveal the absence of molecular gas next to the black hole of the Andromeda galaxy. We derived a 3σ upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 4300 M⊙ for a line width of 1000 km s-1. This is compatible with infra-red observations, which reveal a hole in the dust emission next to the black hole. Some gas from stellar feedback is expected from the old eccentric stellar disc population, but it is not accreted close to the black hole. This absence of gas explains the absence of stellar formation observed in this region, contrary to what is observed next to Sgr A* in the Milky Way. Either the gas has been swallowed by the black hole, or a feedback mechanism has pushed the gas outside the central 1 pc. Nevertheless, we detect a small clump of gas with a very low velocity dispersion at 2.4″ from the black hole. It is probable that this clumpy gas is seen in projection, as it does not follow the rotation of the disc surrounding the black hole, its velocity dispersion is ten times lower than the expected velocity gradient, and the tidal shear from the black hole requires a gas density for this clump that is not compatible with our observations.

  19. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...

  20. Carbonyl emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust in China and the contribution to ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Shao, Min; Li, Yue; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Yanjun; Ji, Zhe; Tang, Dagang

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometer by using typical heavy duty driving cycle and fuel economy cycle. The air from the exhaust was sampled by 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine cartridge and 23 carbonyl compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The average emission factor of carbonyls was 97.2 mg/km, higher than that of light-duty diesel vehicles and gasoline-powered vehicles. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde were the species with the highest emission factors. Main influencing factors for carbonyl emissions were vehicle type, average speed and regulated emission standard, and the impact of vehicle loading was not evident in this study. National emission of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was calculated for China, 2011, based on both vehicle miles traveled and fuel consumption. Carbonyl emission of diesel vehicle was estimated to be 45.8 Gg, and was comparable to gasoline-powered vehicles (58.4 Gg). The emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were 12.6, 6.9, 3.8 Gg, respectively. The ozone formation potential of carbonyls from diesel vehicles exhaust was 537 mg O3/km, higher than 497 mg O3/km of none-methane hydrocarbons emitted from diesel vehicles.

  1. Effect of lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies in biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system on emissions from CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thiyagarajan; Varuvel, Edwin Geo; Martin, Leenus Jesu; Beddhannan, Nagalingam

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with performance, emission and combustion studies in a single cylinder CI engine with lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies with biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system. Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME), widely available biofuel in India, and orange oil (ORG), a low carbon biofuel, were taken for this study, and equal volume blend was prepared for testing. Methanol (M) and n-pentanol (P) was taken as lower and higher alcohol and blended 20% by volume with KOME-ORG blend. Activated carbon-based exhaust treatment indigenous system was designed and tested with KOME-ORG + M20 and KOME-ORG + P20 blend. The tests were carried out at various load conditions at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The study revealed that considering performance, emission and combustion studies, KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon are found optimum in reducing NO, smoke and CO2 emission. Compared to KOME, for KOME-ORG + M20 + activated carbon, NO emission is reduced from 10.25 to 7.85 g/kWh, the smoke emission is reduced from 49.4 to 28.9%, and CO2 emission is reduced from 1098.84 to 580.68 g/kWh. However, with exhaust treatment system, an increase in HC and CO emissions and reduced thermal efficiency is observed due to backpressure effects.

  2. Storage of Nitrous Oxide (NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas using Alumina-Based Catalysts: Preparation, Characterization, and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alsobaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the nitrous oxide (NOx storage process using alumina-based catalysts (K2 O/Al2 O3 , CaO/Al2 O3,  and BaO/Al2 O3 . The feed was a synthetic exhaust gas containing 1,000 ppm of nitrogen monoxide (NO, 1,000 ppm i-C4 H10 , and an 8% O2  and N2  balance. The catalyst was carried out at temperatures between 250–450°C and a contact time of 20 minutes. It was found that NOx was effectively adsorbed in the presence of oxygen. The NOx storage capacity of K2 O/Al2 O3 was higher than that of BaO/Al2 O3.  The NOx storage capacity for K2 O/Al2 O3  decreased with increasing temperature and achieved a maximum at 250°C. Potassium loading higher than 15% in the catalyst negatively affected the morphological properties. The combination of Ba and K loading in the catalyst led to an improvement in the catalytic activity compared to its single metal catalysts. As a conclusion, mixed metal oxide was a potential catalyst for de-NOx process in meeting the stringent diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations. The catalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and measurements, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron affinity (EA, a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET to measure surface area, and pore volume and pore size distribution assessments.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  6. 40 CFR 1051.107 - What are the exhaust emission standards for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and offroad utility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family. (ii...

  7. Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels. Final report; Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, M.; Buenger, J.; Gnuschke, H.; Halboth, H.; Gruedl, P.; Krahl, J.

    2001-10-01

    With the advance of environmental legislation and practices oriented towards sustainability renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important. Use of replenishable raw materials helps preserve fossil resources. In the fuel sector the most widely used replenishable materials are rape methyl ester (RME) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The purpose of the present project on the ''Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels'' was to generate orienting data on the potential health relevance of mixtures of fossil and renewable fuel intended for use in spark ignition and diesel engines. This included a determination of benzene emissions and the mutagenicity of particles. Beyond the applied-for scope of research measurements were also performed on the test engine's toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene emissions as well as on the smoke spot number and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of the diesel engine. [German] Regenerative Energien gewinnen durch die Umweltgesetzgebungen und das Streben nach einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Durch die Verwendung nachwachsender Rohstoffe koennen die fossilen Ressourcen geschont werden. Im Kraftstoffsektor sind hier hauptsaechlich Rapsoelmethylester (RME) und optional Ethyltertiaerbutylether (ETBE) zu nennen. Um fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren insbesondere mit Blick auf Kraftstoffgemische aus fossilen und regenerativen Komponenten orientierende Daten ueber eine potenzielle Gesundheitsrelevanz zu generieren, wurde das Projekt 'Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen' durchgefuehrt. Neben der Benzolemission wurde die Mutagenitaet der Partikeln ermittelt. Ueber den beantragten Untersuchungsrahmen hinaus wurden die Tuluol-, Ethylbenzol-, und Xylolemissionen der eingesetzten Motoren, sowie die Russzahl (RZ) und die Stickoxid- (NO{sub x}) und Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen (HC) des Dieselmotors bestimmt. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from 10 biogas plants within the agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, J; Reinelt, T; Clemens, J; Hafermann, C; Friehe, J; Weiland, P

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing number of biogas plants in Germany the necessity for an exact determination of the actual effect on the greenhouse gas emissions related to the energy production gains importance. Hitherto the life cycle assessments have been based on estimations of emissions of biogas plants. The lack of actual emission evaluations has been addressed within a project from which the selected results are presented here. The data presented here have been obtained during a survey in which 10 biogas plants were analysed within two measurement periods each. As the major methane emission sources the open storage of digestates ranging from 0.22 to 11.2% of the methane utilized and the exhaust of the co-generation units ranging from 0.40 to 3.28% have been identified. Relevant ammonia emissions have been detected from the open digestate storage. The main source of nitrous oxide emissions was the co-generation unit. Regarding the potential of measures to reduce emissions it is highly recommended to focus on the digestate storage and the exhaust of the co-generation.

  9. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  10. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  11. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Research on the Flow Field and Structure Optimization in Cyclone Separator with Downward Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical software analysis of the turbulent and strongly swirling flow field of a cyclone separator with downward exhaust gas and its performances is described. The ANSYS 14.0 simulations based on DPM model are also used in the investigation. A new set of geometrical design has been optimized to achieve minimum pressure drop and maximum separation efficiency. A comparison of numerical simulation of the new design confirm the superior performance of the new design compared to the conventional design. The influence of the structure parameters such as the length of the guide pipe, the shape of the guide, the inlet shape on the separation performance was analyzed in this research. This research result has certain reference value for cyclone separator design and performance optimization.

  13. Study on jet aeration oxidation of magnesium sulfite from magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Tang, Xiaojia; Wang, Hui; Li, Tie; Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Quan; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-05-11

    Oxidation of magnesium sulfite in washing water is essential for the treatment of by-product of shipboard magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning systems. The purpose of this study is to obtain a highly efficient magnesium sulfite oxidation technology by using the jet aeration process. Response surface methodology and central composite design were used to investigate the effects of major variables on oxidation of magnesium sulfite and optimize the oxidation conditions. The predictions of the two response functions agree well with the experimental data. The optimum oxidation conditions for ship are temperature 318 K, liquid flow rate 4.04 m3/h, and pH 7.70. Under optimal conditions, 12 moles of magnesium sulfite were oxidized by 90% over 15 minutes at an energy consumption of 0.220 kw h.

  14. CO and PAH emissions from engines operating on producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    are mainly due to the high content of CO in the fuel and can – in origin – be compared with the emission of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), like the UHC emissions from natural gas engines, CO emissions producer gas engines are a measure of fuel passing unburned through the combustion. Measurements of the slip...... of the producer gas fuel components CO and CH4 showed that these are similar, the slip is a measure for the amount of a fuel component that passes unburned through the combustion process. The measurements show that the emission of CO from the engine is an emission of unburned fuel similar to the emission of UHC....... When the environmental effect of the emissions is discussed, unburned hydrocarbons in the form of methane is a strong greenhouse gas (21 times higher than CO2) will CO only indirectly through photochemical reactions is involved in the production of the greenhouse gas ozone. The destruction of CO...

  15. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  16. Effects of chronic exposure to diluted automotive exhaust gas on the CNS of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, W; Thron, N L; Ast, D; Köhler, P R

    1981-01-01

    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, attention during the last years has been increasingly focused on the possible effects in high-risk groups of the population. In order to evaluated this point further, the combined influence of both, chronic arterial hypertension and long-time exhaust gas exposure on the CNS has been studied. Both, normotensive Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 hours per week for up to 18 months to atmospheres polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine with CO concentrations held constant at about 0,90 and 250 ppm, respectively. Biochemical data, body weight, and blood pressure were checked regularly. Characteristic histomorphological findings in the non-exposed SHR brains were hyalinosis and hyperplasia of intracerebral arterioles and -- in some cases -- small focal hemorrhages and infarcts. In the exposed SHR brains, large infarcts of the hemisphere and in the basal ganglia were found, which possibly corresponds to the increase of the mortality rate in SHR. We assume that the increase hematocrit plays an important role in the disturbance of microcirculation of the CNS.

  17. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  18. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1 by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2 China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3 developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  19. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  20. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  1. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  2. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f( t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  3. Exhaust-gas systems for modern furnaces. The most important questions and answers on stacks. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abgasanlagen fuer moderne Feuerstaetten. Die wichtigsten Fragen und Antworten rund um den Schornstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, J.; Postenrieder, E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the exhaust gas plant for furnaces with chimneys is of great influence on function and economy of gas- and oil furnaces. Information on the most important questions in connection with the chimney is therefore supplied. Contents: chimney engineering, connecting parts (exhaust gas pipes), accessories of exhaust gas equipment, breakdowns and repair, regulations and rules. Terminology and tables are supplied. (BR).

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  5. Evaluation of PM emissions from two in-service gas turbine general aviation aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S.; Fortner, Edward C.; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Croteau, Philip; Herndon, Scott C.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.

    2017-07-01

    We determined particulate matter (PM) emissions in the exhaust plumes from two gas turbine aircraft engines: a CF34-3A1 turbofan engine and a TPE331-6-252B turboprop engine in a dedicated study on in-service general aviation aircraft. The engine power states were from 16% to 100% engine thrust. Both nucleation and soot mode particles were observed from the emission exhausts of the CF34-3A1 engine but only soot particle mode was detected from the TPE331-6-252B engine. For the CF34-3A1 engine, the contribution of soot mode to total PM emissions was dominant at high power, while at decreased engine power states nucleation mode organic PM became important. PM emissions indices of the TPE331-6-252B engine were found to be generally larger than those of the CF34-3A1 engine. For both engines, medium power conditions (40-60% of thrust) yielded the lowest PM emissions. For the TPE331-6-252B engine, volatile PM components including organic and sulfate were more than 50% in mass at low power, while non-volatile black carbon became dominant at high power conditions such as takeoff.

  6. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  7. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the carbon monoxide emissions of an idling gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Subramaniam, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature and humidity affect the exhaust emissions of a gas turbine engine. The results of a test program employing a JT8D combustor are presented which quantize the effect of these changes on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. Analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process and reflecting changing ambient conditions are given. It is shown that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine engine.

  8. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    . The KPI enables combined analyses of changes in total emissions, emissions per area and emissions per product. Also, the KPI can be used to assess how a change in each GHG emission category affects the change in total emissions; thus pointing to where things are going well and where things are going less......-production, respectively. Only emissions from energy use have increased more than production. Our projected BAU scenarios suggest that emissions may be further decoupled by 20 – 55% giving absolute agricultural emissions in the range of 8.2 to 14.5 Pg CO2-eq. yr-1 by 2050; lower than most other suggest from estimates...... that do not allow for decoupling. In Paper III agricultural production and GHG emissions since 1970, are analysed for nine world regions. Decoupling of emissions from production shows vast regional differences. In general, the more developed regions show the lowest emissions per unit of agricultural...

  10. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Wu; Peng Zhao; Hongwei Zhang; Yuan Wang; Guozhu Mao

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded th...

  11. Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Developing Country: A Conceptualisation and Implementation of Carbon Tax in Zimbabwe. ... measurements of emission, nor a clear emission-reduction strategy. These shortcomings were essentially a consequence of a combination of technical, financial and human constraints.

  12. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  13. Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arto, Inaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions.

  14. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  15. Australia’s Consumption-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to the increase in Australia’s consumption emissions. China was the largest exporter of emissions to Australia and accounted for almost half of emissions embodied in Australian imports since 2002. The growth of trade with China coincides with the increase in imported emissions as well as the increase in aggregate......We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumption......-based emissions have been growing faster than production-based emissions since 2001. We show that emissions embodied in Australian imports are increasingly becoming a significant source of emissions. We investigate emissions in Australian imports and find that increased trade with China contributed substantially...

  16. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  17. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    is optimized to utilize the maximum waste heat recovery. The Genetic algorithm and fmincon active-set algorithm are used to optimize the design and operation parameters for the two steam cycles. The optimization aims to find the theoretically optimal combination of the pressure levels and pinch......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two...

  18. Evaluation of green house gas emissions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the GHG emissions models used by transportation agencies and industry leaders. Factors in the vehicle : operating environment that may affect modal emissions, such as, external conditions, : vehicle fleet c...

  19. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  20. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  1. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  2. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  3. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    Methane is a greenhouse gas (GHG) and the anthropogenic emission of methane to the atmosphere contributes to global warming. There are several anthropogenic methane sources, and the quantification of methane from these emission sources are often based on emission factors and model calculations...... actions. As an example the highest emission was measured at a landfill with active methane recovery and utilization. Compared with national and European greenhouse gas reporting schemes the measurement showed a large difference, with reporting ranging a factor of 100 above to a factor of 10 below...

  4. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadian, B.; Rahimi, H.; Nikbakht, A.M.; Najafi, G. [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran); Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a diesel engine using waste cooking biodiesel fuel to predict the brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing the proposed ANN, a two cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with waste vegetable cooking biodiesel and diesel fuel blends and operated at different engine speeds. The properties of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil was measured based on ASTM standards. The experimental results revealed that blends of waste vegetable oil methyl ester with diesel fuel provide better engine performance and improved emission characteristics. Using some of the experimental data for training, an ANN model was developed based on standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine. Multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. Different activation functions and several rules were used to assess the percentage error between the desired and the predicted values. It was observed that the ANN model can predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions quite well with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9487, 0.999, 0.929 and 0.999 for the engine torque, SFC, CO and HC emissions, respectively. The prediction MSE (Mean Square Error) error was between the desired outputs as measured values and the simulated values were obtained as 0.0004 by the model. (author)

  5. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  6. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. In this study, the authors conducted a survey of carsharing members across the c...

  7. Assessment of Component-level Emission Measurements Using a High Volume Sampler at Oil and Natural Gas Production Pads in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and natural gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit a substantial amount of greenhouse gasses, hydrocarbons and hazardous air pollutants into the atmosphere. These emissions come from a wide variety of sources including engine exhaust, combustor gases, atm...

  8. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  9. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Quantifying Methane Emissions from Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiu O. Yusuf; Zainura Z. Noor; Ahmad H. Abba; Mohd Ariffin Abu Hassan; Mohd Fadhil Mohd Din

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The rearing of animals for domestic consumption and export invariably lead to the production of methane as a product of digestion. This study investigated the emission of methane from Malaysian livestock between 1980 and 2008. Approach: Seven categories of animals identified were camel, buffalo, sheep, goats, horse, pigs and poultry. The estimation of methane was based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. Methane emission from cattle rose by 44% within the period from 45....

  11. 40 CFR 1051.103 - What are the exhaust emission standards for snowmobiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES... emission credits, and the vehicles within the family meet the family emission limit. The phase-in values... on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for snowmobiles powered by the following fuels: (1...

  12. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bailey, B.K.; Colucci, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart and Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level 1 electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 liter MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  13. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  14. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Davis, Kenneth J; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J; Pacala, Stephen W; Robinson, Allen L; Shepson, Paul B; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-12-22

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%.

  15. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  16. A whole farm model for quantifying total greenhouse gas emissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A whole farm model for quantifying total greenhouse gas emissions on South African dairy farms. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The model, which is based on a whole farm management approach, accounts for the variability that occurs in GHG emissions among farm production and management practices.

  17. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J.; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems

  18. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  19. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  20. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  1. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  2. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  3. Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Management under Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang LI

    2016-01-01

    To curb global warming man has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) created to the atmosphere by human activities, and it cannot neglect the efforts of corporate communities. Indeed, companiesa direct emissions are dwarfed by supply chain GHGs from an industry sector. No matter to prepare for future environmental regulations or to improve competitive advantages, companies are realizing that they have to reduce and mitigate GHGs from the supply chain perspective. Emission trading (also ca...

  4. Emission Gas Reducer on Motor Vehicle, Automobile, Light Engine of Boat and Stationary Combustion Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Wijaya Kusuma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of motor vehicle should be followed by protection against damages on the environment, since the exhaust gas from combustion engine has significantly affect on air and environmental pollution. One method to solve the problems in air pollution has been done by using a re-heater designed in Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Udayana. In accordance to the test on the re-heater, it can be seen very clear that the re-heater has significantly reduce the CO emission of about 54%. It also reduces the CO2 dan HC emission, and in the other side increases the number of O2. The re-heater has no significant effect to engine performance during the operation and also reduces the noise of motor.

  5. Strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in automotive transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    The strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in automotive transportation sector are discussed in this report. They are: Technologies to Improve Fuel Economy of Conventional Vehicles. Alternative Fuel Vehicles such as Natural Gas Vehicles, Hydrogen Vehicles, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Fuel Cell Vehicles. New Generation of Vehicles such as Super Car and 3 Liter Car. Energy-Efficient Transportation Technologies such Model Shift and ITS(Intelligent Transportation Systems). Political Approaches to reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Since the purpose of this report is to present objective information, is does not explicitly address the relative benefits and costs of the various strategies. (author). 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Attachment B: URS Shale Gas Emissions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data was provided in response to a request by ANGA for actual current data that could be compared to EPA's assumptions used in the newly proposed Oil and Natural Gas Air Pollution Standards, Subpart quad 0

  7. Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

  8. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  9. Effect of hydroxy (HHO gas addition on gasoline engine performance and emiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL-Kassaby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to construct a simple innovative HHO generation system and evaluate the effect of hydroxyl gas HHO addition, as an engine performance improver, into gasoline fuel on engine performance and emissions. HHO cell was designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum HHO gas productivity per input power. The optimized parameters were the number of neutral plates, distance between them and type and quantity of two catalysts of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The performance of a Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi gasoline engine was evaluated with and without the optimized HHO cell. In addition, the CO, HC and NOx emissions were measured using TECNO TEST exhaust gas analyzer TE488. The results showed that the HHO gas maximum productivity of the cell was 18 L/h when using 2 neutrals plates with 1 mm distance and 6 g/L of KOH. The results also showed 10% increment in the gasoline engine thermal efficiency, 34% reduction in fuel consumption, 18% reduction in CO, 14% reduction in HC and 15% reduction in NOx.

  10. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

  11. Oxidative potential of gas phase combustion emissions - An underestimated and potentially harmful component of air pollution from combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, S.; Vaughan, A.; Hedayat, F.; Salimi, F.; Rahman, M. M.; Zare, A.; Brown, R. A.; Brown, R. J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Bottle, S. E.; Yang, I. A.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2017-06-01

    The oxidative potential (OP) of the gas phase is an important and neglected aspect of environmental toxicity. Whilst prolonged exposure to particulate matter (PM) associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to lead to negative health effects, the potential for compounds in gas phase to cause similar effects is yet to be understood. In this study we describe: the significance of the gas phase OP generated through vehicle emissions; discuss the origin and evolution of species contributing to measured OP; and report on the impact of gas phase OP on human lung cells. The model aerosol for this study was exhaust emitted from a Euro III Common-rail diesel engine fuelled with different blends of diesel and biodiesel. The gas phase of these emissions was found to be potentially as hazardous as the particle phase. Fuel oxygen content was found to negatively correlate with the gas phase OP, and positively correlate with particle phase OP. This signifies a complex interaction between reactive species present in gas and particle phase. Furthermore, this interaction has an overarching effect on the OP of both particle and gas phase, and therefore the toxicity of combustion emissions.

  12. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-02

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  13. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Nonhandheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX Primary CO standard COstandard...: (1) 40.0 g/kW-hr for Class I engines with displacement below 100 cc. (2) 16.1 g/kW-hr for Class I engines with displacement at or above 100 cc. (3) 12.1 for Class II engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust...

  14. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from Savanna ( Miombo ) woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural vegetation represents an important sink for greenhouse gases (GHGs); however, there is relatively little information available on emissions from southern African savannas. The effects of clearing savanna woodlands for crop production on soil fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were studied on clay (Chromic luvisol) and ...

  16. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-02

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cohen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest, both in South Africa and globally, in the use of shale gas for electricity and energy supply. The exploitation of shale gas is, however, not without controversy, because of the reported environmental impacts associated with its extraction. The focus of this article is on the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas, which some literature suggests may be higher than what would have been expected as a consequence of the contribution of fugitive emissions during extraction, processing and transport. Based on some studies, it has been suggested that life-cycle emissions may be higher than those from coal-fired power. Here we review a number of studies and analyse the data to provide a view of the likely greenhouse gas emissions from producing electricity from shale gas, and compare these emissions to those of coal-fired power in South Africa. Consideration was given to critical assumptions that determine the relative performance of the two sources of feedstock for generating electricity � that is the global warming potential of methane and the extent of fugitive emissions. The present analysis suggests that a 100-year time horizon is appropriate in analysis related to climate change, over which period the relative contribution is lower than for shorter periods. The purpose is to limit temperature increase in the long term and the choice of metric should be appropriate. The analysis indicates that, regardless of the assumptions about fugitive emissions and the period over which global warming potential is assessed, shale gas has lower greenhouse gas emissions per MWh of electricity generated than coal. Depending on various factors, electricity from shale gas would have a specific emissions intensity between 0.3 tCO2/MWh and 0.6 tCO2/MWh, compared with about 1 tCO2/MWh for coal-fired electricity in South Africa.

  18. Measurement of Emissions from Produced Water Ponds: Upstream Oil and Gas Study #1; Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant uncertainty exists regarding air pollutant emissions from upstream oil and gas production operations. Oil and gas operations present unique and challenging emission testing issues due to the large variety and quantity of potential emissions sources. This report summ...

  19. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of termites (flagellate protozoa in lower termites and bacteria in higher termites) produce methane (CH4). Methane has been considered to be an important greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003). Termites may emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide and molecular.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  2. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli [VTT Building and Transport, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii: Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konan, Denise Eby, E-mail: konan@hawaii.ed [Department of Economics, Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Saunders Hall 542, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chan, H.L., E-mail: hingc@hawaii.ed [OmniTrak Group Inc., 1250 Davies Pacific Center, 841 Bishop Street, Honolulu, HI 96813 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii. Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konan, Denise Eby [Department of Economics, Economic Research Organization, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Saunders Hall 542, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chan, Hing Ling [OmniTrak Group Inc., 1250 Davies Pacific Center, 841 Bishop Street, Honolulu, HI 96813 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. (author)

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  6. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalized for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies. PMID:25464129

  7. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  8. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  10. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  11. The production of electrical and thermal energy from the exhaust gas heat of preheater kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, T.A.; Mosimann, P.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown, by means of an example, i.e., a 1600-ton/day four-stage suspension preheater kiln of a cement factory, that the waste heat present in the exhaust gases can be converted into useful electrical and thermal energy. This is possible even though the exhaust gases are heavily loaded with dust. The heat recovery system installed in 1981/1982 in a Swiss cement plant and the respective production line are described in detail. A comprehensive explanation is given concerning the experience of the first operating year, the interaction of the new plant with the existing production facilities, and the current measured technical data. The performance limits for economic operation are explained and the decision criteria quoted. Further applications of the successfully tested heat recovery system can be expected wherever heat sources in the form of heavily loaded gases are available.

  12. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  13. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  14. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  15. Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, Fulvio; Cassee, Flemming R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A C; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Hafner, Wolfgang; Harrison, Roy M.; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Kelly, Frank J.; Moreno, Teresa; Prevot, Andre S H; Schaap, Martijn; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor

  16. Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, F.; Cassee, F.R.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Hafner, W.; Harrison, R.M.; Jozwicka, M.; Kelly, F.J.; Moreno, T.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Schaap, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor

  17. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gas Turbine Exhaust Gas Temperature Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important gas path performance parameter of gas turbine, exhaust gas temperature (EGT can represent the thermal health condition of gas turbine. In order to monitor and diagnose the EGT effectively, a fusion approach based on fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm and support vector machine (SVM classification model is proposed in this paper. Considering the distribution characteristics of gas turbine EGT, FCM clustering algorithm is used to realize clustering analysis and obtain the state pattern, on the basis of which the preclassification of EGT is completed. Then, SVM multiclassification model is designed to carry out the state pattern recognition and fault diagnosis. As an example, the historical monitoring data of EGT from an industrial gas turbine is analyzed and used to verify the performance of the fusion fault diagnosis approach presented in this paper. The results show that this approach can make full use of the unsupervised feature extraction ability of FCM clustering algorithm and the sample classification generalization properties of SVM multiclassification model, which offers an effective way to realize the online condition recognition and fault diagnosis of gas turbine EGT.

  18. Multi-gas emission profiles for stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations: Emission implications of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees centigrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhout B; Elzen MGJ den; Vuuren DP van; KMD

    2004-01-01

    In this report we present two CO2-equivalent emission profiles leading to two different stabilised greenhouse gas concentration levels. The contribution of the various greenhouse gas emissions is expressed in CO2-equivalent emissions. These equivalent emissions are determined by using the concept of

  19. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A.; O’Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378

  20. MEASURES TO REDUCE TRANSPORTATION GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Vasile; Mariana Balan; Gheorghe-Stelian Balan; Iwona Grabara

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse gas emissions from transport have registered a severe increase over the years about 23% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulted from burning fossil fuels worldwide. In this context, it is observed the increasing need to shift to sustainable transport patterns for taking into consideration a wide-scale use of alternative energy sources (e.g. bio-fuels, biogas) and also, the investments in environmental technologies research and development etc. Romania has a national transpor...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  2. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  3. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    associated with the use of nitrogen based fertilizers in agricultural production. Replacing fossil fuel-derived energy by biomass-derived energy is commonly and with increasing emphasis proposed as a mean to mitigate the CO2 emissions. However, a recent analysis of global emission data proposes...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  4. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson

    2017-03-01

    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  6. Tuning the structure of platinum particles on ceria in situ for enhancing the catalytic performance of exhaust gas catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenzler, Andreas M.; Casapu, Maria; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Vernoux, Philippe; Loridant, Stephane; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, UMR 5256, CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Epicier, Thierry [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Science, UMR 5510, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Betz, Benjamin [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany); Ernst-Berl Institut, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Hoyer, Ruediger [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2017-10-09

    A dynamic structural behavior of Pt nanoparticles on the ceria surface under reducing/oxidizing conditions was found at moderate temperatures (<500 C) and exploited to enhance the catalytic activity of Pt/CeO{sub 2}-based exhaust gas catalysts. Redispersion of platinum in an oxidizing atmosphere already occurred at 400 C. A protocol with reducing pulses at 250-400 C was applied in a subsequent step for controlled Pt-particle formation. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy unraveled the different extent of reduction and sintering of Pt particles: The choice of the reductant allowed the tuning of the reduction degree/particle size and thus the catalytic activity (CO>H{sub 2}>C{sub 3}H{sub 6}). This dynamic nature of Pt on ceria at such low temperatures (250-500 C) was additionally confirmed by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy. A general concept is proposed to adjust the noble metal dispersion (size, structure), for example, during operation of an exhaust gas catalyst. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  8. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  9. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  10. Why New Zealand must rapidly halve its greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Scott; Woodward, Alistair; Macmillan, Alexandra; Baker, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Lindsay, Graeme; Hales, Simon; Sinclair, David; Jaine, Richard; Springford, Liz; Holmes, Andrew; Laking, George; Jones, Rhys; Carr, Harriette; Edwards, Richard; Shaw, Caroline; Wells, Susan; Hosking, Jamie; Forde, Andrea; Bismark, Marie; Palmer, Stephen; Keating, Gay; Simpson, Jenny; Highton, Rachel; Dhar, Divya; Kane, Penny

    2009-10-09

    New Zealand must commit to substantial decreases in its greenhouse gas emissions, to avoid the worst impacts of climate change on human health, both here and internationally. We have the fourth highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world. Based on the need to limit warming to 2 degrees C by 2100, our cumulative emissions, and our capability to mitigate, New Zealand should at least halve its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (i.e. a target of at least 40% less than 1990 levels). This target has a strong scientific basis, and if anything may be too lenient; reducing the risk of catastrophic climate change may require deeper cuts. Short-term economic costs of mitigation have been widely overstated in public debate. They must also be balanced by the far greater costs caused by inertia and the substantial health and social benefits that can be achieved by a low emissions society. Large emissions reductions are achievable if we mobilise New Zealand society and let technology follow the signal of a responsible target.

  11. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  12. First approach to exhaust emissions characterization of light vehicles in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Mauro; González, Alice Elizabeth; Rezzano Tizze, Nicolás

    2017-11-02

    According to Act No. 17283 of November 28th, 2000, air quality protection is a general concern in Uruguay. Road transport is the main emitter of nitrogen oxides (NOx), as the National Inventory of Air Emissions 2006 stated. Actually, it is responsible for the emissions of 59.8% of NOx and 28% of carbon monoxide (CO). The number of households owning a car in Uruguay increased from 29% in 2005 to 39% in 2013, enhancing the importance of characterizing the vehicular emissions of the national fleet. In this paper, a first approach for this characterization is presented. It was carried out on a sample of 11 light vehicles currently in use in Montevideo city, Uruguay. On-road emissions measurements of nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were carried out for calculating the emission factors. The fitness of the set of calculated emission factors values to different probability distributions was tested. When possible, the 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the mean emission factors (CO: 2.0g/km±0.3g/km; NO: 0.05g/km±0.01g/km). This procedure was useful to obtaining accurate confidence intervals from a relatively small sample size. Finally, the link between atmospheric emissions and some other parameters of the tested vehicles was studied using a multivariate statistical tool, highlighting the strong increase in carbon monoxide emissions observed for low vehicles speeds and fuel efficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Empirical Approaches to Estimating Local Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, M.; Azevedo, I. L.; Lattanzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates our changing climate will have significant global impacts on public health, economies, and ecosystems. As a result, local governments have become increasingly interested in climate change mitigation. In the U.S., cities and counties representing nearly 15% of the domestic population plan to reduce 300 million metric tons of greenhouse gases over the next 40 years (or approximately 1 ton per capita). Local governments estimate greenhouse gas emissions to establish greenhouse gas mitigation goals and select supporting mitigation measures. However, current practices produce greenhouse gas estimates - also known as a "greenhouse gas inventory " - of empirical quality often insufficient for robust mitigation decision making. Namely, current mitigation planning uses sporadic, annual, and deterministic estimates disaggregated by broad end use sector, obscuring sources of emissions uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity that influence mitigation opportunities. As part of AGU's Thriving Earth Exchange, Ari Lattanzi of City of Pittsburgh, PA recently partnered with Dr. Inez Lima Azevedo (Carnegie Mellon University) and Dr. Michael Blackhurst (University of Pittsburgh) to improve the empirical approach to characterizing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gas emissions. The project will produce first-order estimates of the underlying sources of uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity influencing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gases and discuss implications of mitigation decision making. The results of the project will enable local governments to collect more robust greenhouse gas inventories to better support their mitigation goals and improve measurement and verification efforts.

  14. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  15. Trace gas emissions from chaparral and boreal forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggan, Philip J.; Stocks, Brian J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1989-01-01

    Using smoke samples collected during low-level helicopter flights, the mixing ratios of CO2, CO, CH4, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, H2, and N2O over burning chaparral in southern California and over a burning boreal forest site in northern Ontario, Canada, were determined. Carbon dioxide-normalized emission ratios were determined for each trace gas for conditions of flaming, mixed, and smoldering combustion. The emission ratios for these trace gases were found to be highest for the smoldering combustion, generally thought to be the least efficient combustion stage. However, high emission ratios for these gases could be also produced during very vigorous flaming combustion.

  16. A portable fiber-optic chemical device for the quantitative determination of carbon monoxide from automobile exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, F A; Tubino, M

    2001-07-01

    A colorimetric method for the quantitative determination of CO by diffuse reflectance is described. This method is based on the reduction by CO of Mo (VI) from the indicator reagent molybdosilicic acid (H8Si[Mo2O7]6). The reduction yielded a change of color from clear yellow to dark green on white disk filter chart paper wetted with reagent indicator solution. The gaseous mixture containing CO was forced to pass through this chart paper, initiating the reaction. The intensity of the color produced, measured by diffuse reflectance, was proportional to the CO concentration present in exhaust gases in the range from 0.02 to 12% volume/volume (v/v). A 650-nm light-emitting diode was used as a light source. A two-fiber-optic system carried the light from the source to the detection system, which was composed of a photodiode, an amplification circuit, and a digital display. The method was applied with success in field measurements for automobiles in the Otto cycle. In a previous paper, this method was used for the quantitative determination of exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles.

  17. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  18. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  19. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  20. Detection of emission indices of aircraft exhaust compounds by open-path optical methods at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Utzig, Selina

    2005-10-01

    Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different Air pollutant emission rates of aircrafts are determined with test bed measurements. Regulations exist for CO2, NO, NO2, CO concentrations, the content of total unburned hydrocarbons and the smoke number, a measure of soot. These emission indices are listed for each engine in a data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) for four different thrust levels (Idle, approach, cruise and take-off). It is a common procedure to use this data base as a starting point to estimate aircraft emissions at airports and further on to calculate the contribution of airports on local air quality. The comparison of these indices to real in use measurements therefore is a vital task to test the quality of air quality models at airports. Here a method to determine emission indices is used, where concentration measurements of CO2 together with other pollutants in the aircraft plume are needed. During intensive measurement campaigns at Zurich (ZRH) and Paris Charles De Gaulle (CDG) airports, concentrations of CO2, NO, NO2 and CO were measured. The measurement techniques were Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The big advantage of these methods is that no operations on the airport are influenced during measurement times. Together with detailed observations of taxiway movements, a comparison of emission indices with real in use emissions is possible.

  1. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  2. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  3. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  4. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well. Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs yields were depicted to be 47.6±1.5,  92.7±2.5, and 95.4±2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2±3.1 and 62.8±2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100 showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.

  5. Analysis of fifty year Gas Flaring Emissions from oil/gas companies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumbia, E. H. T.; Liousse, C.; Granier, L.; Granier, C.; Rosset, R.; Oda, T.; Hsu, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    Flaring is a process during which waste gases are burned in an open atmosphere. The quantification of gas flaring emissions represents a major scientific concern due to its magnitude and related uncertainties. In global/regional emission inventories, this source, though releasing large amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere, is still poorly quantified if not missing. It can represent the main emission source of gaseous compounds and particles in some areas, as observed during the AMMA project in the Gulf of Guinea. Our study focuses on Africa, and includes Nigeria, which is one of the largest natural oil and gas reserve in the world. Africa is an important gas flaring area, since technologies for the exploitation of this energy source and the reduction of flaring activities have been only recently implemented. We have developed an emission inventory for gases and particles from flaring in Africa. We have first compiled the few published available dataset of fuel consumption from flaring. The spatial distribution of CO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in 2011 is estimated using a methodology based on field reports and remote sensing (DMSP satellite data). Our results point out to the importance of flaring activities into the regional anthropogenic emissions in Africa over the period 1960-2011. Finally, the contribution of flaring to total anthropogenic emission can be large and needs to be accurately quantified.

  6. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  7. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  8. Electric vehicle greenhouse gas emission assessment for Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This study estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) compared to that of other popular and similar cars in Hawaii, by county over an assumption of 150,000 miles driven. The GHG benefits of EVs depend critically on the electr...

  9. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  11. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  12. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from Mexican intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rendon

    2017-11-08

    Nov 8, 2017 ... Abstract. The objectives of this study were to compare estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as CH4. (enteric-manure), N2O (manure), and CO2 (fuel and energy use), the use of water and soil, the excretion of nutrients in manure, and feed efficiency from Mexican intensive dairy farms. Data from 26 ...

  13. Mitigating gas emissions at signalised intersections using wireless vehicle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kwasi Torkudzor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times and increases fuel consumption as well as gas emissions which are dangerous to human health. This has led to growing concern about environmental protection and energy conservation and a number of studies to increase fuel economy and reduce gas emissions. To increase travel times so as to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions, traffic signals at intersections must be well implemented. It is therefore necessary to employ the current technology of wireless sensor networks to enhance the optimisation of the signalised intersections so as to address such a concern. In this study, a vehicular traffic control model was developed to optimise a signalised intersection, using wireless vehicle detectors. Real-time traffic volume gathered were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak and evening peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths which result in the reduction of gas emissions, fuel consumption and delay at the intersection.

  14. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from Mexican intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to compare estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as CH4 (enteric-manure), N2O (manure), and CO2 (fuel and energy use), the use of water and soil, the excretion of nutrients in manure, and feed efficiency from Mexican intensive dairy farms. Data from 26 dairy farms were analysed ...

  15. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential greenhouse gas emission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal waste on potential greenhouse gas emission and inherent agronomic potentials. Sugar solution at 100g/l salt solution at 350g/l and oven-drying were the various faecal treatments examined using a completely randomized design.

  16. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  17. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  18. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  19. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  20. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  1. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  2. Global bounds on nitrogen gas emissions from humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, E. N. J.; Gerber, S.; Greene, W.; Jones, R. T.; Thomas, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    Denitrification and hydrologic leaching are the two major pathways by which nitrogen (N) is lost from the terrestrial biosphere. Humid tropical forests are thought to dominate denitrification losses from unmanaged lands globally, but there is large uncertainty about the range and key drivers of total N gas emissions across the biome. We combined pantropical measures of small watershed stream chemistry with ecosystem modeling to determine total N gas losses and associated uncertainty across humid tropical forests. Our calculations reveal that denitrification in soils and along hydrologic flow paths contributes on average >45% of total watershed N losses. However, when denitrification occurs exclusively in shallow soils, simulations indicate that gas emissions would exceed N inputs and render plants severely N limited, which contradicts observations of widespread N sufficiency in tropical forests. Our analyses suggest an upper bound on soil denitrification of 80% of total external N losses beyond which tropical plant growth would be compromised.

  3. Spatial and temporal allocation of ship exhaust emissions in Australian coastal waters using AIS data: Analysis and treatment of data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Brett

    2017-08-01

    Ship exhaust emissions need to be allocated accurately in both space and time in order to examine many of the associated impacts, including on air quality and health. Data on ship activity from the Automatic Identification System (AIS) allow ship exhaust emissions to be calculated with fine spatial and temporal resolution. However, there are spatial gaps in the coverage afforded by the coastal network of ground stations that are used to collect the AIS data. This paper focuses on the problem of allocating emissions to the coastal gap regions. Allocating emissions to these regions involves generating interpolated ship tracks that both span the gaps and avoid coming too close to land. In most cases, a simple shortest path or straight line interpolation produces tracks that do not overlap or come too close to land. Where the simple method does not produce acceptable results, vessel tracks are steered around land on shortest available paths using a combination of visibility graphs and Dijkstra's algorithm. A geographical cluster analysis is first used to identify the boundary regions of the data gaps. The properties of the data gaps are summarised in terms of the length, duration and speed of the spanning tracks. The interpolation methods are used to improve the spatial distribution of emissions. It is also shown that emissions in the gap regions can contribute substantially to the total ship exhaust emissions in close proximity to highly populated areas.

  4. PM2.5 and ultrafine particulate matter emissions from natural gas-fired turbine for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Eli; Li, Yang; Finken, Bob; Quartucy, Greg; Muzio, Lawrence; Baez, Al; Garibay, Mike; Jung, Heejung S.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of electricity from natural gas-fired turbines has increased more than 200% since 2003. In 2007 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) funded a project to identify control strategies and technologies for PM2.5 and ultrafine emissions from natural gas-fired turbine power plants and test at pilot scale advanced PM2.5 technologies to reduce emissions from these gas turbine-based power plants. This prompted a study of the exhaust from new facilities to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine located at the Walnut Creek Energy Park in August 2013. These tests included particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. After turbine exhaust was diluted sevenfold with filtered air, particle concentrations in the 10-300 nm size range were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient air and those in the 2-3 nm size range were up to four orders of magnitude higher. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. While some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings of 3.63E-04 lb/MMBtu based on Methods 5.1/201A and 1.07E-04 lb/MMBtu based on SMPS method, which are similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area (FERCo et al., 2014), however, the turbine

  5. Influence of gas emission on heat transfer in porous ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambaryan-Roisman, T.; Shapiro, M.; Litovsky, E.; Shavit, A. [Laboratory of Transport Processes in Porous Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2003-01-01

    It is known that thermal diffusivity, a, of several types of porous ceramic and refractory materials decreases with decreasing gas pressure. However, a of several ceramics (e.g., magnesite refractories with porosity about 25%) measured in vacuum by the monotonous heating exceeds the comparable data registered at atmospheric pressure. A similar effect was found for thermal diffusivity of several insulating materials. However, for some porous ceramics this phenomenon is absent or less prominent. It had been known that several heterogeneous physico-chemical processes take place on pore surfaces of ceramic materials. These processes include heterogeneous chemical reactions accompanied by emission of gaseous products. It had been conjectured that these processes affect thermophysical properties of ceramic materials, especially during fast heating or cooling. In this paper we substantiate this conjecture. Namely, we develop a quantitative model for the apparent thermal diffusivity, as measured by the nonstationary monotonous heating method. It takes into account the emission and adsorption of the gas on the opposite pore sides along the temperature gradient, the diffusive gas motion inside the pores and its removal from the pores due to the material gas permeability. The effect of these processes is shown to produce an additional heat flux inside the pore or crack and, hence, to increase the measured thermal diffusivity. In the presence of the passive gas, the rates of gas emission and its transport within the pore are significantly reduced, which leads to diminution of the effect of gas emission-adsorption on the heat transfer across the pore. Consequently, we show that this leads to a situation (observed in experiment) where thermal diffusivity of a material measured at high temperature in vacuum may exceed the comparable property at atmospheric pressure. When the reaction terminates due to the full conversion of the available solid reactant, the additional heat flow

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy R H; Brown, Sandra; Murray, Lara; Sidman, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  8. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k

  9. The effect of local parameters on gas turbine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Correa, S. M.; Orozco, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine inlet parameters reflect changes in local atmospheric conditions. The pollutant emissions for the engine reflects these changes. In attempting to model the effect of the changing ambient conditions on the emissions it was found that these emissions exhibit an extreme sensitivity to some of the details of the combustion process such as the local fuel-air ratio and the size of the drops in the fuel spray. Fuel-air ratios have been mapped under nonburning conditions using a single JT8D-17 combustion can at simulated idle conditions, and significant variations in the local values have been found. Modelling of the combustor employs a combination of perfectly stirred and plug flow reactors including a finite rate vaporization treatment of the fuel spray. Results show that a small increase in the mean drop size can lead to a large increase in hydrocarbon emissions and decreasing the value of the CO-OH rate constant can lead to large increases in the carbon monoxide emissions. These emissions may also be affected by the spray characteristics with larger drops retarding the combustion process. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions calculated using the model accurately reflect measured emission variations caused by changing engine inlet conditions.

  10. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), except for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.101... the 2014 model year, recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must be...

  11. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  12. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  13. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  14. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  15. Mixing effectiveness test of an exhaust gas mixer in a high bypass turbofan at altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullom, R. R.; Burkardt, L. A.; Bobula, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal mixing effectiveness characteristics of an eighteen lobe, scalloped and unscalloped, partial, forced mixer were measured in a high-bypass turbofan engine. Data were also obtained without the mixer installed, i.e. free mixing. Tests were conducted at four combinations of simulated flight conditions from 0.3 to 0.8 Mach number and from 6,096 meters (20,000 ft) to 13,715 m (45,000 ft) altitude. Mixing chamber lengths of L/D = 0.52 and 0.65 were tested. For this range of test conditions and mixer configurations the forced mixing effectiveness varied from 59 to 68 percent. Values of mixing effectiveness and total pressure loss were calculated from temperature and pressure data obtained at the mixer inlet and exhaust nozzle exit.

  16. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For vehicles with more than one source of propulsion energy, one of which is a rechargeable energy storage system, or vehicles with special features that the Administrator determines may have a...-related exhaust emissions for electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  17. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    ...]. Many of them are found in occupational settings such as all forms of asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions, which are among the top most frequent occupational exposures [8-11]. The rate of smoking is higher among blue-collar workers than white-collar workers [12]. Thus a significant proportion of workers are concomitantl...

  18. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  20. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  1. A forward looking, actor based, indicator for climate gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Torgeir; Randers, Joergen

    2011-04-15

    The most commonly used Norwegian indicator for climate change displays historical emissions and compare with Norway's Kyoto target. This indicator says little about future emissions, about the ongoing Norwegian effort to reduce climate gas emissions, or about its effect on sustainability. In this paper we propose an indicator that improves on these weaknesses. We present a forward looking climate indicator that in addition to historic data includes business as usual scenarios, different proposals for future domestic emissions, and national or international commitments and agreements. This indicator presents - in one graph - a broad diversity of views on how the climate challenge should be handled from now and into the future. This indicator-graph may contribute to a more transparent discussion of available policy options. (Author)

  2. Mobile Measurements of Gas and Particle Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Production of natural gas in the Marcellus shale is increasing rapidly due to the vast quantities of natural gas stored in the formation. Transient and long-term activities have associated emissions to the atmosphere of methane, volatile organic compounds, NOx, particulates and other species from gas production and transport infrastructure. In the summer of 2012, a team of researchers from Drexel University and Aerodyne Research deployed the Aerodyne mobile laboratory (AML) and measured in-situ concentrations of gas-phase and aerosol chemical components in the main gas producing regions of Pennsylvania, with the overall goal of understanding the impacts to regional ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. State-of-the-art instruments including quantum cascade laser systems, proton transfer mass spectrometry, tunable diode lasers and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, were used quantify concentrations of pollutants of interest. Chemical species measured include methane, ethane, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, and many volatile organic compounds, and aerosol size and chemical composition. Tracer-release techniques were employed to link sources with emissions and to quantify emission rates from gas facilities, in order to understand the regional burden of these chemical species from oil and gas development in the Marcellus. Measurements were conducted in two regions of Pennsylvania: the NE region that is predominantly dry gas (95% + methane), and the SW region where wet gas (containing greater than 5% higher hydrocarbons) is found. Regional scale measurements of current levels of air pollutants will be shown and will put into context how further development of the gas resource in one of the largest natural gas fields in the world impacts air quality in a region upwind of the highly urbanized east coast corridor.

  3. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  4. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  5. Aldehyde, Ketone and Methane Emissions from Motor Vehicle Exhaust: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sasi; Nayek, M.; A. Kumar; Tandon, A.; Mondal, P; Vijay, P.; Bhangale, U. D.; Tyagi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that, in many countries, mobile sources are responsible for the largest portion of emissions of aldehydes, ketones and certain other air toxic pollutants. These air toxic pollutants along with methane are either carcinogenic or pose significant human health threat. These pollutants also add to global warming in a substantial way. This paper gives an overview of their properties, basic chemistry and conditions of formation in internal combustion engines. Again worldwide ma...

  6. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Prasada Rao; T. Victor Babu; Anuradha, G.; B.V. Appa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI) engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME) with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluat...

  7. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... in international guidelines. This study showed that measured CH4 and N2O emission rates from wastewater treatment plants were plant-specific and that emission rates estimated using models in current guidelines, mainly meant for reporting emissions on the country scale, were unsuitable for Scandinavian plant...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...

  9. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  11. Exhaust Emission Traverse Investigation of a JT3D-1 Turbofan Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    12 Points 4 Area Weighted From Traverse Maps 3 Traverse Emission Indices And Efficiencies 5 I P V S —~~~~~~~~ I r ~~~--i~i...NOTE: NUMBERS fl4D1CATE THE ILLUSTRATION - IN PARTS PER MILU FIGURE 4. CO ~ (ISSI0~ TRAVERSE MAP—2...i-;~~. 16 El ~A T E n W I T H I N noN ARF : V AL U E S 41L LION. 79— 1 f l_ e r, 11 U - p

  12. Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils may reduce GHG emissions and could also create suitable conditions for return of the carbon (C sink function characteristic of undrained organic soils. In this article we expand on the work relating to rewetted organic soils that was carried out for the 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Wetlands Supplement. We describe the methods and scientific approach used to derive the Tier 1 emission factors (the rate of emission per unit of activity for the full suite of GHG and waterborne C fluxes associated with rewetting of organic soils. We recorded a total of 352 GHG and waterborne annual flux data points from an extensive literature search and these were disaggregated by flux type (i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O and DOC, climate zone and nutrient status. Our results showed fundamental differences between the GHG dynamics of drained and rewetted organic soils and, based on the 100 year global warming potential of each gas, indicated that rewetting of drained organic soils leads to: net annual removals of CO2 in the majority of organic soil classes; an increase in annual CH4 emissions; a decrease in N2O and DOC losses; and a lowering of net GHG emissions. Data published since the Wetlands Supplement (n = 58 generally support our derivations. Significant data gaps exist, particularly with regard to tropical organic soils, DOC and N2O. We propose that the uncertainty associated with our derivations could be significantly reduced by the development of country specific emission factors that could in turn be disaggregated by factors such as vegetation composition, water table level, time since rewetting and previous land use history.

  13. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  14. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  15. Emissions in the exhaust of fishing boats after adding viscous agents into fuel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lien-Te; Shih, Shun-I; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yang, Tsun-Lirng; Wu, Tser-Son; Hung, Chung-Hsien

    2009-12-20

    In order to avoid the illegal use of fishing boat fuel A (FBFA) by traveling diesel vehicles (TDVs) in Taiwan, alternatives that are easily distinguished from premium diesel fuel (PDF) were prepared to evaluate their suitability. Two new ingredients, pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and residue of desulfurization unit (RDS), were added into FBFA and formed PFO0.5 and RDS0.5, respectively. Along with FBFA, these three fuels were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Furthermore, they were used by three fishing boats with different sizes, output powers, and weights. The engine performances and pollutant emissions were examined and monitored. Experimental results show that there are significant differences in appearance between PDF and the two new blended fuels (PFO0.5 and RDS0.5), and thus misuse or illegal use of FBFA could be substantially reduced. The fuel consumption, which is negatively related to the heating value of fuels, is in order of FBFAPDF, RDS0.5 is superior to PFO0.5, and is thus recommended as a better alternative to FBFA, particularly because it can help lower more emissions of CO, NO(x), PM and BaP(eq).

  16. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  17. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  18. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  19. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its......This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  20. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  1. Mapping Fugitive Gas Emission Sources and Severity Across Southeastern Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada contains a 10,000 km2 region heavily developed by oil and gas activity that has been struggling with air quality issues, arising from hundreds or thousands of oil and gas leak points. The region is also very diverse in terms of oilfield operators, who use extraction techniques including conventional, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and fracking. As regulators and operators need more knowledge about emission patterns locally, we undertook comprehensive mapping and characterization of leak sources at the regional scale using vehicle-based data collection, together with computational techniques. We measured the presence and source of fugitive emissions from infrastructure and oilfield activities in eight 100 km2 survey domains. These included two controls with no oil and gas activity, and otherwise the domains were selected to capture the diversity of development; targeting primarily conventional and EOR activities in the Weyburn-Midale beds, and unconventional activities in the Bakken play. A total of 25 unique operators fell within the survey domains. Each domain was surveyed multiple times for CO2, CH4, and H2S, allowing us to identify persistent leaks and to screen out one-time events. The multiple gas targets also provided opportunities for discriminating one type of fugitive emission from another (i.e. flares from storage tanks) using ratios of excess (above ambient) concentrations, after correcting for natural background variability with a signal-processing routine. Fugitive emissions were commonly observed in all study domains. Most emissions were associated with oil and gas infrastructure, as opposed to drilling and other short-term activities. There were obvious emissions at many well pads, storage tanks, and flares. We also observed high geochemical variability around flares, with some being very effective in combusting toxic gases, and others less so. Almost all observed concentrations fell below regulatory limits, but have a

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  3. Instabilities during the NO-reduction of oxygen-containing exhaust gas using hydrogen. Instabilitaeten bei der NO-Reduktion in sauerstoffhaltigen Abgasen mit Sauerstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogowski, A. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Reaktionstechnik)

    1993-05-01

    By means of measurements it was demonstrated that nitric oxides can be reduced within an oxygen-containing exhaust gas using hydrogen. During the NO-reduction, though, certain phenomena arise: within a distinct range of operation parameters oscillations of the conversion rate [alpha][sub NO] and [alpha][sub H[sub -

  4. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...

  5. Soil nitrogen gas emissions increase considerably in warmer forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzler, Barbara; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will likely modify ecosystem properties and processes and therefore impact nitrogen (N) dynamics of forest soils. To elucidate the effect of warming and drought conditions on the nitrogen gas emissions we measured N2O and NO fluxes from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The uppermost layer of the soil was warmed (4°C) by heating cables during the snow-free seasons. Roofs were installed during 25 days in July/August 2008 and 2009 to simulate drought conditions. Gas sampling was conducted biweekly with static chambers (N2O). Gas concentrations were detected by GC. Nitric oxide fluxes were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis. In our study the emissions of N2O were increased by up to 73 % at warmed plots, and we observed a temporary increase following first rain. However N2O emissions of the drought affected plots remained depressed for more than two months after roof removal. Nitric oxide fluxes were increased considerably during dry periods and under warmer conditions.

  6. Exhaust Gas Analysis and Parametric Study of Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra kumar

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the future availability of energy resources, as well as the need for reducing CO2 emissions from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels. This research is done taking commercial gasoline as reference which is originally blended with 5% ethanol. Hence 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% ethanol blended with Gasoline initially was tested in SI engines. Physical properties relevant to the fuel were determined for the four blends of gasoline. A four cy...

  7. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  8. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Comparing facility-level methane emission rate estimates at natural gas gathering and boosting stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Vaughn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated dual-tracer, aircraft-based, and direct component-level measurements were made at midstream natural gas gathering and boosting stations in the Fayetteville shale (Arkansas, USA. On-site component-level measurements were combined with engineering estimates to generate comprehensive facility-level methane emission rate estimates (“study on-site estimates (SOE” comparable to tracer and aircraft measurements. Combustion slip (unburned fuel entrained in compressor engine exhaust, which was calculated based on 111 recent measurements of representative compressor engines, accounts for an estimated 75% of cumulative SOEs at gathering stations included in comparisons. Measured methane emissions from regenerator vents on glycol dehydrator units were substantially larger than predicted by modelling software; the contribution of dehydrator regenerator vents to the cumulative SOE would increase from 1% to 10% if based on direct measurements. Concurrent measurements at 14 normally-operating facilities show relative agreement between tracer and SOE, but indicate that tracer measurements estimate lower emissions (regression of tracer to SOE = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.83–0.99, R2 = 0.89. Tracer and SOE 95% confidence intervals overlap at 11/14 facilities. Contemporaneous measurements at six facilities suggest that aircraft measurements estimate higher emissions than SOE. Aircraft and study on-site estimate 95% confidence intervals overlap at 3/6 facilities. The average facility level emission rate (FLER estimated by tracer measurements in this study is 17–73% higher than a prior national study by Marchese et al.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  11. Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions: gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Albert J; Ni, Ji-Qin; Lim, Teng T; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Beasley, David B; Hoff, Steven J; Nicolai, Richard E; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2006-10-01

    Comprehensive field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter sensors. Three-way solenoids were used to automatically switch between multiple gas sampling lines with > or =10 min sampling intervals. Inside and outside gas sampling probes were between 10 and 115 m away from the analyzers. Analyzers used chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photoacoustic infrared, and photoionization detectors for NH3, H2S, CO2, CH4, and NMHC, respectively. Data were collected using personal computer-based data acquisition hardware and software. This paper discusses the methodology of gas concentration measurements and the unique challenges that livestock barns pose for achieving desired accuracy and precision, data representativeness, comparability and completeness, and instrument calibration and maintenance.

  12. Correlation of gas exchange threshold and first muscle oxyhemoglobin inflection point with time-to-exhaustion during heavy-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquart, Jérémy B; Mucci, Patrick; L'hermette, Maxime; Chamari, Karim; Tourny, Claire; Garcin, Murielle

    2017-03-01

    The twofold aim of the study was to: 1) compare the gas exchange threshold (GET), the first oxyhemoglobin inflection point ([O2Hb]-T), and perceptual threshold as determined during an incremental exercise test, and 2) investigate the link between each threshold and time-to-exhaustion during heavy intensity exercise. Fourteen competitive cyclists performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer to determine the different thresholds and peak workload (Wpeak). The participants then performed a sub-maximal constant workload test (90% Wpeak) to exhaustion to determine time-to-exhaustion. The thresholds were identified from: 1) the first breakpoint in the oxygen uptake vs. carbon dioxide output curve (GET), 2) the [O2Hb]-T, and 3) a rating of 13 in perceived exertion (perceptual threshold: RPE13-T). Oxygen uptake at the different thresholds was not significantly different (P>0.05). Moreover, GET and [O2Hb]-T were significantly correlated: 1) to each other (r≥0.79; P≤0.001), and 2) to time-to-exhaustion (r=0.81 and r=0.72, respectively; Pexhaustion (P=0.148). The anaerobic threshold as identified from GET was concomitant to [O2Hb]-T. Both thresholds were correlated to time-to-exhaustion, and could therefore be used as a performance index in middle-duration events.

  13. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  14. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  16. Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

  17. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  18. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  19. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  20. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  1. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  2. Experimental Study on the Absorption of Toluene from Exhaust Gas by Paraffin/Surfactant/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new paraffin/surfactant/water emulsion (PSW for volatile organic compounds (VOCs controlling was prepared and its potential for VOCs removal was investigated. Results indicated that PSW-5 (5%, v/v provided higher toluene absorption efficiency (90.77% than the other absorbents used. The saturation pressure, Henry’s constant, and activity coefficient of toluene in PSW-5 were significantly lower than those in water, and toluene solubility (1.331 g·L−1 in the PSW-5 was more than 2.5 times higher than the value in water. Several factors potentially affecting the toluene absorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results suggested that concentration and pH of PSW, absorption temperature, and gas flow rate all had a strong influence on the toluene absorption, but the inlet concentration of toluene had little effect on the toluene absorption. There were different absorbing performances of PSW-5 on different VOCs, and the ketones, esters, and aromatics were more easily removed by the PSW-5 than the alkanes. Regeneration and reuse of the PSW were possible; after 3 runs of regeneration the absorption efficiency of PSW-5 for toluene also could reach 82.42%. So, the PSW is an economic, efficient, and safe absorbent and has a great prospect in organic waste gas treatment.

  3. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  4. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  5. Nutrient removal and greenhouse gas emissions in duckweed treatment ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Atreyee; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-03-01

    Stormwater treatment ponds provide a variety of functions including sediment retention, organic and nutrient removal, and habitat restoration. The treatment ponds are, however, also a source of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were to assess greenhouse gas (CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O) emissions in duckweed treatment ponds (DWPs) treating simulated stormwater and to determine the role of ammonia-oxidizing organisms in nutrient removal and methanogens in greenhouse gas emissions. Two replicated DWPs operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days were able to remove 84% (± 4% [standard deviation]) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79% (± 3%) NH(4)(+)-N, 86% (± 2%) NO(3)(-)-N and 56% (± 7%) orthophosphate. CH(4) emission rates in the DWPs ranged from 502 to 1900 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) while those of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) ranged from 0.63 to 4 mg N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The CO(2) emission rates ranged from 1700 to 3300 mg CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). Duckweed coverage on water surface along with the continued deposit of duckweed debris in the DWPs and low-nutrient influent water created a low dissolved oxygen environment for the growth of unique ammonia-oxidizing organisms and methanogens. Archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance in the DWPs ranged from (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) to (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(8) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(3) to (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil, respectively. The 16S rRNA acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens ranged from (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10(5) to (9.0 ± 0.3) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(2) to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10(3) copies/g dry soil, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared to be the dominant nitrifiers and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the major methanogenic genus. The results suggest that methane is the predominant (>90%) greenhouse gas in the DWPs, where the relatively low stormwater nutrient inputs facilitate the growth of K-strategists such as AOA and Methanosaeta that may

  6. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  7. Multispectral Observations of Explosive Gas Emissions from Santiaguito, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Watson, M.; Thomas, H.; Rodriguez, L. A.; Campion, R.; Prata, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, has been persistently active for decades, producing frequent explosions from its actively growing lava dome. Repeated release of volcanic gases contains information about conduit processes during the cyclical explosions at Santiaguito, but the composition of the gas phase and the amount of volatiles released in each explosion remains poorly constrained. In addition to its persistent activity, Santiaguito offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate lava dome degassing processes since the upper surface of the active lava dome can be viewed from the summit of neighboring Santa Maria. In January 2016 we conducted multi-spectral observations of Santiaguito's explosive eruption plumes and passive degassing from multiple perspectives as part of the first NSF-sponsored `Workshop on Volcanoes' instrument deployment. Gas measurements included open-path Fourier-Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy from the Santa Maria summit, coincident with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) camera and UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) from the El Mirador site below Santiaguito's active Caliente lava dome. Using the OP-FTIR in passive mode with the Caliente lava dome as the source of IR radiation, we were able to collect IR spectra at high temporal resolution prior to and during two explosions of Santiaguito on 7-8 January, with volcanic SO2 and H2O emissions detected. UV and IR camera data provide constraints on the total SO2 burden in the emissions (and potentially the volcanic ash burden), which coupled with the FTIR gas ratios provides new constraints on the mass and composition of volatiles driving explosions at Santiaguito. All gas measurements indicate significant volatile release during explosions with limited degassing during repose periods. In this presentation we will present ongoing analysis of the unique Santiaguito gas dataset including estimation of the total volatile mass released in explosions and an

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  9. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of anesthetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jodi; Le, Cathy; Lamers, Vanessa; Eckelman, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Anesthesiologists must consider the entire life cycle of drugs in order to include environmental impacts into clinical decisions. In the present study we used life cycle assessment to examine the climate change impacts of 5 anesthetic drugs: sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and propofol. A full cradle-to-grave approach was used, encompassing resource extraction, drug manufacturing, transport to health care facilities, drug delivery to the patient, and disposal or emission to the environment. At each stage of the life cycle, energy, material inputs, and emissions were considered, as well as use-specific impacts of each drug. The 4 inhalation anesthetics are greenhouse gases (GHGs), and so life cycle GHG emissions include waste anesthetic gases vented to the atmosphere and emissions (largely carbon dioxide) that arise from other life cycle stages. Desflurane accounts for the largest life cycle GHG impact among the anesthetic drugs considered here: 15 times that of isoflurane and 20 times that of sevoflurane on a per MAC-hour basis when administered in an O(2)/air admixture. GHG emissions increase significantly for all drugs when administered in an N(2)O/O(2) admixture. For all of the inhalation anesthetics, GHG impacts are dominated by uncontrolled emissions of waste anesthetic gases. GHG impacts of propofol are comparatively quite small, nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of desflurane or nitrous oxide. Unlike the inhaled drugs, the GHG impacts of propofol primarily stem from the electricity required for the syringe pump and not from drug production or direct release to the environment. Our results reiterate previous published data on the GHG effects of these inhaled drugs, while providing a life cycle context. There are several practical environmental impact mitigation strategies. Desflurane and nitrous oxide should be restricted to cases where they may reduce morbidity and mortality over alternative drugs. Clinicians should avoid

  10. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  11. Observations of primary and secondary emissions in a B747 exhaust plume in the upper troposphere and inferred engine exit plane OH concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Tremmel, H.G.; Ziereis, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The speciation of NO{sub y} exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of a B747 cruising at 9.2 km was measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft instrumented with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer of MPI-K and a chemiluminescence NO detector of DLR. In addition, CO{sub 2} was measured providing a dilution factor for the exhaust species. Observed maximum peak concentrations above background in the plume 60 s after emission were 25.4 ppmv (CO{sub 2}), 184 ppbv (NO), 2.6 ppbv (HNO{sub 2}), and 1.3 ppbv (HNO{sub 3}). The observations were used to infer the initial OH concentration (15.4 ppmv) and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio (0.08) at the engine exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. (author) 20 refs.

  12. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  14. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  15. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  16. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  17. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio) Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leman A.M.; Afiqah J.; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Feriyanto Dafit; Zakaria Supa’at; Rahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rd) recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching F...

  18. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    OpenAIRE

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to th...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Sundberg, Cecilia; Pell, Mikael; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, 16% of all biologically treated food waste is home composted. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O and emissions of NH3 from home composts were measured and factors affecting these emissions were examined. Gas and substrate in the compost bins were sampled and the composting conditions assessed 13 times during a 1-year period in 18 home composts managed by the home owners. The influence of process parameters and management factors was evaluated by regression analysis. The mean CH4 and N2O concentration was 28.1 and 5.46 ppm (v/v), respectively, above the ambient level and the CH4:CO2 and N2O:CO2 ratio was 0.38% and 0.15%, respectively (median values 0.04% and 0.07%, respectively). The home composts emitted less CH4 than large-scale composts, but similar amounts of N2O. Overall NH3 concentrations were low. Increasing the temperature, moisture content, mixing frequency and amount of added waste all increased CH4 emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.