Sample records for exhaust gas cleaning

  1. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)


    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  2. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... outperformed the other control structures. The results were experimentally verified by implementing the tested controllers on a full-scale engine setup, and the results showed that coupling feedback with ANR based feedforward was yielding better performance. The PD controller showed good performance...... importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate...

  3. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper


    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... model. Four different models in the automotive diesel exhaust gas cleaning system are presented briefly. Based on the presented methodology, it is discussed which changes are needed to the models to create a modular model of the whole catalytic system....

  4. Study on jet aeration oxidation of magnesium sulfite from magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system. (United States)

    Guo, Lin; Tang, Xiaojia; Wang, Hui; Li, Tie; Liu, Weifeng; Liu, Quan; Zhu, Yimin


    Oxidation of magnesium sulfite in washing water is essential for the treatment of by-product of shipboard magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning systems. The purpose of this study is to obtain a highly efficient magnesium sulfite oxidation technology by using the jet aeration process. Response surface methodology and central composite design were used to investigate the effects of major variables on oxidation of magnesium sulfite and optimize the oxidation conditions. The predictions of the two response functions agree well with the experimental data. The optimum oxidation conditions for ship are temperature 318 K, liquid flow rate 4.04 m3/h, and pH 7.70. Under optimal conditions, 12 moles of magnesium sulfite were oxidized by 90% over 15 minutes at an energy consumption of 0.220 kw h.

  5. Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas Suicide. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia


    In many motorized countries, inhalation of carbon monoxide from motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG) has been one of the leading methods of suicide. In some countries it remains so (e.g., Australia 16.0% of suicides in 2005). Relative to other methods it is a planned method and one often used by middle-aged males. The study provides a review of countermeasures aimed at restricting this method of suicide. The prevention measures identified were catalytic converters (introduced to reduce carbon monoxide for environmental reasons); in-cabin sensors; exhaust pipe modification; automatic idling stops; and helpline signage at suicide "hotspots." Catalytic converters are now in 90% of new vehicles worldwide and literature supports them being associated with a reduction in exhaust-gassing suicides. There remain, however, accounts of exhaust-gas fatalities in modern vehicles, whether accidentally or by suicide. These deaths and also crashes from fatigue could potentially be prevented by in-cabin multi-gas sensors, these having been developed to the prototype stage. Helpline signage at an exhaust-gassing suicide "hotspot" had some success in reducing suicides. The evidence on method substitution and whether a reduction in MVEG suicides causes a reduction in total suicides is inconsistent.

  6. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent (United States)


    10 Sulfur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...diesel and gasoline components DIN Dissolved inorganic nitrogen THC Total hydrocarbon TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen HEM Hexane extractable...Benefit Analysis to support the impact assessment accompanying the revision of Directive 1999/32/EC on the sulfur content of certain liquid fuels

  7. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.


    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  8. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen


    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  11. Flue Gas Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Flue gases from industrial sources like power, waste incineration, glass manufacturer and cement plants as well as ships meet increasingly stricter regulations regarding emission of several pollutants in particular nitrogen and sulfur oxides. These pollutants lead to formation of nitric...... and dry scrubbing for sulfur oxides (SO2) and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx). There is however, a desire of increasing the energy produced in electrical power plants by firing CO2-neutral biomass/waste or biomass/waste in combination with fossil fuels. Thus, the EU reached agreement in March...... 2007 specifying that 20 % and recently in 2014 this was increased to 40 % of the energy should be produced from renewable fuels by 2020 and 2030, respectively to cut emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. This, however, challenges not only the power plant itself due to enhanced slagging, fouling...

  12. Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)


    The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

  13. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...

  14. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi


    micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced......The performance of a ventilated mattress (VM) used as a bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with air cleaning fabric (acid-treated activated carbon fibre (ACF) fabric) was developed and studied. The separate and combined effect of the VM and the local air cleaning for reducing....... The patient's body was covered with either a cotton sheet or with the ACF material used as a blanket. Ammonia gas released from the patient's groins simulated the body generated bio-effluents. At the location of the groins the surface area of the VM was perforated through which the contaminated air of the bed...

  15. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen


    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  16. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.


    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  17. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  18. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)


    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  19. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL


    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  20. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.


    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  1. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Hence, in order to meet the envi- ronmental legislations, it is highly desirable to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas. 275 .... (i) Hot EGR: Exhaust gas is recirculated without being cooled, resulting in increased intake ... is mounted on the inlet pipe between the air filter and the inlet manifold of the engine as shown in ...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers. (United States)


    ... drum type exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must automatically... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  3. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211-94 Section 86.211-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.211-94 Exhaust gas...

  4. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas (United States)

    Wu, Ko -Jen


    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  5. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.


    approach to reduce emissions by combining an effective exhaust cleaner. The system can significantly improve the indoor air quality, because a considerable amount of the concentrated pollutants in the air are removed directly via PPAE. The pollutant removal via PPAE is influenced by airflow patterns......Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...

  6. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.


    Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...... and optimal indoor air quality of confined farm animal buildings, a concept of partial pit ventilation has been investigated in varied conditions in Denmark. Partial pit ventilation is based on the hypothesis that the most polluted air can be removed by a separate air exhaust near the pollution sources in pit...

  7. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.


    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  8. Catalytic cleaning of automotive exhaust gases; Katalytische Reinigung von Kraftfahrzeugabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domesle, R. [Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany)


    In the Clean Air Act of 1970 the US American Government set itself the goal of reducing pollutant emissions from automobiles to 10% of the original level. While it was very ambitious at the time, this goal has meanwhile been reached, at least in terms of the amount of pollution per vehicle. The period between 1981 and 1986 alone saw emission reductions in the USA of 65% for CO, 60% for HC, and 40% for NO{sub x}. The introduction of stringent limit values in Europe is in particular predicted to bring about drastic reductions in HC emissions. By the year 2010, after the phase-out of old vehicles without a cat, HC emissions are expected to have decreased to 20% of the 1990 level. A similar development has been predicted for CO emissions. As for NO{sub x} emissions there will at least be drastic reductions in spark ignition vehicles. However, this success will be neutralised for some part by the growing number of diesel vehicles and by increasing mileage. These figures show impressively that the use of catalytic converters in road vehicles has made a substantial contribution to relieving the environment and improving the quality of life and will continue to do so in future. [Deutsch] Die amerikanische Regierung trat 1970 im Clean Air Act mit der Vorgabe an, die Schadstoffe aus Kraftfahrzeugen auf 10% des urspruenglichen Wertes mindern zu wollen. Dieses Ziel war zum damaligen Zeitpunkt sehr hochgesteckt, ist aber inzwischen erreicht worden, was die Schadstoffmenge pro Fahrzeug angeht. Allein zwischen den Jahren 1981-86 wurde eine Schadstoffreduzierung um 65% fuer CO, 60% fuer HC und 40% fuer NO{sub x} in den USA festgestellt. Durch Einfuehrung der strengen Grenzwerte in Europa ist vor allem eine drastische Verminderung der HC-Emissionen prognostiziert. Diese sollen im Jahre 2010 nach Auslaufen der Altfahrzeuge ohne Katalysator noch 20% des Niveaus von 1990 betragen. Fuer CO werden aehnliche Verhaeltnisse erwartet. Bei den NO{sub x}-Emissionen wird im PKW-Bereich fuer

  9. Model Tests of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Gas Eductor Systems for Gas Turbine Powered Ships (United States)


    of Mechanical Engineering Dean of Science and Engineering 2 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California Rear Admiral Isham Linder J. R. Borsting...impingement on mast-mounted equipment within the exhaust gas plume and the infra-red signature of the hot exhaust gas. An effective means of reducing

  10. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  11. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas. (United States)


    ... immediately at full load and speed. The preliminary liquid-fuel-injection rate shall be such that the exhaust... Investigation has shown that for practical purposes, Pittsburgh natural gas (containing a high percentage of..., or torque converters ordinarily are not required in the coupling train. ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane


    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  13. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad


    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  14. [Poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas: 22 cases study]. (United States)

    Dong, Li-Min; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Ming-Chang; He, Meng


    To analyze the case characteristics of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas and provide references for forensic identification and prevention of such accidents. Twenty-two cases of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas in Minhang District during 2004 to 2013 were collected. Some aspects such as general conditions of deaths, incidence time, weather, field investigation, and autopsy were retrospectively analyzed. In the 22 cases, there were 15 males and 16 females. The age range was between 2 and 82 years old. The major occurring time was in January or February (8 cases in each) and the cases almost occurred in small area room (21 cases). There was wide crack next to the exhaust port when the gas water heater was been used in all cases. There are more prone to occurrence of exhaust gas poisoning of imperfect combustion of natural gas in small area room with a ventilation window near the exhaust port of gas water heated. It shows that the scene of combustion exhaust gas poisoning should be more concerned in the cold season.

  15. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David


    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  16. Flue gas cleaning by pulse corona streamer (United States)

    Keping, Yan; Vanveldhuizen, E. M.


    Currents of up to 600 A are obtained on a corona wire of 1 m length by applying DC and pulse voltage. The energy input is upto 6 J/pulse. The current duration is between 100 and 600 ns, and depends strongly on the DC voltage, the stray inductance and resistance of the circuit. Breakdown can be avoided by choosing the appropriate values for the components in the pulse circuit. Average electron energies resolved in space and in time are obtained by means of optical spectroscopy for corona discharge streamers in a wire cylinder reactor in air and in flue gas. The electron energy for primary streamers in air is found to be in the order of 10 eV and increases slightly with the pulse voltage and is almost constant during the streamer propagation. The electron energy for the secondary streamer is about a factor two lower near the anode where its optical emission is strong. In the gap and near the cathode, its emission is much less and the electron energy is another three times lower. The secondary streamer is limited in length, because it must satisfy the stability field requirement. The larger attachment coefficient of flue gas in the low field region explains that in flue gas the secondary streamer is shorter than in air. The ratio of the electrical energy input into primary and secondary streamers is controlled by the length of the electrical pulse. Measurements of NO removal from flue gas indicate that a pulse duration equal to the time required by the primary streamer to cross the gap gives the highest cleaning efficiency.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan


    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  18. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.43 Determination of exhaust-gas composition. (a) Samples shall be taken to determine the composition of the exhaust gas while the engine is operated at loads and speeds...

  19. Performance and Reliability of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery Units (United States)


    Khalil, Zohir, and Farid (2010) investigated heat transfer related to swirling and non- swirling flows through sudden pipe expansions at constant pumping... swirl in air flow in a tube for a concentric double- pipe heat exchanger. The use of a snail entrance feature increased the Nusselt number in the...exhaust gas WHRU. 14. SUBJECT TERMS waste heat recovery, heat recovery performance, swirling flow , pressure drop penalty, temperature

  20. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)


    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  1. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich


    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  2. Study on direct measurement of diesel exhaust gas flow rate. Development of ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter; Diesel hai gas ryuryo no chokusetsu sokuteiho ni kansuru kenkyu. Choonpa hai gas ryuryokeino kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, A.; Takamoto, M.; Yamzaki, H. [National Research Laboratory of Meteology, Tsukuba (Japan); Hosoi, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Arai, S.; Shimizu, K. [Kaijo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The partial flow dilution method is one of the typical measurement methods for particulate matter emission from diesel engines. In this method, exhaust gas at a transient flow rate should be transferred to a dilution tunnel at a constant ratio of exhaust gas. The present partial flow dilution method is used under steady-state engine operating conditions in lieu of direct flow rate measurement of exhaust gas. A more practical control of exhaust emission is, however, required world widely; therefore development of an exhaust gas flowmeter is indispensable in the partial flow dilution method for transient engine operating conditions. An ultrasonic exhaust gas flowmeter has been developed and been demonstrated to be capable of measuring the exhaust gas flow rate with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  3. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan


    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  4. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John


    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  5. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.


    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Gas turbine cogeneration: the use of heat pipes to recover exhaust gas energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, J. L.; Perella Balestieri, J. A.; Masanobu Tanisho, P.; Araujo Zanardi, M.; Murcia, N. [Paulista State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)


    Heat pipe heat exchangers for the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbines for the simultaneous cogeneration of electricity were described. Technical and economic implications were reviewed. The overall conclusion was that cogeneration systems using heat pipe heat exchanger technology could be a useful alternative in the supply and use of energy, of particular interest for application in industrial, hospital, hotel or other large building system environment. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  8. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear ...... Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability....

  9. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (United States)


    ... at the final temperature. Water in excess of that required for adiabatic saturation shall be... before the exhaust gas is diluted with air, shall not exceed 170 °F. or the temperature of adiabatic saturation, if this temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the test...

  10. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  11. Commissioning of the catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up facility caprice and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M.; Kraemer, R.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.; Guenther, K.; Besserer, U.; Schaefer, P.; Hellriegel, W. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany); Geissler, H. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)


    A fuel clean-up process for all plasma exhaust gases from DT fusion machines, based on catalytic conversion reactions combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through palladium/silver, has been developed. The complete process has already been proven with relevant concentrations of tritium at laboratory scale. On the basis of the results obtained the technical facility `CAPRICE` was designed, and is now under tritium operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The facility is being used to demonstrate the process on a target throughput of 10 mol/h DT and 1 mol/h tritiated and non-tritiated impurities. Full scale experiments with hydrogen and deuterium have been completed to verify the design parameters of the facility and to gain detailed knowledge on the performance of the different subsystems under a variety of experimental conditions. Decontamination factors were obtained from these experiments as well as from first tritium runs employing about 350 Ci (0.5%) tritium in deuterium. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  13. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders


    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liqu...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  14. Parametric study on ship’s exhaust-gas behavior using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunho Park


    Full Text Available The influence of design parameters related to a ship’s exhaust-gas behavior was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD for an 8,000 TEU container carrier. To verify the numerical methods, the results were studied by comparing with experimental results. Several test conditions, i.e. various load conditions of ship, wind angle, deckhouse breadth, radar mast height, and exhaust-pipe height and shape were considered for a ship’s exhaust gas flow around the 8,000 TEU container carrier. The influence of the design parameters on contamination by the exhaust gas was quantified, after which the principal parameters to avoid contamination were selected. Finally, the design guideline of yP/H = 2 was suggested to avoid the contamination from the ship’s exhaust gas using the CFD results, model tests, and sea trials.

  15. Real-time exhaust gas modular flowmeter and emissions reporting system for mobile apparatus (United States)

    Breton, Leo Alphonse Gerard (Inventor)


    A real-time emissions reporting system includes an instrument module adapted to be detachably connected to the exhaust pipe of a combustion engine to provide for flow of exhaust gas therethrough. The instrument module includes a differential pressure probe which allows for determination of flow rate of the exhaust gas and a gas sampling tube for continuously feeding a sample of the exhaust gas to a gas analyzer or a mounting location for a non-sampling gas analyzer. In addition to the module, the emissions reporting system also includes an elastomeric boot for detachably connecting the module to the exhaust pipe of the combustion engine, a gas analyzer for receiving and analyzing gases sampled within the module and a computer for calculating pollutant mass flow rates based on concentrations detected by the gas analyzer and the detected flowrate of the exhaust gas. The system may also include a particulate matter detector with a second gas sampling tube feeding same mounted within the instrument module.

  16. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Sotiris


    Full Text Available An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by the inductively coupled plasma method, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available a-Al2O3 membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H2, N2, and CO2 were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. .

  17. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)


    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  18. Portable Gas Analyzer Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Patrolling and Examining Gas Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Liang


    Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines. (United States)


    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines...

  20. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman


    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  1. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of ...

  2. In optics humidity compensation in NDIR exhaust gas measurements of NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Buchner, Rainer; Clausen, Sønnik


    NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA.......NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA....

  3. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten


    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  4. NOx Monitoring in Humid Exhaust Gas Using Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine

    This PhD thesis is concerned with the measurement of NOX in moist exhaust gas onboard ships using non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. In such a measurement one of the major challenges is spectral interference from water vapour which is present in high concentrations in the exhaust. The Ph...... suggesting that it is possible but challenging to measure NOX in moist exhaust gas using NDIR. The characteristics of optical filters tend to change with temperature, and since this compromises the water signal balancing, much of the work presented in the thesis is devoted to the design of optical bandpass...

  5. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow (United States)

    Orosa, John


    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  6. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi


    micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced...... the generated bio-effluents in the room with about 70%. Reduction in the exposure to body-emitted ammonia was up to 96% when the VM was operated at only 1.5 L/s and the ACF was used as a blanket....... the exposure to body generated bio-effluents in a hospital room was determined. Full-scale experiments were conducted in a climate chamber furnished as a single-bed patient room. Two heated dummies were used to simulate a patient and a doctor in the room. The patient was lying on a bed equipped with the VM...

  7. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review. (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An


    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  8. Possible Removal of Mercury in Dry Flue Gas Cleaning Lines of Solid Waste Incineration Units


    Svoboda, Karel


    Here we will focus on dry flue gas cleaning methods applied for MSW incineration. Majority of dust from the incineration is usually removed in electrostatic filters or fabric (bag) filters. Dry method of flue gas cleaning are advantageous particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units, they have usually lower capital costs and simpler operation. The dry gas cleaning methods are based on an alkali sorbent injection and fabric filters for removal of dust and solid products from cleaning...

  9. Solar powered high voltage energization for vehicular exhaust cleaning: A step towards possible retrofitting in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Mohapatro, Sankarsan [High Voltage Lab, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Umanand, L. [CEDT, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)


    This paper proposes a novel way of generating high voltage for electric discharge plasma in controlling NO{sub x} emission in diesel engine exhaust. A solar powered high frequency electric discharge topology has been suggested that will improve the size and specific energy density required when compared to the traditional repetitive pulse or 50 Hz AC energization. This methodology has been designed, fabricated and experimentally verified by conducting studies on real diesel engine exhaust. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lisý


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  11. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  12. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)


    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  13. Flue gas condensation cleaning technology; Reningsteknik vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, M. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Flue gas condensation has become established as an economical and environmentally attractive method for heat recovery and flue gas cleaning. Effective capture is wanted for dust and flue gas components. This also leads to more advanced treatment of the condensate. Important aspects for present plants are removal of heavy metals, sulfur oxides and ammonia. Future areas are condensation in biofuel driers, small-scale oil- and natural gas boilers and boilers using Salix. High concentrations of heavy metals are reported in refuse boilers, where sulphide precipitation and filtration are used to minimize outlet concentrations in the condensate. For simple dust cleaning (multicyclones) filtration of condensate is normally demanded. The pH value should be increased (to {approx} 7,5-9) for precipitation of heavy metals; zinc and cadmium being the most relevant from environmental point of view. Salix contains considerably higher amounts of cadmium, and may need sulphide precipitation. Addition of sodium hydroxide to the condensate film gives 90-95% absorption of sulfur dioxide. The pH value 6-6,5 is optimal for good removal of sulfur compounds and ammonias, and minimizes carbon dioxide absorption. For avoiding corrosion on concrete pipes the outlet condensate has to be neutralized. Ammonia is formed during combustion of fuels containing nitrogen and can be found in flue gases from e.g. biofuels. For SNCR extra ammonia is added. The main part ({approx} 60-95%) of the ammonia in flue gas is absorbed as ammonia ions in the condensate. Normal ammonium concentration in condensate is about 30-50 g/m{sup 3} without SNCR and 50-150 g/m{sup 3} with SNCR. Removal of ammonia from condensates can become necessary and methods are under development for stripping of ammonia with air or steam. 27 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs, 14 appendices

  14. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation (United States)

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI


    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  15. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.


    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation dispersion analysis using in-cylinder pressure measurements in automotive diesel engines


    Luján, José M.; Climent, H.; Pla Moreno, Benjamín; Rivas Perea, Manuel Eduardo; Francois, Nicolas-Yoan; BORGES ALEJO, JOSE; Soukeur, Zoulikha


    Current diesel engines are struggling to achieve exhaust emissions regulations margins, in certain cases penalizing the fuel consumption. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) continues to be employed as a technique to reduce NOx emissions. EGR dispersion between cylinders is one important issue when a high pressure (HP) loop is used. Different techniques have been developed in order to analyze the EGR dispersion between cylinders in an engine test bench. In this paper a methodology using the i...

  17. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.


    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  18. Combined biological and physicochemical waste-gas cleaning techniques. (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian


    This review presents a general overview of physical, chemical and biological waste-gas treatment techniques such as adsorption, absorption, oxidation and biodegradation, focusing more extensively on combined processes. It is widely recognized that biological waste-gas treatment devices such as biofilters and biotrickling filters can show high performance, often reaching removal efficiencies above 90 % for pollutant concentrations below 5 g/m(3). However, for concentrations exceeding this limit and under transient shock-load conditions that are frequently encountered in industrial situations, a physicochemical gas cleaning process can sometimes be advantageously combined with a biological one. Besides improving the overall treatment efficiency, the non-biological, first-stage process could also serve as a load equalization system by reducing the pollutant load during periodic shock-loads, to levels that can easily be handled in the second-stage bioreactor. This article reviews the operational advantages of integrating different non-biological and biological processes, i.e., adsorption pre-treatment+bioreactor, bioreactor+adsorption post-treatment, absorption pre-treatment+bioreactor, UV pre-treatment+bioreactor, and bioreactor/bioreactor combinations, for waste-gas treatment, where different gas-phase pollutants have been tested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Matulić


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid concept that increases the overall efficiency of the propulsion system on ships. The hybrid concept of the marine propulsion system was examined in 1D CFD internal combustion engine model where the turbine and compressor are not mechanically connected. Such a configuration makes possible different turbine designs than needed in the conventional turbocharger. The advantage is an increased recuperation of energy from exhaust gases. By means of computer simulation and optimization, this study proves that the hybrid concept significantly increases the propulsion system efficiency and lower emissions in maritime environment.

  20. High temperature gas cleaning for pressurized gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, H.; Hagstroem, P.; Hallgren, A.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The purpose of the project was to build an apparatus to study pressurized, high temperature gas cleaning of raw gasification gas generated from biomass. A flexible and easy to operate pressurized apparatus was designed and installed for the investigations in high temperature gas cleaning by means of thermal, catalytic or chemical procedures. A semi continuos fuel feeding concept, at a maximum rate of 700 g/h, allowed a very constant formation of a gas product at 700 deg C. The gas product was subsequently introduced into a fixed bed secondary reactor where the actual gas cleanup or reformation was fulfilled. The installation work was divided into four work periods and apart from a few delays the work was carried out according to the time plan. During the first work period (January - June 1994) the technical design, drawings etc. of the reactor and additional parts were completed. All material for the construction was ordered and the installation work was started. The second work period (July - December 1994) was dedicated to the construction and the installation of the different components. Initial tests with the electrical heating elements, control system and gas supply were assigned to the third work period (January - June 1995). After the commissioning and the resulting modifications, initial pyrolysis and tar decomposition experiments were performed. During the fourth and final work period, (June - December 1995) encouraging results from first tests allowed the experimental part of the project work to commence, however in a slightly reduced program. The experimental part of the project work comparatively studied tar decomposition as a function of the process conditions as well as of the choice of catalyst. Two different catalysts, dolomite and a commercial Ni-based catalyst, were evaluated in the unit. Their tar cracking ability in the pressure interval 1 - 20 bar and at cracker bed temperatures between 800 - 900 deg C was compared. Long term tests to study

  1. Damage of natural stone tablets exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Török, Ákos


    Natural stone tablets were exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions to assess urban stone damage. Cylindrical test specimens (3 cm in diameter) were made from travertine, non-porous limestone, porous limestone, rhyolite tuff, sandstone, andesite, granite and marble. The samples were exposed to exhaust gas that was generated from diesel engine combustion (engine type: RÁBA D10 UTSLL 160, EURO II). The operating condition of the internal combustion engine was: 1300 r/m (app 50%). The exhaust gas was diverted into a pipe system where the samples were placed perpendicular to main flow for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours, respectively. The exhaust emission was measured by using AVL particulate measurement technology; filter paper method (AVL 415). The stone samples were documented and selective parameters were measured prior to and after exhaust gas exposure. Density, volume, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mineral composition and penetration depth of emission related particulate matter were recorded. The first results indicate that after 10 hours of exposure significant amount of particulate matter deposited on the stone surface independently from the surface properties and porosity. The black soot particles uniformly covered all types of stones, making hard to differentiate the specimens.

  2. Coal/Biomass cogasification and high temperature gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Bos, A.; Den Uil, H.; Plaum, J.M.


    This paper reports on the cogasification of coal and biomass in a downdraught fixed-bed gasifier and on the high temperature removal of halides from the fuel gas produced. Air-blown downdraught gasifiers are considered as an interesting option especially for small and intermediate scale on-site fuel gas generation using high volatile feedstocks. The current test programme conducted with a 300 kW{sub th} downdraught gasifier at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) was focused on the effect of the partial replacement of the coal feedstock by two different biomass feedstocks, viz. Meranti wood waste and straw pellets (Danish winter wheat), on gasifier operability and fuel gas composition. For dry halide removal, several sorbents were evaluated based on literature data, thermodynamic calculations, and on laboratory and bench-scale experiments at atmospheric pressure. The evaluation was mainly focused on dry halide removal at a temperature level of 350-400C in a separate process located upstream of the desulphurisation process in an integrated system for high temperature gas cleaning. 8 figs., 11 tabs., 11 refs.

  3. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai


    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynamic...... models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst...

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Exhaust-Gas Ejectors for Ground Cooling (United States)


    a t insreasing length- diameter rat i o owing t o the di.:nfnieli:ng iniprovement i n energy t ransfer w i t 3 increacinz mixiEg l€iIc-th and...increaee i n horsopcwer results Prom the g rea t e r energy contalned i n the exhaust gas a t the higher powers; whereas, the increase of pressure...of the energy of the exhaust gas t o the cooling sir. drops are insuf f ic ien t f o r s a t i s f ac to ry cooling. a r e obtained f o r the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Lalić


    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem of exhaust emissions of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engines. After establishing marine diesel engine regulations and defining the parameters influencing exhaust emissions, the simulation model of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engine has been developed. Furthermore, the comparison of numerical and experimentally obtained data has been performed, resulting in achieving the model validity at 100% load, which represents a requirement for further exhaust gas analysis. Deviations obtained at the real engine and the model range from 2% to 7%. An analysis of the influential parameters such as compression ratio, exhaust valve timing and fuel injection timing has been performed. The obtained results have been compared and conclusions have been drawn.

  6. Relationship between the variations of hydrogen in HCNG fuel and the oxygen in exhausted gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Yaom


    Full Text Available The variation of the mixing ratio between hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG in hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fuel (HCNG gives different results in terms of engine performances, fuel consumption, and emission characteristics. Therefore, the engine performance using HCNG as fuel can be optimized if the mixing ratio between the two fuels in HCNG can be adjusted in real time while the engine is being operated. In this research, the relationship between the amount of oxygen in the exhausted gas and the mixing composition between the hydrogen and CNG in HCNG is investigated based on the equilibrium equation of combustion. It is found that the main factors affecting the amount of oxygen in exhausted gas when using HCNG as fuel include the error from the air-fuel-ratio (AFR control, the error from the HCNG composition control, and the intended change of the HCNG composition. Theoretically, the amount of the oxygen in the exhaust should increase by 0.78% for every 5% addition of H2 at stoichiometric condition. This value can be higher or lower for lean and rich engine operation, respectively. The experimental results found that at the equivalent ratio around 0.8 the amount of O2 in the exhaust gas increases about 1.23% for every 5% H2 addition, which inclines with the proposed calculations.

  7. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik


    This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot...... agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near...

  8. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  9. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas. (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok


    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system. (United States)


    ... and carbon dioxide and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the determination of oxides of nitrogen... mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 which has been bubbled through water at room temperature produces an... and filter shall be heated to maintain a sample gas temperature of 375°±10 °F (191°±6 °C) before the...

  11. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)


    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  12. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control (United States)

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew


    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  13. Assessment of corrosion in the flue gas cleaning system using on-line monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vendelbo Nielsen, Lars; Berggreen Petersen, Michael


    Amager unit 1 is a 350 MW multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 to fire biomass (straw and wood pellets). Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system were observed in the gas-gas preheater (GAFO), the booster fan and flue gas ducts. Chlorine containing corrosion...

  14. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion


    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  15. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills. (United States)

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong


    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  16. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE


    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  17. Fiber-optic exhaust-gas sensor based on the fluorescence characteristics of Cu containing zeolites (United States)

    Remillard, Jeffrey


    A single catalyst in the exhaust system can reduce the concentration of toxic gases emitted by automobiles if the engine is operated close to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. This is accomplished through the use of an electrochemical oxygen sensor in the exhaust stream. Near the stoichiometric point, this sensor produces a step-function response when the exhaust gas transitions from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich condition. This talk describes a different kind of sensor based on the use of copper-containing zeolites that produces a proportional output. Zeolites are a class of aluminosilicate materials that have an open 3D structure containing channels and cavities. The Al sites are negatively charged and are generally compensated by cations present during formation of the zeolite. Our experiments use a zeolite designated Cu-ZSM-5, which has the protons originally present in the ZSM-5 material replaced with cupric (Cu^+2) ions. Exposure of this zeolite to a reducing gas results in the conversion of some cupric ions to cuprous (Cu^+1) ions. Subsequent exposure of the zeolite to an oxidizing gas reverses this reaction. The use of this material as a gas sensor is based on the observation that cuprous ions produce a green fluorescent emission when exposed to blue light, whereas no fluorescence is observed from cupric ions. Monitoring the fluorescence of Cu-ZSM-5 placed in a gas stream can thus provide information on the gas's reductant-to-oxidant ratio. We present the results of high temperature in-situ fluorescence spectra, intensity, and reponse-time measurements performed on samples of Cu-ZSM-5 exposed to various O_2-reductant combinations and also discuss data obtained from a single-fiber prototype sensor fabricated using a sol-gel processing technique.(J.T. Remillard et al.), Appl. Opt. 38 5306 (1999).

  18. Ni/YSZ electrode degradation studied by impedance spectroscopy: Effects of gas cleaning and current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    on the anode degradation, tests were set-up both with and without gas cleaning. Gas cleaning was done by passing the H2 over porous nickel at room temperature. It was found that cleaning of the inlet H2 gas more than halved the anode degradation under current load. For tests at OCV the increase in the Ni...... at OCV prior to fuel cell testing provided fuel cell tests with minimal/negligible anode degradation compared to tests where fuel cell testing was started immediately after initial characterization of the cells....

  19. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock


    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  20. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock


    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  1. ANN based evaluation of the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke diesel engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalski, Jerzy


    ...) to the evaluation of NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke Diesel engine. A concept is presented how to use the ANN as an alternative to direct measurements carried out on a ship at sea...

  2. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)


    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  3. A GM (1, 1) Markov Chain-Based Aeroengine Performance Degradation Forecast Approach Using Exhaust Gas Temperature


    Ning-bo Zhao; Jia-long Yang; Shu-ying Li; Yue-wu Sun


    Performance degradation forecast technology for quantitatively assessing degradation states of aeroengine using exhaust gas temperature is an important technology in the aeroengine health management. In this paper, a GM (1, 1) Markov chain-based approach is introduced to forecast exhaust gas temperature by taking the advantages of GM (1, 1) model in time series and the advantages of Markov chain model in dealing with highly nonlinear and stochastic data caused by uncertain factors. In this ap...

  4. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali


    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  5. {open_quotes}Experimental investigation of brown coal combustion with siumlated gas Turbine Exhaust Gas in a combined cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakaras, E.; Vourliotis, P.


    The main objective of this study is the experimental investigation of the brown coal combustion (brown coal with high sulphur content, e.g. {open_quotes}Megalopolis{close_quotes} lignite) in a lab-scale Atmospheric Fluidized Bed (AFB). The fluidizing gas and the oxidant medium is the Simulated gas Turbine Exhaust flue Gas - {open_quotes}Vitiated Air{close_quotes} (STEG - V.A.). The STEG simulates the exhaust flue gas from the turbine MS 9/1 (FA) produced by EGT - GEC Alsthom (/1/). According to the IFRF experiments, the lowest O{sub 2} level allowed for stable combustion is 10%, concentration which corresponds to 88.4 % burnout in the IFRF experimental furnace. For the improvement of the coal burnout the presence of an oxidation catalyst is considered necessary in order, first, to avoid the incomplete combustion of the coal and second, to decrease the CO and C{sub x}H{sub y} emissions. The catalysts, supplied by KAT-TEC (/4/), are perovskit-type with TiO{sub 2} and Pt as stabilisers. The purposes of the trials are: (1) To examine the possibility to achieve the combustion of low grade brown coal under these conditions. (2) The investigation of the burnout behaviour as well as the resulting O{sub 2} CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, C{sub x}H{sub y} and NO{sub x} emissions.

  6. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos


    Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

  7. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment (United States)

    Moos, Ralf


    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  8. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.


    Various techniques for NO removal in Membrane Contactor were considered. However the NO absorption in a liquid adsorbent with chemical enhancement and its ease for regeneration, was selected as the most practicable choice. Various different compounds for chemical enhancement were studied and Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent was selected for further studies. The technical feasibility of Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent for obtaining greater than 80% NO removal have been successfully established. Even though the membrane area required for greater than 80% NO removal has been found to be about 500 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c} (compared to 50 - 150 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c}, for 95% SO{sub 2} removal, depending on the membrane characteristics), suitable Membrane Contactor design has been proposed for carrying out the process at an acceptable gas side pressure drop. The electro-membrane processes for the regeneration of adsorbents have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies have concerned the study of basic functions of both the bipolar membranes and charge laden (anion/cation) membranes. Suitable experimental techniques have been devised for studying of these basic parameters (e.g. charge transport number, salt diffusion through membranes, current-voltage characteristics of bipolar membranes and electrical resistance of charge laden membranes). These parameters have further been utilized in the mechanistic model of combined membranes in an ED cell (electrodialysis). Based on these fundamental studies and analysis of process requirements, suitable configuration of ED cell has been developed and verified by experimental studies. The effect of both the stack design parameters (e.g. number of cells, membrane type and spacer design) and the operational parameters (e.g. temperature, electrolyte concentration, liquid velocity and current density) have been studied for optimization of energy consumption for regeneration of loaded adsorbents. As a result

  9. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas


    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  10. Exhaust gas monitoring based on absorption spectroscopy in the process industry (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Shu, Xiao-wen; Kan, Rui-feng; Cui, Yi-ben; He, Ying; Xu, Zhen-yu; Geng, Hui; Liu, Jian-guo


    This non-invasive gas monitor for exhaust gas monitoring must has high reliability and requires little maintenance. Monitor for in-situ measurements using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near infrared, can meet these requirements. TDLAS has evolved over the past decade from a laboratory especially to an accepted, robust and reliable technology for trace gas sensing. With the features of tunability and narrow linewidth of the distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and by precisely tuning the laser output wavelength to a single isolated absorption line of the gas, TDLAS technique can be utilized to measure gas concentration with high sensitivity. Typical applications for monitoring of H2S, NH3, HC1 and HF are described here together by wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic(WMS-2F) detection. This paper will illustrate the problems related to on-line applications, in particular, the overfall effects, automatic light intensity correction, temperature correction, which impacted on absorption coefficient and give details of how effect of automatic correction is necessary. The system mainly includes optics and electronics, optical system mainly composed of fiber, fiber coupler and beam expander, the electron part has been placed in safe analysis room not together with the optical part. Laser merely passes through one-meter-long pipes by the fiber coupling technology, so the system itself has anti-explosion. The results of the system are also presented in the end, the system's response time is only 0.5s, and can be achieved below 1×10-5 the detection limit at the volume fraction, it can entirely replace the traditional methods of detection exhaust gas in the process industry.

  11. CO{sub 2}-fertilization via exhaust gas treatment of reciprocating gas engines: developments and experiences; Fertilisation au CO{sub 2} par traitement des gaz provenant de moteurs a gaz alternatifs: developpement et experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, M.; Hoving, K.; Klimstra, J.; Top, H. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie (Netherlands)


    The Dutch climate is such that greenhouses are used to produce vegetables, flowers and other plants. To heat the greenhouse, boilers and combined heat and power systems (CHP) are used. CHP has a better fuel utilisation than a boiler because of the simultaneously production of heat and power. In a greenhouse, CO{sub 2} has to be added to compensate the CO{sub 2} consumed by the plants to grow. Higher CO{sub 2} concentration than ambient are being used to increase plant growth and yield. The use of 'clean' flue gas from boilers was common practice but nowadays flue gas of engines can be used after cleaning. Exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGC) based on a Selective Reduction Catalyst and an Oxidation Catalyst make this possible. This paper describes the principle of these EGCs, gives insight into the important parameters which determine the required cleanliness and discusses the research results of Gasunie Research on this topic. It is found that different catalyst makes have their own specific behaviour depending on the monolith and active material and the how the catalyst is manufactured, mechanical mixed or impregnated. The use of CHP gives a high fuel utilisation and, in combination with EGC, increased crop yields. This results in an even more efficient use of the primary fuel, natural gas. (authors)

  12. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)


    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  13. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)


    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata


    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  15. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib


    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  16. Gas Cleaning System with a Pre-Unloading Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail


    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes and mechanisms reduce the efficiency of processes separation in cyclone devices, the results of field surveys of industrial cyclone. It offers an alternative solution to clean the flue gases from the boiler KE-10/14.

  17. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  18. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.


    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  19. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels. (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L


    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  20. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Paul Albert


    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

  1. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David


    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  2. Compensation of the exhaust gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurements. (United States)

    Ajtay, Delia; Weilenmann, Martin


    Instantaneous emission models of vehicles describe the amount of emitted pollutants as a function of the driving state of the car. Emission measurements of chassis dynamometer tests with high time resolution are necessary for the development of such models. However, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement line last significantly longer than 1 s. In a simplified approach, the transport dynamics can be divided into two parts: a perfect time delay, corresponding to a piston-like transport of the exhaust gas, and a dynamic part, corresponding to the mixing of gases by turbulence along the way. This determines the occurrence of emission peaks that are longer in time and lower in height at the analyzer than they actually are in the vehicle at their location of formation. It is shown here how the sharp emission signals at their location of formation can be reconstructed from the flattened emission signals recorded at the analyzer by using signal theory approaches. A comparison between the reconstructions quality when using the raw or the dilution analyzer system is also given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain


    Full Text Available A more sensitive GC-MS method has been established for the determination of some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vehicles exhaust tar samples. The tar samples were extracted using dichloromethane (DMC: n-hexane solvent mixture. A multi-layer clean-up (silica gel/sodium sulphate column was used, followed by glass fiber filter (GFF paper. The method was successfully applied to determine a number of PAHs present in exhaust tar sample of different vehicles of the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.   Keywords: Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, vehicles tar samples, identification, GC-MS/MS

  4. The gas heterogeneous flows cleaning technology from corona discharge field (United States)

    Bogdanov, A.; Tokarev, A.; Judanov, V.; Vinogradov, V.


    A nanogold capture and extraction from combustion products of Kara-Keche coal, description the process: a coal preparation to experiments, nanogold introducing in its composition, temperature and time performance of combustion, device and function of experimental apparatus, gas-purification of the gas flow process and receiving combustion products (condensate, coke, ash, rags) is offerred.

  5. Flue gas cleaning by multiple irradiation with electron beam (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Mätzing, H.; Lindner, W.


    By electron beam treatment, NOx and SO2 can be reduced simultaneously from combustion flue gas. The efficiency of the process has been shown to improve by multiple irradiation. It appears most promising to perform the multiple irradiation with an intermediate gas scrubber. This paper reports experimental investigations on the efficiency of the intermediate filter.

  6. Temperature control of thermal-gas-dynamical installation in cleaning oil-well tubes (United States)

    Penner, V. A.; Martemyanov, D. B.; Pshenichnikova, V. V.


    The article provides the study results of cleaning oil-well tubes, the oil-well tube failure reasons for service by their types have been considered. The chemical method of cleaning oil-well tubes as the least expensive has been reviewed when acid solution moves to the interptube space mixing up with oil and liquidates paraffin and pitches deposits on the internal pipe surface. Except the chemical method of pipes cleaning the mechanical one was considered as well. Also the disadvantages -such as the low productivity of cleaning and design complexity- of this deposits removal method on the internal oil-well tube surface have been considered. An effective method for cleaning oil-well tubing from paraffin and pitches by the thermodynamic plant based on the aircraft engine has been introduced for the first time. The temperature distribution graph in the gas stream at the engine output has been given.

  7. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)


    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  8. Basic study for gas cleaning using discharge and electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhen-Zhou; Sawada, Jun; Takashima, Kazunori; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)


    A NO{sub x} removal method using discharge plasma and electrophoresis for exhaust control was studied. The 65-50% of NO was oxidized to NO{sub 2} or HNO{sub 3} by the discharge plasma with specific input energy of 45J/l. The electrophoresis was carried out to concentrate the NO{sub 2} or HNO{sub 3} adsorbed on the adsorbents. As a result, 80% of the adsorbed nitrate ions were found in the anode region. A combination of molecular sieve pellets of 13X and glass fiber cloth was tested for the collection of nitrate ions. The ability of simultaneous concentration of nitrate ions and sulfate ions using electrophoresis was examined.

  9. Clean-running lube oil for natural gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Phillips 66 has completed extensive laboratory and field development of a new industrial lubricant incorporating a proprietary additive package, designed specifically for two- and four-cycle natural gas engines. Phillips 66 engineers say the commercially available Eclipse T 20W-40 ashless multigrade oil offers four distinct benefits for natural gas engines. The oil runs cleaner, is barium-free, offers the performance benefits of a multi-viscosity oil, and significantly reduces engine deposits, ring sticking and sludge. The new oil is recommended for all two-cycle natural-gas-fueled engines such as Clark, Cooper-Bessemer and Ajax, as well as Caterpillar four-cycle natural gas engines. Other four-cycle engines also have experienced reduced engine deposits and reduced downtime with Eclipse T oil and specific preventive maintenance practices, the company says. 2 figs.

  10. 洁净厂房机械防排烟系统的设计探讨%Discussion on the Design of Mechanical Smoke Exhaust System in Clean Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蹇兆刚; 王伯牙


    洁净厂房由于其生产工艺的特殊性,其防排烟设计不仅要求高效,还要尽量减少火灾中烟气、粉尘对其他区域造成的影响。本文从洁净厂房机械排烟设置部位、采用方式、排烟量和补风量设计等方面,对洁净厂房机械防排烟系统的设计进行了探讨。%Because of the special production process in clean plant, the smoke control design requires not only high effic- iency but also the reduction of the influence of flue gas, dust and fire on other areas as much as possible. In this paper, from the aspects of seting position, applied methods and the volume of exhaust gas and air supplement, the smoke control system design for clean workshop machinery were discussed.

  11. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana


    configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two......-stroke marine diesel engine. A turbocharger model together with a blower, a pre-scrubber and a cooler for the exhaust gas recirculation line, are included. The steam turbine, depending on the configuration, is modeled as either a dual or triple pressure level turbine. The condensation and pre-heating process......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...

  12. Simulation of the flue gas cleaning system of an RDF incineration power plant. (United States)

    Jannelli, E; Minutillo, M


    Because of the stringent pollutant emission standards introduced with the European Union guidelines for waste incineration, it is very important to optimize the flue gas cleaning systems which are able to result in a low environmental impact according to the emission limits. In this paper a thermochemical model has been proposed for the simulation of the flue gas cleaning system of an RDF incineration plant. The model simulates the operation of the flue-gas treatment section and the combustion section by using a simplified approach. The combustion includes the grate incinerator and the post-combustion chamber, while the cleaning section includes the NO(x) reduction process (urea injection) and the scrubbing of SO(2) and HCl (Ca(OH)(2) as sorbent). The modelling has been conducted by means of ASPEN PLUS code. The simulation results have been validated with the operating data. The model proposed by the authors can be a useful tool in both evaluating the efficiency of the gas cleaning system by verifying the environmental pollution of an incinerator power plant in nominal operating conditions and in forecasting the efficiency of the cleaning system in off-design operating conditions.

  13. Transport and transformation of mercury during wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous metal smelting. (United States)

    Liu, Zhilou; Wang, Dongli; Peng, Bing; Chai, Liyuan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Shu; Yang, Bentao; Xiang, Kaisong; Liu, Cao


    Reducing mercury emission is hot topic for international society. The first step for controlling mercury in fuel gas is to investigate mercury distribution and during the flue gas treatment process. The mercury transport and transformation in wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous smelting industry was studied in the paper with critical important parameters, such as the solution temperature, Hg0 concentration, SO2 concentration, and Hg2+ concentration at the laboratory scale. The mass ratio of the mercury distribution in the solution, flue gas, sludge, and acid fog from the simulated flue gas containing Hg2+ and Hg0 was 49.12~65.54, 18.34~35.42, 11.89~14.47, and 1.74~3.54%, respectively. The primary mercury species in the flue gas and acid fog were gaseous Hg0 and dissolved Hg2+. The mercury species in the cleaning solution were dissolved Hg2+ and colloidal mercury, which accounted for 56.56 and 7.34% of the total mercury, respectively. Various mercury compounds, including Hg2Cl2, HgS, HgCl2, HgSO4, and HgO, existed in the sludge. These results for mercury distribution and speciation are highly useful in understanding mercury transport and transformation during the wet flue gas cleaning process. This research is conducive for controlling mercury emissions from nonferrous smelting flue gas and by-products.

  14. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  15. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002. (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan


    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  16. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail:; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)


    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  17. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Energy from biomass based gasifier-engine integrated systems are becoming more popular for power generation applications in rural and urban driven societies. The quality of producer gas from the down draft gasifiers plays a significant role in power generation aspects. During gasification, tar is produced and its ...

  18. Update on the REIPPPP, clean coal, nuclear, natural gas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milazi, Dominic


    Full Text Available text setting out South Africa’s electricity plan over the next 20 years. The document indicates timelines on the roll out of key supply side options such as renewable energy, the nuclear, natural gas and coal build programmes, as well as peaking...

  19. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Mylläri; E. Asmi; T. Anttila; E. Saukko; V. Vakkari; L. Pirjola; R. Hillamo; T. Laurila; A. Häyrinen; J. Rautiainen; H. Lihavainen; E. O'Connor; V. Niemelä; J. Keskinen; M. Dal Maso; T. Rönkkö


    .... Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor...

  20. Research on the Flow Field and Structure Optimization in Cyclone Separator with Downward Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weiwei


    Full Text Available A numerical software analysis of the turbulent and strongly swirling flow field of a cyclone separator with downward exhaust gas and its performances is described. The ANSYS 14.0 simulations based on DPM model are also used in the investigation. A new set of geometrical design has been optimized to achieve minimum pressure drop and maximum separation efficiency. A comparison of numerical simulation of the new design confirm the superior performance of the new design compared to the conventional design. The influence of the structure parameters such as the length of the guide pipe, the shape of the guide, the inlet shape on the separation performance was analyzed in this research. This research result has certain reference value for cyclone separator design and performance optimization.

  1. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology


    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak


    Full Text Available Pollution of an atmosphere due to hazardous substances emissions deteriorates ecological environment in the world. Exhaust gases of diesel engines are considered as one of the main environmental pollutants. At the moment it is not possible to determine rate and limits of threshold level of air pollution which do not affect human health. The paper considers current issues pertaining to regulation and control over dispersed particles. The most convenient measuring methods for investigations are those which provide the opportunity to obtain immediate results. However, from the legislative point of view, a gravimetric investigation method is a legitimate one which requires compliance with certain procedures of adjustments and calculations. The method presupposes availability of complicated system for sample dilution and its adjustment must include temperature and kinetic parameters of the measured flow. In order to ensure measuring accuracy and results reproducibility filter loading should be in a regulated range and dilution parameters should be chosen according to not only engine type but also according to its emissions rate. Methods for evaluation of a hot exhaust gas sample is characterized by higher response and the results correlate with indices of combustion efficiency. However, such approach does not account for a number of processes that take place during gas cooling in the environment. Therefore, in this case, measuring results are to be evaluated within certain boundary conditions with respect to the object of investigations. Difficulty in achievement of modern ecologocal standards is substantiated by complicated fractional composition and multiple stage process in formation of hazardous components. The paper presents calculated dependences between particles and smokiness and contains a comparative analysis. Methods for measurement and investigations of dispersed particles have analyzed on the basis of the results obtainesd during engine

  3. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.


    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  4. An Examination of Cleaning and Gas Freeing Costs of Oil Tankers in Government Service (United States)


    through a nonexplosive condition when the vapors are too lean to explode. [Ref. 9:p. 5] Since these gases are heavier than air , gases expelled from a...gas, which is post- combustion ship’s boiler air . Already inert, flue gas is filtered, cooled and piped into cargo tanks until the oxygen in the air ... contaminacion of the succeeding cargo unless, after cleaning, the tanks have carried at least two carloes of light commercial produc:s and’ara satisfactor

  5. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan


    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal


    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f( t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  7. Exhaust-gas systems for modern furnaces. The most important questions and answers on stacks. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abgasanlagen fuer moderne Feuerstaetten. Die wichtigsten Fragen und Antworten rund um den Schornstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, J.; Postenrieder, E.


    The design of the exhaust gas plant for furnaces with chimneys is of great influence on function and economy of gas- and oil furnaces. Information on the most important questions in connection with the chimney is therefore supplied. Contents: chimney engineering, connecting parts (exhaust gas pipes), accessories of exhaust gas equipment, breakdowns and repair, regulations and rules. Terminology and tables are supplied. (BR).

  8. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.


    iron oxides (up to5 mm) had formed on the weathering steel, and theseoxides also contained chlorine and sulfur. In this area of theheat exchanger, weathering steel has not had the optimalwet/dry cycles required to achieve a protective oxide. Dueto the thick growing oxide on the rotor, the UNS S31600......After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...

  9. Periodical getter cleaning of the gas environment inside a device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Matveev


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen extensive development of new types of electro-mechanical devices, intended for use as sensors rotations and angular rates. They all tend to comprise any type of mechanical resonators which are sensitive to fluctuations in the rotational motion. Achievement of stable characteristics and high performance of these devices requires maintaining of the vacuum inside them at the level of 1…10-4 Pa. In the technology of assembly of such devices different adhesives and sealants are often used. They allow to connect easily and safely parts of different materials and eliminate the risk of thermal or mechanical damage, but at the same time adhesive joints have significant outgassing worsening vacuum inside the device. Although today's global industry produces a large number of different types of adhesives with low outgassing (see, for example, the NASA database [1], the problem of providing vacuum in devices with internal adhesive joints remains unresolved until the end. The literature contains data describing the outgassing of some heat-resistant adhesives [2-7], which show that even small residual outgassing significantly worsens vacuum inside the device. The diagram (Fig. 1 evaluated according to the data presented in [6, 7] shows the composition and the partial pressure of gas components at ambient temperature inside the device comprising the adhesive joints (adhesive EPO-TEK H74UNF, after 10 years of its operation. In computations, the area of adhesive joints was S=1 мм 2 , the inner volume was V=100 см3 , relative outgassing rates were equal to [3]: ν(H2O=6.9∙10-6 Pa∙m/s; ν(СО2=8.9∙10-8 Pa∙m/s; ν(СO=1.7∙10-7 Pa∙m/s; ν(СxHy=10-6 Pa∙m/s; ν(H2=1.2∙10-6 Pa∙m/s; ν(O2=1.3∙10-10 Pa∙m/s; ν(HF=1.4∙10-8 Pa∙m/s. As can be seen from the diagram, within 10 years after manufacture the total pressure inside the device increases to about 30 Pa, which inevitably leads to the loss of its functionality

  10. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  11. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing


    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  12. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production. (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  13. Unanticipated benefits of automotive emission control: reduction in fatalities by motor vehicle exhaust gas. (United States)

    Shelef, M


    In 1970, before the implementation of strict controls on emissions in motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG), the annual USA incidence of fatal accidents by carbon monoxide in the MVEG was approximately 800 and that of suicides approximately 2000 (somewhat less than 10% of total suicides). In 1987, there were approximately 400 fatal accidents and approximately 2700 suicides by MVEG. Accounting for the growth in population and vehicle registration, the yearly lives saved in accidents by MVEG were approximately 1200 in 1987 and avoided suicides approximately 1400. The decrease in accidents continues unabated while the decrease in expected suicides by MVEG reached a plateau in 1981-1983. The reasons for this disparity are discussed. Juxtaposition of these results with the projected cancer risk avoidance of less than 500 annually in 2005 (as compared with 1986) plainly shows that, in terms of mortality, the unanticipated benefits of emission control far overshadow the intended benefits. With the spread of MVEG control these benefits will accrue worldwide.

  14. Histological examination of the rat after long-term exposure to subtoxic automotive exhaust gas. (United States)

    Roggendorf, W; Neumann, H; Thron, H L; Schneider, H; Sarasa-Corral, J L


    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, in recent years attention has increasingly been focused on the possible effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to investigate this problem further, the influence of long-term exhaust gas exposure on rats has been studied. One hundred Wistar rats of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 h/week up to 28 months to an atmosphere polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine, CO concentrations held constant at 90 ppm. A second group (50 rats) was exposed to 250 ppm for 6 months. Blood parameters and body weight were controlled. Specimens of CNS, heart, vessels, kidney etc. were investigated light microscopically. Focal necroses of the myocardium with inflammatory reactions as well as interstitial fibrosis were found in the heart muscle of the 90 ppm group. In the 250 ppm group endothelial proliferations, edema of the intima and deposits of proteoglycanes in the media were observed. We conclude that subtoxic concentrations of CO which only lead to slight morphologic changes may aggravate preexisting lesions caused by high risk conditions, e.g., hypertension or hypercholesteremia.

  15. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Brian R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 μm in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  16. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz


    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  17. Biomass gasification for CHP with dry gas cleaning and regenerative heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Small scale CHP plants based on biomass gasification technologies are generally expensive and not very efficient due to gas quality problems which increase operation and maintenance cost as well as breakdown. To overcome this situation the team has developed, integrated and tested a complete biomass gasification combine heat and power prototype plant of 250 kWth equipped with a specifically developed dry gas cleaning and heat recovery system. The dry gas cleaning device is a simple dry gas regenerative heat exchanger where tars are stopped by condensation but working at a temperature above due point in order to avoid water condensation. Two types of heat particles separation devices have been tested in parallel multi-cyclone and ceramic filters. After several month spent on modelling design, construction and optimisation, a full test campaign of 400 hours continuous monitoring has been done where all working parameters has been monitored and gas cleaning device performances has been assessed. Results have shown: Inappropriateness of the ceramic filters for the small scale unit due to operation cost and too high sensibility of the filters to the operation conditions fluctuating in a wide range, despite a very high particle separation efficiency 99 %; Rather good efficiency of the multi-cyclone 72% but not sufficient for engine safety. Additional conventional filters where necessary for the finest part; Inappropriateness of the dry gas heat exchanger device for tar removal partly due to a low tar content of the syngas generated, below 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} , but also due to their composition which would have imposed, to be really efficient, a theoretical condensing temperature of 89 C below the water condensation temperature. These results have been confirmed by laboratory tests and modelling. However the tar cracking phase have shown very interesting results and proved the feasibility of thermal cracking with full cleaning of the heat exchanger without further mechanical

  18. Devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for a thermal oil heater in a palm oil refinery plant (United States)

    Chucherd, Panom; Kittisupakorn, Paisan


    This paper presents the devise of an exhaust gas heat exchanger for waste heat recovery of the exhausted flue gas of palm oil refinery plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the feed water which can save the fuel consumption of the coal fired steam boiler and the outlet temperature of flue gas will be controlled in order to avoid the acid dew point temperature and protect the filter bag. The decrease of energy used leads to the reduction of CO2 emission. Two designed economizer studied in this paper are gas in tube and water in tube. The gas in tube exchanger refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the flue gas flows in tube; this designed exchanger is used in the existing unit. The new designed water in tube refers to the shell and tube heat exchanger which the water flows in the tube; this designed exchanger is proposed for new implementation. New economizer has the overall coefficient of heat transfer of 19.03 W/m2.K and the surface heat transfer area of 122 m2 in the optimized case. Experimental results show that it is feasible to install economizer in the exhaust flue gas system between the air preheater and the bag filter, which has slightly disadvantage effect in the system. The system can raise the feed water temperature from 40 to 104°C and flow rate 3.31 m3/h, the outlet temperature of flue gas is maintained about 130 °C.

  19. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique]. (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng


    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  20. The effect of clusters and heterogeneous reactions on non-equilibrium plasma flue gas cleaning (United States)

    Potapkin, B. V.; Deminsky, M. A.; Fridman, A. A.; Rusanov, V. D.


    Theoretical investigation of the effect of molecular clusters and aerosol particles on non-equilibrium plasma flue gas cleaning was made in this paper. Two types of heterogeneous reactions in aerosol and clusters are considered. It was shown that in both cases these reactions are essential in the evaluation of chemical composition. As a result of theoretical approach and modelling, the optimum regime of plasma generation for essential decreasing of purification energy cost was established.

  1. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi


    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  2. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen


    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  3. Utilization of on-line corrosion monitoring in the flue gas cleaning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Nielsen, Lars V.; Petersen, Michael B.


    . A root cause analysis concluded that corrosion occurred due to corrosion products/deposit formed during operation; however it was unclear whether the majority of corrosion occurred during operation or downtime. In both cases the chlorine content in the flue gas results in the presence of chlorine species......The power plant unit 1 at Amager, Denmark is a 350 MWth multifuel suspension-fired plant commissioned in 2009 which uses biomass. Increasing corrosion problems in the flue gas cleaning system have been observed since 2011 in both the gas-gas preheater and the booster fan and booster fan duct...... such as HCl, KCl or chlorine containing corrosion products. Without knowing when corrosion occurs, it is difficult to take reasonable measures to reduce corrosion. In order to gain an improved understanding of the corrosion problem, an on-line corrosion measurement system was established before the booster...

  4. Modeling and optimization of integrated exhaust gas recirculation and multi-stage waste heat recovery in marine engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Fotis; Sørensen, Kim; Singh, Shobhana


    is optimized to utilize the maximum waste heat recovery. The Genetic algorithm and fmincon active-set algorithm are used to optimize the design and operation parameters for the two steam cycles. The optimization aims to find the theoretically optimal combination of the pressure levels and pinch......Waste heat recovery combined with exhaust gas recirculation is a promising technology that can address both the issue of NOx (nitrogen oxides) reduction and fuel savings by including a pressurized boiler. In the present study, a theoretical optimization of the performance of two different...... configurations of steam Rankine cycles, with integrated exhaust gas recirculation for a marine diesel engine, is presented. The first configuration employs two pressure levels and the second is configured with three-pressure levels. The models are developed in MATLAB based on the typical data of a large two...

  5. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee


    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  6. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield


    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  7. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India. (United States)

    Bapat, J D


    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  8. Simultaneous reduction in cloud point, smoke, and NOx emissions by blending bioethanol into biodiesel fuels and exhaust gas recirculation


    Shudo, T; Nakajima, T.; HIRAGA, K.


    Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared with other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable-oil-based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the current authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the exhaust gas recirculation ...

  9. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle (United States)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens


    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  11. Process for cooling and cleaning generator gas and furnace waste gas and device for carrying out this process. Verfahren zur Kuehlung und Reinigung von Generatorgas und Gichtgas und Vorrichtung zur Durchfuehrung dieses Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuletic, B.


    A process and a device for producing cooling gas are proposed for a melt gasifier producing generator gas and excess gas which can be used in a suitable way, by cooling and cleaning at least part of the generator gas and the furnace waste gas of an iron ore reduction unit. The cooling gas is obtained exclusively by treatment of the generator gas. One cooling and one cleaning unit is provided for the excess gas and the cooling gas.

  12. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  13. Corrosion in the Flue Gas Cleaning System of a Biomass-Fired Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Olesen, R. E.; Gensmann, P.


    After only a few years operation, corrosiondamage was observed in the flue gas cleaning system of abiomass power plant. The corrosion was on the lower partof the gas/gas heat exchanger fabricated from A242weathering steel, where UNS S31600 bolts were used toattach sealing strips to the rotor. Thick...... iron oxides (up to5 mm) had formed on the weathering steel, and theseoxides also contained chlorine and sulfur. In this area of theheat exchanger, weathering steel has not had the optimalwet/dry cycles required to achieve a protective oxide. Dueto the thick growing oxide on the rotor, the UNS S31600......bolts were under stress and this together with the presenceof accumulated chlorine between the sealing strips andbolts resulted in stress corrosion cracking and rupture. Inaddition, Zn-K-Cl deposits were agglomerated in the ductafter the DeNOx unit. Zn was also a constituent of corrosionproducts...

  14. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units. (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš


    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  15. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)


    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  16. Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines (United States)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.


    Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

  17. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P


    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  18. Effect of improving flue gas cleaning on characteristics and immobilisation of APC residues from MSW incineration. (United States)

    Geysen, D; Vandecasteele, C; Jaspers, M; Brouwers, E; Wauters, G


    The flue gas cleaning system of a MSW incinerator with a capacity of 350 kt/year was changed to improve the HCl elimination efficiency. Instead of the semi-wet operating spray reactor and subsequent baghouse, a two-step wet flue gas cleaning was added behind the baghouse. Elemental composition, X-ray powder diffraction patterns and TGA measurements showed that the resulting APC residue was totally different from the former residue. As a consequence, leaching characteristics of both residues also differed and another treatment was required prior to disposal. For the former residue, mainly leaching of Pb (>100 mg/l), necessitated treatment prior to landfilling. The lower alkalinity of the new residue resulted in a leachate pH of 9.7 and a Pb concentration of 0.8 mg/l. The leachate pH of the former residue was 12.4. The leaching of Pb and Zn increased above 100 mg/l when immobilising the new residue with cement. Better results were obtained when immobilising with micro silica. The high CaCl2 x 2H2O content of the new residue brought along clogging of the bag filter system. Adding 1.4% of CaO (or 1.9% of Ca(OH)2) to the residue already improved these inconveniences but again significantly changed the leaching behaviour of the residue.

  19. Natural gas in Mexico and its perspectives as a clean energetic; El gas natural en Mexico y sus perspectivas como energetico limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penilla, Rodolfo Navarro [Instituto Mexicano de Ingenieros Quimicos, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    In Mexico, the natural gas market is characterized by stable consumption and growing perspectives in the demand, due to the entrance in vigor of news environmental norms, as soon as, the benefits from the natural gas are as energetic for many applications in several sectors and like a clean fountain of energy proper for the environmental protection plans. (author)

  20. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri


    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  1. The importance of the location of sodium chlorite application in a multipollutant flue gas cleaning system. (United States)

    Krzyzynska, Renata; Hutson, Nick D


    In this study, removing sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury (Hg) from simulated flue gas was investigated in two laboratory-sized bubbling reactors that simulated an oxidizing reactor (where the NO and Hg(0) oxidation reactions are expected to occur) and a wet limestone scrubber, respectively. A sodium chlorite solution was used as the oxidizing agent. The sodium chlorite solution was an effective additive that enhanced the NO(x), Hg, and SO2 capture from the flue gas. Furthermore, it was discovered that the location of the sodium chlorite application (before, in, or after the wet scrubber) greatly influences which pollutants are removed and the amount removed. This effect is related to the chemical conditions (pH, absence/presence of particular gases) that are present at different positions throughout the flue gas cleaning system profile. The research results indicated that there is a potential to achieve nearly zero SO2, NO(x), and Hg emissions (complete SO2, NO, and Hg removals and -90% of NO(x) absorption from initial values of 1500 ppmv of SO2, 200 ppmv of NO(x), and 206 microg/m3 of Hg(0)) from the flue gas when sodium chlorite was applied before the wet limestone scrubber. However applying the oxidizer after the wet limestone scrubber was the most effective configuration for Hg and NO(x) control for extremely low chlorite concentrations (below 0.002 M) and therefore appears to be the best configuration for Hg control or as an additional step in NO(x) recleaning (after other NO(x) control facilities). The multipollutant scrubber, into which the chlorite was injected simultaneously with the calcium carbonate slurry, appeared to be the least expensive solution (when consider only capital cost), but exhibited the lowest NO(x) absorption at -50%. The bench-scale test results presented can be used to develop performance predictions for a full- or pilot-scale multipollutant flue gas cleaning system equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization

  2. The production of electrical and thermal energy from the exhaust gas heat of preheater kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, T.A.; Mosimann, P.


    It is shown, by means of an example, i.e., a 1600-ton/day four-stage suspension preheater kiln of a cement factory, that the waste heat present in the exhaust gases can be converted into useful electrical and thermal energy. This is possible even though the exhaust gases are heavily loaded with dust. The heat recovery system installed in 1981/1982 in a Swiss cement plant and the respective production line are described in detail. A comprehensive explanation is given concerning the experience of the first operating year, the interaction of the new plant with the existing production facilities, and the current measured technical data. The performance limits for economic operation are explained and the decision criteria quoted. Further applications of the successfully tested heat recovery system can be expected wherever heat sources in the form of heavily loaded gases are available.

  3. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gas Turbine Exhaust Gas Temperature Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-tao Wang


    Full Text Available As an important gas path performance parameter of gas turbine, exhaust gas temperature (EGT can represent the thermal health condition of gas turbine. In order to monitor and diagnose the EGT effectively, a fusion approach based on fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm and support vector machine (SVM classification model is proposed in this paper. Considering the distribution characteristics of gas turbine EGT, FCM clustering algorithm is used to realize clustering analysis and obtain the state pattern, on the basis of which the preclassification of EGT is completed. Then, SVM multiclassification model is designed to carry out the state pattern recognition and fault diagnosis. As an example, the historical monitoring data of EGT from an industrial gas turbine is analyzed and used to verify the performance of the fusion fault diagnosis approach presented in this paper. The results show that this approach can make full use of the unsupervised feature extraction ability of FCM clustering algorithm and the sample classification generalization properties of SVM multiclassification model, which offers an effective way to realize the online condition recognition and fault diagnosis of gas turbine EGT.

  4. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants. (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao


    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine (United States)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson


    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  6. Tuning the structure of platinum particles on ceria in situ for enhancing the catalytic performance of exhaust gas catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenzler, Andreas M.; Casapu, Maria; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Vernoux, Philippe; Loridant, Stephane; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, UMR 5256, CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Epicier, Thierry [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Science, UMR 5510, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Betz, Benjamin [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany); Ernst-Berl Institut, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Hoyer, Ruediger [Umicore AG and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)


    A dynamic structural behavior of Pt nanoparticles on the ceria surface under reducing/oxidizing conditions was found at moderate temperatures (<500 C) and exploited to enhance the catalytic activity of Pt/CeO{sub 2}-based exhaust gas catalysts. Redispersion of platinum in an oxidizing atmosphere already occurred at 400 C. A protocol with reducing pulses at 250-400 C was applied in a subsequent step for controlled Pt-particle formation. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy unraveled the different extent of reduction and sintering of Pt particles: The choice of the reductant allowed the tuning of the reduction degree/particle size and thus the catalytic activity (CO>H{sub 2}>C{sub 3}H{sub 6}). This dynamic nature of Pt on ceria at such low temperatures (250-500 C) was additionally confirmed by in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy. A general concept is proposed to adjust the noble metal dispersion (size, structure), for example, during operation of an exhaust gas catalyst. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jing


    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

  8. Optimization of liquid and gas flow rates for aerated drilling fluids considering hole cleaning for vertical and low inclination wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayoglu, M.E. [Middle East Univ., Metn (Lebanon)


    One of the most widely used technologies in depleted and/or low pressured formations is underbalanced drilling. Drilling fluids are usually gasified in order to achieve underbalanced conditions. The most commonly used drilling fluids during underbalanced drilling are pure gas, gas-liquid mixtures, and foams. This paper presented a study that focused on gas-liquid mixtures. The purpose of this paper was to express two-phase flow in vertical wellbores, and determine required flow rates for liquid and gas phase by considering formation pressure and hole cleaning properties. It was assumed that the liquid phase is the major contributor for cuttings transport, and that the gas phase only influences the bottom hole pressure. The paper introduced a mechanistic model for estimating the hydraulic behaviour of gas-liquid mixture drilling fluids under different flow patterns. Based on the bottom hole pressure and effective hole cleaning point of view, an algorithm was proposed for estimating the optimum required flow rates for liquid and gas phases based on the introduced mechanistic model. The model also predicts the required backpressure that must be applied. It was concluded that since the liquid flow rate is only dependent on proper hole cleaning, gas flow rate can be adjusted to achieve a bottomhole pressure equal to formation pressure. Also, backpressure should not be kept constant at the same value for static and dynamic conditions. Otherwise, bottomhole pressure cannot be kept constant. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 appendix.

  9. Exhaustion of the gas next to the supermassive black hole of M31 (United States)

    Melchior, Anne-Laure; Combes, Françoise


    New observations performed at the IRAM Plateau de Bure reveal the absence of molecular gas next to the black hole of the Andromeda galaxy. We derived a 3σ upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 4300 M⊙ for a line width of 1000 km s-1. This is compatible with infra-red observations, which reveal a hole in the dust emission next to the black hole. Some gas from stellar feedback is expected from the old eccentric stellar disc population, but it is not accreted close to the black hole. This absence of gas explains the absence of stellar formation observed in this region, contrary to what is observed next to Sgr A* in the Milky Way. Either the gas has been swallowed by the black hole, or a feedback mechanism has pushed the gas outside the central 1 pc. Nevertheless, we detect a small clump of gas with a very low velocity dispersion at 2.4″ from the black hole. It is probable that this clumpy gas is seen in projection, as it does not follow the rotation of the disc surrounding the black hole, its velocity dispersion is ten times lower than the expected velocity gradient, and the tidal shear from the black hole requires a gas density for this clump that is not compatible with our observations.

  10. Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.


    Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

  11. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo


    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  12. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for... (United States)


    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... regulations, the FAA proposed and the EPA accepted the idea that referring to these engines as exceptions to...

  13. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.


    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  14. The effects of inlet temperature and turbulence characteristics on the flow development inside a gas turbine exhaust diffuser (United States)

    Bomela, Christian Loangola

    The overall industrial gas turbine efficiency is known to be influenced by the pressure recovery in the exhaust system. The design and, subsequently, the performance of an industrial gas turbine exhaust diffuser largely depend on its inflow conditions dictated by the turbine last stage exit flow state and the restraints of the diffuser internal geometry. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and the availability of computer hardware at an affordable cost made the virtual tool a very attractive one for the analysis of fluid flow through devices like a diffuser. In this backdrop, CFD analyses of a typical industrial gas turbine hybrid exhaust diffuser, consisting of an annular diffuser followed by a conical portion, have been carried out with the purpose of improving the performance of these thermal devices using an open-source CFD code "OpenFOAM". The first phase in the research involved the validation of the CFD approach using OpenFOAM by comparing CFD results against published benchmark experimental data. The numerical results closely captured the flow reversal and the separated boundary layer at the shroud wall where a steep velocity gradient has been observed. The standard k --epsilon turbulence model slightly over-predicted the mean velocity profile in the casing boundary layer while slightly under-predicted it in the reversed flow region. A reliable prediction of flow characteristics in this region is very important as the presence of the annular diffuser inclined wall has the most dominant effect on the downstream flow development. The core flow region and the presence of the hub wall have only a minor influence as reported by earlier experimental studies. Additional simulations were carried out in the second phase to test the veracity of other turbulence models; these include RNG k--epsilon, the SST k--o, and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence models. It was found that a high resolution case with 47.5 million cells using the SST k

  15. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepeau Gérald


    Full Text Available The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1 its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2 its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  16. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy


    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  17. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)


    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  18. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser


    Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.

  19. Mixing effectiveness test of an exhaust gas mixer in a high bypass turbofan at altitude (United States)

    Cullom, R. R.; Burkardt, L. A.; Bobula, G. A.


    Thermal mixing effectiveness characteristics of an eighteen lobe, scalloped and unscalloped, partial, forced mixer were measured in a high-bypass turbofan engine. Data were also obtained without the mixer installed, i.e. free mixing. Tests were conducted at four combinations of simulated flight conditions from 0.3 to 0.8 Mach number and from 6,096 meters (20,000 ft) to 13,715 m (45,000 ft) altitude. Mixing chamber lengths of L/D = 0.52 and 0.65 were tested. For this range of test conditions and mixer configurations the forced mixing effectiveness varied from 59 to 68 percent. Values of mixing effectiveness and total pressure loss were calculated from temperature and pressure data obtained at the mixer inlet and exhaust nozzle exit.

  20. Relationship between the variations of hydrogen in HCNG fuel and the oxygen in exhausted gas


    Preecha Yaom; Sarawoot Watechagit


    The variation of the mixing ratio between hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) in hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fuel (HCNG) gives different results in terms of engine performances, fuel consumption, and emission characteristics. Therefore, the engine performance using HCNG as fuel can be optimized if the mixing ratio between the two fuels in HCNG can be adjusted in real time while the engine is being operated. In this research, the relationship between the amount of oxygen in ...

  1. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.


    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  2. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emission Characteristic of SI Engine using Hydrogen and CNG Blends (United States)

    Nitnaware, Pravin Tukaram; Suryawanshi, Jiwak G.


    This paper shows exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on multi-cylinder bi-fuel SI engine using blends of 0, 5, 10 and 15% hydrogen by energy with CNG. All trials are performed at a speed of 3000, 3500 and 4000 rpm with EGR rate of 0, 5, 10 and 15%, with equal spark timing and injection pressure of 2.6 bar. At specific hydrogen percentage with increase in EGR rate NOx emission reduces drastically and increases with increase in hydrogen addition. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission decreases with increase in speed and hydrogen addition. There is considerable improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) at 15% EGR rate. At 3000 rpm, 5% EGR rate with 5% hydrogen had shown maximum cylinder pressure. Brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c) increased with increase in EGR rate and decreased with increase in hydrogen addition for all speeds.

  3. CLEAN - Large-Scale CO2 Storage for Enhanced Gas Recovery in a depleted German Gasfield (United States)

    Kuehn, M.; Förster, A.; Grossmann, J.; Meyer, R.; Pilz, P.; Reinicke, K.; Schaefer, D.; Tesmer, M.; Wendel, H.


    The project CLEAN was a German research and development (R&D) alliance of 16 partners from science and industry that conducted research from July 2008 until June 2011 on Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) with regard to Europe's second largest onshore gas field. The gas field is located in the Altmark (Germany) and is owned by GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH. Activities focused on the Altensalzwedel sub-field, having the size of 14 The Altensalzwedel sub-field is a structurally and hydraulically closed block, bound by faults. Subsurface data are available from 12 existing wells drilled into the Rotliegend reservoir, which is at >3000 m depth. About 30 wells from an area of 30, surrounding the Altensalzwedel block, provided additional data for the generation of an integrated earth model. Fluviatile silt- and sandstones from Upper Rotliegend built the reservoir at depth. The caprock above the reservoir consists of massive Zechstein formations with significant deposits of evaporites. These salt layers with an average thickness of several hundred meters represent a natural seal of the reservoir. At present the reservoir temperature is about 125 °C and reservoir pressures decreased from initially 425 bar to pressures between 30 bar and 50 bar, due to the former gas production from the field. For the substructure of Altensalzwedel it is assessed that the natural gas reservoir is depleted by 90 %. Within the 3 years project following results, developments, methods and concepts were achieved and will be presented: (1) well bore conditions, (2) risk base monitoring schemes to detect possible technical leakage at well bores, (3) strategies to avoid and mitigate technical leakage, (4) permanent geological sealing of well bores, (5) quality of the reservoir facies and mineral-pore-interface and related fluid-rock reactions, (6) chemical alteration of fluid and rock from laboratory experiments, (7) models and simulations of coupled processes, (8) data management system, (9

  4. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning


    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; HILLAMO, RISTO; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka


    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment rela...

  5. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.


    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  6. Reduction of diesel engine emissions through the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas; Senkung von Diesel-Emissionen durch Rueckfuehrung von gekuehltem Abgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R. [Behr GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklungsteam Abgaswaermeuebertrager


    More stringent exhaust regulations for diesel engines which will come into force in Europe (Euro III, 1999) and the USA (2004) will necessitate new methods of reducing emissions, one of which entails the recirculation of cooled exhaust gas. By this process, a certain volume of the exhaust gas is bled off upstream of the turbine, cooled by the engine coolant and remixed with the combustion air down-stream of the intercooler. By contrast with other methods of exhaust gas purification, such as a lean-NO{sub x} catalytic converter, this process needs no second activating agent, such as urea, and, in comparison with a modification of the combustion process, only slightly more fuel. The heat transfer system developed by Behr, which uses the engine coolant to cool the exhaust gas, is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and pressures in the forward section of the exhaust system, is resistant to the sulphuric acid in diesel condensation and, despite its compact design, exhibits a low level of flow resistance. Its exceptional cooling capacity is achieved by a new heat transfer system employing `winglet` turbulence generators. These reduce deposits of soot and other particles on the walls of the heat exchanger to a considerable extent, thereby contributing to its long-term efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die Einfuehrung neuer, strengerer Abgasvorschriften fuer Dieselmotoren 1999 in Europa und 2004 in den USA ruecken neue Techniken zur Emissionssenkung ins Blickfeld. Eine davon ist die gekuehlte Abgasrueckfuehrung, die eine Emissionssenkung bei nur minimalem Anstieg des Kraftstoffverbrauchs erlaubt. An den Waermeuebertrager fuer solch ein System werden hinsichtlich kompakter Bauweise und Leistung, Temperaturbestaendigkeit, Verschutzungs-Unempfindlichkeit und Korrosionsbestaendigkeit hohe Anforderungen gestellt. Der von Behr entwickelte Abgas-Kuehlmittel-Waermeuebertrager erfuellt diese Anforderungen und zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Leistungsdichte aus. Dies

  7. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies] [and others


    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  8. Instabilities during the NO-reduction of oxygen-containing exhaust gas using hydrogen. Instabilitaeten bei der NO-Reduktion in sauerstoffhaltigen Abgasen mit Sauerstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogowski, A. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Reaktionstechnik)


    By means of measurements it was demonstrated that nitric oxides can be reduced within an oxygen-containing exhaust gas using hydrogen. During the NO-reduction, though, certain phenomena arise: within a distinct range of operation parameters oscillations of the conversion rate [alpha][sub NO] and [alpha][sub H[sub -

  9. Influence of cooled exhaust gas recirculation on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Alexander, Jim; Porpatham, E.


    On fuel perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) provides cleaner emissions and also facilitates lean burn signifying less fuel consumption and emissions. Lean burn technology can attain better efficiencies and lesser combustion temperatures but this temperature is quite sufficient to facilitate formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for NOx reduction has been considered allover but extremely little literatures exist on the consequence of EGR on lean burn LPG fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine. The following research is carried out to find the optimal rate of EGR addition to reduce NOx emissions without settling on performance and combustion characteristics. A single cylinder diesel engine is altered to operate as LPG fuelled SI engine at a compression ratio of 10.5:1 and arrangements to provide different ratios of cooled EGR in the intake manifold. Investigations are done to arrive at optimum ratio of the EGR to reduce emissions without compromising on performance. Significant reductions in NOx emissions alongside HC and CO emissions were seen. Higher percentages of EGR further diluted the charge and lead to improper combustion and thus increased hydrocarbon emissions. Cooled EGR reduced the peak in-cylinder temperature which reduced NOx emissions but lead to misfire at lower lean limits.

  10. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions (United States)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)


    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  11. Gas cleaning, gas conditioning and tar abatement by means of a catalytic filter candle in a biomass fluidized-bed gasifier. (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Di Marcello, Manuela; Matt, Muriel; Nacken, Manfred; Heidenreich, Steffen; Foscolo, Pier Ugo


    A bench-scale fluidized-bed biomass gasification plant, operating at atmospheric pressure and temperature within the range 800-820 degrees C, has been used to test an innovative gas cleaning device: a catalytic filter candle fitted into the bed freeboard. This housing of the gas conditioning system within the gasifier itself results in a very compact unit and greatly reduced thermal losses. Long term (22h) tests were performed on the gasifier both with and without the catalytic candle filter, under otherwise identical conditions. Analysis of the product gas for the two cases showed the catalytic filtration to give rise to notable improvements in both gas quality and gas yield: an increase in hydrogen yield of 130% and an overall increase in gas yield of 69% - with corresponding decreases in methane and tar content of 20% and 79%, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis was used to characterize the tar compounds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Photocatalytic Active Adsorbent for Gas Cleaning in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pucher


    Full Text Available Efficient photocatalysis for gas cleaning purposes requires a large accessible, illuminated active surface in a simple and compact reactor. Conventional concepts use powdered catalysts, which are nontransparent. Hence a uniform distribution of light is difficult to be attained. Our approach is based on a coarse granular, UV-A light transparent, and highly porous adsorbent that can be used in a simple fixed bed reactor. A novel sol-gel process with rapid micro mixing is used to coat a porous silica substrate with TiO2-based nanoparticles. The resulting material posses a high adsorption capacity and a photocatalytic activity under UV-A illumination (PCAA = photocatalytic active adsorbent. Its photocatalytic performance was studied on the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE in a fixed bed reactor setup in continuous and discontinuous operation modes. Continuous operation resulted in a higher conversion rate due to less slip while discontinuous operation is superior for a total oxidation to CO2 due to a user-defined longer residence time.

  13. CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) opportunities for the oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Joana Chiavari [FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan (Italy). Eni/Agip Group


    Due to the broad impact of legislation limiting greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing public awareness concerning the environment, the oil industry has been currently incorporating climate change considerations in its corporate strategy. However, compliance in the carbon constrained economy does not merely represent a cost issue; it also represents an opportunity. Projects developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in particular represent an incentive both for companies and governments to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries and earn carbon credits, while promoting sustainable development. The oil industry is characterized by a high emission reduction potential and is able to deliver to the market an amount of credits which is by far higher than the amount that most projects developers are able to offer. However some critical issues, such as the current interpretation of the additionally concept, may represent a barrier for the full utilization of such mechanism, particularly regarding petroleum-sector projects, thus reducing the benefits the CDM can actually produce. Considering that a very large number of CDM projects may be needed for the implementation of a successful climate policy, the engagement of the oil industry on the Kyoto mechanisms is very important and auspicial. (author)

  14. A method for petrol vapour recovery and off-gas cleaning; Verfahren zur Benzindampfrueckgewinnung und Abluftreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, M. [Dr. Nitsche - GVWU, Norderstedt (Germany)


    A survey of various off-gas cleaning methods is followed by the critical description of a combined process for petrol vapour recovery during carburettor fuel loading. As off-air quantities and -concentrations during petrol loading fluctuate strongly there is a need for great flexibility. Due to high entrance loads in off-air (1 kg/m{sup 3}) and the required low values after treatment (Air Pollution Abatement Regulation) a two-stage process is required. The high proportion of low-boiling substances which are difficult to concentrate (C{sub 3} + C{sub 4}) makes recovery through liquefaction difficult. Special problems of petrol vapour recovery and the various methods are discussed in a paper by Hill; he also looks at the very important safety requirements. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Nach einer Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen Verfahren zur Abluftreinigung werden die Verfahrenskombinationen fuer die Benzindampfrueckgewinnung beim Umschlag von Vergaserkraftstoffen vorgestellt und kritisch diskutiert. Da die Abluftmengen und -konzentrationen bei der Benzinverladung stark schwanken, ist eine grosse Flexibilitaet gefordert. Wegen der hohen Eintrittsbeladung der Abluft (1 kg/m{sup 3}) und der geforderten niedrigen Austrittsbeladung (TA Luft) werden 2-stufige Verfahren benoetigt. Der hohe Anteil von schwer kondensierbaren Leichtsiedern (C{sub 3} + C{sub 4}) erschwert die Rueckgewinnung durch Verfluessigung. Die besonderen Probleme bei der Benzindampfrueckgewinnung und die verschiedenen Verfahren werden in dem Aufsatz von Hill behandelt, der auch die sehr wichtigen sicherheitstechnischen Anforderungen diskutiert. (orig./HS)

  15. Correlation of gas exchange threshold and first muscle oxyhemoglobin inflection point with time-to-exhaustion during heavy-intensity exercise. (United States)

    Coquart, Jérémy B; Mucci, Patrick; L'hermette, Maxime; Chamari, Karim; Tourny, Claire; Garcin, Murielle


    The twofold aim of the study was to: 1) compare the gas exchange threshold (GET), the first oxyhemoglobin inflection point ([O2Hb]-T), and perceptual threshold as determined during an incremental exercise test, and 2) investigate the link between each threshold and time-to-exhaustion during heavy intensity exercise. Fourteen competitive cyclists performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer to determine the different thresholds and peak workload (Wpeak). The participants then performed a sub-maximal constant workload test (90% Wpeak) to exhaustion to determine time-to-exhaustion. The thresholds were identified from: 1) the first breakpoint in the oxygen uptake vs. carbon dioxide output curve (GET), 2) the [O2Hb]-T, and 3) a rating of 13 in perceived exertion (perceptual threshold: RPE13-T). Oxygen uptake at the different thresholds was not significantly different (P>0.05). Moreover, GET and [O2Hb]-T were significantly correlated: 1) to each other (r≥0.79; P≤0.001), and 2) to time-to-exhaustion (r=0.81 and r=0.72, respectively; Pexhaustion (P=0.148). The anaerobic threshold as identified from GET was concomitant to [O2Hb]-T. Both thresholds were correlated to time-to-exhaustion, and could therefore be used as a performance index in middle-duration events.

  16. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas (United States)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan


    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  17. Storage of Nitrous Oxide (NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas using Alumina-Based Catalysts: Preparation, Characterization, and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alsobaai


    Full Text Available This work investigated the nitrous oxide (NOx storage process using alumina-based catalysts (K2 O/Al2 O3 , CaO/Al2 O3,  and BaO/Al2 O3 . The feed was a synthetic exhaust gas containing 1,000 ppm of nitrogen monoxide (NO, 1,000 ppm i-C4 H10 , and an 8% O2  and N2  balance. The catalyst was carried out at temperatures between 250–450°C and a contact time of 20 minutes. It was found that NOx was effectively adsorbed in the presence of oxygen. The NOx storage capacity of K2 O/Al2 O3 was higher than that of BaO/Al2 O3.  The NOx storage capacity for K2 O/Al2 O3  decreased with increasing temperature and achieved a maximum at 250°C. Potassium loading higher than 15% in the catalyst negatively affected the morphological properties. The combination of Ba and K loading in the catalyst led to an improvement in the catalytic activity compared to its single metal catalysts. As a conclusion, mixed metal oxide was a potential catalyst for de-NOx process in meeting the stringent diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations. The catalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and measurements, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron affinity (EA, a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET to measure surface area, and pore volume and pore size distribution assessments.

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  19. Cleaning technologies with sonic horns and gas explosions at the waste-fired power plant in Offenbach (Germany); Reinigung mit Schall und Explosionsgenerator im Muellheizkraftwerk Offenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuele, Tibor Horst [Energieversorgung Offenbach AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Abt. Betrieb Kraftwerke


    During the operation of boiler systems, fouling (dirt, slag, ash, and soot deposits) appears to be inevitable in the combustion chamber and the flue gas path of power plants. The paper informs about the practical operating experience made in the waste incineration power plant in Offenbach with two not too well-known online cleaning technologies that can be easily retrofitted, i.e. acoustic sonic soot cleaning that can be used e.g. at air preheaters, economisers, catalysers and electrostatic precipitators, and explosion generator which is an automatic cleaning system that operates with controlled gas explosions to clean e.g. superheaters and evaporisers. (orig.)

  20. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase. (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen


    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  1. Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.


    Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

  2. Experimental Study on the Absorption of Toluene from Exhaust Gas by Paraffin/Surfactant/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Fang


    Full Text Available A new paraffin/surfactant/water emulsion (PSW for volatile organic compounds (VOCs controlling was prepared and its potential for VOCs removal was investigated. Results indicated that PSW-5 (5%, v/v provided higher toluene absorption efficiency (90.77% than the other absorbents used. The saturation pressure, Henry’s constant, and activity coefficient of toluene in PSW-5 were significantly lower than those in water, and toluene solubility (1.331 g·L−1 in the PSW-5 was more than 2.5 times higher than the value in water. Several factors potentially affecting the toluene absorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results suggested that concentration and pH of PSW, absorption temperature, and gas flow rate all had a strong influence on the toluene absorption, but the inlet concentration of toluene had little effect on the toluene absorption. There were different absorbing performances of PSW-5 on different VOCs, and the ketones, esters, and aromatics were more easily removed by the PSW-5 than the alkanes. Regeneration and reuse of the PSW were possible; after 3 runs of regeneration the absorption efficiency of PSW-5 for toluene also could reach 82.42%. So, the PSW is an economic, efficient, and safe absorbent and has a great prospect in organic waste gas treatment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.


    The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate of the volume of hydrogen gas generated during Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) of residual sludge remaining in a Type I or Type II treatment tank as well as to provide results independent of the sludge volume in the waste tank to be cleaned. Previous testing to support Chemical Cleaning was based on a 20:1 oxalic acid to sludge ratio. Hydrogen gas evolution is the primary safety concern. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. These values were quantified based on a small scale methodology similar to the one described in WSRC-STI-2007-00209, Rev. 0. The measured rates support identified Safety Class functions. The tests were performed with ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound confidence limit for the hydrogen generation rate is represented by the following equation. ln (G{sub v}) = -8.22-0.0584 t + 0.0002 t{sup 2}. This equation should be utilized to estimate the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate per unit surface area, G

  4. Influence of flue gas cleaning system on the energetic efficiency and on the economic performance of a WTE plant. (United States)

    Poggio, A; Grieco, E


    Gas cleaning systems of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) incinerators are characterised by the process employed to remove acid gases. The commonly used technologies for acid gas removal are: (1) dry treatment with Ca(OH)(2) or (2) with NaHCO(3), (3) semi-dry process with Ca(OH)(2) and (4) wet scrubbing. In some recent plants beside a wet cleaning system, a dry neutralization with Ca(OH)(2) is used. The goal is to reduce the amount of acid to be removed in the wet treatment and the liquid effluents produced. The influence of these different technologies on the electrical efficiency was investigated by a detailed simulation of a WTE (Waste To Energy) plant with a capacity of about 100,000 t/y of MSW. The effects of the different gas cleaning systems on electrical efficiency were significant. The difference of efficiency between the most advantageous technology, which is dry treatment with NaHCO(3), and the least advantageous technology which is semi-dry treatment, is about 0.8%. A simple economic analysis showed that the few advantages of dry technologies can often be lost if the costs of chemicals and the disposal of products are considered. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... exhaust gas probe must be located in a position which yields a well mixed, homogeneous sample of the... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically cleaned...

  6. Effects of chronic exposure to diluted automotive exhaust gas on the CNS of normotensive and hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Roggendorf, W; Thron, N L; Ast, D; Köhler, P R


    Regarding the potential impact of traffic-born air pollutants on public health, attention during the last years has been increasingly focused on the possible effects in high-risk groups of the population. In order to evaluated this point further, the combined influence of both, chronic arterial hypertension and long-time exhaust gas exposure on the CNS has been studied. Both, normotensive Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of either sex were exposed 5 X 8 hours per week for up to 18 months to atmospheres polluted by the emissions of an idling Otto engine with CO concentrations held constant at about 0,90 and 250 ppm, respectively. Biochemical data, body weight, and blood pressure were checked regularly. Characteristic histomorphological findings in the non-exposed SHR brains were hyalinosis and hyperplasia of intracerebral arterioles and -- in some cases -- small focal hemorrhages and infarcts. In the exposed SHR brains, large infarcts of the hemisphere and in the basal ganglia were found, which possibly corresponds to the increase of the mortality rate in SHR. We assume that the increase hematocrit plays an important role in the disturbance of microcirculation of the CNS.

  7. Numerical analysis of C.I engine to control emissions using exhaust gas recirculation and advanced start of inject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kashyap Chowdary


    Full Text Available As major limitation of diesel engines is the high soot and nitrogen oxide emissions which cannot be reduced totally with only conventional catalytic converters today, varying fuel characteristics became a focus of interest to meet the pollution emission legislations as they require very few or no changes in existing engine model. The present work deals with, numerical analysis of combined effect of Advanced Start of Injection (SOI and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR on performance and emissions which were studied, by performing numerical analysis on a Caterpillar 3401 single cylinder C.I engine model at constant speed using diesel as fuel via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures and validated with experimental data. The SOI is advanced from 11° Crank angle bTDC to 14.5° Crank angle bTDC and EGR as a fraction is increased from 0% to 10%. The modified conditions of these parameters resulted in simultaneous reduction of NOx and Soot.

  8. An Approach to the Prototyping of an Optimized Limited Stroke Actuator to Drive a Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Gutfrind


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a limited stroke actuator and the corresponding prototype to drive a Low Pressure (LP Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR valve for use in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. The direct drive actuator topology is an axial flux machine with two air gaps in order to minimize the rotor inertia and a bipolar surface-mounted permanent magnet in order to respect an 80° angular stroke. Firstly, the actuator will be described and optimized under constraints of a 150 ms time response, a 0.363 N·m minimal torque on an angular range from 0° to 80° and prototyping constraints. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM using the FLUX-3D® software (CEDRAT, Meylan, France will be used to check the actuator performances with consideration of the nonlinear effect of the iron material. Thirdly, a prototype will be made and characterized to compare its measurement results with the analytical model and the FEM model results. With these electromechanical behavior measurements, a numerical model is created with Simulink® in order to simulate an EGR system with this direct drive actuator under all operating conditions. Last but not least, the energy consumption of this machine will be estimated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed EGR electromechanical system.

  9. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.


    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  10. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) boiler plate nacelle and core exhaust nozzle design report (United States)


    The mechanical design of the boiler plate nacelle and core exhaust nozzle for the QCSEE under the wing engine is presented. The nacelle, which features interchangeable hard-wall and acoustic panels, is to be utilized in the initial engine testing to establish acoustic requirements for the subsequent composite nacelle as well as in the QCSEE over the wing engine configuration.

  11. SCIP - Self-Cleaning Inert-Gas Brazing - a new process for brazing corrosion-resistant metals; SCIB - Self-Cleaning Inert-Gas Brazing - Ein neues Verfahren zum flussmittelfreien Hartloeten korrosionsbestaendiger Konstruktionswerkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, F.W.; Moehwald, K. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Hollaender, U.; Roxlau, C. [Leipzig Univ. Hannover, Garbsen (Germany)


    In flux-free inert gas furnace welding of corrosion-resistant metals, even very small water or oxygen impurities will dramatically reduce the quality of the brazed joint. A high-quality process atmosphere is ensured on the one hand by intelligent furnace design and on the other hand by the use of high-purity inert or reducing gases. The high quality demands on the process gases are an important cost factor especially in once-through furnaces. Further, gas purity with less than 1 ppm residual oxygen or water cannot be ensured so that inert gas welding of extremely oxidation-sensitive materials is not possible in principle. The contribution presents the new process of self-cleaning inert gas brazing (SCIB), in which conventional inert gases are doped with gaseous hydrides which cause direct and quantitative removal of all oxidizing impurities in the process gas already at room temperature. The concentration of residual oxygen and water in the inert gas is thus reduced to below the theoretical detection limit. The contribution describes the physical and chemical effective mechanism of the non-corrosive additives and presents experimental results with SCIB in flux-free brazing of sensitive construction materials in a conventional once-through inert gas furnace. (orig.)

  12. Off-Gas Generation Rate during Chemical Cleaning Operations at the Savannah River Site - 12499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Bruce J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Subramanian, Karthik H.; Ketusky, Edward T. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)


    The enhanced chemical cleaning process (ECC) is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove the residual radioactive sludge heel that remains in a liquid waste storage tank. Oxalic acid is the chemical agent utilized for this purpose. However, the acid also corrodes the carbon steel tank wall and cooling coils. If the oxalic acid has little interaction with the sludge, hydrogen gas could conceivably evolve at cathodic areas due to the corrosion of the carbon steel. Scenarios where hydrogen evolution could occur during ECC include the initial filling of the tank prior to agitation and near the end of the process when there is little or no sludge present. The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate for the hydrogen generation rate during the ECC process. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. The tests were performed with polished ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. This steel is representative of the Type I and II waste tanks at SRS. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 deg. C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the maximum

  13. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (United States)


    ... collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the...

  14. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the quantification of ethylene glycol ethers in different household cleaning products. (United States)

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel; Viñas, Pilar


    A rapid and simple procedure is reported for the determination of six ethylene glycol ethers in cleaning products and detergents using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The analytes were extracted from 2.0 g samples in acetonitrile (3 mL) and the extract was submitted to a clean-up step by QuEChERS method, using a mixture containing 0.3 g magnesium sulfate, 0.15 g primary/secondary amine, and 0.05 g C18 . The clean acetonitrile extract (1 μL) was injected into the chromatographic system. No matrix effect was observed, so the quantification of the samples was carried out against external standards. Detection limits were in the range 3.0-27 ng/g for the six ethylene glycol ethers. The recoveries obtained, using the optimized procedure, were in the 89.4-118% range, with relative standard deviations lower than 14%. Twenty-three different household cleaning products, including glass cleaner, degreaser, floor, softeners, and clothes and dishwashing detergents, were analyzed. Large interindividual variations were observed between samples and compounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cogeneration with gas turbines. Use of heat pipe type exchangers for the energy recuperation of exhausted gases; Cogeracao com turbinas a gas. O uso de trocador tipo tubos de calor (heat pipe) para a recuperacao energetica dos gases de exaustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose A.P.; Tanisho, Petronio Masanobu; Zanardi, Mauricio Araujo; Murcia, Nelson [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia


    Gas turbine cogeneration systems are being widely used in the simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat. Several devices can be indicated to the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbine systems, for example heat recovery steam generators, boiling-water heaters, absorption refrigerating systems (cooled water), drying systems (heated air), each one indicated for a specific use of recovery heat. In this paper it is proposed the use of heat pipes exchangers in the recovery of exhaust gas heat to produce heated water to be used in a process. Heat pipes are devices that has high thermal conductance that can be used to reduce thermal losses to the environment. The use of heat pipes in these types of equipment can provide heat recoveries of high efficiency since both fluid flows are external and there are less contamination risks between the hot and cold streams. (author)

  16. Handbook - Status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning systems; Handbok - Statusbedoemning av polymera material i roekgassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemhild, Stefanie


    In today's flue gas cleaning systems with advanced energy recovery systems and improved flue gas cleaning, the use of polymeric materials has continuously increased in applications where the flue gas environment is to corrosive to be handled with metallic materials. Typical polymeric materials used are fibre reinforced plastics (FRP), glassflake-filled linings, polypropylene (PP) and fluoropolymers. Demands on increased profitability and efficiency at incineration plants involve that also polymeric materials have to face more demanding environments with increased temperature, temperature changes, changes in fuel composition and therewith fluegas composition and longer service intervals. The knowledge on how polymeric materials perform in general and how these service conditions influence them, is, however, poor and continuous status assessment is therefore necessary. The overall aim of this project has been to assess simple techniques for status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning equipment and to perform an inventory of present experience and knowledge on the use of polymeric materials. The project consisted of an inventory of present experience, analysis of material from shut-down plants and plants still in service, field testing in a plant adding sulphur during combustion and the assessment of different non-destructive testing (NDT) methods by laboratory experiments. The results of the project are summarised in the form of a handbook which in the first place addresses plant owners and maintenance staff at incineration plants and within the pulp and paper industry. In the introductory chapter typical polymeric materials (FRP, flake linings, PP and fluoropolymers) used in flue gas cleaning equipment are described as well as the occurring corrosion mechanisms. The inventory of process equipment is divided into sections about scrubbers, flue gas ducts, stacks, internals and other equipment such as storage tanks. Typical damages are

  17. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)


    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  18. Carbon nanotube-like materials in the exhaust from a diesel engine using gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with catalysts and sulfur. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Mori, Shinsuke


    Particulate matter from a diesel engine, including soot and carbon nanomaterials, was collected on a sampling holder and the structure of the materials was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of employing gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with sulfur and ferrocene/molybdenum as catalyst sources, formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-like materials in addition to soot was observed in the exhaust gas from a diesel engine. It was revealed that CNT-like materials were included among soot in our system only when the following three conditions were satisfied simultaneously: high ethanol fraction in fuel, high sulfur loading, and presence of catalyst sources in fuel. This study confirmed that if at least one of these three conditions was not satisfied, CNT-like materials were not observed in the exhaust from a diesel engine. These experimental results shown in this work provide insights into understanding CNT-like material formation mechanism in a diesel engine. Recent papers reported that carbon nanotube-like materials were included in the exhaust gas from engines, but conditions for carbon nanotube-like material formation have not been well studied. This work provides the required conditions for carbon nanotube-like material growth in a diesel engine, and this will be helpful for understanding the carbon nanotube-like material formation mechanism and taking countermeasures to preventing carbon nanotube-like material formation in a diesel engine.

  19. Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels. Final report; Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, M.; Buenger, J.; Gnuschke, H.; Halboth, H.; Gruedl, P.; Krahl, J.


    With the advance of environmental legislation and practices oriented towards sustainability renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important. Use of replenishable raw materials helps preserve fossil resources. In the fuel sector the most widely used replenishable materials are rape methyl ester (RME) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The purpose of the present project on the ''Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels'' was to generate orienting data on the potential health relevance of mixtures of fossil and renewable fuel intended for use in spark ignition and diesel engines. This included a determination of benzene emissions and the mutagenicity of particles. Beyond the applied-for scope of research measurements were also performed on the test engine's toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene emissions as well as on the smoke spot number and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of the diesel engine. [German] Regenerative Energien gewinnen durch die Umweltgesetzgebungen und das Streben nach einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Durch die Verwendung nachwachsender Rohstoffe koennen die fossilen Ressourcen geschont werden. Im Kraftstoffsektor sind hier hauptsaechlich Rapsoelmethylester (RME) und optional Ethyltertiaerbutylether (ETBE) zu nennen. Um fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren insbesondere mit Blick auf Kraftstoffgemische aus fossilen und regenerativen Komponenten orientierende Daten ueber eine potenzielle Gesundheitsrelevanz zu generieren, wurde das Projekt 'Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen' durchgefuehrt. Neben der Benzolemission wurde die Mutagenitaet der Partikeln ermittelt. Ueber den beantragten Untersuchungsrahmen hinaus wurden die Tuluol-, Ethylbenzol-, und Xylolemissionen der eingesetzten Motoren, sowie die Russzahl (RZ) und die Stickoxid- (NO{sub x}) und Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen (HC) des Dieselmotors bestimmt. (orig.)

  20. Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine. (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arulprakasajothi; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Radhakrishnan, Santhanakrishnan


    In this study, the effect of blending pentanol to biodiesel derived from mahua oil on emissions and performance pattern of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mode was examined and compared with diesel. The purpose of this study is to improve the feasibility of employing biofuels as a potential alternative in an unmodified diesel engine. Two pentanol-biodiesel blends denoted as MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20 which matches to 10 and 20 vol% of pentanol in biodiesel, respectively, were used as fuel in research engine at 10 and 20% EGR rates. Pentanol is chosen as a higher alcohol owing to its improved in-built properties than the other first-generation alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Experimental results show that the pentanol and biodiesel blends (MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20) have slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (0.2-0.4%) and lower brake-specific fuel consumption (0.6 to 1.1%) than that of neat biodiesel (MOBD100) at all engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission and smoke emission are reduced by 3.3-3.9 and 5.1-6.4% for pentanol and biodiesel blends compared to neat biodiesel. Introduction of pentanol to biodiesel reduces the unburned hydrocarbon (2.1-3.6%) and carbon monoxide emissions (3.1-4.2%) considerably. In addition, at 20% EGR rate, smoke, NO X emissions, and BTE drop by 7.8, 5.1, and 4.4% respectively. However, CO, HC emissions, and BSFC increased by 2.1, 2.8, and 3.8%, respectively, when compared to 0% EGR rate.

  1. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation (United States)

    Zurlo, James Richard [Madison, WI; Konkle, Kevin Paul [West Bend, WI; May, Andrew [Milwaukee, WI


    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  2. Flue gas cleaning by the electron-beam-process (II): Recent activities at the RDK-7 pilot plant, Karlsruhe (United States)

    Platzer, K.-H.; Willibald, U.; Gottstein, J.; Tremmel, A.; Angele, H.-J.; Zellner, K.

    At the Badenwerk coal fired 550 MW el unit RDK-7 of the Rheinhafen-Dampfkraftwerk, Karlsruhe, a pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by means of electron excitation is operating since December 1985. The main emphasis during the previous research period was focused upon the demonstration of the technical feasibility of the process. Experiences from long-term test runs at the RDK-7 pilot plant prove that it is possible to achieve a reliable and efficient operation both of the electron beam accelerators and of the baghouse by-product precipitator by combining several optimization steps described in this paper.

  3. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.


    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.


    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  5. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P


    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Principle Findings from Development of a Recirculated Exhaust Gas Intake Sensor (REGIS) Enabling Cost-Effective Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Claus [Robert Bosch LLC, Farmington Hills, MI (United States)


    Kick-off of the Bosch scope of work for the REGIS project started in October 2012. The primary work-packages included in the Bosch scope of work were the following: overall project management, development of the EGR sensor (design of sensor element, design of protection tube, and design of mounting orientation), development of EGR system control strategy, build-up of prototype sensors, evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and the new control strategy, long-term durability testing, and development of a 2nd generation sensor concept for continued technology development after the REGIS project. The University of Clemson was a partner with Bosch in the REGIS project. The Clemson scope of work for the REGIS project started in June 2013. The primary work-packages included in the Clemson scope of work were the following: development of EGR system control strategy, and evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and new control strategy. This project was split into phase I, phase II and phase III. Phase I work was completed by the end of June 2014 and included the following primary work packages: development of sensor technical requirements, assembly of engine testbench at Clemson, design concept for sensor housing, connector, and mounting orientation, build-up of EGR flow test benches at Bosch, and build-up of first sensor prototypes. Phase II work was completed by the end of June 2015 and included the following primary work pack ages: development of an optimizing function and demonstration of robustness of sensor, system control strategy implementation and initial validation, completion of engine in the loop testing of developed control algorithm, completion of sensor testing including characteristic line, synthetic gas test stand, and pressure dependency characterization, demonstration of benefits of control w/o sensing via simulation, development of 2nd generation sensor concept. Notable technical achievements from phase II were the following

  7. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack


    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality

  8. Direct sample introduction gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of phthalate esters in cleaning products. (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M


    A method using direct sample introduction (DSI) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed for the determination of six phthalate esters (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, diethylhexyl and dioctyl phthalate) in cleaning products. The different variables involved in the DSI step, including venting time and temperature, vaporisation time and temperature, injector heating temperature and gas flow rate and pressure, were evaluated and optimised using Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The proposed method, using calibration against methanolic standards, showed good linearity in the 0.05-15 μg g(-1) range and good repeatability, with RSD values ranging from 3.5% to 5.7%. Quantification limits between 0.010 and 0.041 μg g(-1), depending on the compound, were attained, while recovery assays provided values from 83% to 115%. Twenty-seven cleaning products were analysed using the DSI-GC-MS method, being four phthalates (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and diethylhexyl phthalate) found in fourteen of them at concentration levels in the 0.1-21 μg g(-1) range. Compared with the most common GC injection technique, which uses the split/splitless injector, the proposed DSI procedure provided larger peak areas and lower detection limits, as result of the greater injected volume and reduction in noise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Cleaning by Glow Discharge in High-Volume Gas Flow (United States)


    was used with a #25 size hypodermic needle the results are shown in Table 2. A slightly smaller drop was obtained when using the same size needle coated...small to measure, indicates a surface free of both water and of substances which are hydrophobic. The theory of the significance of the small contact...and its diameter when spread out over the surface of the clean specimen. The experiment data to test the following theory , was accumulated by measuring

  10. Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.


    This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently to the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mylläri


    Full Text Available Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2 and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200–300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  12. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass. (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo


    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of CaO and MgO for the hot gas clean up in gasification of a chlorine-containing (RDF) feedstock. (United States)

    Corella, José; Toledo, José M; Molina, Gregorio


    Calcined limestone (CaO) and calcined dolomite (CaO.MgO) were tested at bench scale to study their usefulness in cleaning hot raw gas from a fluidized bed gasifier of a synthetic or simulated refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with a high (3 wt%) content in chlorine. In the gas cleaning reactor two main reactions occurred simultaneously: the elimination of HCl and the elimination of tar by steam reforming. The elimination of HCl formed CaCl2 and MgCl2 with melting points below the high (above 800 degrees C) temperatures required for the simultaneous tar elimination reaction. So, the CaO-based particles progressively melted and the catalytic gas cleaning reactor became a compact, agglomerated or glued, cake. Therefore, the life and usefulness of the CaO-based solids used was very low. Nevertheless, and to further avoid these problems, some positive guidelines for future research are proposed here.

  14. Requirements on flue gas cleaning under oxyfuel conditions; Anforderungen an die Rauchgasreinigung im Oxyfuel-Prozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosel, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Meyer, Heike [Vattenfall Europe PowerConsult, Vetschau (Germany)


    CCS technologies for power plants and industrial processes also place new requirements on familiar and proven systems. For the process of flue gas desulphurisation, the Vattenfall coal-fired plants typically use wet scrubbers based on limestone. This technology is now also to be used for oxyfuel power plants. As regards the flue gas purification system, it must be noted that CCS technologies, and particularly the oxyfuel process, significantly increase the performance requirements for the purification system. Operating results from the Vattenfall oxyfuel research facility at 'Schwarze Pumpe' have shown that these new requirements can be met. (orig.)

  15. Contribution to electrical discharge electron beam system for flue gas cleaning method (United States)

    Cramariuc, R.; Marin, Gh; Martin, D.; Cramariuc, B.; Teodorescu, I.; Munteanu, V.; Ghiuta, V.


    Many authors have investigated simultaneous reduction of SO 2 and NO x from flue gas stack emission by electron beam-induced plasma process. Because of high costs, this technology has been applied in only a few countries (Japan, China and Poland) until now. Small countries, consumers of cheap combustibles, produce a great deal of atmospheric pollutants SO 2 and NO x, For this reason there is a great interest in the implementation of cheaper technologies with a similar impact as electron beam processing. This paper presents a series of experimental data for SO 2 and NO x removal by electron beams, electric discharge and ozone in different processing variants of flue gas.

  16. Study of composition change and agglomeration of flue gas cleaning residue from a fluidized bed waste incinerator. (United States)

    Lievens, P; Verbinnen, B; Bollaert, P; Alderweireldt, N; Mertens, G; Elsen, J; Vandecasteele, C


    Blocking of the collection hoppers of the baghouse filters in a fluidized bed incinerator for co-incineration of high calorific industrial solid waste and sludge was observed. The composition of the flue gas cleaning residue (FGCR), both from a blocked hopper and from a normal hopper, was investigated by (differential) thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction and wet chemical analysis. The lower elemental carbon concentration and the higher calcium carbonate concentration of the agglomerated sample was the result of oxidation of carbon and subsequent reaction of CO2 with CaO. The evolved heat causes a temperature increase, with the decomposition of CaOHCl as a consequence. The formation of calcite and calcium chloride and the evolution of heat caused agglomeration of the FGCR. Activated lignite coke was replaced by another adsorption agent with less carbon, so the auto-ignition temperature increased; since then no further block formation has occurred.

  17. Hydrodynamic characteristics and efficiency of contact elements of wet-gas-cleaning equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrizhievskii, A.A.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Trifonov, A.G.


    A relation is presented that makes it possible to choose the tital pressure drop as the determining parameter in the optimization of mass-transfer (connected with interphase transport of impurity particles), dynamic, and geometric characteristics of single-pass contact elements of CUs. This optimization is done on the basis of a mathematical model of a vapor-drop flow with impurity particles in channels of variable diameter in regard to the process of cleaning of a gaseous dissociated heat carrier in contact with its condensate. The model was constructed on the basis of unidimensional equations of conservation of mass, thermal energy, and the momenta of the liquid, vapor, and solid inert phases with the use of distribution functions for the size of the drops and impurity particles. The model is closed by integral relations of the interphase heat-transfer coefficient and friction coefficient.

  18. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Halfaya


    Full Text Available We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO 2 and 15 ppm-NH 3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  19. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah


    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  20. Exhaust gas emission from two-stroke engines in private cars and motorcycles in West Germany. Abgasemissionen von Zweitaktmotoren in Personenkraftwagen und Motorraedern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, C. (Rheinisch-Westfaelischer Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein e.V., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik)


    The proportion of motorised cycles is only about 10% of the stock of cars in West Germany, but their harmful emission are not negligible, as these two-wheeled vehicles are mainly driven in towns or near towns. The emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides and also of particle-bound, polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons was therefore determined in the driving cycle and at constant speeds. The results obtained can be seen from many diagrams. Some measures to reduce the emission of harmful substances were tried on a series of 2-stroke engines (250 cc). These included postcombustion, oxidation catalyst, blowing in additional air, manually controlled additional carburettor or a combination of these measures. From our present state of knowledge, a simple 2-stroke engine cannot comply with the requirements regarding exhaust gas emission behaviour and fuel consumption. Such a 2-stroke engine will in future have to have direct, electronically controlled injection and probably a combined slot and valve controlled common flow flushing, together with a catalytic exhaust gas treatment system. (orig.).

  1. Legal aspects of the clean-up and reclamation of the manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joldzic, V. [Belgrade University, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. for Criminology and Sociological Research


    The laws associated with the cleanup of manufactured gas plants in Yugoslavia is described. These comprise the Environmental Protection Act; the Law about Space Planning and Organizing; Building Law; and Agricultural Land Use Law. Joint remedial action in the Danube Basin is discussed. 13 refs.

  2. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures in Terms of Gas Sensing Properties of Spray-Deposited CNT Film: Thermal- and O2 Plasma Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Hyub Kim


    Full Text Available The effect of cleaning the surface of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT networks by thermal and the O2 plasma treatments is presented in terms of NH3 gas sensing characteristics. The goal of this work is to determine the relationship between the physicochemical properties of the cleaned surface (including the chemical composition, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and impurity content and the sensitivity of the SWNT network films to NH3 gas. The SWNT networks are spray-deposited on pre-patterned Pt electrodes, and are further functionalized by heating on a programmable hot plate or by O2 plasma treatment in a laboratory-prepared plasma chamber. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to semi-quantitatively evaluate each surface state of various plasma-treated SWNT-based electrodes. The results show that O2 plasma treatment can more effectively modify the SWNT network surface than thermal cleaning, and can provide a better conductive network surface due to the larger number of carbonyl/carboxyl groups, enabling a faster electron transfer rate, even though both the thermal cleaning and the O2 plasma cleaning methods can eliminate the organic solvent residues from the network surface. The NH3 sensors based on the O2 plasma-treated SWNT network exhibit higher sensitivity, shorter response time, and better recovery of the initial resistance than those prepared employing the thermally-cleaned SWNT networks.

  3. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)


    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  4. Cascade Testing and CFD Applied to Gas Turbine Performance Improvement with Compressor Cleaning


    Gannan, Aiad


    With the growing interest in life cycle costs for heavy-duty gas turbines, equipment operators are investigating the trade off between performance improvements and associated maintenance costs. One of the key factors leading to performance degradation during plant operation is compressor fouling especially in harsh environments. These results from the adherence of dust or sand particles mixed with small oil droplets to compressor blade surfaces. The result is a reduction in com...

  5. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers


    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  6. Investigation of the Pulsed Annular Gas Jet for Chemical Reactor Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvegintsev Valery Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The most economical technology for production of titanium dioxide pigment is plasma-chemical syntheses with the heating of the oxygen. The highlight of the given reaction is formation of a solid phase as a result of interactions between two gases, thus brings the formation of particle deposits on the reactor walls, and to disturbing the normal operation of the technological process. For the solving of the task of reactor internal walls cleaning the pulsed gaseous system was suggested and investigated, which throws circular oxygen jet along surfaces through regular intervals. Study of aerodynamic efficiency of the impulse system was carried by numerical modeling and experimentally with the help of a specially created experimental facility. The distribution of the pulsed flow velocity at the exit of cylindrical reactor was measured. The experimental results have shown that used impulse device creates a pulsed jet with high value of the specified flow rate. It allows to get high velocities that are sufficient for the particle deposits destruction and their removal away. Designed pulsed peelings system has shown high efficiency and reliability in functioning that allows us to recommend it for wide spreading in chemical industry.

  7. Long-time experience in catalytic flue gas cleaning and catalytic NO{sub x} reduction in biofueled boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)


    NO emissions are reduced by primary or secondary methods. Primary methods are based on NO reduction in the combustion zone and secondary methods on flue gas cleaning. The most effective NO reduction method is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). It is based on NO reduction by ammonia on the surface of a catalyst. Reaction products are water and nitrogen. A titanium-dioxide-based catalyst is very durable and selective in coal-fired power plants. It is not poisoned by sulphur dioxide and side reactions with ammonia and sulphur dioxide hardly occur. The long time experience and suitability of a titanium-dioxide-based catalyst for NO reduction in biofuel-fired power plants was studied. The biofuels were: peat, wood and bark. It was noticed that deactivation varied very much due to the type of fuel and content of alkalinities in fuel ash. The deactivation in peat firing was moderate, close to the deactivation noticed in coal firing. Wood firing generally had a greater deactivation effect than peat firing. Fuel and fly ash were analyzed to get more information on the flue gas properties. The accumulation of alkali and alkaline earth metals and sulphates was examined together with changes in the physical composition of the catalysts. In the cases where the deactivation was the greatest, the amount of alkali and alkaline earth metals in fuels and fly ashes and their accumulation were very significant. (author) (3 refs.)

  8. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  9. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve


    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  10. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)


    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  11. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  12. Schemes and New Developments in Combinations of Gasification with Fuel Gas Cleaning for Power Generation in Piston Gas Engines and Gas Turbines


    Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Picek, I.; Pohořelý, M


    In the contribution, possibilities are presented and discussed in details, how to employ the internal combustion engines and gas (combustion) turbines or their suitable combination for producing the electric power and heat from the gas produced by the partial oxidation (gasification) of biomass and alternative solid fuels.

  13. Effects of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System and Variable Nozzle Turbine Control on the Operating Parameters of an Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zamboni


    Full Text Available Reduction of NOX emissions and fuel consumption are the main topics in engine development, forcing the adoption of complex techniques and components, whose interactions have to be clearly understood for proper and reliable operations and management of the whole system. The investigation presented in this paper aimed at the development of integrated control strategies of turbocharging, high pressure (HP and low pressure (LP exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems for better NOX emissions and fuel consumption, while analyzing their reciprocal influence and the resulting variations of engine quantities. The study was based on an extended experimental program in three part load engine operating conditions. In the paper a comparison of the behavior of the main engine sub-systems (intake and exhaust circuits, turbocharger turbine and compressor, HP and LP EGR loops in a wide range of operating modes is presented and discussed, considering open and closed loop approaches for variable nozzle turbine (VNT control, and showing how these affect engine performance and emissions. The potential of significant decrease in NOX emissions through the integration of HP and LP EGR was confirmed, while a proper VNT management allowed for improved fuel consumption level, if an open loop control scheme is followed. At higher engine speed and load, further actions have to be applied to compensate for observed soot emissions increase.

  14. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  15. New concepts for exhaust gas turbo charging of a four-cylinder direct injection Otto engine; Neue Konzepte zur Abgasturboaufladung eines direkteinspritzenden Vierzylinder-Ottomotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Tilo


    This work is supposed to be understood as a contribution to developing a new generation of Otto engines, which meet the increasing ecological and economical demands. The charge concept has a key position in this development. Its design in particular at the four cylinder engine that dominates the market and whose charge changes are very specific, proves to be a special challenge. Based upon known techniques new concepts are developed in this work by means of numeric simulation and experiments and then compared with each other under stationary and transient conditions. On the one hand several exhaust gas turbo chargers in form a register and a two-phase charging are combined with a variable control of the outlet valves, on the other hand the shock-back-up changing is evaluated combined with a biturbo system as well as a twin-current turbine. (orig.)

  16. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage. (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen


    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...

  18. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun? (United States)

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R


    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in internal combustion engine exhaust with time-weighted average solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Baimatova, Nassiba; Koziel, Jacek A; Kenessov, Bulat


    A new and simple method for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) quantification in vehicle exhaust was developed based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The rationale was to develop a method based on existing and proven SPME technology that is feasible for field adaptation in developing countries. Passive sampling with SPME fiber retracted into the needle extracted nearly two orders of magnitude less mass (n) compared with exposed fiber (outside of needle) and sampling was in a time weighted-averaging (TWA) mode. Both the sampling time (t) and fiber retraction depth (Z) were adjusted to quantify a wider range of Cgas. Extraction and quantification is conducted in a non-equilibrium mode. Effects of Cgas, t, Z and T were tested. In addition, contribution of n extracted by metallic surfaces of needle assembly without SPME coating was studied. Effects of sample storage time on n loss was studied. Retracted TWA-SPME extractions followed the theoretical model. Extracted n of BTEX was proportional to Cgas, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limits were 1.8, 2.7, 2.1 and 5.2 mg m(-3) (0.51, 0.83, 0.66 and 1.62 ppm) for BTEX, respectively. The contribution of extraction onto metallic surfaces was reproducible and influenced by Cgas and t and less so by T and by the Z. The new method was applied to measure BTEX in the exhaust gas of a Ford Crown Victoria 1995 and compared with a whole gas and direct injection method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Filterstoffes zur Reinigung von industriellen oder Brennkraftmaschinen-Abgasen und ein hiernach hergestellter Filterstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumbalek, A.


    This is a process for the manufacture of a filter material for cleaning industrial or internal combustion engine exhaust gases and filter material manufactured according to the process. The filter material is manufactured from the mineralized combustion product of peel of tropical fruits burnt at a temperature of 820/sup 0/C to 840/sup 0/C in an oxidising atmosphere excluding the production of carbon, particularly using banana skins and orange peels, which product is granulated with carrier materials or compressed.

  1. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers. (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A


    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to ²¹⁸Po and ²¹⁴Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y⁻¹ due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y⁻¹) dose limit interval for workers.

  2. Assessment of Restrained demand of Electricity, Natural Gas and Alcohol into Clean Development Context at Aracatuba Administrative Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, Raphael B.; Ueocka, Marcos Z.; Udaeda, Miguel E.M. [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dep. de Engenharia de Energia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernal, Jonathas [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    This paper assesses the restrained market of electricity, natural gas and alcohol in the Aracatuba Administrative Region (RAA) comparing the consumption with the average consumption of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and Florida State, USA. Projections are made for the attendance of these demands in the context of clean development in a hypothetical set. Results show that the total restrained electric demand in the RAA was estimated in 22,467 MWh monthly in respect to Sao Paulo and 477,052 MWh monthly in respect to Florida, it means more power than the whole production of the region today and 3 times the demand nowadays. And the restrained vehicle demand in relation to the average of the state of Sao Paulo was low, about 5%, resulting in a restrained demand of less than 10 million liters per year (alcohol and gasoline). As the current production is about 2 billion liters of alcohol per year, one conclusion is that the RAA has potential to supply its necessity and export using only 10% of its territory in planted area of sugarcane.

  3. Environmentally Sustainable Solution for a Gas Turbine Upgrade Clean Development Mechanism Application in a Non-Annex I Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Volker; Wolf, Markus; Fahrer, Roland; Brandett, Joergen; Hess, Stephen


    ALSTOM Power Service delivers solutions not only to recover degradation, but also to increase the performance and efficiency of the installed global power generation fleet. Such performance improvements also reduce greenhouse gases and particularly CO2 emissions. The mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol promote the implementation of CO2-reducing state-of-the-art technologies to developing and emerging economies. ALSTOM, having installed the world's largest power generation fleet, wants to make use of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to make technology implementation economically attractive for non-Annex I countries. This paper gives an overview and outlook for environmental mechanisms and technologies, the value proposition and some experience in pioneering a CDM project with a gas turbine upgrade in a non-Annex I country. It is shown that in a crediting period of 10 years 3 million tons of CO2eq can be saved on a mid-sized power plant. Assuming a price of euro 8 per ton of CO2eq for Certified Emission Reductions this would lead to an annual revenue of 20% of the initial implementation cost, representing a very attractive business case for the plant operator. The described CDM application can be a decisive factor for proceeding with a fuel switch or an upgrade. The revenues earned from emission trading enables the plant operator to make the investment to reduce Kyoto-relevant emissions.

  4. Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.


    Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862

  5. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements. (United States)


    ... velocity, is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, and is computed continuously... ±5 percent. (The volumetric sample flow rate shall be varied inversely with the square root of the... determining CVS flow rates are detailed in “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative...

  6. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.


    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  7. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.


    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  8. Method for the removal of smut, fine dust and exhaust gas particles, particle catch arrangement for use in this method and use of the particle catch arrangement to generate a static electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.; Marijnissen, J.C.; Roos, R.A.


    This inventions provides a method for the removal of smut, fine dust and exhaust gas particles from polluted air comprising providing a particle catch arrangement with a charged surface, the particle catch arrangement being arranged to generate a static electric field, wherein the electric field is

  9. Baghouse cleans flyash from boiler exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A large baghouse installation recently started up on the boilerhouse of the Avtex Fibers Inc. rayon plant in Front Royal, Virginia. The baghouse removes 99.7% of the flyash particulate from the combustion fumes of five coal-fired boilers. The boilers have a combined capacity of one million lb/h of steam. Emissions from the plant are well below EPA limitations.

  10. Development of sample clean up methods for the analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyl mycocerosate biomarkers in sputum extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.


    Nicoara, Simona C.; Turner, Nicholas W.; Minnikin, David E.; Lee, Oona Y.-C.; O?Sullivan, Denise M.; McNerney, Ruth; Mutetwa, Reggie; Corbett, Liz E.; Morgan, Geraint H.


    A proof of principle gas chromatography?mass spectrometry method is presented, in combination with clean up assays, aiming to improve the analysis of methyl mycocerosate tuberculosis biomarkers from sputum. Methyl mycocerosates are generated from the transesterification of phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs), extracted in petroleum ether from sputum of tuberculosis suspect patients. When a high matrix background is present in the sputum extracts, the identification of the chromatographic peak...

  11. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB minimization: A 13-year experimental study along the flue gas cleaning system of a secondary aluminium refining plant. (United States)

    Collina, Elena; Bortolami, Michele; Franzoni, Francesco; Lasagni, Marina; Piccinelli, Elsa; Pitea, Demetrio


    A 13-years study shows that a careful design of the flue gas cleaning system of a full scale secondary aluminium refining plant results in a minimized and very stable emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD), Polychlorinated Dibenzo Furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB). The value of equivalent toxicity of PCDD/F in the emission was definitely of an order of magnitude less than the regulation limit. In the initial flue gas cleaning system, the PCB mean fingerprint after the slow cooling of the flue gas was typical of de novo synthesis. Instead, in the presence of quenching, there was evidence that the fast cooling of flue gas prevented the PCB de novo synthesis. In fact, the PCB profile was similar to that in the air collected from the aspiration hoods for the quenching. The gas-phase and solid-phase partitioning of PCBs, before and after the fabric filters, highlights the predominant role of the vapor phase with respect to the total removal efficiency. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons breakdown could be an additional de novo formation pathway even in industrial plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.


    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  13. Effect of nozzle hole size coupling with exhaust gas re-circulation on the engine emission perfomance based on KH-ACT spray model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liang


    Full Text Available To research an effective measure of reducing the Soot and NOx in engine at the same time, different nozzle hole diameters coupled with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR were adopted in this study based on KH-ACT spray breakup model, which takes the aerodynamic-induced ,cavitation-induced and turbulence-induced breakup into account. The SAGE detailed chemistry combustion and the new atomization model used in the simulation have been verified with the experiment data from a YN4100QBZL engine. Different diesel nozzles was adopted in the study combined with different EGR rates ranging from 0% to 40%. The simulation results show that the NOx emission could be reduced effectively for both small(0.1mm and large(0.15mm diesel nozzle when increasing EGR ratio. The soot emission increases for the small nozzle hole size as the EGR increasing. However, when it comes to the large diesel nozzle, the emission increases slightly first and decrease quickly when the EGR rate above 20%.

  14. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.


    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  15. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid


    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hollada


    Full Text Available Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1 perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2 cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3 social norms related to cooking practices; (4 safety concerns; (5 comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6 lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking.

  17. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies. (United States)

    Hollada, Jacqueline; Williams, Kendra N; Miele, Catherine H; Danz, David; Harvey, Steven A; Checkley, William


    Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1) perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2) cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3) social norms related to cooking practices; (4) safety concerns; (5) comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6) lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking.

  18. System study on high temperature gas cleaning in Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC's). Systeemstudie hoge temperatuur gasreiniging bij KV-STEG-installaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderliesten, P.T.; Jansen, D. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)); Brunia, A.; Melman, A.G.; Schmal, D.; Verschoor, M.J.E.; Woudstra, N. (Instituut voor Milieu- en Energietechnologie TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)); Enoch, G.D.; Janssen, F.J.; Raas, J.L.; Tummers, J.F. (Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Klein Teeselink, H. (Stork Ketels, Utrecht (N


    There is a great diversity in high temperature gas cleaning (HTGC) techniques, presently being under development or already commercially available, aiming at the improvement of the overall plant efficiency. Predictions for the rise of plant efficiency due to the use of HTGC in integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC's) vary between zero and ten percent. A thorough investigation and evaluation of HTGC techniques as well as integral thermodynamic system computations, based upon well defined technical starting points, have been carried out, to gain better insights into the technical and economic performance of HTGC in IGCC's, on behalf of further programming of research and development in this field. This report is made up of separate monographs on the various topics, included entirely or in summarized form in this final report, which should be regarded as an independent entity: 1. Monograph 2.1: H{sub 2}S/COS Removal; 2. Monograph 2.4: Dust Removal; 3. Monograph 2.2: HCl/HF Removal; 4. Monograph 2.3: Alkali Metals and other Trace Elements; and 5. Monograph 2.5: DeNO{sub x} Methods and NH{sub 3}/HCN Removal. The report gives a summary of HTGC techniques already in existence or in development. On the basis of the information obtained a selection has been made for three gas cleaning temperature levels, at 250, 350 and 600{sup o}C. These temperatures are coal gas exit temperatures from the syngas coolers and therefore gas cleaning system entry temperatures. 28 figs., 20 tabs., 12 refs.

  19. Designer-diesel from natural gas. Linde technology for clean fuel; Designer-Diesel aus Erdgas. Linde-Technologie fuer sauberen Kraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.


    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology has lain slumbering for decades. Converting natural gas to liquid fuel simply cost too much. As the price of crude oil rises, however, this technological Sleeping Beauty is coming awake. Experts forecast a boom in the next few years, because synthetic diesel is clean and virtually sulfer-free. After years of GTL involvement, Linde now means to put its know-how to work on new projects. [German] Jahrzehntelang fuehrte die Gas-to-Liquid-Technologie (GTL) ihr Dasein eher im Verborgenen. Zu teuer war die Wandlung von Erdgas in fluessigen Kraftstoff. Mit dem steigenden Oelpreis aber erwacht diese Technik nun aus ihrem Dornroeschenschlaf. Experten erwarten fuer die kommenden Jahre einen Boom, denn synthetisches Diesel ist sauber und nahezu schwefelfrei. Linde engagiert sich bereits seit Jahren im Bereich GTL und will sein Know-how jetzt in neuen Projekten einsetzen.

  20. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan


    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  1. Plasma Cleaning (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.


    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)


    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  3. BASF and acetylene. 70 years of reppe chemistry - long-standing reliability and promising future - and now, the only natural gas based clean technology for acetylene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicari, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)


    Acetylene is still an attractive intermediate synthesis component because carbon in methane from natural gas comes at a lower price than carbon in naphtha from crude oil or coal. Acetylene can be understood as a product of C-C coupling and functionalization. Beginning in the 1950s, BASF developed the partial oxidation (Pox) process, in addition to the electric arc process dating from the 1930s and the submerged flame process. The originally developed Pox process came along with severe emissions of hydrocarbons to the environment. Nowadays it is extremely important to have a clean, environmentally friendly technology. So in the 1990s a closed water-quench process was developed and built in the United States. The presentation focuses on the ways of making acetylene, the use of acetylene and BASF's closed water-quench process based on natural gas. This process will be presented including some important safety aspects. The process is available for licensing. (orig.)

  4. System study on high temperature gas cleaning in Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC's). Systeemstudie hoge temperatuur gasreiniging bij KV-STEG-installaties; Bijlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderliesten, P.T.; Jansen, D. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)); Brunia, A.; Melman, A.G.; Schmal, D.; Verschoor, M.J.E.; Woudstra, N. (Instituut voor Milieu- en Energietechnologie TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)); Enoch, G.D.; Janssen, F.J.; Raas, J.L.; Tummers, J.F. (Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Klein Teeselink, H. (Stork Ketels, Utrecht (N


    This volume is a supplement of the report with the same title, report number NOVEM--90-310. The complete input data and calculation results of the thermodynamic system calculations, as discussed in chapter 5 of the above-mentioned report, are presented. For each system calculation a process diagram, a list of the input data and a computer print of the calculation results are given for the following variants: SBAS, SBASa, S250, S350, S600, TBAS, TBASa, T250, T350, and T600. S stands for the Shell-coal-gasification process, and T for the Texaco-coal-gasification process. The BAS-variant is a low-temperature (40{sup o}C) gas cleaning process. The other variants are hot gas cleanup's (250, 350 and 600{sup o}C).

  5. Flue gas cleaning for co-combustion of waste in biomass boilers 10-25 MW; Roekgasrening vid samfoerbraenning i biobraenslepannor i storleken 10-25 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Larsson, Sara [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    Incineration of waste fuel in existing biomass boilers in the power range 10-25 MW is not very common in Sweden today. With increasing waste streams it will be interesting to use such fuel also in these types of boilers. This report gives a description of which regulations you have to comply with when you start to burn waste fuel, the increasing costs it will bring, and different types of flue gas cleaning equipment that are available. For existing boilers the EC-directive for incineration of waste will have to be implemented from 2005. Newly built boilers have to implement the directive from the start. The new requirements that have to be met for co-combustion plants are: The flue gas has to have a temperature of 850 deg C or more for at least two seconds in the combustion chamber. Exceptions can be allowed, but then the emission limit for CO for waste combustion must be met. The emission limit will then be 50 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2}. Exceptions can be allowed for fluid-bed combustion if 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} at 11 % O{sub 2} as a hourly average can be met. There has to be a fuel handling system that automatically stops the waste flow if the temperature drops below 850 deg C, or when any of the emission limit values are exceeded. Some operating parameters have to be measured continuously. Emission limit values for dust, TOC, HCl, HF, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, metals, dioxins and furans. Increased documentation, reporting and control. This report has been focusing on how to meet the regulations on emissions to air. Following conclusions have been drawn: To avoid exceeding the limit value for dust emission a bag filter or an electric precipitator will be needed. Multi-cyclones are not enough. If the limit value for dust is met, the limit value of metals will also be met. To avoid exceeding the limit value for chloride a flue gas condenser/scrubbing tower or a dry flue gas cleaning system is needed, if the waste fuel is not very low in chloride. With a low sulphur

  6. Confirmation of the sterilization effect using a high concentration of ozone gas for the bio-clean room. (United States)

    Iwamura, Takuji; Nagano, Katsunori; Nogami, Toshihiro; Matsuki, Noritomo; Kosaka, Noriyoshi; Shintani, Hideharu; Katoh, Miyoshi


    A high-level aseptic environment must be maintained in bio-cleanrooms used for the manufacture of sterile products. In the past, formaldehyde gas was most commonly used to sterilize bio-cleanrooms, but due to strict residual limitations there has been a need to develop a less toxic alternative choice. The authors have developed a revolutionary new sterilization system using a high concentration of ozone gas and used this system to sterilize an actual bio-cleanroom. This system integrates the ozone gas generator with the air conditioning system by proper control. The design specifications for the system included an ozone gas concentration of 200 ppm or more, relative humidity of 80% or more, and a sterilizing time of 120 min. Blow vents and suction ports were placed to ensure a uniform airflow which would extend through the entire room during ozone gas sterilization. Tests regarding long-term material exposure to ozone gas were conducted when the system was introduced to distinguish usable and unusable materials. In an actually constructed cleanroom, simulations were used to predict the evenness of the diffusion of ozone gas concentration and relative humidity during ozone gas sterilization, and measurements of the actual indoor ozone gas concentration, temperature and relative humidity during sterilization revealed that the ozone concentration and relative humidity needed for sterilization had been achieved generally throughout the entire environment. In addition, the CT value (mg/m(3) (=ppm) × min) , derived by multiplying the ozone gas concentration during ozone gas sterilization by the sterilization time, was equal to or greater than the target value of 24 × 10(3) (ppm·min) . When the results of sterilization in a cleanroom were confirmed using a biological indicator (BI) , negative results were obtained at all measurement points, demonstrating that sterilization was being performed effectively in the actual factory at which the ozone gas sterilization system

  7. Determination of residual 1,4-dioxane in surfactants and cleaning agents using headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. (United States)

    Saraji, M; Shirvani, N


    Polyethoxylated surfactants are widely used in the formulation of different cleaning agents such as shampoo, dish washing and hand washing products and lotion formulation. During the production of polyethoxylated surfactants, 1,4-dioxane as a toxic and carcinogenic by-product is formed. A simple low-cost method based on headspace single-drop microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was developed for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in surfactants and cleaning agents. In this method, 1,4-dioxane was extracted from 8.0 mL sample solution into a microdrop of an organic solvent, and then, it was injected to gas chromatography. The effects of such parameters as the solvent type, salt addition, microdrop volume, stirring rate, equilibrium time, extraction time and the temperature of sample solution on the extraction performance were studied and optimized. An ethoxylated surfactant containing 1,4-dioxane was used as the sample for the optimization of the extraction parameters. The linear range, determination coefficient, limit of detection and relative standard deviation of the method were 0.5-100 μg g(-1) , 0.9977, 0.4 μg g(-1) and 7.2% (n = 5), respectively. Different real samples including sodium lauryl ether sulphate, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), four brands of shampoo, and hand washing and dish washing liquids were analysed by the method. 1,4-Dioxane was detected at the concentration range of 2.4-201 μg g(-1) in the samples, except dish washing liquid and SLS. A new method with the merits of simplicity, low cost, low organic solvent consumption, short analysis time, good repeatability and suitable detection limit was developed for the analysis of 1,4-dioxane in surfactants and cleaning agents. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi


    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  9. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan


    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  10. Critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test: comparisons between exhaustion criteria, mathematical modeling, and correlation with gas exchange parameters. (United States)

    Zagatto, A; Miranda, M F; Gobatto, C A


    The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test (critical frequency - C F ) estimated from 5 mathematical models and using 2 different exhaustion criteria (voluntary and technical exhaustions). Also, it was an aim to assess the relationship between C F estimated from mathematical models and respiratory compensation point (RCP), peak oxygen uptake ( V˙O (2PEAK)) and minimal intensity at which V˙O (2PEAK) ( F V˙O (2PEAK)) appears. 9 male table tennis players [18(1) years; 62.3(4.4) kg] performed the maximal incremental test and 3-4 exhaustive exercise bouts to estimate C F s (balls · min (-1)). The exhaustion time and C F obtained were independent of the exhaustion criteria. The C F from 3-parameter model [45.2(7.0)-voluntary, 43.2(5.6)-technical] was lower than C F estimated by linear 2-parameter models, frequency-time (-1) [53.5(3.6)-voluntary, 53.5(3.5)-technical] and total ball thrown-time [52.2(3.5)-voluntary, 52.2(3.5)-technical] but significantly correlated. C F values from 2 linear models were significantly correlated with RCP [47.4(3.4) balls · min (-1)], and C F values of the linear and nonlinear models were correlated with F V˙O (2PEAK) [56.7(3.4) balls · min (-1)]. However, there were no significant correlations between C F values and V˙O (2PEAK) [49.8(1.1)ml · kg (-1) · min (-1)]. The results were not modified by exhaustion criteria. The 2 linear and non-linear 2-parameter models can be used to estimate aerobic endurance in specific table tennis tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies


    The main constituents rendering the engine use of gas produced from biomass are the tar content of the gases (condensing hydrocarbons), which cause problems for pipings, nozzles, and control of combustion. Purification methods, based on catalytic cracking of tars are investigated in the research in order to eliminate these problems. The target of the project is to demonstrate the developed gasification/gas purification process with engine test using PDU-scale equipment. Impurities of biomasses and biomass wastes (alkalis, chlorine, heavy metals), and the ash melting properties restrict in many cases the combined utilisation of biomasses and coal in power plant boilers. The second main task of this research is to investigate the removal of the problematic gas and ash components from the product gas. The sufficient degree of purification should be achieved by as simple and as cheap purification methods as possible. The main tasks of the first year of the project were (a) determination of the dimensioning characteristics of ambient pressure PDU scale cell-catalyst reactor (tests with laboratory-scale equipment), designing and construction of the reactor, (b) to investigate the operation of a cell-catalyst in purification of pre-cracked down-draft gasification gas, (c) acquisition of dimensioning data for dolomite-cracker based on fluidized bed principle, and (d) gasification of the Dutch building demolition waste and Danish straw, and the purification tests with the gases

  12. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)


    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup −4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  13. 40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate... (United States)


    ... cooling as required; or (ii) Using a short duct (up to 12 feet long) constructed of smooth wall pipe with a minimum of flexible sections maintained at a temperature above the dew point of the mixture, but... flexible connectors are allowed under this option; or (iv) By omitting the duct and performing the exhaust...

  14. Relationship between vehicle emissions laws and incidence of suicide by motor vehicle exhaust gas in Australia, 2001-06: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Studdert


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, suicide accounts for 5.2% of deaths among persons aged 15 to 44 years and its incidence is rising. In Australia, suicide rates peaked in 1997 and have been declining since. A substantial part of that decline stems from a plunge in suicides by one particular method: asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG. Although MVEG remains the second most common method of suicide in Australia, its incidence decreased by nearly 70% in the decade to 2006. The extent to which this phenomenon has been driven by national laws in 1986 and 1999 that lowered permissible levels of carbon monoxide (CO emissions is unknown. The objective of this ecological study was to test the relationship by investigating whether areas of Australia with fewer noxious vehicles per capita experienced lower rates of MVEG suicide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We merged data on MVEG suicides in Australia (2001-06 with data on the number and age of vehicles in the national fleet, as well as socio-demographic data from the national census. Poisson regression was used to analyse the relationship between the incidence of suicide within two levels of geographical area--postcodes and statistical subdivisions (SSDs--and the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 passenger vehicles in those areas. (There was a mean population of 8,302 persons per postcode in the study dataset and 87,413 persons per SSD. The annual incidence of MVEG suicides nationwide decreased by 57% (from 2.6 per 100,000 in 2001 to 1.1 in 2006 during the study period; the population density of pre-1986 and pre-1999 vehicles decreased by 55% (from 14.2 per 100 persons in 2001 to 6.4 in 2006 and 26% (from 44.5 per 100 persons in 2001 to 32.9 in 2006, respectively. Area-level regression analysis showed that the suicide rates were significantly and positively correlated with the presence of older vehicles. A percentage point decrease in the population density of pre-1986 vehicles was associated with a 6

  15. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.


    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties and structural changes of ceramic filter materials for hot gas cleaning under simulated process conditions


    Westerheide, R.; Wehd, C. von der; Rehak, P.; Adler, J.


    In the combined cycle technology for advanced coal fired power plants at high temperatures up to 950 °C the removal of particles from the stream to the gas turbine is carried out with ceramic filter elements. These elements consist often of siliceous bonded coarse grained silicon carbide. A stable long term operation of the filter elements leads to the demands on good resistance towards thermal, mechanical and chemical loading. The structure of ceramic filter elements consists usually of a hi...

  17. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Research and development of semiconductor CVD chamber cleaning systems for electronic device manufacturing using new alternative gas instead of SF6, PFCs, and other gases; 2000 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. SF6 tou ni daitaisuru gasu wo riyo shita denshi debaisu seizo cleaning system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The efforts aim to develop a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) mechanism cleaning gas with less environmental impact such as global warming and a CVD process using the same. The candidate gas synthesizing study for the development of such a gas continues from the preceding fiscal year. In addition, various candidate gases and tentatively synthesized gases are evaluated for their cleaning performance using a simplified experimental system. As the result, patent applications were filed for three novel alternative gases low in environmental impact and high in cleaning performance. In the research and development of CVD processes, a verification test process is developed for the evaluation of alternative gases at the real system level using a large CVD evaluation system. Studies are also made in which some existing gases are utilized to improve on CVD cleaning efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the process, one domestic patent application is made, and three essays are presented at an international conference on electrochemistry in the United States. (NEDO)

  18. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Mohan


    Full Text Available Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG; (b clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD plant; and (c cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC. The flue gases liberated from the gas turbine power cycle is the prime source of energy for the tri-generation system. The heat recovered from condenser of steam cycle and excess heat available at the flue gases are utilized to drive cooling and desalination cycles which are optimized based on the cooling energy demands of the villas. Economic and environmental benefits of the tri-generation system in terms of cost savings and reduction in carbon emissions were analyzed. Energy efficiency of about 82%–85% is achieved by the tri-generation system compared to 50%–52% for combined cycles. Normalized carbon dioxide emission per MW·h is reduced by 51.5% by implementation of waste heat recovery tri-generation system. The tri-generation system has a payback period of 1.38 years with cumulative net present value of $66 million over the project life time.

  1. Simulation of a waste incineration process with flue-gas cleaning and heat recovery sections using Aspen Plus. (United States)

    Cimini, Silvano; Prisciandaro, Marina; Barba, Diego


    In the present paper, the modeling of a dual-purpose plant for the production of electrical and thermal energy from the heat treatment of solid wastes is presented. Particularly, the process has been modeled by using the Aspen Plus Shell, with the aim of performing a study about the applicability of this software in the simulation of a solid waste incineration process, which involves complex gas-solid reactions where the solids are referred to as "non-conventional". The model is developed to analyze and quantify the expected benefits associated with refuse derived fuel (RDF) thermal utilization; thus attention is focused on the performance of the energy recovery section.

  2. Data cleaning methodology for monthly water-to-oil and water-to-gas production ratios in continuous resource assessments (United States)

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.


    Petroleum production data are usually stored in a format that makes it easy to determine the year and month production started, if there are any breaks, and when production ends. However, in some cases, you may want to compare production runs where the start of production for all wells starts at month one regardless of the year the wells started producing. This report describes the JAVA program the U.S. Geological Survey developed to examine water-to-oil and water-to-gas ratios in the form of month 1, month 2, and so on with the objective of estimating quantities of water and proppant used in low-permeability petroleum production. The text covers the data used by the program, the challenges with production data, the program logic for checking the quality of the production data, and the program logic for checking the completeness of the data.

  3. Testing and design of selective catalytic reduction DENOX catalysts on the basis of titanium dioxide for flue gas cleaning plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, R.; Zuerbig, J. (Siemens AG, Redwitz (Germany). Unternehmensbereich KWU, Keramik- und Porzellanwerk)


    Selective catalytic reduction catalysers based on titanium dioxide enjoy a commanding position in the market. Reasons for this are high catalytic activity with simultaneous high specificity, low SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} oxidation rates, chemical resistance against acid, flue gas constituents and mechanical stability. The principle of DENOX catalyser design is precise knowledge and analyses of the limiting conditions under which use in power station shall result. A suitable type of catalyser has to be selected in accordance with the conditions of application. Manufacture has to be supported by a complex system of quality assurance measures and tests, so that the catalyser characteristics specified in the design can be guaranteed. 4 figs.

  4. [Determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion by gas chromatography coupled with microwave clean-up]. (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Li, An; Li, Haiyan; Tong, Kexing; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Tong


    A method for the determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues is described. It covers 25 residues in scallion including dichlorvos, ethoprophos, phorate, diazinon, disulfoton, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, ethion, EPN, dyfonate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenthion, quinalphos, gardona, methidathion, carbophenothion, phosmet, phosalone, and coumaphos. After the scallion samples were heated for 30 s in microwave oven, the residues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then the organic phase was salted out from the matrix. As a result, most of the interfering impurities were abolished in the heating process. In this study, these pesticides were categorized into two groups for analysis. The gas chromatographic analysis was performed on a capillary column (DB-1701, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm) and determined with a flame photometric detector. Linear correlation coefficients of the 25 organic phosphorus pesticides were not lower than 0.991 0 and the linear ranges for most of the compounds were between 0.1 to 5.0 mg/L. The detection limits were between 0.025 and 0.200 mg/L. In recovery study, average recoveries ranged from 85.2% to 119.6% at the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.1% and 14.8%. The method is a simple, rapid and highly efficient one to determine organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion.

  5. Clean Diesel (United States)

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  6. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei


    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  7. Simplified prediction of soot emissions in the exhaust of gas turbines operated at atmospheric pressure; Prediction simplifiee des emissions de suie a la sortie des chambres de combustion des turbines a gaz operees a la pression atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsogo, J. [College de la garde cotiere du Canada, Departement de genie maritime, Sydney (Canada); Kretschmer, D. [Universite Laval, Departement de genie mecanique, Quebec (Canada)


    In previous works [1, 2], a correlation for the prediction of soot in gas turbine exhaust has been presented. The development of the correlation is based on 300 of experimental data for a total of 19 fuels burned both at atmospheric and high pressure (0.1 to 0.9 MPa) and two scales (1/2 and 1/3) of a Laval type combustion chamber. With the wide range of fuels burned in the experiment giving a smoke number variation from 0 to 100, the accuracy of the correlation (Standard Deviation of 40%) is acceptable for most purposes Later on the correlation has been improved using data from the full scaled combustion chamber as shown in [3]. A detailed analysis of the correlation is undertaken within the present work for the case of the experiments at atmospheric pressure. The result is a simplification of the correlation presented in [3] without a major deterioration of the standard deviation. This result leads to a simplification of the previous proposed soot formation and oxidation model within gas turbine combustors (operated at atmospheric pressure) and limits the analysis of the phenomenon on essential functional parameters as well. Gas turbines are generally used in aircraft, ships, and in stationary production of electricity, heat and vapor. (author)

  8. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  9. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef


    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  10. Automated on-line determination of PPB levels of sodium and potassium in low-Btu coal gas and fluidized bed combustor exhaust by atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; Eckels, D.E.; Kniseley, R.N.; Fassel, V.A.


    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), US Department of Energy, is involved in the development of processes and equipment for production of low-Btu gas from coal and for fluidized bed combustion of coal. The ultimate objective is large scale production of electricity using high temperature gas turbines. Such turbines, however, are susceptible to accelerated corrosion and self-destruction when relatively low concentrations of sodium and potassium are present in the driving gas streams. Knowledge and control of the concentrations of those elements, at part per billion levels, are critical to the success of both the gas cleanup procedures that are being investigated and the overall energy conversion processes. This presentation describes instrumentation and procedures developed at the Ames Laboratory for application to the problems outlined above and results that have been obtained so far at METC. The first Ames instruments, which feature an automated, dual channel flame atomic emission spectrometer, perform the sodium and potassium determinations simultaneously, repetitively, and automatically every two to three minutes by atomizing and exciting a fraction of the subject gas sample stream in either an oxyhydrogen flame or a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The analytical results are printed and can be transmitted simultaneously to a process control center.

  11. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)


    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  12. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta


    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  14. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation. (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F


    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Integrated flue gas cleaning system for a CO{sub 2} purification process applicable in an oxyfuel power plant; Integration der Rauchgasreinigung in den CO{sub 2}-Aufbereitungsprozess eines Oxyfuel-Kraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappe, Stephanie [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Yan, Jinying [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Kass, Helge [Vattenfall Power Consult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany); White, Vince; Wright, Andrew [Air Products PLC, Walton-on-Thames (United Kingdom)


    Since 2009 Vattenfall has been operating a 30 MWth research plant at the Schwarze Pumpe site in order to perform comprehensive investigations focussing on new power plant components as well as process related aspects like the oxyfuel technology. In addition, a further pilot plant was erected in 2010 by the international gas supplier Air Products for the investigation of an alternative CO{sub 2} purification process. Within a common research agreement, numerous tests have been performed focussing on the characterisation of the integrated flue gas cleaning process. (orig.)

  16. New Structured Packing CUB for Purification of Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Novikova


    Full Text Available New structured packing for heat and mass transfer processes named CUB is presented in our article. The packing can be applied in packed towers for exhaust gas cleaning instead random packing, for example, rings type that are the most used in such processes. The advantages of the new packing over random packing are lower pressure drop, capability of purification and as a consequence long-term service of the packing. The researches of intensity of liquid-phase mass-transfer in packed bed depending on liquid spray rate and gas velocity were carried out. Obtained data show that packing CUB is more effective than the most popular type of structured packing under all other conditions being equal. As experimental data shown heat transfer coefficient was up by 17% and mass transfer coefficient was up by 51%. We found out optimal geometry of cross section of the new packing, namely, number of elements and parameters of one element. The new construction of structured packing is applicable for both type of column cross-section round and square.

  17. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensink, G.E.


    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures.

  18. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.


    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  19. NK Cell Exhaustion (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang


    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  20. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due


    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  1. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez‐Fueyo, A; Markmann, J. F


    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated...

  2. Considerations over the effects caused by a heat recovery system for exhaust gases, adapted to gas turbines originally designed for the operation in a simple cycle; Consideraciones sobre los efectos causados por un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape, adaptado a turbinas de gas disenadas originalmente para operar bajo un ciclo simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta Escobar, Cesar A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    This article sets out the considerations on what a heat recovery system from exhaust gases, to already installed and in operation gas turbines, and that were not originally designed to operate with this system, can cause. The potential effects are set forth on the control systems, on the combustion chambers, and in the gas turbine blades, utilized for natural gas pumping or power generation in land installations or in offshore platforms in trying to adapt to them a regenerative cycle or a heating system. Observed effects, fundamentally in the flame stability loop, flow velocity, thermal intensity coefficient, air/fuel relationships and mass flow. Also are presented the consequences that primary production system would suffer, mainly due to the natural gas pumping reduction, the space availability, the fuel consumption, and the maximum amount of heat susceptible to be recovered, comparing the requirements of this in the system. [Espanol] En este articulo se plantean las consideraciones sobre lo que puede provocar un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape adaptado a turbinas de gas ya instaladas, operando y que no fueron disenadas originalmente para operar con este sistema. Se plantean los probables efectos en los sistemas de control, en las camaras de combustion y en los empaletados de las turbinas de gas usadas para bombeo de gas natural o generacion electrica en instalaciones de tierra o plataformas marinas, al tratar de adaptarseles un ciclo regenerativo o un sistema para calentamiento. Efectos observados, fundamentalmente, en el LOOP de estabilidad de flama, velocidad del flujo, coeficiente de intensidad termica, relaciones aire-combustible y flujo masico. Tambien se presentan las consecuencias que sufriria el sistema primario de produccion debido, principalmente, a la reduccion del bombeo de gas natural, a la disponibilidad de espacio, al consumo de combustible y a la cantidad maxima de calor susceptible de recuperarse, comparada con los

  3. Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace--two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles. (United States)

    Nicolotti, Luca; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo


    The study proposes an investigation strategy that simultaneously provides detailed profiling and quantitative fingerprinting of food volatiles, through a "comprehensive" analytical platform that includes sample preparation by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), separation by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC-MS) and data processing using advanced fingerprinting approaches. Experiments were carried out on roasted hazelnuts and on Gianduja pastes (sugar, vegetable oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, nonfat dried milk, vanilla flavorings) and demonstrated that the information potential of each analysis can better be exploited if suitable quantitation methods are applied. Quantitation approaches through Multiple Headspace Extraction and Standard Addition were compared in terms of performance parameters (linearity, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation) under headspace linearity conditions. The results on 19 key analytes, potent odorants, and technological markers, and more than 300 fingerprint components, were used for further processing to obtain information concerning the effect of the matrix on volatile release, and to produce an informative chemical blueprint for use in sensomics and flavoromics. The importance of quantitation approaches in headspace analysis of solid matrices of complex composition, and the advantages of MHE, are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of transport sector within the German energy system under greenhouse gas reduction constraints and effects on other exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbeck, M.; Martinsen, D. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)


    The German Federal Government pledged itself to make a 25% reduction in national CO{sub 2} emissions by 2005 on the basis of 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions. This reduction target is valid for the entire Federal Republic. Within that context the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology initiated the IKARUS project (Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies) in 1990. The aim of the project is to provide tools for developing strategies to reduce energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany. A range of instruments has been developed consisting of models, a data base and various tools with the aid of which different action sequences can be simulated and evaluated until the year 2020. By using the database and mainly one of the models of the project a scenario in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions will be sown as it could be expected for the year 2005. For this scenario as base two different strategies that hit the 25% reduction target will be discussed. Special attention is given to the transport sector. (au)

  5. Determination of pesticide residues in fish tissues by modified QuEChERS method and dual-d-SPE clean-up coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Molina-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Cieslik, Ewa; Cieslik, Iwona; Walkowska, Izabela


    The aim of this research was to modify the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for the determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in fatty animal matrices such as fish muscle tissues of carp and sturgeon collected from Carp Valley, Lesser Poland. Pesticides extraction effectiveness was evaluated at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level and efficiency of the dispersive-solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step was evaluated by comparison testing two different d-SPE clean-up stages, first the addition of the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), and secondly the addition of C18 after extracts enrichment with the d-SPE sorbent combination (PSA + SAX + NH2), introducing a novel concept of clean-up named dual-d-SPE clean-up. Analysis of pesticide residues was performed by Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS) working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Linear relation was observed from 0 to 200 ng mL(-1) and determination coefficient R(2) > 0.997 in all instances for all target analytes. Better recoveries and cleanliness of extracts in both samples, carp and sturgeon tissues, were obtained after C18 addition during the dual-d-SPE clean-up step. Recoveries were in the range 70-120%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10% at 0.030 mg kg(-1) spiking level for most pesticides. LODs ranged 0.001-0.003 mg kg(-1), while LOQs ranged 0.004-0.009 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied analyzing pesticide residues in real carp and sturgeon muscle samples; detectable pesticide residues were observed, but in all of the cases contamination level was lower than the default maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union (EU), Regulation (EC) N 396/2005.

  6. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik


    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  7. Comparison between a Water-Based and a Solvent-Based Impregnation Method towards Dispersed CuO/SBA-15 Catalysts: Texture, Structure and Catalytic Performance in Automotive Exhaust Gas Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xin


    Full Text Available Supported copper oxide nanoparticles are a potential candidate for replacing the rare and expensive precious metals within the automotive three-way catalyst. However, a well-designed dispersion method is necessary to allow a stable high loading of active material, compensating its lower intrinsic activity and stability. In this work, a CuO-loaded SBA-15 catalyst has been manufactured by two methods. The ammonia-driven deposition precipitation (ADP and the molecular designed dispersion (MDD methods are both considered as efficient deposition methods to provide well-dispersed copper oxide-based catalysts. Their morphology, copper dispersion and the chemical state of copper were characterized and compared. Due to the differences in the synthesis approach, a difference in the obtained copper oxide phases has been observed, leading to a distinct behavior in the catalytic performance. The structure-activity correlation of both catalysts has also been revealed for automotive exhaust gas abatement. Results demonstrate that various copper species can be formed depending on the precursor–support interaction, affecting selectivity and conversion during the catalytic reaction.

  8. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 15, No. 1, April 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on electric vehicle deployment, renewable natural gas, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  9. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  10. Safe, reliable desulfurization of high and very high H{sub 2}S loadings by UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}; Sichere, zuverlaessige Entschwefelung hoher und sehr hoher H{sub 2}S-Beladungen durch UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelsmann, Herbert [UGN-Umwelttechnik GmbH, Gera (Germany); Hilgert, Walter [Rietzler-Gruppe GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)


    UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 for complete, safe desulfurization of biogas/biogenic fuel gases (hydrolysis and pyrolysis gas, landfill gas, sewage gas,..), natural gas and associated petroleum gases and industrial production exhaust gases are market introduced and tested worldwide. In particular, the complete surrender of gas cooling, gas drying and gas reheating, the H{sub 2}S removal to zero level and proven in practice loading capacity of up to % 80 percent characterize the UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 external as a cost-effective, efficient and sustainable desulfurization medium. The further development of the pellets to the UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - that is, to internally hollow pellets with correspondingly enlarged, outer surface - is the next logical step to further improve performance whilst fully retaining the advantages of pellets. [German] UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 zur vollstaendigen, sicheren Entschwefelung von Biogas/biogenen Brenngasen (Hydrolyse- und Pyrolysegas, Deponiegas, Klaergas,...), Erdgas und Erdoelbegleitgasen sowie industriellen Produktionsabgasen sind markteingefuehrt und weltweit erprobt. Insbesondere der vollstaendige Verzicht auf Gaskuehlung, Gastrocknung und Gaswiederaufheizung, die H{sub 2}S-Entfernung auf Nullniveau sowie die in der Praxis nachgewiesene Beladungskapazitaet von bis zu 80-Gew% zeichnen die UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 als ein kostenguenstiges, effizientes und nachhaltiges externes Entschwefelungsmedium aus. Die Weiterentwicklung der Pellets zu den UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - d.h. zu innen hohlen Pellets mit entsprechend vergroesserter, aeusserer Oberflaeche - ist der naechste konsequente Schritt zur weiteren Leistungssteigerung bei vollstaendiger Beibehaltung der Vorteile der Pellets.

  11. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes (United States)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.


    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  12. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...





    Gas-cleaning installations of various principles of action are observed: rotational, impact-sluggish and centrifugal. Experiment by definition efficiency of cleaning gas emissions is executed. The characteristic for optimisation of hydrodynamic conditions of its work is given each aspect of scrubbers. It will allow designers of the equipment to make sampling of the necessary build. The modified row of apparatuses for wet cleaning of gas emissions is devised. Designs on modernisation of system...

  14. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh


    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  15. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace


    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  16. I. Textural/Structural tuning and nanoparticle stabilization of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. II. Generation of reducing agents for automotive exhaust gas purification via the processing of hydrocarbons in a PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor (United States)

    Xing, Yu

    This research consists of two parts. The first part deals with the preparation and properties of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. For studies of textural tuning, structural tuning, or material sintering, copper/aluminum and copper/zinc nanocomposites were prepared via various inorganic synthesis methods including conventional coprecipitation methods and a novel urea-gelation/thermal-modification method that produces narrow distributions of pore sizes, high surface areas, and significantly higher specific metal loadings. Solid-solid reaction analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were developed for the determination of the mixing homogeneities of the copper/aluminum nanocomposites. A sintering experiment at 250-600°C for 350 h under methanol-steam reforming conditions was carried out to compare the stability of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The mixing homogeneities of CuO/Al2O3 nanocomposites significantly affected the thermal stability of their reduced Cu0 crystallites. Creation of relatively narrow distributions of pore sizes with relatively small major pore diameters (e.g., 3.5 nm) can also be used for the stabilization of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The supported nanoparticles with a relatively small initial size cannot ensure good thermal stability. A "hereditary" character on the homogeneity of copper/aluminum nanocomposites was revealed. Stepwise reduction and reoxidation were studied for the structural tuning and purification of Cu-Al-O spinels with isotropic and gradual unit-cell contractions. The second part of the research deals with the processing of hydrocarbons. Conversion of a model hydrocarbon (n-hexane or n-octane) in an AC discharge PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor was verified to be an effective method to instantly produce reducing agents (e.g., hydrogen or/and light alkanes and alkenes), at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for automotive exhaust gas purification. Effects of

  17. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John


    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  18. Cleaning of condensate from flue gas condensing plants at co-combustion of waste fuels. Follow-up of emissions; Rening av kondensat fraan roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar vid samfoerbraenning av avfallsbraenslen. Uppfoeljning av utslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, Lena; Dejfors, Charlotte; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Limits of discharges in waste water at flue gas cleaning are one of the fields included in the EC-directive (2000/76/EG) regarding combustion of waste from December 28th, 2000. The pollutants included in the limits are suspended material, Hg, Cd, Tl, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn as well as dioxins and furans. The limits of the directive applies generally for plants with combustion of waste, regardless of type of waste fraction, the degree of admixture or if it is a so called co-combustion plant or not. For new plants, the limits shall be fulfilled within two years after the date of the directive whereas existing plants have another three years to meet the new demands. In this project, the condensate from the flue gas has been analysed at five different combustion plants. Samples of the fuel have also been analysed as a reference at the evaluation of the results. The results from the analysed condensate have then been compared and evaluated with regards to the limit values in the EC-directive. However, one exception is dioxins and furans that are not included in this study. The analysis of the pure condensate show that at most plants the content of pollutants is below, or in some cases well below, the limits of the EC-directive. At plants with co-combustion of recovered biofuels, even the contents of pollutants in the non-purified raw condensate are below the limits of the directive. This means that plants with co-combustion of recovered wood waste and biofuels most likely will meet the requirements for emissions to waste water in the EC-directive. The water treatment process in these plants normally consists of a pH-adjustment stage followed by adding of chemicals before the condensate enters into a sand filter. The cleaned condensate from the sand filter is normally released to a recipient whereas the dirty condensate goes through a lamell separator in order to separate rest sludge. The most polluted raw condensate was found at a plant with 100 % combustion of municipal

  19. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson


    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  20. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio


    The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the

  1. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter


    The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect...... the nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped....... In order to investigate the relation between incineration temperatures and the production of inhibitory compounds, the process air was burned at temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C. The termically affected condensate was collected and the nitrification inhibition effect of the condensate was tested using...

  2. The hot gas cleaning with multifunctional sorbent technique at 1-20 bar pressure; Kaasujen kuumapuhdistus multifunktionaalisella sorbenttitekniikalla 1-20 bar:n paineessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The aim of the research was to study the simultaneous hot gas cleanup of alkali metals and selected heavy metals under pressure of 1-20 bar using multifunctional sorbent technology, to investigate effects of it on sulfur and nitrogen emissions and to improve the total efficiency of the hot gas cleanup method by reducing the concentrations of harmful components to the level required by the gas turbines. The research has started in the year 1993. The optimization of the test facility at 900 deg C and 20 bar has been accomplished, as targeted. The main topics have been the alkali metals. The main targets of the year 1994 was to concentrate on the research of sorbent effectiveness to remove the impurities like alkalies etc. from the flue gas. Furthermore researches on kinetics and mechanisms were started. The results showed that the developed multifunctional sorbent are highly effective to remove alkalies from the flue gas. Also a mechanism for alkali and lead sorption was proposed. The main topics for 1995 were scheduled to be the completion of the kinetic and mechanical studies and the modelling and the estimation of the data for the pilot scale unit. The kinetic data for one sorbent has been completed and a model for that has also been developed. The measured and calculated results are indicating that the developed multifunctional sorption process is highly effective to remove alkalies and heavy metals such as lead and cadmium from high-temperature combustion gases. The tests are carried out mainly using the pressurized entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy, located in Jyvaeskylae, and in the university of Arizona, where the tests are conducted under atmospheric pressure. Some comparisons of the results might be made with those of Aabo Akademi during the future modelling. 3. The results are applied to purification of the hot gases in boilers, power and process industry. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao


    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  4. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir


    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  5. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.


    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  6. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN


    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  7. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.


    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  8. Air Cleaning Technologies (United States)


    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  9. Flue gas cleaning by the electron-beam-process (I): Optimization of removal efficiency and energy consumption at the ITS-facility (United States)

    Willibald, U.; Platzer, K.-H.; Wittig, S.

    Electron beam irradiation of flue gases is a method for simultaneous SO 2 and NO x control. The energy requirement for NO removal is determined only by the initial NO concentration and increases linearly with it. In analyzing the total NO x removal efficiency the production of NO 2 and N 2O has to be considered. For the SO 2 removal, the irradiation dose is not the single determining factor. The NH 3 mole ratio, the flue gas temperature and humidity are of predominant importance. The influence of the dose rate on the conversion efficiency has been investigated at the ITS for the first time by altering the irradiation conditions systematically.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Sładkowska-Rybka


    Full Text Available Electrostatic precipitators (ESP are one of the most effective devices for particulate emission control, removing from the exhaust gases even 99,9 % of dust particles. The collection efficiency of the ESP depends on a number of factors: mechanical design and electrical operating parameters, physical and chemical properties of cleaned gas, characteristic of dust particles suspended in the gas. Among the most important factors affecting the ESP effectiveness, the velocity and the distribution of gas flow in the ESP chamber should be also indicated. Significant increase in ESP efficiency is possible thanks to the application of Skewed Gas Flow Technology (SGFT. In this paper the computer simulations results are shown. Authors investigated the possibility of ESP chamber size reduction by modification of gas flow distribution.

  11. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.


    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  12. Cleaning supplies and equipment (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  13. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  14. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian


    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lin, Youjian; Lu, Jian; Wilson, Chris


    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 °C for 2h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 °C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most <6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 °C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg⁻¹), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg⁻¹), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg⁻¹). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg⁻¹ to 3.72 μg kg⁻¹. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33±41.71 μg kg⁻¹, lowest concentration 5.68±0.38 μg kg⁻¹, and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73±0.53 to 7.53±0.01 μg kg⁻¹. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers. (United States)

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S


    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  17. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris


    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  18. Effect of diesel exhaust on sperm-shape abnormalities in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M.A.; Sabharwal, P.S.; Gordon, L.; Wyrobek, A.


    The sperm-shape abnormality bioassay in mice was used to determine whether chemical mutagens in diesel exhaust reach the testes. Strain A male mice (30 per group from 4 to 6 weeks of age) were exposed for 31 or 39 weeks to either diesel exhaust or clean air. After exposure, Eosin y-stained, air-dried smears of cauda epididymal sperm were scored for changes in sperm-head abnormalities in three different laboratories. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormally shaped sperm in controls and mice exposed to diesel exhaust.

  19. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars


    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  20. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  1. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The system and...

  2. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser


    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  3. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission. (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S


    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  4. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys


    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Exhaust emissions from small engines in handheld devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijewski Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the exhaust emissions carried out under real operating conditions of gasoline engines operating in a power generator and a chainsaw. During the operation of these devices the authors measured the following exhaust emissions: CO, HC, NOx and CO2. For the measurements the authors used a portable exhaust emission analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS. This analyzer measures the concentrations of the exhaust gas components in an on-line mode while the engine is running under real operating conditions (road, field etc.. The exhaust emissions tests of non-road engine applications are performed on engine test beds in the NRSC (ISO 8178 and NRTC tests. The presented method is a new solution in determining of the exhaust emissions from such engines. The obtained results were compared with the applicable emission requirements. Besides, based on the performed investigations, the authors attempted an evaluation of the possibilities of the use of the measurement method for development works related to the reduction of the emission from small gasoline engines.

  6. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.


    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  7. An improved dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up method for the gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric determination of multiclass pesticide residues in edible oils. (United States)

    Deme, Pragney; Azmeera, Tirupathi; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Jonnalagadda, Padmaja R; Prasad, R B N; Vijaya Sarathi, U V R


    An improved sample preparation using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up was proposed for the trace level determination of 35 multiclass pesticide residues (organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroids) in edible oils. Quantification of the analytes was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of residues were in the range of 0.01-1ng/g and 0.05-2ng/g, respectively. The analytes showed recoveries between 62% and 110%, and the matrix effect was observed to be less than 25% for most of the pesticides. Crude edible oil samples showed endosulfan isomers, p,p'-DDD, α-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon residues in the range of 0.56-2.14ng/g. However, no pesticide residues in the detection range of the method were observed in refined oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  9. EHMS: Exhaust Heat Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinbrenner, M.; Geskes, P. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Pollutant concentrations in diesel engines are reduced by cooling of the recirculated exhaust. This reduces emissions and particulate matter. The cooler technology can also be used for heating the passenger compartment faster and more economically. The authors present a model ready for seral production, including an exhaust flap for bypass control for use as auxiliary heating system. Further applications in gasoline engines are pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas


    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  11. [Remaining solvents in dry cleaned over clothes]. (United States)

    Tashiro, H; Fujishiro, K; Matsuno, K; Kawamoto, T; Okubo, T


    We examined remaining solvents in dry cleaned trousers to estimate the magnitude of environmental pollution. A cleaning solvent of petroleum hydrocarbon was analyzed by means of capillary column mass spectrum gas chromatography. Principal ingredients were identified to be nonane, decane and undecane. The same main components were detected in dry cleaned trousers. Total amounts of evaporated vapor from a pair of trousers (480 g) in 5 days after dry cleaning were nonane (0.73 mg), decane (1.53 mg) and undecane (1.09 mg). The levels on the fifth day were 5%(nonane), 18%(decane) and 32%(undecane) of the first day's concentration, respectively. The half times of the remaining solvents were 1.0 day (nonane), 1.7 days (decane) and 2.7 days (undecane), respectively.

  12. Effects of a flexible utilization of biogas on the electrical efficiency and the exhaust gas emissions from cogeneration plants; Auswirkungen einer flexiblen Biogasverwertung auf den elektrischen Wirkungsgrad und die Abgasemissionen von Blockheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappen, Simon Juan; Effenberger, Mathias [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Technikfolgenabschaetzung


    The German Renewable Energy Act of 2014 implements improved conditions to support market and grid integration of renewable energies, which resulted in the generated electricity to be sold directly to the market. In supporting the application of start-stop procedure and part load condition (e.g. during operating reserve), new requirements need to be set for biogas driven eo-generation units (CGU). Seven CGUs were analyzed during on-field measurements in Bavaria. The following article shows how results of part load adjustments affect the electrical efficiency and emissions, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (C{sub n}H{sub m}). Under part load condition, the CGU showed a decrease in electrical efficiency and NO{sub x}-concentration. No significant changes have been identified in the exhaust treated emissions. In general, part load response leads to higher environmental impact. However, the environmental impact is expected to be low, since the application and extent of using flexible driving behavior is still limited. In contrast, stricter emission limit values set by TA Luft 2017 could impact the electrical efficiency and lead to higher costs for monitoring and exhaust treatment.

  13. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  14. Cleaning Products Pilot Project (United States)

    This 1997 case study documents a three-year effort to identify and compare environmentally preferable commercial cleaning products and to implement the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP).

  15. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  16. 49 CFR 325.91 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 325.91 Section 325.91... EMISSION STANDARDS Exhaust Systems and Tires § 325.91 Exhaust systems. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57193, Sept. 20, 2010. A motor vehicle does not conform to the visual exhaust system inspection...

  17. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes (United States)

    Fan, L.-S.


    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  18. Experimental Design of Compact Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases for Grain Dryers


    Aziz, Nasruddin


    Abstract??? In diesel engine cycle, 35% of energy losses through the exhaust gases, the heat is an energy potential that can still be reused for various purposes. This research aims to design a heat exchanger, based of diesel engine exhaust gases integrated with rice milling unit for drying agricultural products. The exhaust gas is derived from 6D16 diesel engine of 120 kVA as a power generator for rice milling unit at South Sulawesi. Exhaust gas temperature reaches 357oC with the mass flow r...

  19. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)


    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  20. Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping. (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reimer, Nils; Jochmann, Peter


    Since 2005, a dramatic decline of the Arctic sea-ice extent is observed which results in an increase of shipping activities. Even though this provides commercial and social development opportunities, the resulting environmental impacts need to be investigated and monitored. In order to understand the impact of shipping in arctic areas, the method described in this paper determines the travel time, fuel consumption and resulting exhaust emissions of ships navigating in arctic waters. The investigated case studies are considering ship particulars as well as environmental conditions with special focus on ice scenarios. Travel time, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission were investigated for three different vessels, using different passages of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in different seasons of years 1960, 2000 and 2040. The presented results show the sensitivity of vessel performance and amount of exhaust emissions to optimize arctic traffic with respect to efficiency, safety and environmental impact.

  1. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)


    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: noble gas separation, damage control, aerosols, test methods, new air cleaning technology from Europe, open-end, and filtration. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  2. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)


    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AllYouWantTV 616,527 views 1:19 WHO: SAVE LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure ... 10,684 views 1:53 Clean hands save lives - Duration: 0:59. NIHClinicalCenter 2,298 views 0: ...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ... out of these essential resources. In a model of total energy production from a dirty resource and a perfect substitute clean technology (backstop), we show the optimal solution implies using either one energy source at first before finally converging to a steady state of using both the dirty and clean technologies in fixed proportions. The di...

  5. Optimization of an online heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography clean-up step for isotopic ratio mass spectrometry and simultaneous quadrupole mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous anabolic steroid in urine. (United States)

    Casilli, Alessandro; Piper, Thomas; de Oliveira, Fábio Azamor; Padilha, Monica Costa; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo; Thevis, Mario; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler


    Measuring carbon isotope ratios (CIRs) of urinary analytes represents a cornerstone of doping control analysis and has been particularly optimized for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of appropriate quality, however, necessitates adequate purities of the investigated steroids, which requires extensive pre-analytical sample clean-up steps due to both the natural presence of the target analytes and the high complexity of the matrix. In order to accelerate the sample preparation and increase the automation of the process, the use of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) prior to IRMS experiments, was investigated. A well-established instrumental configuration based on two independent GC ovens and one heart-cutting device was optimized. The first dimension (1D) separation was obtained by a non-polar column which assured high efficiency and good loading capacity, while the second dimension (2D), based on a mid-polar stationary phase, provided good selectivity. A flame ionization detector monitored the 1D, and the 2D was simultaneously recorded by isotope ratio and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The assembled MDGC set-up was applied for measuring testosterone, 5α- and 5β-androstanediol, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as target compounds and pregnanediol as endogenous reference compound. The urine sample were pretreated by conventional sample preparation steps comprising solid-phase extraction, hydrolysis, and liquid-liquid extraction. The extract obtained was acetylated and different aliquots were injected into the MDGC system. Two high performance liquid chromatography steps, conventionally adopted prior to CIR measurements, were replaced by the MDGC approach. The obtained values were consistent with the conventional ones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Diesel exhaust pollution: chemical monitoring and cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Joeng


    Full Text Available Diesel engines are a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM which may cause adverse health effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. There is little consistency between many studies to establish which engine parameter is a key factor to determine the toxicity of diesel exhaust. The aim of this study was to correlate engine operating systems with cytotoxicity using human cells. A dynamic direct exposure system containing human cells grown at the air liquid interface (ALI was employed to expose human derived cells to diesel exhaust emitted under a range of engine loads. To determine correlation between engine load and cytotoxicity, concentrations of NOx and carbon (organic and elemental were measured. Comparison between filtered and unfiltered exhaust was also made. To assess cytotoxicity and determine mechanisms responsible for toxic effects, various bioassays measuring a range of endpoints were used including: cell metabolism (MTS, cell energy production (ATP and cell lysosome integrity (NRU. The human cells selected in this study were lung (A549 and liver (HepG2 derived cells to detect if observed cytotoxicity was basal (i.e. affect all cell types or organ-specific. Results showed that NOx gas concentrations increased as engine load increased which resulted in significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and HepG2 cells. In contrast carbon measurements remained relatively constant across loads with no observable significant difference in cytotoxicity by filtering diesel exhaust. This result suggests that the gaseous component of diesel exhaust may contribute higher cytotoxicity than the particulate component. Post exposure incubation was an important factor to consider as only gaseous components of diesel exhaust exhibited observable immediate effects. Our findings suggest engine torque as a reliable indicator of cytotoxicity on human cells. The advantages of the dynamic direct exposure method include a more

  7. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Clifford

    Full Text Available The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes.Before-after trial.Newly built community hospital.90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results.Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months.1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant. For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant, and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016. For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN trended toward improvement (P = 0.056; b removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning worsened (P = 0.017; c removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046, but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003; d cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated.At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  8. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  9. Can a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) maintain air purification capability when using polluted air for regeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei


    was experimentally studied. The results showed that using the air contained acetone or toluene for regeneration reduced the pollutants removal capability of CAHP with a reduction of approx. 10% in air cleaning efficiency. The energy performance of the CAHP when using exhaust air for regeneration was also evaluated...... on reducing the regeneration air temperature and further improving the energy performance of the CAHP. However, the exhaust air carried a lot of indoor air pollutants. Whether using exhaust air for the regeneration of the silica gel rotor had an impact on the air cleaning performance of the CAHP...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang


    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial

  11. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control. (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M


    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  12. Gravimetric Measurements of Filtering Facepiece Respirators Challenged With Diesel Exhaust. (United States)

    Satish, Swathi; Swanson, Jacob J; Xiao, Kai; Viner, Andrew S; Kittelson, David B; Pui, David Y H


    Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals. The objective of this study was to measure the penetration of DPM through NIOSH-certified R95 and P95 electret respirators to verify this result. Gravimetric-based penetration measurements conducted using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP) filters were compared with penetration measurements made with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, TSI Inc.), which measures the particle size distribution. Gravimetric measurements using PP filters were variable compared to SMPS measurements and biased high due to adsorption of gas phase organic material. Relatively inert PTFE filters adsorbed less gas phase organic material resulting in measurements that were more accurate. To attempt to correct for artifacts associated with adsorption of gas phase organic material, primary and secondary filters were used in series upstream and downstream of the FFR. Correcting for adsorption by subtracting the secondary mass from the primary mass improved the result for both PTFE and PP filters but this correction is subject to 'equilibrium' conditions that depend on sampling time and the concentration of particles and gas phase hydrocarbons. Overall, the results demonstrate that the use of filters to determine filtration efficiency of FFRs challenged with diesel exhaust produces erroneous results due to the presence of gas phase hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust and the tendency of filters to adsorb organic material. Published by

  13. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J


    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  14. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.


    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  15. Quiet Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1 (United States)


    The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower fuel consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: This video can ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: ... Hand Washing For Nurses - Duration: 2:57. Kevin Gorin 213,219 views ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  19. Clean Water Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 59K ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 60K ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... 290 views 1:27 Hand Hygiene for Health Care Workers - Germ Smart - Duration: 5:45. Former Saskatoon ...

  5. Clean Energy Finance Tool (United States)

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also ... views 3:56 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also ... 3:56 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 59, ... 328 views 1:53 Good Sam Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 2:28. Good Samaritan Medical Center ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report ... WHO: SAVE LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health ...

  10. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants (United States)

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  11. Clean Diesel National Grants (United States)

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  12. Clean Water Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... 584 views 1:53 Hand Hygiene for Health Care Workers - Germ Smart - Duration: 5:45. Former Saskatoon ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

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    Full Text Available ... next. Up next Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 335,368 views 1:36 WHO: SAVE LIVES - Clean Your Hands - No action today; no cure tomorrow - ...

  17. 40 CFR 86.544-90 - Calculations; exhaust emissions. (United States)


    ... = Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent. (5)(i) CH3OHmass = Methanol...,000,000) (3) Carbon monoxide mass: COmass = Vmix × DensityCO × (COconc/1,000,000) (4) Carbon dioxide... of HC in exhaust gas. (A) For gasoline-fuel; DensityHC=576.8 g/m3-carbon atom (16.33 g/ft3-carbon...

  18. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well......-suited for industrial ventilation purposes. With the REEXS principle it is possible to create a flow pattern in front of the exhaust opening which will have a considerable influence on the general flow in a given room....

  19. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. (United States)


    ... for the future installation of a clothes dryer. 3280.708 Section 3280.708 Housing and Urban... duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. (a) Clothes dryers. (1) All gas and electric clothes dryers shall be exhausted to the outside by a moisture-lint exhaust duct and...

  20. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    to suck the human bio-effluents at the area of the body where they are generated before they spread in the room. The air polluted with released bio-effluents is exhausted into the mattress near the body and is either cleaned and released back in the room or is removed from the room by connecting...... the mattress to the exhaust of the room background ventilation system. Comprehensive research reveals that the method is highly efficient for removal of bio-effluents. The energy saving potential of the VM combined with constant air volume (CAV) ventilation operating at reduced ventilation rate in a single...... was used alone at 4, 6 and 12 ACH. The air exhausted through the mattress was 1.5 L/s. The occupants were present 24 hours every day including weekends. Compared to the CAV ventilation used alone at 4, 6 and 12 ACH the use of the VM in the single-bed room decreased the annual energy consumption...

  1. DOG optical gas analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbukin, A.A.; Buldakov, M.A.; Korolev, B.V.; Korolo' kov, V.A.; Matrosov, I.I. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Optical Monitoring


    Stationary gas analyzers for continuous monitoring of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of electric power plants burning fossil fuels have been developed. The DOG series of gas-analyzers use non-laser UV radiation sources and the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurement technique. Operation of the gas-analyzers at Russian electric power plants showed their high efficiency, reliability, and easiness in operation at lower cost as compared to similar foreign devices. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  3. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi


    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  4. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, A. W.; Dubbeldam, D.; Liu, M. S.; Ladewig, B. P.; Hill, A. J.; Hill, M. R.


    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel

  5. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities


    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A


    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  6. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine


    Wail Aladayleh; Ali Alahmer


    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  7. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases (United States)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.


    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  8. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.


    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  9. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui


    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  10. Environmental cleaning and disinfection. (United States)

    Traverse, Michelle; Aceto, Helen


    The guidelines in this article provide veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and veterinary health care workers with an overview of evidence-based recommendations for the best practices associated with environmental cleaning and disinfection of a veterinary clinic that deals with small animals. Hospital-associated infections and the control and prevention programs necessary to alleviate them are addressed from an environmental perspective. Measures of hospital cleaning and disinfection include understanding mechanisms and types of contamination in veterinary settings, recognizing areas of potential concern, addressing appropriate decontamination techniques and selection of disinfectants, the management of potentially contaminated equipment, laundry, and waste management, and environmental surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Report on diagnosis and survey on research cooperation in the research cooperation promotion project in fiscal 1994. Research cooperation on manufacturing clean fuel for consumer use from gasified coal gas / Research cooperation on a method for pulp manufacturing of low-pollution and energy saving type by using non-wood raw materials; 1994 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo 'kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa' hokokusho. Sekitan gas ka gas kara no minseiyo clean nenryo seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku / himokuzaikei genryo wo mochiita teikogai shoenegata pulp seizoho ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In solving the problems in developing technologies peculiar to developing countries, Japan will provide cooperation. This paper describes the achievements in diagnosis and survey in fiscal 1994. Development will be made on a manufacturing process for dimethylether (DME), a synthesizable and portable clean fuel, by using coal produced in China. Annual DME production of 10,000 tons will make it possible to supply 50,000 households with the fuel of one year consumption, whereas return on the construction investment and profit can be expected. At the Shanxi Coal Chemistry Research Institute, a 500 tons a year plant making DME from gasified coal gas is scheduled to begin operation. Development will be made on a pulp manufacturing technology in China, in which environmental pollution due to waste water is largely reduced, and operation cost is reduced. Application of the oxygen-alkaline evaporation and decomposition process developed in Japan will be considered, which uses non-wood raw material such as rice straw, wheat straw and megass). The raw materials are immersed continually in low-concentration alkaline solution, dehydrated, and then lignin is oxidized and decomposed by using oxygen in a continuous oxidation reactor to make the material into pulp. China uses non-wood materials as paper raw materials at 80%, whereas effects are expected in waste water pollution prevention, energy saving, resource saving and economics. (NEDO)

  12. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge


    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  13. 20 CFR 636.5 - Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. 636.5..., INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.5 Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. (a) Exhaustion required. No... have been exhausted. (b) Exhaustion exceptions. Complainants who have not exhausted the procedures at...

  14. Diesel Exhaust After-Treatment by Silicon Carbide Fiber Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto


    Full Text Available To reduce particulate matter (PM in diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been developed. The thermal durability of existing platinum catalyst-supported DPFs is inadequate. We are focusing on a non-catalytic after-treatment of silicon carbide (SiC fibers with highly thermal durability. In this study, we simulated the processes of soot deposition and oxidation. Results show that even in exhaust gas without soot, a complex flow pattern is observed. The porosity of the filter is not constant along the flow direction, and the pressure gradient varies. The friction factor is slightly larger than the predicted value by the empirical equation in uniform porous media flow. Since the soot deposition occurs inside the filter, the depth filtration by SiC fibers was confirmed. In addition, the effects of filter temperature and oxygen concentration are clearly revealed. That is, comparing the oxidation at 700 °C, the deposited soot amount at 1200 and 1400 °C is decreased by 60% and 92%, respectively. Raising the oxygen concentration from 10% to 20% increases the oxidation efficiency from 42% to 64%. Although more work is needed over a wide range of operating conditions, a combination of these two parameters is important to achieve the non-catalytic exhaust after-treatment.

  15. Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Halling-Sørensen, Bent


    ... Martin Hansen , Kristine A. Krogh , Bent Halling ... in a 22 mL PLE cell : firstly by flushing the sample with heptane to remove unwanted matrix components (inverse- PLE , i- PLE ) and secondly, performing internal clean-up (ic- PLE ) and eluting the steroid hormones by attaching an ...

  16. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    are exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also aims to address myths and misperceptions ... views 3:56 Creative Communication - LifeBouy Hand Washing Campaign - Duration: 2:08. LIQVD ASIA 15,338 views ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 56,897 views 3:10 Handwashing Gangnam ... Moments of Hand Hygiene - Duration: 1:53. Salem Health 10,662 views 1:53 Clean hands save ...

  19. NSW clean coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: Otway CO{sub 2} storage project (P. Cook); alternative pathways to low emission electricity (L. Wibberley); Delta Electricity pilot capture project (G. Everett); international developments for CO{sub 2} capture and storage and clean coal (K. Thambimutu); NSW storage opportunities (B. Mullard); NSW opportunities (M. O'Neil); and the Climate Institute (J. Connor).

  20. Road-Cleaning Device (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…


    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM


    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  2. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya


    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  3. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  4. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)


    between 35 % and 47 %. The total efficiency of a CHP plant depends on its heat recovery system, recording at its highest rating 98 % efficiency. Exhaust emissions of IC engine power plants must be reduced both by internal and post-combustion methods. The lean-burn SI gas engines seem better with regard to engine-out emissions, while other gas and oil-driven engines with higher oxides of nitrogen emissions are worse. The report deals only with post-combustion exhaust cleaning systems, reporting on the development of selective catalytic processes (SCR) and three-way catalysts. Data was also collected on combined oxi-cat and SCR reactors and NO reduction concepts that utilize other media than ammonia or urea, as well as more advanced post-combustion methods. (orig.) 60 refs.

  5. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.


    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.


    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  8. Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners? work


    Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitk?l?, K.H.


    Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners? (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding ...

  9. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  10. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  11. T cell exhaustion and immune-mediated disease-the potential for therapeutic exhaustion. (United States)

    McKinney, Eoin F; Smith, Kenneth Gc


    T cell exhaustion represents a continuous spectrum of cellular dysfunction induced during chronic viral infection, facilitating viral persistence and associating with poor clinical outcome. Modulation of T cell exhaustion can restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells, promoting viral clearance. Exhaustion has also been implicated as playing an important role in anti-tumour responses, whereby exhausted tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes fail to control tumour progression. More recently exhaustion has been linked to long-term clinical outcome in multiple autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to cancer or infection, it is associated with a favourable clinical outcome characterised by fewer relapses. An increasing understanding of key inhibitory signals promoting exhaustion has led to advances in therapy for chronic infection and cancer. An increasing understanding of this biology may facilitate novel treatment approaches for autoimmunity through the therapeutic induction of exhaustion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C


    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  13. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  14. Single-Particle Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous H2O and HCl Processing on Clean and H2SO4-Coated Aluminum Oxide Particles (United States)

    Hunter, A. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.; Rawlins, W. T.


    Aluminum oxide particles exhausted from solid rocket motors may affect tropospheric and stratospheric radiative balance through nucleation and growth of water ice clouds, both locally in launch corridors and globally. These particles also are active toward chemisorption of HCl and dissociative chemisorption of CFCs. Plume particle surfaces are likely to contain H2SO4, possibly altering their activities toward uptake and chemical processing of HCl and HNO3. We have investigated activities of different types of aluminum oxide particles for uptake of gas-phase H2O and HCl, using a single-particle electrodynamic levitation apparatus. The particle types investigated were clean and H2SO4-treated alpha-Al2O3 and gamma-Al2O3. We also investigated metastable Al2O3 particles formed by rapid cooling from molten particles in a shock tube, analogous to particle processing in a rocket exhaust nozzle. Particles were treated with H2SO4 by vapor deposition in an oven. The kinetic measurements consisted of independent, simultaneous observations of mass uptake and particle size increase upon exposure of single levitated particles to fixed concentrations of H2O or HCl in slowly flowing gas mixtures at 1 atm. Alpha and gamma Al2O3 were essentially inert toward H2O and HCl uptake, however they readily adsorbed monolayer-equivalent levels of H2SO4 vapor. H2SO4-coated and metastable particles were active toward H2O and HCl uptake. The measured uptake efficiencies imply fast reaction rates within rocket exhaust plumes, potentially leading to CCN behavior as well as heterogeneous chlorine activation by these particles. This research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  15. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.


    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  16. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU


    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Lynch


    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now

  19. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  20. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  1. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva


    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  2. 49 CFR 393.83 - Exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 393.83 Section 393.83... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.83 Exhaust systems. (a) Every motor... shall have a system to direct the discharge of such fumes. No part shall be located where its location...

  3. Effect of exhaustive exercise on myocardial performance. (United States)

    Grimditch, G K; Barnard, R J; Duncan, H W


    Several investigators have reported ultrastructural changes in hearts of animals exercised to exhaustion. The present study was designed to determine whether functional changes occur in the intact heart at exhaustion. Adult mongrel dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented to measure cardiac output, coronary blood flow, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, +dP/dtmax, and -dP/dtmax. After recovery, the dogs were run to exhaustion at a constant work load, eliciting approximately 70% of maximum heart rate. The exhaustive bouts were terminated when the animals either refused or were unable to continue running, at which time their rectal temperatures approaches 42.2 degree C. The mean exhaustion time was 76.7 +/- 11.8 min. All parameters increased from rest to steady state with the exception of stroke volume (23.2 +/- 4.9 vs. 20.5 +/- 1.6 ml), which remained constant. In the transition from steady state to exhaustion, only +dP/dtmax (6,652 +/- 291 vs. 7,689 +/- 479 Torr/s) and -dP/dtmax (4,110 +/- 227 vs. 4,890 +/- 215 Torr/s) increased significantly; all other values exhibited no significant change. Similarly, when maximum cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after exhaustion, no significant changes were found. These data show that cardiac contractile function is not depressed in dogs as a result of exhaustive exercise.

  4. CO{sub 2} abatement by co-firing of natural gas and biomass-derived gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiaschi, Daniele; Carta, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , University of Florence, Via C. Lombroso, 6/17, 50134 Firenze (Italy)


    In this work, a possible way for partial CO{sub 2} emissions reduction from gas turbine exhausts by co-firing with biomass is investigated. The basic principle is the recirculation of a fraction of the exhausts (still rich in oxygen) to a gasifier, in order to produce syngas to mix with natural gas fuel. As biomass is a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, the fraction of replaced natural gas is a measure of CO{sub 2} removal potential of the powerplant. The investigated solution considers the conversion of solid fuel to a gaseous fuel into an atmospheric gasifier, which is blown with a recirculated fraction of hot gas turbine exhausts, typically still rich in air. In this way, the heat content of the exhausts may be exploited to partially sustain the gasification section. The produced syngas, after the tar removal into the high temperature cracker, is thus sent to the cooling section, consisting of three main components: (I) gas turbine recuperator, (II) heat recovery steam generator and (III) condensing heat exchanger to cool down the syngas close to the environmental temperature before the subsequent recompression and mixing with natural gas fuel into the combustion chamber. The water stream produced within the condensing heat exchanger upstream the syngas compression is vaporised and sent back to the gasifier. If very limited modification to the existing gas turbine has to be applied in order to keep the additional costs limited, only a relatively reduced fraction of the low calorific value syngas may be mixed with natural gas. The analysis at different levels of co-firing has shown that no appreciable redesign has to be applied to the target GE5 machine up to 25-30% (heat rate based) renewable fraction. With an accurate heat recovery from the cooling/cleaning system of the syngas, the same levels of efficiency of the original machine have been achieved, in spite of the relatively large power consumption of the syngas recompression. Very interesting results have been

  5. Emotionally exhausting factors in general practitioners’ work (United States)

    Torppa, M.A.; Kuikka, L.; Nevalainen, M.; Pitkälä, K.H.


    Background. Emotional exhaustion is central in burnout syndrome and signals its development. General practitioners’ (GP) work is emotionally challenging but research on these aspects is lacking. Objective. To study the prevalence of emotional exhaustion among GPs and to evaluate how their characteristics and work experiences are associated with emotional exhaustion. Design and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among GPs in Finland in 2011 in which questions were posed regarding their experience of emotional exhaustion and items related to their work experiences and professional identity. A statement “I feel burnt out from my job” (never, seldom, sometimes, quite often, or often) enquired about emotional exhaustion. Those responding quite often or often were categorized as emotionally exhausted. Results. Among the GPs, 68% responded (165/244). Of the respondents, 18% were emotionally exhausted. Emotional exhaustion was associated with older age, longer working history, experiences of having too much work, fear and reports of having committed a medical error, low tolerance of uncertainty in their work, and feeling alone at work. No differences in positive work experiences were found. In logistic regression analysis working experience > 5 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6–10.8; p = 0.0036) and feeling alone at work (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2–7.1; p = 0.020) predicted emotional exhaustion, having committed a medical error in the past three months predicted it marginally significantly (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.9, p = 0.057), whereas tolerating uncertainty well protected against it (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.09–0.7; p = 0.0098). Conclusions. Emotional exhaustion among GPs was common and associated with longer working history, having committed a medical error, and feelings of isolation at work. GPs should receive more support throughout their careers. PMID:26311207

  6. Perancangan Cowper Guna Pemanfaatan Gas Buang Peleburan Logam


    Octaviano, Yoska; Mujalis, Yusep; Siantury, Benny; Sukarnoto, Tono; Sulamet, Rianti Dewi


    A prototype of homemade furnace was built and the highest temperature it can reach during the trial process is approximately 400OC. Beside liquid metal, the furnace also produced exhaust gas as a side product. The exhaust gas is still hot. Hot gas can be used to improve the furnace's temperature based on blast furnace method. To apply this method, the furnace should be companied with cowper. In designing cowper, several parameters should be notice. The parameters are hot gas temperature, air ...

  7. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A


    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  8. In situ measurements of HO{sub x} in super- and subsonic aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisco, T.F.; Wennberg, P.O.; Cohen, R.C.; Anderson, J.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fahey, D.W.; Keim, E.R.; Gao, R.S.; Wamsley, R.C.; Donnelly, S.G.; Del Negro, L.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; and others


    Concentrations of HO{sub x} (OH and HO{sub 2}) have been obtained in the exhaust plumes of an Air France Concorde and a NASA ER-2 in the lower stratosphere and the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere using instruments aboard the NASA ER-2. These fast-time response in situ measurements are used in conjunction with simultaneous in situ measurements of other key exhaust species (NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub y}, H{sub 2}O, and CO) to analyze the emissions of HO{sub x} from each aircraft under a variety of conditions. The data are used to establish a general description of gas phase plume chemistry that is easily implemented in a photochemical model. This model is used to determine the amount of HO{sub x} emitted from the engines and the gas phase oxidation rates of nitrogen and sulfur species in the exhaust plumes. (author) 10 refs.

  9. Clean energy and the hydrogen economy. (United States)

    Brandon, N P; Kurban, Z


    In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems. This paper presents the opportunities for the use of hydrogen in key sectors of the economy and identifies the benefits and challenges within the hydrogen supply chain for power-to-gas, power-to-power and gas-to-gas supply pathways. While industry players have already started the market introduction of hydrogen fuel cell systems, including fuel cell electric vehicles and micro-combined heat and power devices, the use of hydrogen at grid scale requires the challenges of clean hydrogen production, bulk storage and distribution to be resolved. Ultimately, greater government support, in partnership with industry and academia, is still needed to realize hydrogen's potential across all economic sectors.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Development of heat-resistant cast steel for exhaust manifolds. Exhaust manifold yo tainetsu chuko no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ike, M.; Akiyama, K. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Otsuka, K.; Ito, K. (Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Any exhaust manifold is exposed to the severer thermal cycle condition by exhasut gas of the maximum temperature reaching near 1273K and therefore the thermal resistance reliability should be improved. A new cast heat resistant steel for the exhaust manifold which had better thermal fatigue resistance and oxidation resistance than conventional Ni-resist cast iron was developed this time. The developed material was based on the 18Cr ferritic heat resistant steel of low coefficent of thermal expansion and the oxidation resistance was improved, and further the thermal fatigue life was improved by aiming at the structural stability through elevating the transformation point to the upper limit of service temperature or more. These requirements were achieved by grasping the above mentioned characteristics of the part material and by studying the effect of main composing elements, C, N, Cr, Nb, Mo, on these characteristics. The cheaper exhaust manifold of higher thermal resistant reliability than conventional one could be put into practical use by using a newly developed casting process in addition to the use of this developed material. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  12. A first French assessment of population exposure to tetrachloroethylene from small dry-cleaning facilities. (United States)

    Chiappini, L; Delery, L; Leoz, E; Brouard, B; Fagault, Y


    Used as a solvent in the dry-cleaning industry, tetrachloroethylene (C(2)Cl(4)) can be a pollutant of residential indoor air, which can cause long-term harmful exposures because of its neurotoxicity and probable carcinogenicity. In France, dry-cleaning facilities are integrated in urban environments (shopping malls, residential buildings) and can contribute to C(2)Cl(4) exposure for customers and residents. This exploratory work presents the results from five studies carried out in one shopping mall and four residential buildings housing a dry-cleaning facility. These studies involved dry-cleaning machines fitted with a Carbon Adsorber and unfitted, with or without Air Exhaust System. Samples were collected in the cleaning facilities and in the apartments located above with passive samplers allowing measurement of time-integrated concentrations on a 7 days sampling period. It has obviously shown the degradation of indoor air quality in these environments and underlined the contributing role of the machine technology and ventilation system on the amount of released C(2)Cl(4) in the indoor air. To temper these results, it must be pointed out that some parameters (building insulation, amount of solvent used...) which would influence C(2)Cl(4) fugitive release have not been quantified and should be looked at in further studies. In France, dry-cleaning facilities are frequently integrated in urban environments (large shopping malls or residential buildings) and can significantly contribute to tetrachloroethylene (C(2)Cl(4)) population exposure. The amount of fugitive releases in these environments depends on several parameters such as the dry-cleaning machine technology (fitted or unfitted with a carbon adsorber) and the ventilation (air exhaust system). To reduce C(2)Cl(4) exposure in residential buildings and other indoor environments with on-site dry cleaners, carbon adsorber unequipped machine should be replaced by newer technology and dry cleaners should be

  13. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling and...

  14. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars


    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...... effect from 2016....


    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary health effects. The relative contributions of the gas-phase and particulate (PM) components of DE are less well understood. We exposed WKY rats with or without implanted radiotransmitters to air or ...

  16. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention (United States)

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  17. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES.... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the... the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling zone. (3...

  18. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description. (United States)


    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is... downstream of the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling...

  19. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (United States)


    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang


    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are