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Sample records for exhaled breath condensate

  1. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  2. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

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    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  3. The Validity of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in Breath Condensate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Validity of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) in Breath Condensate in the Evaluation of Controlled Asthma. Ahmed Elsayed Elhefny, Sahar Mohammad Mourad, Tamer Saeed Morsy, Maher Abdelnbi Kamel, Haydi Moustafa Mohamed ...

  4. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into

  5. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroeks, C.M.; Rosias, P.P.; Vliet, D van; Jobsis, Q.; Yntema, J.L.; Brackel, H.J.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Hartog, GM den; Wodzig, W.K.; Dompeling, E.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate

  6. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized non-invasive exhaled breath condensate sampler.

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    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Pettit, Dayna R; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-12-22

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube(™) and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017).

  7. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

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    Hüttmann, Eva-Maria; Greulich, Timm; Hattesohl, Akira; Schmid, Severin; Noeske, Sarah; Herr, Christian; John, Gerrit; Jörres, Rudolf A; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC. EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV) were calculated. Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%. EBC pH and (to a lesser extent) EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  8. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

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    Eva-Maria Hüttmann

    Full Text Available Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC.EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV were calculated.Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%.EBC pH and (to a lesser extent EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  9. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

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    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  10. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

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    Robroeks, Charlotte M H H T; Rosias, Philippe P R; van Vliet, Dillys; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Brackel, Hein J L; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; den Hartog, Gertjan M; Wodzig, Will K W H; Dompeling, Edward

    2008-11-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate (EBC) acidity, nitrite, nitrate, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 8-isoprostane, Th1/Th2 cytokines] to indicate (exacerbations of) CF; and (ii) the ability of these non-invasive IM to indicate CF disease severity. In 98 children (48 CF/50 controls), exhaled nitric oxide was measured using the NIOX, and condensate was collected using a glass condenser. In CF interferon (IFN-gamma) and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher, whereas exhaled nitric oxide levels were significantly lower compared with controls (3.3 +/- 0.3 pg/ml, 2.2 +/- 0.2 microM, 10.0 +/- 1.2 p.p.b. vs. 2.6 +/- 0.2 pg/ml, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microM, 15.4 +/- 1.4 p.p.b. respectively). Using multivariate logistic regression models, the presence of CF was best indicated by 8-isoprostane, nitrite and IFN-gamma [sensitivity 78%, specificity 83%; area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.906, p < 0.001]. An exacerbation of CF was best indicated by 8-isoprostane and nitrite (sensitivity 40%, specificity 97%, AUC curve 0.838, p = 0.009). Most indicative biomarkers of CF severity were exhaled nitric oxide, and condensate acidity (sensitivity 96%, specificity 67%; AUC curve 0.751, p = 0.008). In this cross-sectional study, the combination of different exhaled IM could indicate (exacerbations of) CF, and severity of the disease in children. Longitudinal data are necessary to further confirm the role of these markers for the management of CF in children.

  11. Exploring Airway Diseases by NMR-Based Metabonomics: A Review of Application to Exhaled Breath Condensate

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    Matteo Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that biomarkers of exhaled gases or exhaled breath condensate (EBC may help in detecting abnormalities in respiratory diseases mirroring increased, oxidative stress, airways inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Beside the traditional techniques to investigate biomarker profiles, “omics” sciences have raised interest in the clinical field as potentially improving disease phenotyping. In particular, metabonomics appears to be an important tool to gain qualitative and quantitative information on low-molecular weight metabolites present in cells, tissues, and fluids. Here, we review the potential use of EBC as a suitable matrix for metabonomic studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. By using this approach in airway diseases, it is now possible to separate specific EBC profiles, with implication in disease phenotyping and personalized therapy.

  12. Clinical Effects, Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Humans After Ethyl Acrylate Exposure.

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    Hoffmeyer, F; Bünger, J; Monsé, C; Berresheim, H; Jettkant, B; Beine, A; Brüning, T; Sucker, K

    Ethyl acrylate is an irritant known to affect the upper airways and eyes. An increase of the eye blink frequency in humans was observed during exposure to 5 ppm. Studies on the lower airways are scant and our study objective was the evaluation of pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-pH) and nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO) as markers of inflammation. Sixteen healthy volunteers were exposed for 4 h to ethyl acrylate at a concentration of 5 ppm and to sham (0.05 ppm) in an exposure laboratory. Clinical irritation symptoms, EBC-pH (at a pCO2 of 5.33 kPa) and FeNO were assessed before and after exposure. Differences after ethyl acrylate exposure were adjusted for those after sham exposure. 5 ppm ethyl acrylate induced clinical signs of local irritation in the nose and eyes, but not in lower airways. Exposure produced a subtle, but statistically significant, decrease in breathing frequency (1 breath/min; p = 0.017) and a lower EBC-pH (by 0.045 units; p = 0.037). Concerning FeNO, we did not observe significant changes compared to sham exposure. We conclude that local effects induced by 5 ppm ethyl acrylate consist of sensory irritation of eyes and nose. In addition, acute ethyl acrylate exposure to 5 ppm resulted in a net decrease of EBC-pH. Whether that can be interpreted in terms of additional lower airway irritation or already inflammatory alterations set in needs further investigations.

  13. Effects of bronchoconstriction, minute ventilation, and deep inspiration on the composition of exhaled breath condensate.

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    Debley, Jason S; Ohanian, Arpy S; Spiekerman, Charles F; Aitken, Moira L; Hallstrand, Teal S

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is composed of droplets of airway surface liquid (ASL) diluted by water vapor. The goal of this study was to determine if the composition of EBC is affected by changes in airway caliber, minute ventilation, or forceful exhalation, factors that may differ among subjects with asthma in cross-sectional studies. In a group of subjects with asthma, we measured the effects of the following: (1) a series of three deep-inspiration and forceful-exhalation maneuvers; (2) a doubling of minute ventilation; and (3) acute bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine on EBC volume, dilution of ASL, and concentration of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). With the exception of an increase in EBC volume with increased minute ventilation, there were no significant changes in the volume, dilution, or levels of CysLTs in EBC introduced by each of these factors. The CIs surrounding the differences introduced by each factor showed that the maximum systematic errors due to these factors were modest. These results indicate that changes in airway caliber, minute ventilation, or breathing pattern among subjects with asthma do not significantly alter the measurements of mediator concentrations in EBC.

  14. Exhaled breath condensate sampling is not a new method for detection of respiratory viruses

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    Maes Piet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled breath condensate (EBC sampling has been considered an inventive and novel method for the isolation of respiratory viruses. Methods In our study, 102 volunteers experiencing upper airway infection were recruited over the winter and early spring of 2008/2009 and the first half of the winter of 2009/2010. Ninety-nine EBCs were successfully obtained and screened for 14 commonly circulating respiratory viruses. To investigate the efficiency of virus isolation from EBC, a nasal swab was taken in parallel from a subset of volunteers. The combined use of the ECoVent device with the RTube™ allowed the registration of the exhaled volume and breathing frequency during collection. In this way, the number of exhaled viral particles per liter air or per minute can theoretically be estimated. Results Viral screening resulted in the detection of 4 different viruses in EBC and/or nasal swabs: Rhinovirus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B, Influenza A and Influenza B. Rhinovirus was detected in 6 EBCs and 1 EBC was Influenza B positive. We report a viral detection rate of 7% for the EBCs, which is much lower than the detection rate of 46.8% observed using nasal swabs. Conclusion Although very promising, EBC collection using the RTube™ is not reliable for diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate pH is influenced by respiratory droplet dilution.

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    Bikov, Andras; Galffy, Gabriella; Tamasi, Lilla; Lazar, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2012-12-01

    Several studies support that airway acid stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Exhaled breath condensate pH (EBC pH) was suggested as a surrogate marker of airway acidification. The dilution of airway lining fluid (ALF) acids and bases by alveolar water may influence condensate pH, but it has not been studied yet. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between EBC pH and ALF dilution in EBC samples obtained from asthmatic and healthy subjects. EBC was collected from 55 asthmatic and 57 healthy subjects for pH and conductivity measurements. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and lung function tests were also performed in asthmatic patients. EBC pH was determined after 10 min of argon deareation and the dilution was estimated by the measurement of conductivity in vacuum-treated samples. There was no difference either in EBC pH or dilution between the two groups. However, a significant relationship was found between EBC pH and dilution in both groups (p healthy groups, respectively). Our results suggest important methodological aspect indicating that EBC pH is affected by respiratory droplet dilution, and this effect should be taken into consideration when interpreting EBC pH data.

  16. Comparison of exhaled breath condensate pH using two commercially available devices in healthy controls, asthma and COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koczulla, R.; Dragonieri, S.; Schot, R.; Bals, R.; Gauw, S.A.; Vogelmeier, C.; Rabe, K.F.; Sterk, P.J.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive method for studying the acidity (pH) of airway secretions in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Aim: To assess the reproducibility of EBC pH for two commercially available devices (portable RTube and

  17. Exhaled breath condensate pH as a biomarker of COPD severity in ex-smokers

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    Alchanatis Manos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous airway acidification, as assessed by exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, is present in patients with stable COPD. The aim of this study was to measure EBC pH levels in a large cohort of COPD patients and to evaluate associations with functional parameters according to their smoking status. EBC was collected from 161 patients with stable COPD and 112 controls (current and ex-smokers. EBC pH was measured after Argon deaeration and all subjects underwent pulmonary function testing. EBC pH was lower in COPD patients compared to controls [7.21 (7.02, 7.44 vs. 7.50 (7.40, 7.66; p Endogenous airway acidification is related to disease severity and to parameters expressing hyperinflation and air trapping in ex-smokers with COPD. The possible role of EBC pH in COPD needs to be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  18. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Milton, Donald; Sama, Susan R; Rosiello, Richard; de Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be useful in aiding diagnosis, defining specific phenotypes of disease, monitoring the disease and evaluating the effects of drugs. The aim of this study was the characterization of metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum as novel biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using reference analytical techniques. C-Reactive protein and procalcitonin were assessed as previously validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers which have been associated with disease exacerbation, thus useful as a basis of comparison with metal levels. Exhaled breath condensate and serum were obtained in 28 patients at the beginning of an episode of disease exacerbation and when they recovered. Trace elements and toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum biomarkers were measured by immunoassay. Exhaled manganese and magnesium levels were influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increase in their concentrations--respectively by 20 and 50%--being observed at exacerbation in comparison with values obtained at recovery; serum elemental composition was not modified by exacerbation; serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at exacerbation were higher than values at recovery. In outpatients who experienced a mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, manganese and magnesium levels in exhaled breath condensate are elevated at admission in comparison with values at recovery, whereas no other changes were observed in metallic elements at both the pulmonary and systemic level.

  19. Analysis of exhaled breath condensate in a mixed population of psittacine birds.

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    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Nitzl, Dagmar; Bogdanova, Anna; Zollinger, Eveline; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and the measurement of inflammatory markers contained therein (eg, hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], leukotriene B4 [LTB4], and pH) have been reported to be noninvasive tools for the investigation of respiratory disease in various species. In this study, the EBC of clinically healthy psittacine birds (n = 15) and psittacine birds with respiratory tract disease (n = 19) was examined, and inflammatory markers contained in the EBC were analyzed and compared. Awake birds were placed in an acrylic container from which the outflow passed through a condensation system that collected the EBC. All samples were analyzed for pH, H2O2, and LTB4. The mean values for each of these components, as well as the mean volume of the total EBC, measured from the apparently healthy birds did not differ significantly from those measured in birds with signs of respiratory tract disease. However, LTB4 in the EBC of diseased birds was higher than that of the apparently healthy birds and showed a trend toward significance. The study demonstrated the establishment of a standardized method for collecting and analyzing EBC in psittacine birds and a measurement protocol for pH, H2O2, and LTB4.

  20. Eicosanoids in exhaled breath condensates in the assessment of childhood asthma.

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    Kiełbasa, Bogumila; Moeller, Alexander; Sanak, Marek; Hamacher, Joerg; Hutterli, Monika; Cmiel, Adam; Szczeklik, Andrew; Wildhaber, Johannes H

    2008-11-01

    The value of measurements of eicosanoids in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for the evaluation of childhood asthma is still inconclusive most likely because of the limited value of the methods used. In this case-control study in 48 asthmatic and 20 healthy children, we aimed to characterize the baseline profile of the inflammatory mediators cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), 9(alpha)11(beta)PGF(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2alpha)) within EBC in asthmatic compared with healthy children using new methods. In addition, we investigated their relation to other inflammatory markers. The assessment included collection of EBC, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and evaluation of urinary excretion of leukotriene E(4.) cysLTs were measured directly in EBC by radioimmunoassay and prostanoids were measured using gas chromatography negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Only cysLT levels were significantly higher in asthmatic compared with healthy children (p = 0.002). No significant differences in cysLTs were found between steroid naïve and patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids. In contrast, FE(NO) was significantly higher in steroid naïve compared with steroid-treated asthmatic and healthy children (p = 0.04 and 0.024, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of cysLTs in EBC for asthma was 73.6% for the whole group and 78.2% for steroid-naïve asthmatic children. The accuracy to classify asthmatic for FE(NO) was poor (62.9%) for the whole group, but improved to 79.9% when only steroid-naïve asthmatic children were taken into consideration. cysLTs in EBC is an inflammatory marker which distinguishes asthmatics, as a whole group, from healthy children.

  1. Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

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    Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Nathalie; Howsam, Mike; Crucq, Sébastien; de Broucker, Virginie; Sobaszek, Annie; Edme, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-07

    To evaluate manganese in exhaled breath condensate (Mn-EBC) as an indicator of exposure to fumes from metal inert gas welding process. We collected EBC and urine from 17 welders and 16 unexposed control subjects after 5 days exposure. Concentrations of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) were measured in EBC and urine samples and correlated with cumulative exposure indices for the working week (CIW) and for the total welding years (WY), based on duration of welding activity and atmospheric metal measurements. Concentrations of Mn and Ni in EBC were significantly higher among welders than controls whereas this difference was not significant for Mn in urine. Levels of Mn and Ni in EBC were not correlated with their respective levels in urine. The linear regressions found significant positive coefficients between Mn-EBC, Ni-EBC, Ni-U and Cr-U concentrations and the cumulative exposure indices. Taking into account tobacco use, statistical analysis showed the same trends except for the relationship between Mn-U and CIW. This pilot study showed that Mn-EBC, as well as Ni-EBC, can serve as reliable indices of occupational exposure to welding fumes and provide complimentary toxicokinetic information to that provided by urine analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates by in-tube SPME-HPLC.

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    Wang, ShuLing; Hu, Sheng; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, polypyrrole/graphene (PPy/G) composite coating was prepared by a facile electrochemical polymerization strategy on the inner surface of a stainless steel (SS) tube. Based on the coating tube, a novel online in-tube solid-phase microextraction -high performance liquid chromatography (IT-SPME-HPLC) was developed and applied for the extraction of aldehydes in the human exhaled breath condensates (EBC). The hybrid PPy/G nanocomposite exhibits remarkable chemical and mechanical stability, high selectivity, and satisfactory extraction performance toward aldehyde compounds. Moreover, the proposed online IT-SPME-HPLC method possesses numerous superiorities, such as time and cost saving, process simplicity, high precision and sensitivity. Some parameters related to extraction efficiency were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of the aldehyde compounds at three spiked concentration levels varied in the range of 85%-117%. Good linearity was obtained with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)) being larger than 0.994. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) of the method ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% and the limits of detection were between 2.3 and 3.3 nmol L(-1). The successful application of the proposed method in human EBC indicated that it is a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehyde metabolites in complex EBC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum but not exhaled breath condensate periostin level is increased in competitive athletes.

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    Kurowski, Marcin; Jurczyk, Janusz; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Kowalski, Marek L

    2018-01-08

    Periostin is a matricellular protein expressed by many tissues. Its release may be enhanced, among others, through mechanical stimulation of muscles and bones as well as by cytokines of allergic inflammation. Our aim was to assess periostin levels in serum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of professional athletes, asthmatics and healthy controls. We also sought to determine whether acute treadmill exercise influences serum and EBC periostin. Study groups included 9 competitive swimmers, 10 mild-to-moderate asthmatics and 7 healthy controls. Athletes were assessed twice (in- and off-training period) while asthmatics and controls in one time-point. Data on demographics, allergy symptoms and exercise load were acquired through Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Serum and EBC were collected before and after treadmill exercise challenge. Baseline serum periostin in swimmers during training period was significantly higher (5- to 7-fold) than in asthmatics (P = .01) and controls (P training as compared with off-training period (P load leading to stimulation, injury and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. Periostin may be considered marker of long-term exercise overload after confirmation in larger groups. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Viral colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients: Possible role of EBV and CMV.

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    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Natalicchio, Maria Iole; Cotugno, Grazia; Zoppo, Luigi; Martinelli, Domenico; Antonetti, Raffaele; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria Pia

    2016-07-16

    Today, an increasing interest is being addressed to the viral etiology of lung tumors. As a consequence, research efforts are currently being directed to the identification of the new viruses involved in lung carcinogenesis toward which the screening programs could be directed. The aim of this study was to investigate the airways colonization by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) in patients affected by lung cancer using, as a respiratory non-invasive sample, the exhaled breath condensate (EBC). About 70 lung-cancer patients and 40 controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent bronchial brushing and EBC collection. EBV-DNA and CMV-DNA were evaluated in both samples by real-time PCR assay. They were able to detect EBV and CMV in the EBC. An increase of the EBV positivity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with controls and of the CMV in advanced stages of lung cancer were observed. The association of the positivity of the cytology and the CMV test (in EBC or brushing) slightly increased the sensitivity of malignant diagnosis. EBV and CMV resulted detectable in the EBC. In consideration of the potential involvement of these viruses in lung cancer, which was confirmed in this study, future studies in this direction were supported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Metabolomics analysis of exhaled breath condensate for discrimination between lung cancer patients and risk factor individuals.

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    Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-02-11

    The search for new clinical tests aimed at diagnosing chronic respiratory diseases is a current research line motivated by the lack of efficient screening tools and the severity of some of these pathologies. Alternative biological samples can open the door to new screening tools. A promising biofluid that is rarely used for diagnostic purposes is exhaled breath condensate (EBC), the composition of which has been inadequately studied. In this research, untargeted analysis of EBC using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been applied to a cohort of patients with lung cancer (n  =  48), risk factor individuals (active smokers and ex-smokers, n  =  130) and control healthy individuals (non-smokers without respiratory diseases, n  =  61). An identical protocol was applied to the two EBC fractions provided by the sampling device (upper and central airways and distal airway) from each individual, which allowed the compositional differences between the two EBC fractions to be detected. Tentative compounds that contribute to discrimination between the three groups were identified, and a relevant role for lipids such as monoacylglycerols and squalene was found. These results could support the ability of metabolomics to go inside the study of lung cancer.

  6. Conductivity in Exhaled Breath Condensate from Subjects with Emphysema and Type ZZ alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Jan; Fumagalli, Marco; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of biomarkers in biological samples from the lung has long been employed. Upon cooling water vapor present in exhaled breath, variable amounts of droplets of condensate (EBC) containing volatile and non-volatile compounds may be easily and non-invasively obtained from patients of any age.Objective of the present study was to compare the level of EBC conductivity determined for cohorts of individuals with different inflammatory lung disorders with that of healthy never-smoking individuals.The conductivity in EBC of PiZZ-Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients with a diagnosis of emphysema (PiZZ-AATD) was 3 fold lower than in spouse controls (54.5 ± 11.6 vs 165.3 ± 10.7 μS/cm). Non-PiZZ emphysema patients had conductivity in EBC of 59.6 ± 5.8 μS/cm and patients with sarcoidosis without airflow obstruction had EBC conductivity of 178,8 ± 6,2 μS/cm, 
not significantly different (p = 0.5) from healthy controls. Conductivity in serial EBC samples from patients with PiZZ-AATD emphysema and healthy controls was stable in 6 different samples collected over a period of 14 months. We conclude that conductivity values in EBC can be used as a correction factor for dilution of non-volatile components in EBC.

  7. Magnesium and calcium in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig, Slavica; Vlasić, Zeljka; Cepelak, Ivana; Zrinski Topić, Renata; Turkalj, Mirjana; Nogalo, Boro

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium and calcium physiologic functions are closely related. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular cation, the action of which also involves maintenance of cellular ionic balance, while influencing calcium homeostasis by blocking calcium channels. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of magnesium and calcium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of children with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). EBC was collected from 66 children aged 7-14 years (23 children with acute asthma, 17 children with GERD, and 26 healthy children). Determination of magnesium and calcium concentrations was preceded by optimization and validation for low concentrations. No difference was recorded for either magnesium or calcium concentration between study groups. However, the magnesium to calcium ratio was statistically significantly lower in both GERD and asthma children as compared with control group. Study results showed the magnesium to calcium ratio to be a statistically significantly better indicator of certain pathologic changes than absolute concentration of either ion. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers for the early diagnosis of lung cancer using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Laura M; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Valverde, Araceli; Cañas, Amanda; Fernández-Rueda, José L; Aranda, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We explored whether the proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide biomarkers for noninvasive screening for the early detection of lung cancer (LC). EBC was collected from 192 individuals [49 control (C), 49 risk factor-smoking (S), 46 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 48 LC]. With the use of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, 348 different proteins with a different pattern among the four groups were identified in EBC samples. Significantly more proteins were identified in the EBC from LC compared with other groups (C: 12.4 ± 1.3; S: 15.3 ± 1; COPD: 14 ± 1.6; LC: 24.2 ± 3.6; P = 0.0001). Furthermore, the average number of proteins identified per sample was significantly higher in LC patients, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.8, indicating diagnostic value. Proteins frequently detected in EBC, such as dermcidin and hornerin, along with others much less frequently detected, such as hemoglobin and histones, were identified. Cytokeratins (KRTs) were the most abundant proteins in EBC samples, and levels of KRT6A, KRT6B, and KRT6C isoforms were significantly higher in samples from LC patients (P = 0.0031, 0.0011, and 0.0009, respectively). Moreover, the amount of most KRTs in EBC samples from LC patients showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size. Finally, we used a random forest algorithm to generate a robust model using EBC protein data for the diagnosis of patients with LC where the area under the ROC curve obtained indicated a good classification (82%). Thus this study demonstrates that the proteomic analysis of EBC samples is an appropriated approach to develop biomarkers for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, Matteo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Caglieri, Andrea [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Poli, Diana [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Vettori, Maria Vittoria [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Corradi, Massimo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Apostoli, Pietro [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Mutti, Antonio [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.mutti@unipr.it

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  10. Prognostic Role of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fraction Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Systemic Sclerosis Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen-Del Castillo, Alfredo; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Simeón-Aznar, Carmen P; Cruz, María J; Fonollosa-Pla, Vicente; Muñoz, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study investigated exhaled breath (EB) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers in patients with SSc and analyzed their role as a prognostic tool in SSc-related ILD. Fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in EB, together with pH, nitrite, nitrate and interleukin-6 levels measured in EBC were prospectively analyzed in 35 patients with SSc. Twelve patients had established ILD by chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and 23 patients showed no evidence of ILD. EB and EBC biomarkers were determined at inclusion, and pulmonary function tests were annually performed during 4 years of follow-up. No differences at baseline biomarkers levels were found between groups. In all patients studied, low EBC pH levels were associated with a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) during follow-up. Low FeNO levels were correlated with lower forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline, 4years of follow-up and with a decrease in FVC and DLCO during monitoring. Among ILD patients, high eCO levels were correlated with lower baseline FVC. In the global cohort, a worse progression-free survival was identified in patients with EBC pH values lower than 7.88 and FeNO levels lower than 10.75ppb (Log Rank P=.03 and P<.01, respectively). EB and EBC could help to detect patients likely to present a deterioration on lung function during follow up. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Collecting exhaled breath condensate (EBC) with two condensers in series: a promising technique for studying the mechanisms of EBC formation, and the volatility of selected biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Folesani, Giuseppina; Poli, Diana; Corti, Marina; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) consists mainly of water, but also contains semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds. The aim of this study was to develop a system in which two condensers are simultaneously used in series to clarify the mechanisms of EBC condensation. Two aliquots of EBC (EBC1 and EBC2) were collected from 20 asymptomatic smokers and 20 healthy young nonsmokers using a specifically designed device having two condensers in series in which total volume, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), and conductivity before and after lyophilization were measured. Water, NH(4)(+) levels and conductivity before lyophilization were significantly lower in the EBC2 than in the EBC1 of smokers and nonsmokers; the contrary was true for H(2)O(2) levels. Almost all nonvolatile salts were collected in the first condenser, because more than 50% of postlyophilization conductivity was below the detection limit in EBC2. The recovery of volatile molecules and their derivatives (water and NH(4)(+)) was partial in the first condenser, but appreciable amounts of both were measured in the second; however, the condenser immediately in contact with exhaled air was more efficient in terms of water, NH(4)(+) and conductivity before lyophilization. On the contrary, nonvolatile ions (conductivity after lyophilization) were mainly collected in the first condenser. Finally, the behavior of H(2)O(2) cannot be explained on the basis of its chemical and physical properties, and the most probable explanation is that some was byproduced by a radical reaction in the gas phase or during the condensation process in water.

  12. Oxidative lung injury correlates with one-lung ventilation time during pulmonary lobectomy: a study of exhaled breath condensate and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-del-Olmo, Eva; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Martí, Francisco; Galan, Genaro; Morcillo, Alfonso; Wins, Richard; Guijarro, Ricardo; Arnau, Antonio; Sarriá, Benjamín; García-Raimundo, Miguel; Belda, Javier

    2015-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung is collapsed and hypoperfused; oxygen deprivation is accompanied by reactive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. After lung lobectomy, ischaemia present in the collapsed state is followed by expansion-reperfusion and lung injury attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the time course of several markers of oxidative stress simultaneously in exhaled breath condensate and blood and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and one-lung ventilation time in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. This single-centre, observational, prospective study included 28 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung lobectomy. We measured the levels of hydrogen peroxide, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrites plus nitrates and pH in exhaled breath condensate (n = 25). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and nitrites plus nitrates were also measured in blood (n = 28). Blood samples and exhaled breath condensate samples were collected from all patients at five time points: preoperatively; during one-lung ventilation, immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation; immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation; 60 min after resuming two-lung ventilation and 180 min after resuming two-lung ventilation. Both exhaled breath condensate and blood exhibited significant and simultaneous increases in oxidative-stress markers immediately before two-lung ventilation was resumed. However, all these values underwent larger increases immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. In both exhaled breath condensate and blood, marker levels significantly and directly correlated with the duration of one-lung ventilation immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation and immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. Although pH significantly decreased in exhaled breath condensate immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation, these pH values were inversely correlated with the

  13. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  14. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes.

  16. Comparison of Ambient and Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources for Cystic Fibrosis Exhaled Breath Condensate Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoling; Pérez, José J.; Jones, Christina M.; Monge, María Eugenia; McCarty, Nael A.; Stecenko, Arlene A.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The vast majority of the mortality is due to progressive lung disease. Targeted and untargeted CF breath metabolomics investigations via exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyses have the potential to expose metabolic alterations associated with CF pathology and aid in assessing the effectiveness of CF therapies. Here, transmission-mode direct analysis in real time traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS) was tested as a high-throughput alternative to conventional direct infusion (DI) electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods, and a critical comparison of the three ionization methods was conducted. EBC was chosen as the noninvasive surrogate for airway sampling over expectorated sputum as EBC can be collected in all CF subjects regardless of age and lung disease severity. When using pooled EBC collected from a healthy control, ESI detected the most metabolites, APCI a log order less, and TM-DART the least. TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS was used to profile metabolites in EBC samples from five healthy controls and four CF patients, finding that a panel of three discriminant EBC metabolites, some of which had been previously detected by other methods, differentiated these two classes with excellent cross-validated accuracy.

  17. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  18. Electrospun polystyrene/graphene nanofiber film as a novel adsorbent of thin film microextraction for extraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Hongtao; Song, Dandan; Xu, Hui

    2015-06-09

    In the current study, we introduced a novel polystyrene/graphene (PS/G) composite nanofiber film for thin film microextraction (TFME) for the first time. The PS/G nanofiber film was fabricated on the surface of filter paper by a facile electrospinning method. The morphology and extraction performance of the resultant composite film were investigated systematically. The PS/G nanofiber film exhibited porous fibrous structure, large surface area and strong hydrophobicity. A new thin film microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (TFME-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of six aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates. The method showed high enrichment efficiency and fast analysis speed. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the analytes were in the range of 0.02-30 μmol L(-1) with correlation coefficients above 0.9938, and the recoveries were between 79.8% and 105.6% with the relative standard deviation values lower than 16.3% (n=5). The limits of quantification of six aldehydes ranged from 13.8 to 64.6 nmol L(-1). The established method was successfully applied for the quantification of aldehyde metabolites in exhaled breath condensates of lung cancer patients and healthy people. Taken together, the TFME-HPLC method provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, non-invasion approach for the analysis of linear aliphatic aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate Detects Baseline Reductions in Chloride and Increases in Response to Albuterol in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Wheatley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired ion regulation and dehydration is the primary pathophysiology in cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease. A potential application of exhaled breath condensate (EBC collection is to assess airway surface liquid ionic composition at baseline and in response to pharmacological therapy in CF. Our aims were to determine if EBC could detect differences in ion regulation between CF and healthy and measure the effect of the albuterol on EBC ions in these populations. Baseline EBC Cl − , DLCO and SpO 2 were lower in CF (n = 16 compared to healthy participants (n = 16. EBC Cl − increased in CF subjects, while there was no change in DLCO or membrane conductance, but a decrease in pulmonary-capillary blood volume in both groups following albuterol. This resulted in an improvement in diffusion at the alveolar-capillary unit, and removal of the baseline difference in SpO 2 by 90-minutes in CF subjects. These results demonstrate that EBC detects differences in ion regulation between healthy and CF individuals, and that albuterol mediates increases in Cl − in CF, suggesting that the benefits of albuterol extend beyond simple bronchodilation.

  20. Acute Response to Cigarette Smoking Assessed in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Nejman-Gryz, P; Osinka, K; Lis, P; Malesa, K; Górska, K; Krenke, R

    2017-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) on the respiratory system has been less extensively studied than the long term effects of smoking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute response to CS in smokers suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in healthy smokers. Nineteen stable COPD patients and 19 young healthy smokers were enrolled. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) before and 60 min after smoking a cigarette. When pre- and post-CS levels of the evaluated biomarkers were compared, no differences were found in either group. However, the post-CS MDA was significantly greater in healthy smokers than that in COPD patients; 20.41 vs. 16.81 nmol/L, p = 0.01, respectively. Post-CS TNF-α correlated inversely with FEV 1 /FVC in healthy smokers. We conclude that CS does not acutely increase the EBC concentration of the inflammatory markers either in COPD patients or healthy smokers. The short term CS-induced oxidative stress is higher in young smokers than in COPD patients, which what may indicate a higher susceptibility to CS content of the former.

  1. Characterization of a portable method for the collection of exhaled breath condensate and subsequent analysis of metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie R; Spannhake, Ernst W; Macri, Kristin K; Torrey, Christine M; Mihalic, Jana N; Eftim, Sorina E; Lees, Peter S J; Geyh, Alison S

    2013-04-01

    Using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a biological media for analysis of biomarkers of exposure may facilitate the understanding of inhalation exposures. In this study, we present method validation for the collection of EBC and analysis of metals in EBC. The collection method was designed for use in a small scale longitudinal study with the goal of improving reproducibility while maintaining economic feasibility. We incorporated the use of an Rtube with additional components as an assembly, and trained subjects to breathe into the apparatus. EBC was collected from 8 healthy adult subjects with no known elevated exposures to Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd repeatedly (10 times) within 7 days and analyzed for these metals via ICP-MS. Method detection limits were obtained by mimicking the process of EBC collection with ultrapure water, and resulted in 46-62% of samples falling in a range less than the method detection limit. EBC metal concentrations were found to be statistically significantly associated (p < 0.05) with room temperature and relative humidity during collection, as well as with the gender of the subject. The geometric mean EBC metal concentrations in our unexposed subjects were 0.57 μg Mn per L, 0.25 μg Cr per L, 0.87 μg Ni per L, and 0.14 μg Cd per L. The overall standard deviation was greater than the mean estimate, and the major source in EBC metals concentrations was due to fluctuations in subjects' measurements over time rather than to the differences between separate subjects. These results suggest that measurement and control of EBC collection and analytical parameters are critical to the interpretation of EBC metals measurements. In particular, rigorous estimation of method detection limits of metals in EBC provides a more thorough evaluation of accuracy.

  2. Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level in relation to environmental exposures in adults in the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Marta; Varraso, Raphäelle; Decoster, Brigitte; Huyvaert, Hélène; Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Künzli, Nino; Kauffmann, Francine; Zerimech, Farid; Matran, Régis; Nadif, Rachel

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluated the associations between biological markers in the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and four environmental exposures among subjects examined in the second survey (2003-2007) of the French Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Total nitrite and nitrate (NO(2)(-) /NO(3)(-)) levels were measured both in plasma and in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in 949 adults. Smoking, diet and exposure to chlorine products were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated by using geostatistical models. All estimates were obtained with generalized estimating equations for linear regression models. Median levels of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) were 36.3 μM (1st-3rd quartile: 25.7, 51.1) in plasma and 2.0 μmol/mg proteins (1st-3rd quartile 0.9, 3.9) in EBC. After adjustment for asthma, age, sex and menopausal status, plasma NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) level increased with leafy vegetable consumption (above versus below median=0.04 (95%CI: 0.001, 0.07)) and decreased in smokers (versus non/ex-smokers=-0.08 (95%CI: -0.11, -0.04). EBC NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) level decreased in smokers (-0.08 (95%CI: -0.16, -0.001)) and with exposure to ambient O(3) concentration (above versus below median=-0.10 (95%CI: -0.17, -0.03)). Cured meat, chlorine products, PM(10) and NO(2) concentrations were not associated with NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) levels. Results suggest that potential modifiable environmental and behavioral risk factors may modify NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) levels in plasma and EBC according to the route of exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic Signatures of Lung Cancer in Sputum and Exhaled Breath Condensate Detected by H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC, as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. Materials and Methods Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer ( n = 10 and patients with benign respiratory conditions ( n = 10. Both sputum and EBC samples were collected from 18 patients; 2 patients provided EBC samples only. 1 H MR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrometer. Sputum samples were further confirmed cytologically to distinguish between true sputum and saliva. Results In the EBC samples, median concentrations of propionate, ethanol, acetate, and acetone were higher in lung cancer patients compared to the patients with benign conditions. Median concentration of methanol was lower in lung cancer patients (0.028 mM than in patients with benign conditions (0.067 mM; P = 0.028. In the combined sputum and saliva and the cytologically confirmed sputum samples, median concentrations of N -acetyl sugars, glycoprotein, propionate, lysine, acetate, and formate were lower in the lung cancer patients than in patients with benign conditions. Glucose was found to be consistently absent in the combined sputum and saliva samples (88% as well as in the cytologically confirmed sputum samples (86% of lung cancer patients. Conclusion Absence of glucose in sputum and lower concentrations of methanol in EBC of lung cancer patients discerned by 1 H MRS may serve as metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrence.

  4. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Gardiner, Philip H E; Carolan, Vikki A

    2017-04-01

    The analytical method outlined in this feasibility study has been used to show that trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) can be detected and measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. EBC samples and urine samples were collected from a cohort of 58 workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds and 22 unexposed volunteers (control group). Levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were determined in EBC samples and total chromium levels were determined in urine samples. Pre and post working week samples for both EBC and urine were collected in tandem. Total chromium in urine samples was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in EBC samples used a hyphenated micro liquid chromatography (μLC) system coupled to an ICP-MS. Separation was achieved using an anion exchange micro-sized column. The results showed that the occupationally exposed workers had significantly higher levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in their EBC samples than the control group, as well as higher levels of total chromium in their urine samples. However, for the exposed workers no significant difference was found between pre and post working week EBC samples for either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). This study has established that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) can simultaneously be detected and measured in 'real' EBC samples and will help in understanding inhalation exposure. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the Inflammacheck Device to Measure the Level of Exhaled Breath Condensate Hydrogen Peroxide in Patients With Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (The EXHALE Pilot Study): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Daniel M; Fogg, Carole; Brown, Thomas P; Jones, Thomas L; Lanning, Eleanor; Bassett, Paul; Chauhan, Anoop J

    2018-01-30

    Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are common conditions that affect over 5 million people in the United Kingdom. These groups of patients suffer significantly from breathlessness and recurrent exacerbations that can be difficult to diagnose and go untreated. A common feature of COPD and asthma is airway inflammation that increases before and during exacerbations. Current methods of assessing airway inflammation can be invasive, difficult to perform, and are often inaccurate. In contrast, measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is performed during normal tidal breathing and is known to reflect the level of global inflammation in the airways. There is a need for novel tools to diagnose asthma and COPD earlier and to detect increased airway inflammation that precedes an exacerbation. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new handheld device (called Inflammacheck) in measuring H 2 O 2 levels in EBC. We will study whether it can measure EBC H 2 O 2 levels consistently and whether it can be used to differentiate asthma and COPD from healthy controls. We will perform a cross-sectional, feasibility, pilot study of EBC H 2 O 2 levels, as measured by Inflammacheck, and other markers of disease severity and symptom control in patients with asthma and COPD and volunteers with no history of lung disease. Participants will be asked to provide an exhaled breath sample for measurement of their EBC H 2 O 2 using Inflammacheck. The result will be correlated with disease stage, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and symptom control scores. This study's recruitment is ongoing; it is anticipated that the results will be available in 2018. The EXhaled Hydrogen peroxide As a marker of Lung diseasE (EXHALE) pilot study will provide an evaluation of a new method of measuring EBC H 2 O 2 . It will assess the device's consistency and ability to distinguish airway inflammation in asthma and COPD compared

  6. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  7. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  8. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Luis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. Methods This was a randomized double-blind trial. Subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without mild/moderate asthma sensitized to A alternata and who also had a positive skin prick test to Alt a1 were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 18 or purified natural Alt a1 (n = 22 subcutaneously for 12 months. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP and methacholine, exhaled nitric oxide (ENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC pH, and serum Alt a1-specific IgG4 antibodies were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Local and systemic adverse events were also registered. Results The mean (95% CI allergen-specific IgG4 value for the active treatment group increased from 0.07 μg/mL (0.03-0.11 at baseline to 1.21 μg/mL (0.69-1.73, P 4 value increased nonsignificantly from 0.09 μg/mL (0.06-0.12 at baseline to 0.13 μg/mL (0.07-0.18 at 6 months and to 0.11 μg/mL (0.07-0.15 at 12 months of treatment. Changes in the active treatment group were significantly higher than in the placebo group both at 6 months (P Conclusion Although allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 is well tolerated and induces an allergen-specific IgG4 response, treatment is not associated with changes in AMP or methacholine responsiveness or with significant improvements in markers of inflammation in exhaled air. These findings suggest dissociation between the immunotherapy-induced increase in IgG4 levels and its effect on airway responsiveness and inflammation.

  9. Aluminum gallium nitride (GaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistor-based sensors for glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Byung Hwan; Kang, Byoung Sam; Hung, Sheng Chun; Chen, Ke Hung; Ren, Fan; Sciullo, Andrew; Gila, Brent P; Pearton, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Immobilized aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have shown great potential in the areas of pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). HEMT sensors can be integrated into a wireless data transmission system that allows for remote monitoring. This technology offers the possibility of using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for extended investigations of airway pathology of detecting glucose in EBC without the need for clinical visits. HEMT structures, consisting of a 3-microm-thick undoped GaN buffer, 30-A-thick Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N spacer, and 220-A-thick silicon-doped Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N cap layer, were used for fabricating the HEMT sensors. The gate area of the pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection was immobilized with scandium oxide (Sc(2)O(3)), silver chloride (AgCl) thin film, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, respectively. The Sc(2)O(3)-gated sensor could detect the pH of solutions ranging from 3 to 10 with a resolution of approximately 0.1 pH. A chloride ion detection limit of 10(-8) M was achieved with a HEMT sensor immobilized with the AgCl thin film. The drain-source current of the ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor immobilized with glucose oxidase showed a rapid response of less than 5 seconds when the sensor was exposed to the target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4. The sensor could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5 nM to 125 microM. There is great promise for using HEMT-based sensors to enhance the detection sensitivity for glucose detection in EBC. Depending on the immobilized material, HEMT-based sensors can be used for sensing different materials. These electronic detection approaches with rapid response and good repeatability show potential for the investigation of airway pathology. The devices can also be integrated into a wireless data transmission system for remote monitoring applications. This sensor technology could use the exhaled breath condensate to measure the

  10. Use of exhaled breath condensate endpoints for examination of Body Mass Index as a susceptibility factor to diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...

  11. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure and upper airway surgery on exhaled breath condensate and serum biomarkers in patients with sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloberes, Patricia; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Ferré, Àlex; Cruz, María Jesús; Lorente, Juan; Sampol, Gabriel; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Studies on inflammation biomarkers in serum and in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have shown conflicting results. The objective of this study is to assess EBC and serum biomarkers in OSA patients at baseline and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or upper airway surgery (UAS). Nine OSA patients referred for UAS were matched for anthropometric characteristics and apnea-hypopnea index with 20 patients receiving CPAP. pH, nitrite (NO2(-)), nitrate and interleukin 6 in EBC and NO2(-), nitrate, leukotriene B4 and interleukin 6 in serum were determined. EBC and serum samples were collected at baseline and 3 months after CPAP or UAS. Patients' mean body mass index was 30 (range 24.9-40) kg/m(2). EBC biomarker levels at baseline were within normal range and did not differ significantly after CPAP or UAS. No significant changes were observed in the serum concentration of the biomarkers determined after CPAP but the serum concentration of NO2(-) increased significantly at 3 months after UAS (P=.0078). In mildly obese OSA patients, EBC biomarkers of inflammation or oxidative stress were normal at baseline and remained unchanged 3 months after UAS or CPAP. Although UAS was not effective in terms of reducing OSA severity, it was associated with an increase in serum NO2(-). Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased cys-leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and decrease of PNIF after intranasal allergen challenge support the recognition of allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórska, Wioletta; Grzela, Katarzyna; Kulus, Marek; Sobczyński, Maciej; Grzela, Tomasz

    2013-08-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains various mediators of inflammation. Since their concentrations correlate with severity of inflammatory response, EBC assessment allows non-invasive detection of various respiratory tract diseases and enables monitoring of their progression or treatment effectiveness. In this study, authors evaluate the usefulness of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLT) measurement in EBC, as non-invasive diagnostic markers of allergic rhinitis in children. It has been found that the assessment of cysLT in EBC, when performed out of the natural allergen exposure, can discriminate between healthy and allergic rhinitis individuals, with sensitivity 87.8% and specificity 76.4%, at the threshold level 39.05 pg/ml. The change of peak nasal inspiratory flow (ΔPNIF), measured before and after intranasal allergen challenge allowed recognition of healthy/allergic rhinitis-suffering individuals with sensitivity 76.8% and specificity 78.6%, at the threshold level of -3.2 l/min. When ΔPNIF assessment was combined with the measurement of cysLT in EBC, the sensitivity of such diagnostic approach reached 100% and its specificity increased up to 84.6%. The proposed algorithm was found to sufficiently discriminate between allergic rhinitis-suffering and healthy children, however, its clinical usefulness especially in young children requires further studies.

  13. The effect of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction on concentration of 5-oxo-ETE in exhaled breath condensate of house dust mite-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, K; Gielicz, A; Sanak, M

    2017-10-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolites regulate several aspects of airway function including inflammation, muscle contraction and mucous secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentration of selected 5-lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. The study was performed on 24 allergic rhinitis/asthma patients sensitized to a house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and 13 healthy controls (HCs). Bronchial challenge with Dp extract was performed only in the allergic patients. EBC samples were collected before (T0 ) and during Dp-induced bronchoconstriction (TEAR ). Eicosanoid concentration was measured using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant bronchoconstriction after Dp challenge was demonstrated in 15 patients (Rs), while in 9 patients (NRs) no asthmatic response could be detected. At T0 the most abundant eicosanoids in EBC of HDM-allergic patients were LTB4 and 5-oxo-ETE, while in HCs EBC concentration of LTB4 was significantly greater than that of 5-oxo-ETE. Allergen challenge resulted in significant increase in EBC concentration of 5-oxo-ETE, LTD4 and 8-iso-PGE2 only in Rs. At TEAR , the relative change of 5-oxo-ETE concentration in EBC correlated with decrease of peripheral blood eosinophilia (R = -0.774; P = .0012). Moreover, the relative increase of 5-oxo-ETE in EBC at TEAR significantly correlated with the severity of the subsequent late asthmatic response (R = 0.683, P = .007). Our study demonstrates significant up-regulation of 5-oxo-ETE synthesis in HDM-allergic patients and indicates possible involvement of that mediator in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Metabolic Signatures of Lung Cancer in Sputum and Exhaled Breath Condensate Detected by 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Naseer; Bezabeh, Tedros; Ijare, Omkar B; Myers, Renelle; Alomran, Reem; Aliani, Michel; Nugent, Zoann; Banerji, Shantanu; Kim, Julian; Qing, Gefei; Bshouty, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10). Both sputum and EBC samples were collected from 18 patients; 2 patients provided EBC samples only. 1H MR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. Sputum samples were further confirmed cytologically to distinguish between true sputum and saliva. In the EBC samples, median concentrations of propionate, ethanol, acetate, and acetone were higher in lung cancer patients compared to the patients with benign conditions. Median concentration of methanol was lower in lung cancer patients (0.028 mM) than in patients with benign conditions (0.067 mM; P = 0.028). In the combined sputum and saliva and the cytologically confirmed sputum samples, median concentrations of N-acetyl sugars, glycoprotein, propionate, lysine, acetate, and formate were lower in the lung cancer patients than in patients with benign conditions. Glucose was found to be consistently absent in the combined sputum and saliva samples (88%) as well as in the cytologically confirmed sputum samples (86%) of lung cancer patients. Absence of glucose in sputum and lower concentrations of methanol in EBC of lung cancer patients discerned by 1H MRS may serve as metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrence.

  15. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  16. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  17. Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots as a biocompatible and non-toxic nanocomposite: Layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and non-invasive malondialdehyde sensory application in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Fozieh; Shadjou, Nasrin; Eftekhari, Aziz; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Vahid; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2017-06-01

    This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible polymer with entitle poly arginine-graphene quantum dots (PARG-GQDs) as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) surface and preparation a new interface for biomedical application. The fabrication of PARG-GQDs on GCE was performed using Layer-by-layer regime. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was confirmed dispersion of GQDs on the surface of PARG which lead to increase of surface coverage of PARG. The redox behavior of prepared sensor was then characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometry (CHA), square wave voltammetry (SWV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electroactivity of PARG-GQDs coating towards detection and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) as one of the most common biomarkers of oxidative stress, was then studied. Then, application of prepared sensor for the detection of MDA in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is described. Electrochemical based sensor shows the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.329nanomolar. This work is the first report on the integration of GQDs to poly amino acids. Further development can lead to monitoring of MDA or other exhaled breath biomarkers by GQDs functionalized poly amino acids in EBC using electrochemical methods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8‑isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order ...

  19. Exhaled breath condensate collection for nitrite dosage: a safe and low cost adaptation Coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar para a dosagem de nitrito: Uma adaptação segura e barata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Saraiva Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Standardization of a simple and low cost technique of exhaled breath condensate (EBC collection to measure nitrite. METHODS: Two devices were mounted in polystyrene boxes filled either with crushed ice/salt crystals or dry ice/crushed ice. Blood samples were stored at -70º C for posterior nitrite dosages by chemiluminescence and the Griess reaction. RESULTS: a The use of crushed ice/dry ice or salt revealed sufficient EBC room air collection, but was not efficient for patients under ventilation support; b the method using crushed ice/salt collected greater EBC volumes, but the nitrite concentrations were not proportional to the volume collected; c The EBC nitrite values were higher in the surgical group using both methods; d In the surgical group the nasal clip use diminished the EBC nitrite concentrations in both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The exhaled breath condensate (EBC methodology collection was efficient on room air breathing. Either cooling methods provided successful EBC collections showing that it is possible to diminish costs, and, amongst the two used methods, the one using crushed ice/salt crystals revealed better efficiency compared to the dry ice method.OBJETIVO: Padronizar técnica simples e barata de coleta do condensado do ar exalado pulmonar (CEP para medir nitrito. MÉTODOS: Dois dispositivos foram montados em caixas de isopor e preenchidos com gelo picado/sal grosso ou gelo picado/gelo seco. Amostras de sangue foram armazenadas a -70º C para dosagem de nitrito por quimiluminescência e pela reação de Griess. RESULTADOS: a a utilização de gelo picado/gelo seco ou sal foi eficiente para a coleta em respiração espontânea, mas ineficiente durante ventilação mecânica; b o método gelo picado/sal coletou volumes maiores, sem aumento proporcional do nitrito; c os valores do nitrito foram mais elevados no grupo cirúrgico utilizando os dois métodos; d no grupo cirúrgico com clipe nasal ocorreu diminuição do

  20. Variability in Measures of Exhaled Breath Na, Influence of pulmonary Blood Flow and salivary Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Wheatley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of inflammatory markers and ions in exhaled breath condensate (EBC is being utilized more frequently in diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis with marked variability in EBC measures, including those of exhaled Na + . We sought to determine if variability in exhaled Na + was due to differences in pulmonary blood flow (PBF or Na + in the mouth (salivary Na + . We measured exhaled Na + three times with coinciding sampling of salivary Na + and assessment of PBF (using acetylene rebreathing in 13 healthy subjects (54% female, age = 27 ± 7 yrs., ht. = 172 ± 10 cm, wt. = 70 ± 21 kg, BMI = 22 ± 7 kg/m 2 mean ± SD. Exhaled Na + averaged 2.7 ± 1.2 mmol/l, and salivary Na + averaged 5.51 ± 4.58 mmol/l. The coefficients of variation across all three measures in all 13 subjects averaged 30% for exhaled Na + and 83% for salivary Na + , within subjects the variability across the three measures averaged 30% for exhaled Na + and 38% for salivary Na + . Across all three measures in all 13 subjects the relationship between PBF and exhaled Na + averaged 0.027 ( P = 0.87, and the relationship between salivary Na + and exhaled Na + concentrations averaged 0.59 ( P = 0.001. Also, we sought to determine the relationship between exhaled Na + and serum Na + in an addition 20 subjects. There was a moderate and significant relationship between serum Na + and exhaled Na + (r = 0.37, P = 0.04. These findings suggest there that the variability in exhaled Na + is caused, at least in part, by droplet formation from within the mouth as turbulent air passes through and that there is a flux of ions from the pulmonary blood into the airways.

  1. Comparison of Select Analytes in Exhaled Aerosol from E-Cigarettes with Exhaled Smoke from a Conventional Cigarette and Exhaled Breaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Long

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06% of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session. The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session. These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.

  2. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  3. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, V. L.; Domracheva, E. G.; Sobakinskaya, E. A.; Chernyaeva, M. B.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice.

  4. Slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Geetanjali; Gupta, Sumita; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-02-01

    To measure exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis. 17 patients (6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this cross sectional study. Exhaled breath temperature was measured in subjects recruited in both the groups with a device X-halo and analyzed as plateau temperature achieved and rate of temperature rise. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed no significant difference in plateau temperature [34.4(32.3-34.6) versus 33.9 (33.0-34.4)oC; P=0.35] while mean (SEM.) rate of temperature rise was significantly less in patients [0.09 (0.01) versus 0.14 (0.02) ƼC/s ; P=0.04] as compared to controls. There was a slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis whereas plateau temperature was not significantly different from controls.

  5. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  6. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  7. Exhaled breath profiling in diagnosing wheezy preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D.G. van de Kant (Kim D.); J.J.B.N. van Berkel (Joep J. B.); Q. Jöbsis (Quirijn); V. Lima Passos (Valéria); E.M.M. Klaassen (Ester M.); L. van der Sande (Linda); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); F.J. van Schooten (Frederik Jan); E. Derks (Eduard); E. Dompeling (Edward); J.W. Dallinga (J.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAlthough wheeze is common in preschool children, the underlying pathophysiology has not yet been disentangled. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may serve as noninvasive markers of early wheeze. We aimed to assess the feasibility of VOC collection in preschool children,

  8. Electronic Nose and Exhaled Breath NMR-based Metabolomics Applications in Airways Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Penas, Andreu; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mondino, Chiara; Trové, Andrea; Macagno, Francesco; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Martinelli, Eugenio; Motta, Andrea; Macis, Giuseppe; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Breathomics, the multidimensional molecular analysis of exhaled breath, includes analysis of exhaled breath with gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic noses (e-noses), and metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive technique which provides information on the composition of airway lining fluid, generally by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or MS methods. Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of small molecular weight metabolites in a biofluid. Specific profiles of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and metabolites in EBC (breathprints) are potentially useful surrogate markers of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Electronic noses (e-noses) are artificial sensor systems, usually consisting of chemical cross-reactive sensor arrays for characterization of patterns of breath volatile compounds, and algorithms for breathprints classification. E-noses are handheld, portable, and provide real-time data. E-nose breathprints can reflect respiratory inflammation. E-noses and NMR-based metabolomics of EBC can distinguish patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, or diseases with a clinically relevant respiratory component including cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, and healthy individuals. Breathomics has also been reported to identify patients affected by different types of respiratory diseases. Patterns of breath volatile compounds detected by e-nose and EBC metabolic profiles have been associated with asthma phenotypes. In combination with other -omics platforms, breathomics might provide a molecular approach to respiratory disease phenotyping and a molecular basis to tailored pharmacotherapeutic strategies. Breathomics might also contribute to identify new surrogate markers of respiratory inflammation, thus, facilitating drug discovery. Validation in newly recruited, prospective independent cohorts is essential for development of e

  9. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  10. Nitrite exhaled breath condensate study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery Estudo do nitrito do condensado do exalado pulmonar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca com CEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos Santos Augusto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a relative lack of studies on postoperative changes in nitrite (NO2 - concentrations, a marker of injury, following cardiac surgery. In this context, investigations on how exhaled NO concentrations vary in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery will certainly contribute to new clinical findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the EBC NO levels in both the pre and postoperative (24 hours periods of cardiac surgery. METHODS: Twenty - eight individuals were divided into three groups: 1 control, 2 coronary artery bypass grafting, and 3 valve surgery. The nitrite (NO2 - levels were measured by chemiluminescence in blood samples and exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Data were analyzed by the Mann - Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: 1 Preoperatively, the EBC NO2 - levels from groups 2 and 3 patients were higher than control individuals; 2 The postoperative (24 hours NO2 - levels in the EBC from group 3 patients were lower compared with preoperative values; 3 The NO2 - levels in the plasma from group 2 patients were lower in the preoperative compared with the postoperative (24h values and; 4 Preoperatively, there was no difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of plasma NO2 - concentrations. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NO measurement in EBC is feasible in cardiac surgery patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostrando alterações das concentrações de nitrito (NO2 - exalado, com biomarcador de lesão, são raros em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Nesse contexto, o seu estudo no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgias cardíacas poderá contribuir para novos dados clínicos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi comparar os níveis de nitrito (NO2 - do condensado do exalado pulmonar (CEP no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito indivíduos foram alocados em três grupos: 1 controle, 2 revascularização do miocárdio e 3 corre

  11. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  12. Standardised exhaled breath collection for the measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikov, Andras; Paschalaki, Koralia; Logan-Sinclair, Ron; Horváth, Ildiko; Kharitonov, Sergei A; Barnes, Peter J; Usmani, Omar S; Paredi, Paolo

    2013-07-09

    Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of exhaled compounds. 15 healthy volunteers (34 ± 7 years) participated in the study. Subjects inhaled through their nose and exhaled immediately at two different flows (5 L/min and 10 L/min) into methylated polyethylene bags. In addition, the effect of a 20 s breath-hold following inhalation to total lung capacity was studied. The samples were analyzed for ethanol and acetone levels immediately using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS, Logan Research, UK). Ethanol levels were negatively affected by expiratory flow rate (232.70 ± 33.50 ppb vs. 202.30 ± 27.28 ppb at 5 L/min and 10 L/min, respectively, p gasses levels which showed good inter and intra session reproducibility. Exhalation parameters such as expiratory flow and breath-hold may affect VOC levels significantly; therefore standardisation of exhaled VOC measurements is mandatory. Our preliminary results suggest a different origin in the respiratory tract for these two gasses.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate during a common cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.Q. Jöbsis (Rijn); S.L. Schellekens; A. Fakkel-Kroesbergen (Anoeska); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air condensate is elevated in inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. It is unknown whether viral colds contribute to exhaled H2O2. Aim: To assess exhaled H2O2during and after a common cold. Methods: We examined H2O2in the

  14. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  15. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.

  16. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  17. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  18. An electronic nose discriminates exhaled breath of patients with untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis from controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Brinkman, Paul; Mouw, Evert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Carratú, Pierluigi; Resta, Onofrio; Sterk, Peter J.; Jonkers, Rene E.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause that affects the lungs in over 90% of cases. Breath analysis by electronic nose technology provides exhaled molecular profiles that have potential in the diagnosis of several respiratory diseases. We hypothesized that exhaled molecular

  19. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places......This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...

  20. Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-09-01

    As many as 3500 chemicals are reported in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. This experiment demonstrated a method of breath analysis utilizing a high resolution spectroscopic technique for the detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in the exhaled breath of a person who consumed alcohol. This technique is applicable to a wide range of polar molecules. For select species, unambiguous detection in a part per trillion dilution range with a total sample size in a femtomol range is feasible. It compares favorably with other methods of breath analysis.

  1. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernandez, Pilar; Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F. [Institute of Safety and Occupational Health (ISSL), Murcia (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O., E-mail: joan.grimalt@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-03-03

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m{sup -3} in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m{sup -3} in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  2. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing.

  3. Trichloroethene levels in human blood and exhaled breath from controlled inhalation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Pleil, J D; Fisher, J W; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-01-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, the sampl...

  4. Diagnostic Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using a Novel Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Branco, Daniela R.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    As many as 3000 chemicals are reported to be found in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. Present state of the art techniques used for analysis of exhaled human breath include mass spectrometry based methods, infrared spectroscopic sensors, electro chemical sensors and semiconductor oxide based testers. Some of these techniques are commercially available but are somewhat limited in their specificity and exhibit fairly high probability of false alarm. Here, we present the results of our most recent study which demonstrated a novel application of a terahertz high resolutions spectroscopic technique to the analysis of exhaled human breath, focused on detection of ethanol in the exhaled breath of a person which consumed an alcoholic drink. This technique possesses nearly ``absolute'' specificity and we demonstrated its ability to uniquely identify ethanol, methanol, and acetone in human breath. This project is now complete and we are looking to extend this method of chemical analysis of exhaled human breath to a broader range of chemicals in an attempt to demonstrate its potential for biomedical diagnostic purposes.

  5. Post-operative elimination of sevoflurane anesthetic and hexafluoroisopropanol metabolite in exhaled breath: Pharmacokinetic models for assessing liver function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevoflurane (SEV), a commonly used anesthetic agent for invasive surgery, is directly eliminated via exhaled breath and indirectly by metabolic conversion to inorganic fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is also eliminated in the breath. We studied the post-operativ...

  6. Evaluation of Bio-VOC Sampler for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Harshman, Sean W; Garrison, Catherine E; Dershem, Victoria L; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2014-09-29

    Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath has been used to determine exposures of humans to chemicals. Prior to analysis of VOCs, breath samples are often collected with canisters or bags and concentrated. The Bio-VOC breath sampler, a commercial sampling device, has been recently introduced to the market with growing use. The main advantage for this sampler is to collect the last portion of exhaled breath, which is more likely to represent the air deep in the lungs. However, information about the Bio-VOC sampler is somewhat limited. Therefore, we have thoroughly evaluated the sampler here. We determined the volume of the breath air collected in the sampler was approximately 88 mL. When sampling was repeated multiple times, with the succeeding exhalations applied to a single sorbent tube, we observed linear relationships between the normalized peak intensity and the number of repeated collections with the sampler in many of the breath VOCs detected. No moisture effect was observed on the Tenax sorbent tubes used. However, due to the limitation in the collection volume, the use of the Bio-VOC sampler is recommended only for detection of VOCs present at high concentrations unless repeated collections of breath samples on the sampler are conducted.

  7. Mass spectrometric profile of exhaled breath--field study by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, Berthold; Bodrogi, Florian; Eibl, Guenther; Lechner, Matthias; Rieder, Josef; Lirk, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Recently, increased interest has focused on the diagnostic potential of volatile organic compounds (VOC) exhaled in human breath as this substance group has been conjectured in indoor air quality and disease screening. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been established as a new

  8. Oral or nasal breathing? Real-time effects of switching sampling route onto exhaled VOC concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Trefz, Phillip

    2017-03-21

    There is a need for standardisation in sampling and analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to minimise ubiquitous confounding effects. Physiological factors may mask concentration changes induced by pathophysiological effects. In humans, unconscious switching of oral and nasal breathing can occur during breath sampling, which may affect VOC patterns. Here, we investigated exhaled VOC concentrations in real-time while switching breathing routes. Breath from 15 healthy volunteers was analysed continuously by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry during paced breathing (12 breaths min-1). Every two minutes breathing routes were switched (Setup-1: Oral → Nasal → Oral → Nasal; Setup-2: OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout → OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout). VOCs in inspiratory and alveolar air and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were monitored quantitatively in parallel. Changing of the breathing routes and patterns immediately affected exhaled VOC concentrations. These changes were reproducible in both setups. In setup-1 cardiac output and acetone concentrations remained constant, while partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (pET-CO2), isoprene and furan concentrations inversely mirrored tidal-volume and minute-ventilation. H2S (hydrogen-sulphide), C4H8S (allyl-methyl-sulphide), C3H8O (isopropanol) and C3H6O2 increased during oral exhalation. C4H10S increased during nasal exhalations. CH2O2 steadily decreased during the whole measurement. In setup-2 pET-CO2, C2H6S (dimethyl-sulphide), isopropanol, limonene and benzene concentrations decreased whereas, minute-ventilation, H2S and acetonitrile increased. Isoprene and furan remained unchanged. Breathing route and patterns induced VOC concentration changes depended on respiratory parameters, oral and nasal cavity exposure and physico-chemical characters of the compounds. Before using breath VOC concentrations as biomarkers it is essential that the breathing

  9. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  10. Metabolomics pilot study to identify volatile organic compound markers of childhood asthma in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahleitner, Florian; Guallar-Hoyas, Cristina; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Pandya, Hitesh C; Thomas, Cl Paul

    2013-09-01

    In-community non-invasive identification of asthma-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath presents opportunities to characterize phenotypes, and monitor disease state and therapies. The feasibility of breath sampling with children and the preliminary identification of childhood asthma markers were studied. End-tidal exhaled breath was sampled (2.5 dm³) from 11 children with asthma and 12 healthy children with an adaptive breath sampler. VOCs were collected onto a Tenax®/Carbotrap hydrophobic adsorbent trap, and analyzed by GC-MS. Classification was by retention-index and mass spectra in a 'breath matrix' followed by multivariate analysis. A panel of eight candidate markers (1-(methylsulfanyl)propane, ethylbenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene, 2-octenal, octadecyne, 1-isopropyl-3-methylbenzene and 1,7-dimethylnaphtalene) were found to differentiate between the asthmatic and healthy children in the test cohort with complete separation by 2D principal components analysis (2D PCA). Furthermore, the breath sampling protocol was found to be acceptable to children and young people. This method was found to be acceptable for children, and healthy and asthmatic individuals were distinguished on the basis of eight VOCs at elevated levels in the breath of asthmatic children.

  11. Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

  12. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  13. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  15. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  16. Design and evaluation of an exhaled breath sampler for biological monitoring of organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, J F; Luna, A; Morente, A; Zambudio, A

    1992-04-01

    We designed a breath sampler based on a tube which collects the final portion of exhaled air. The passage of successive fractions through a layer of activated charcoal is controlled by a three-way valve. This system was validated in a controlled atmosphere of n-hexane and toluene at four concentrations between 12 and 110 mg m-3 and 12 and 115 mg m-3, respectively. Uptake volumes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.31 were tested at relative humidities of 46% and 98%. There were no significant differences in the recoveries obtained under any of the conditions tested. We confirmed the reproducibility between successive samples in volunteers and exposed workers, and found no significant differences between the different sampling conditions studied. Our system enriches the sample in an adsorbent cartridge by collecting successive fractions of end-exhaled breath from one or more exhalations until the amount required by the analytical method has been accumulated. It is portable, economical and highly operative in the field.

  17. Exhaled breath profiling in patients with COPD and OSA overlap syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano N; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-11-03

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by an electronic nose (e-nose) is a groundbreaking method that provides distinct exhaled molecular patterns in several respiratory and systemic diseases. It has been shown that an e-nose can detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OSA and COPD are sometimes associated into the so-called overlap syndrome (OVS). In this pilot study we hypothesized that an e-nose could discriminate the exhaled breath of patients with OVS from that of subjects with OSA and COPD alone. Thirteen patients with OSA, 15 patients with COPD and 13 with OVS participated in a cross-sectional study. Exhaled breath was collected by a formerly validated method and sampled by using an electronic nose (Cyranose 320). Raw data were analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis on principal component reduction. Cross-validation accuracy (CVA) and ROC-curves were calculated. External validation in newly recruited patients (6 OSA, 6 OVS and 6 COPD) was tested using the previous training set. Breathprints of patients with OSA clustered distinctly from those with OVS (CVA  =  96.2%) as well as those with COPD (CVA  =  82.1%). Breathprints from OVS were not significantly separated from those of COPD (CVA  =  67.9%). External validation confirmed the above findings. The e-nose can distinguish with high accuracy the exhaled VOC-profile of patients with OSA from those with OVS as well as those with COPD. This warrants future studies to confirm the potential of this technique in the non-invasive detection of sleep apnea.

  18. Chronic intestinal Mycobacteria infection: discrimination via VOC analysis in exhaled breath and headspace of feces using differential ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhart, Roman; Köhler, Heike; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Meyer, Michaela; Becher, Gunther; Kikowatz, Angela; Reinhold, Petra

    2011-06-01

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) is a method to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the ppt range. This study assessed whether VOC analysis using DMS could discriminate subjects with an experimentally induced chronic intestinal infection caused by Mycobacteria from non-infected controls. The animal model consisted of two groups of goats orally infected with two different doses of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and one group of non-infected healthy controls (each group: n = 6). Using DMS, exhaled breath and headspace of feces were analyzed on-line on an individual basis 9 months after inoculation of MAP. Data analysis included peak detection, cluster analysis, selection of discriminating VOC features (Mann-Whitney U test), and classification using a support-vector-machine. Taking the background of ambient air conditions into account, VOC analysis of exhaled breath as well as of feces revealed significant differences between chronically infected animals and non-infected controls. In both specimens, increasing as well as decreasing VOC features could be attributed to infection. Discrimination between infected and non-infected animals was sharper analyzing exhaled breath compared to headspace of feces. In exhaled breath, at least two VOC features were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner with increasing doses of MAP inoculated. Results of this study provide strong evidence that DMS analysis of exhaled breath has the potential to become a valuable tool for non-invasive assessment of VOC specifically related to certain diseases or infections.

  19. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of exhaled breath for diagnosing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Tisch, U; Jeries, R; Amal, H; Hakim, M; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Zimmerman, D; Israel, O; Amiga, E; Doweck, I; Haick, H

    2014-08-12

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are wide-spread cancers that often lead to disfigurement and loss of important functions such as speech and ingestion. To date, HNSCC has no adequate method for early detection and screening. Exhaled breath samples were collected from 87 volunteers; 62 well-defined breath samples from 22 HNSCC patients (larynx and pharynx), 21 patients with benign tumours (larynx and pharynx) and 19 healthy controls were analysed in a dual approach: (i) chemical analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and (ii) breath-print analysis using an array of nanomaterial-based sensors, combined with a statistical algorithm. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified ethanol, 2-propenenitrile and undecane as potential markers for HNSCC and/or benign tumours of the head and neck. The sensor-array-based breath-prints could clearly distinguish HNSCC both from benign tumours and from healthy states. Within the HNSCC group, patients could be classified according to tumour site and stage. We have demonstrated the feasibility of a breath test for a specific, clinically interesting application: distinguishing HNSCC from tumour-free or benign tumour states, as well as for staging and locating HNSCC. The sensor array used here could form the basis for the development of an urgently needed non-invasive, cost-effective, fast and reliable point-of-care diagnostic/screening tool for HNSCC.

  1. Analysis of Endogenous Alkanes and Aldehydes in the Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Silica Containing Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Silica is one of the most air pollutant in workplaces which long-term occupational exposure to silica is associated with an increased risk for respiratory diseases such as silicosis. Silicosis is an oxidative stress related disease and can lead to the development of lung cancer. This study aims to analysis of endogenous alkanes and aldehydes in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dusts. Methods: In this study, the exhaled breath of 20 workers exposed to silica containing dust (case group, 20 healthy non-smokers and 25 healthy smokers (control group were analyzed. The breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags were collected. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS. Result: Totally, thirty nine VOCs were found in all breath samples (at least once. Aldehydes and alkanes such as acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentadecane, 2-methle propane, 3-methyle pentane and octane were detected in the exhaled breath subjects. Among the these compounds, mean peak area of acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane were higher in the exhaled breath of an case group than control groups (Pvalue<0.05 . Conclusions : The use of exhaled breath analysis as well as new media in the occupational toxicology and exposure biomarker assessment studies. It seems that acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane can be considered as useful breath biomarkers for exposure assessment of silica containing dust. However, additional studies are needed to confirm thes results.

  2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in exhaled breath and physiological effects following cannabis intake - A pilot study using illicit cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coucke, Line; Massarini, Enrico; Ostijn, Zachery; Beck, Olof; Verstraete, Alain G

    2016-09-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be measured in exhaled breath by using an aerosol particle collection device. The sampling procedure is simple, non-invasive and takes only 2-3min. In the present study we measured the amount of THC in exhaled breath of cannabis users at specific time intervals up to 3h after smoking one cannabis cigarette. The breath concentration-effect relationship was studied by measuring the pulse rate and the pupil diameter to assess physiological changes. THC and the main metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol were analyzed in exhaled breath by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Thirteen subjects (9 males and 4 females, aged 23-24years) participated. Five of those were using cannabis more frequently than monthly. THC was detected in most subjects already at baseline, concentrations increased following smoking and remained detectable for over 3h (mean THC concentration in breath at 3h: 1479pg/sample). Pulse rate (p=0.015) and pupil diameter (p=0.044) were significantly altered up to 30min after smoking. The detection window of cannabis in breath after smoking one cannabis cigarette in occasional and chronic smokers was at least 3h. Only THC was detected, and not the metabolite. The THC concentration in exhaled breath was related to the physiological changes that occur over time. Exhaled breath can be used to detect recent cannabis exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an inflammatory marker in asthmatic children. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in childhood. As many as 10-15% of boys and 7-10% of girls may have asthma at sometime during childhood. Current data support the hypothesis that ...

  4. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  5. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K Milton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza. We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask in two size fractions ("coarse">5 µm, "fine"≤5 µm from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus. Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19 fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2 and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180. Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3 reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction. Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples. Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.

  6. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde, spirometric results and dust exposure assessment in ceramics production workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare; Biabani Ardekani, Javad; Firoozichahak, Ali; Zavarreza, Javad; Hajaghazade, Mohammad; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amirhooshang; Barkhordari, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at measuring exhaled breath malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA) in workers exposed to dust containing silica and at its comparison with the non-exposed control group. The cross sectional, case-control study (N = 50) was performed in a tile and ceramics production factory in Yazd, Iran. EBC-MDA was quantified in exhaled breath of the participants by a lab made breath sampler. Exposure intensity was measured according to the NIOSH 0600 method in selected homogeneous exposure groups. Additionally, spirometry test was conducted to investigate a correlation between EBC-MDA and spirometric findings in the exposed workers. There was no difference in the observed exposure intensities of silica containing dust in different units. However, "coating preparation" was the unit with the highest concentration of dust. Although, the level of EBC-MDA in the cases was slightly higher than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant (U = 252, p = 0.464). A significant and positive correlation was found between dust exposure intensity in working units and the measured EBC-MDA of workers (r = 0.467, N = 25, p = 0.027). There were also no statistically significant differences among job categories in the exposed group for the values of FEV1% (F(3, 44) = 0.656, p = 0.584), FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.417, p = 0.172), and FEV1/FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.929, p = 0.139). The results showed a significant correlation between respirable dust exposure intensity and the level of EBC-MDA of the exposed subjects. However, our results did not show a significant correlation between lung function decreases and EBC-MDA. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  10. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath nitrogen washout in preschool healthy and asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Lea; Buchvald, Frederik; Green, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objectively assessing pulmonary disease is challenging in preschool children with asthma. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) in children. We compared their capacities for discriminating between...... children with asthma and healthy controls. Methods We measured FeNO and N2MBW-derived indices of lung clearance (LCI2.5) and conductive and acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Scond and Sacin) in 65 preschool children; 35 with physician-diagnosed asthma and 30 healthy. FeNO was measured with a portable.......023), but similar FeNO, LCI2.5 and Sacinvalues. Conclusion The feasibility of measuring FeNO was highly age-dependent and not applicable in children under age 4. N2MBW was feasible in the majority of preschool children. Scond, but not FeNO, could discriminate between children with asthma and healthy controls....

  11. Expanding analytical options in sports drug testing: Mass spectrometric detection of prohibited substances in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-08-15

    Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls. A multi-analyte sports drug testing approach configured for a subset of 12 model compounds that represent specific classes of substances prohibited in sports (anabolic agents, hormone and metabolic modulators, stimulants, and beta-blockers) was established using unispray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and applied to spiked and elimination study EB samples. The test method was characterized concerning specificity, assay imprecision, and limits of detection. The EB collection device allowed for retaining and extracting all selected model compounds from the EB aerosol. Following elution and concentration, LC/MS/MS analysis enabled detection limits between 5 and 100 pg/filter and imprecisions ranging from 3% to 20% for the 12 selected model compounds. By means of EB samples from patients and participants of administration studies, the elimination of relevant compounds and, thus, their traceability in EB for doping control purposes, was investigated. Besides stimulants such as methylhexaneamine and pseudoephedrine, also the anabolic-androgenic steroid dehydrochloromethyltestosterone, the metabolic modulator meldonium, and the beta-blocker bisoprolol was detected in exhaled breath. The EB aerosol has provided a promising proof-of-concept suggesting the expansion of this testing strategy as a complement to currently utilized sports drug

  12. Analysis of ketone bodies in exhaled breath and blood of ten healthy Japanese at OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Naoko; Hinokio, Yoshinori; Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Koseki, Takeyoshi

    2014-11-24

    Ketone bodies including acetone are disease biomarkers for diabetes that sometimes causes severe ketoacidosis. The present study was undertaken to clarify the significance of exhaled acetone and plasma ketone bodies at bedside in a clinical setting. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 10 healthy Japanese volunteers (five females and five males). Exhaled breath acetone and volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) in mouth air were measured simultaneously with blood sampling during the OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph equipped with an In2O3 thick-film type gas sensor and a VSC monitor. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) in blood plasma as well as glucose and insulin were examined. Oral conditions were examined based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) by one dentist. In addition, the same type of analysis was applied to two uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at Tohoku University Hospital. Exhaled acetone was measured at the same time as blood withdrawal in the morning before breakfast and at night before bed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of hospitalization. All volunteers showed normal OGTT patterns with no ketonuria and periodontitis; however, there were significant correlations between breath acetone and plasma β-ΟΗΒ and between breath acetone and plasma AcAc under fasting conditions. Breath acetone of the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed positive correlations with plasma glucose when the level of plasma glucose tended to decrease during hospitalization. In spite of a very limited number of cases, our results support the idea that exhaled breath acetone may be related to plasma β-OHB and AcAc, which reflect glucose metabolism in the body.

  13. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Exhaled Breath for the Identification of Volatile Organic Compound Biomarkers in Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sacheen; Huang, Juzheng; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Mackenzie, Hugh A; Veselkov, Kirill A; Hoare, Jonathan M; Lovat, Laurence B; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, David; Hanna, George B

    2015-12-01

    The present study assessed whether exhaled breath analysis using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry could distinguish esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from noncancer controls. The majority of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer present with advanced disease, resulting in poor long-term survival rates. Novel methods are needed to diagnose potentially curable upper gastrointestinal malignancies. A Profile-3 Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry instrument was used for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within exhaled breath samples. All study participants had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on the day of breath sampling. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and a diagnostic risk prediction model were used to assess the discriminatory accuracy of the identified VOCs. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed from 81 patients with esophageal (N = 48) or gastric adenocarcinoma (N = 33) and 129 controls including Barrett's metaplasia (N = 16), benign upper gastrointestinal diseases (N = 62), or a normal upper gastrointestinal tract (N = 51). Twelve VOCs-pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, phenol, methyl phenol, ethyl phenol, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal-were present at significantly higher concentrations (P curve using these significant VOCs to discriminate esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from those with normal upper gastrointestinal tracts was 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The area under the ROC curve for the model and validation subsets of the diagnostic prediction model was 0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.87 ± 0.03, respectively. Distinct exhaled breath VOC profiles can distinguish patients with esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma from noncancer controls.

  14. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  15. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorham, Katrine A; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Meinardi, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of exhaled ethane and n-pentane to exhaled NO, carbonylated proteins, and indoor/outdoor atmospheric pollutants were examined in order to evaluate ethane and n-pentane as potential markers of airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Exhaled NO and carbonylated proteins were f...

  16. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  17. BreathDx - molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated pneumonia: protocol for a European multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pouline M P; Nijsen, Tamara; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo; Dark, Paul; Felton, Timothy; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Lawal, Oluwasola; Ahmed, Waqar; Portsmouth, Craig; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Artigas, Antonio; Povoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Fowler, Stephen J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2017-01-03

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity. The Molecular Analysis of Exhaled Breath as Diagnostic Test for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (BreathDx) study is a multicentre observational study. Breath and bronchial lavage samples will be collected from 100 and 53 intubated and ventilated patients suspected of VAP. Breath will be analysed using Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The primary endpoint is the accuracy of cross-validated prediction for positive respiratory cultures in patients that are suspected of VAP, with a sensitivity of at least 99% (high negative predictive value). To our knowledge, BreathDx is the first study powered to investigate whether molecular analysis of breath can be used to classify suspected VAP patients with and without positive microbiological cultures with 99% sensitivity. UKCRN ID number 19086, registered May 2015; as well as registration at www.trialregister.nl under the acronym 'BreathDx' with trial ID number NTR 6114 (retrospectively registered on 28 October 2016).

  18. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  19. Effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium on biomarkers of pulmonary response in exhaled breath of workers in machining industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauceanu, Anca; Grzebyk, Michel; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Chérot-Kornobis, Nathalie; Rousset, Davy; Dziurla, Mathieu; De Broucker, Virginie; Hédelin, Guy; Sobaszek, Annie; Hulo, Sébastien

    2016-11-30

    To analyze the effects of occupational exposure to poorly soluble forms of beryllium (Be) on biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in workers employed in machining industries. Twenty machining operators were compared to 16 controls. The individual exposure to Be was assessed from the work history with several indices of exposure calculated on the basis of task-exposures matrices developed for each plant using historical air measurements. Clinical evaluation consisted in a medical questionnaire, measurements of biomarkers in EBC (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), total nitrogen oxides (NOx)), measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and resting spirometry. Adjusted multiple linear regressions were used to study the effect of the exposure to Be on inflammatory biomarkers. Levels of TNF-α and NOx in EBC were not statistically different between exposed and controls. We found a statistically significant relationship between levels of TNF-α in EBC and both index of cumulative exposure and duration of exposure to Be. No other statistically significant relationships were found between exposure to Be and pulmonary response. Our results suggest that machining-related exposure to Be is related to pulmonary inflammation involving TNF-α. These findings must be confirmed by larger studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inspiratory flow rates during hard work when breathing through different respirator inhalation and exhalation resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Karen; Caretti, David; Scott, William; Johnson, Arthur; Koh, Frank

    2006-09-01

    There has been a long-standing debate regarding the adequacy of airflow rates used in respirator certification testing and whether these test flow rates underestimate actual values. This study investigated breath by breath inspiratory peak flow rate, minute ventilation, and instantaneous flow rates of eight young, healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic capacity until exhaustion while wearing an air-purifying respirator with one of eight combinations of inhalation and exhalation resistance. An analysis of variance was performed to identify differences among the eight conditions. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated which means differed. The group of conditions with the highest average value for each parameter was identified and considered to represent a worst-case scenario. Data was reported for these conditions. A Gaussian distribution was fit to the data and the 99.9% probability levels determined. The 99.9% probability level for the peak and instantaneous flow rates were 374 L/min and 336 L/min, respectively. The minute ventilation distribution was not Gaussian. Less than 1% of the recorded minute ventilations exceeded 135 L/min. Instantaneous flow rates exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's respirator test standards of 64, 85, and 100 L/min constant flow 91%, 87%, and 82% of the time, respectively. The recorded minute ventilations exceeded the 40 L/min minute ventilation test standard (for tests with a sinusoidal flow pattern) 100% of the time. This study showed that young, healthy respirator wearers generated peak flow rates, minute ventilations, and instantaneous flow rates that consistently exceeded current test standards. Their flow rates should be higher than those of a respirator wearer performing occupational work and could be considered upper limits. Testing respirators and respirator cartridges using a sinusoidal breathing pattern with a minute ventilation of 135 L/min (peak flow rate

  1. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-15

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results.

  2. Exhaled Breath Metabolomics for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pouline M P; de Bruin, Sanne; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo H; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D; On Behalf Of The Mars Consortium

    2017-02-19

    The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia remains challenging. We hypothesized that analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath could be used to diagnose pneumonia or the presence of pathogens in the respiratory tract in intubated and mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. In this prospective, single-centre, cross-sectional cohort study breath from mechanically ventilated patients was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potentially relevant VOCs were selected with a p-value pneumonia compared to controls. In colonized patients, 52 VOCs were significantly different. Partial least square discriminant analysis classified patients with modest accuracy (AUROC: 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.88) after leave-one-out cross-validation). For determining the colonization status of patients, the model had an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.82) after leave-one-out cross-validation. To conclude, exhaled breath analysis can be used to discriminate pneumonia from controls with a modest to good accuracy. Furthermore breath profiling could be used to predict the presence and absence of pathogens in the respiratory tract. These findings need to be validated externally.

  3. Real-Time Quantitative Analysis of Valproic Acid in Exhaled Breath by Low Temperature Plasma Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoxia; Shi, Songyue; Gamez, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    Real-time analysis of exhaled human breath is a rapidly growing field in analytical science and has great potential for rapid and noninvasive clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring. In the present study, an LTP-MS method was developed for real-time, in-vivo and quantitative analysis of γ-valprolactone, a metabolite of valproic acid (VPA), in exhaled breath without any sample pretreatment. In particular, the effect of working conditions and geometry of the LTP source on the ions of interest, protonated molecular ion at m/z 143 and ammonium adduct ion at m/z 160, were systematically characterized. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with collision-induced dissociation (CID) was carried out in order to identify γ-valprolactone molecular ions ( m/z 143), and the key fragment ion ( m/z 97) was used for quantitation. In addition, the fragmentation of ammonium adduct ions to protonated molecular ions was performed in-source to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. At optimum conditions, signal reproducibility with an RSD of 8% was achieved. The concentration of γ-valprolactone in exhaled breath was determined for the first time to be 4.83 (±0.32) ng/L by using standard addition method. Also, a calibration curve was obtained with a linear range from 0.7 to 22.5 ng/L, and the limit of detection was 0.18 ng/L for γ-valprolactone in standard gas samples. Our results show that LTP-MS is a powerful analytical platform with high sensitivity for quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in human breath, and can have potential applications in pharmacokinetics or for patient monitoring and treatment.

  4. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer detection using ion mobility spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Handa

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for lung cancer detection including computed tomography (CT and bronchoscopy are expensive and invasive. Thus, there is still a need for an optimal lung cancer detection technique.The exhaled breath of 50 patients with lung cancer histologically proven by bronchoscopic biopsy samples (32 adenocarcinomas, 10 squamous cell carcinomas, 8 small cell carcinomas, were analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS and compared with 39 healthy volunteers. As a secondary assessment, we compared adenocarcinoma patients with and without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation.A decision tree algorithm could separate patients with lung cancer including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. One hundred-fifteen separated volatile organic compound (VOC peaks were analyzed. Peak-2 noted as n-Dodecane using the IMS database was able to separate values with a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 89.7%. Incorporating a decision tree algorithm starting with n-Dodecane, a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 100% was achieved. Comparing VOC peaks between adenocarcinoma and healthy subjects, n-Dodecane was able to separate values with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 89.7%. Fourteen patients positive for EGFR mutation displayed a significantly higher n-Dodecane than for the 14 patients negative for EGFR (p<0.01, with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 78.6%.In this prospective study, VOC peak patterns using a decision tree algorithm were useful in the detection of lung cancer. Moreover, n-Dodecane analysis from adenocarcinoma patients might be useful to discriminate the EGFR mutation.

  5. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  6. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Crystalline Silica Dust by SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mahdi; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Berijani, Nima; Mahjub, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is considered an oxidative stress related disease that can lead to the development of lung cancer. In this study, our purpose was to analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dust and compare peak area of these compounds with silicosis patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and nonsmokers) groups. In this cross sectional case-control study, the exhaled breath of 69 subjects including workers exposed to silica (n=20), silicosis patient (n=4), healthy non-smoker (n=20) and healthy smoker (n=25) were analyzed. We collected breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Personal exposure intensity was measured according to NIOSH 7601 method. Respiratory parameters were measured using spirometry. Seventy percent and 100% of the exposures to crystalline silica dust exceeded from 8 h TWA ACGIH TLVs in case and positive control groups, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between dust exposure intensity and FEV1/FVC when exposure and positive control groups were studied in a group (r2=-0.601, Psilica and silicosis patient compared to the healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls. In some cases the difference was significant (Psilica.

  7. Profiling of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as a strategy to find early predictive signatures of asthma in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Smolinska

    Full Text Available Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2-4 years that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment.

  8. Exhaled Breath Metabolomics for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouline M. P. van Oort

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia remains challenging. We hypothesized that analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in exhaled breath could be used to diagnose pneumonia or the presence of pathogens in the respiratory tract in intubated and mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. In this prospective, single-centre, cross-sectional cohort study breath from mechanically ventilated patients was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potentially relevant VOCs were selected with a p-value < 0.05 and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC above 0.7. These VOCs were used for principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. AUROC was used as a measure of accuracy. Ninety-three patients were included in the study. Twelve of 145 identified VOCs were significantly altered in patients with pneumonia compared to controls. In colonized patients, 52 VOCs were significantly different. Partial least square discriminant analysis classified patients with modest accuracy (AUROC: 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.57–0.88 after leave-one-out cross-validation. For determining the colonization status of patients, the model had an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57–0.82 after leave-one-out cross-validation. To conclude, exhaled breath analysis can be used to discriminate pneumonia from controls with a modest to good accuracy. Furthermore breath profiling could be used to predict the presence and absence of pathogens in the respiratory tract. These findings need to be validated externally.

  9. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-04

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Rafał; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Thomazy, David M.; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Timothy B.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) based sensor platform for the quantitative detection of ammonia (NH3) concentrations present in exhaled human breath is reported. The NH3 concentration measurements are performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is very well suited for real time breath analysis, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. An air-cooled DFB-QCL was designed to target the interference-free NH3 absorption line located at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm). The laser is operated at 17.5 °C, emitting ~ 24 mW of optical power at the selected wavelength. A 1σ minimum detectable concentration of ammonia for the line-locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppb with 1 sec time resolution. The NH3 sensor, packaged in a 12"x14"x10" housing, is currently installed at a medical breath research center in Bethlehem, PA and tested as an instrument for non-invasive verification of liver and kidney disorders based on human breath samples.

  11. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-05-14

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes.

  12. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs. Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  13. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-04

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  14. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich,1 Huong Duong-Thi-Ly,2 Vu Thi Thom,2 Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong,2 Long Doan Dinh,2 Huong Le-Thi-Minh,1 Timothy John Craig,3 Sy Duong-Quy3,4 1Department of Immunology, Allergology, and Rheumatology, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Department of Medicine, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, Lam Dong Medical College, Dalat, Vietnam Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam, were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT, and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results: Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05. FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004. Five of the 32 subjects (15.6% had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP. In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05. The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of

  15. Exhaled Breath Analysis for the Monitoring of Elderly COPD Patients Health-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Chiurco, Domenica; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2011-09-01

    This pilot study assesses how effectively a gas sensors array can follow the evolution of elderly patients with COPD, the most common chronic respiratory disease. In particular, reproducibility of breath analysis (calculated for each subject along three weekly measurements) resulted comparable to spirometry, except for a larger spread for breath analysis, whose patterns was significantly correlated with other heath status parameters (such as eosinophiles and Barthel index).

  16. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  17. MO-FG-BRA-09: Towards an Optimal Breath-Holding Procedure for Radiotherapy: Differences in Organ Motion During Inhalation and Exhalation Breath-Holds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, E; Gurney-Champion, O; Horst, A van der; Tekelenburg, D; Kesteren, Z van; Tienhoven, G van; Nederveen, A; Bel, A [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Parkes, M [University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce organ motion during radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion during BH between inhalation and exhalation BHs with variable lung volumes and to investigate whether motion increases/decreases during BH. Methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform four different 60-second BHs, from fully inflated to fully deflated lungs (i.e. lung volumes of: 100%, ∼70%, ∼30% and 0% of inspiratory capacity) three times (total of 192 BHs). During each BH, we obtained single-slice (coronal) magnetic-resonance scans with spatial resolution 0.93×0.93×8.0 mm3 and temporal resolution 0.6 s. We used 2-dimensional image correlation to obtain the motion of pancreatic head and diaphragm during BH. Motion magnitude in inferior-superior direction was obtained by determining the maximum displacement during BH. Results: Pancreatic and diaphragmatic drifts occurred during BH and were mostly in the superior direction. We observed significantly smaller pancreatic and diaphragmatic motion magnitudes in inferior-superior direction during exhalation BHs (BH{sub 30%} and BH{sub 0%}) compared to inhalation BHs (BH{sub 100%} and BH{sub 70%}). The mean motion magnitudes of the pancreatic head were 7.0, 6.5, 4.4 and 4.2 mm during BH{sub 100%}, BH{sub 70%}, BH{sub 30%} and BH{sub 0%}, respectively, and mean BH durations were 59.9, 59.1, 59.0 and 52.7 s. For the diaphragm, mean motion magnitudes were 9.8, 9.0, 5.6 and 4.3 mm, respectively. When considering 30-second BHs, as often used in the clinic, the motion was most pronounced during the first 10 s and excluding these from the analysis (yielding an effective BH period of 20 s) significantly reduced (P≤0.002) organ motion. Conclusion: Organ motion was significantly smaller during exhalation BHs compared to inhalation BHs. Also, motion was largest at the start of BH. Hence, waiting for 10 s may significantly decrease

  18. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  19. Measurement of exhaled breath carbon monoxide in clinical practice: A study of levels in Central Pennsylvania community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica M; Veldheer, Susan; Hammett, Erin; Foulds, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eBCO) reading is a useful tool for nurse practitioners to evaluate smoking status and other exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) to identify risk for cancer and chronic disease. This study aimed to measure one community's eBCO and identify potential environmental factors that may affect eBCO among nonsmokers. Data collected by convenience sampling at community health events included self-reported tobacco use and potential CO exposure. Means and frequency calculations describe the sample, two-sided t-tests determine differences in continuous variables, and chi-square tests determine differences in frequencies of CO levels between nontobacco users exposed to additional CO from their environment and nontobacco users who were not. As expected, smokers have significantly higher mean eBCO than nonsmokers (20.1 ppm vs. 4.4 ppm, p 6 ppm), although there were no environmental factors that explained a higher eBCO. Measuring eBCO provides an opportunity for the nurse practitioner to engage in a conversation about the impact of smoking and other environmental factors that contribute to eBCO and health. Keeping record of patients' smoking status and eBCO in their medical record is a valuable measure of the nurse practitioner's delivery of this care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Fabrication of prototype for measuring the exhaled breath temperature (EBT) to support detection of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnawan, A. A.; Mariati; Fahrudin, A.; Assegaf, A.

    2017-05-01

    Recently, EBT has been proven as the marker of airways inflammation like asthma and proposed as the non-invasive tool. Although EBT device has already been made but this device is rarely used for patients in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to develop a prototype which accurately measures EBT and is comfortably used by patients including children. This prototype was made using SHT11 as a sensor of EBT which is integrated on a thermal flask 0.5L. This flask filled up patient breath and the temperature of air breath was measured. The EBT of twelve healthy samples and seven samples with asthma was examined using this prototype, the measurement was done within three minutes for all of them. The test results of EBT on healthy samples obtained the median is 33.9°C within of 33.0°C - 34.7°C and EBT on asthma samples obtained median is 35.0°C within the range 34.9°C - 36.0°C.

  1. Human Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) Media: Implementation of Automated Quanterix SIMOA Immunochemistry Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for observing biological pathways leading to disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for cytokines are typically labor intensive and lack sensitivity at sub pg/ml concentrations. Here we report on emerging tec...

  2. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, G. de; Longobardi, F.; Stallone, G.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Chemistry, Bari (Italy); Dragonieri, S. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Pulmonology, Bari (Italy); Musti, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bari (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time. (orig.)

  3. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, G; Dragonieri, S; Longobardi, F; Musti, M; Stallone, G; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2010-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time.

  4. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Nihaya Al-Sheyab; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Thomson Mangnall, Linda J; Robyn Gallagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacc...

  5. Impact of bacterial colonization on exhaled inflammatory markers in wheezing preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, K.D. van de; Klaassen, E.M.; Aerde, K.J. van; Damoiseaux, J.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Stelma, F.F.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Muris, J.W.M.; Jobsis, Q.; Schayck, O.C. van; Dompeling, E.

    2012-01-01

    Wheeze is a common symptom in preschool children. The role of bacteria, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and their association with airway inflammation in preschool wheeze is largely unknown. We evaluated inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), bacterial colonization and circulating

  6. Variability of breath condensate pH may contribute to the better understanding of non-allergic seasonal respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Tamás; Szipőcs, Annamária

    2017-09-01

    The seasonal variability of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases is not clearly understood. Analysis of the breath condensate, the liquid that can be collected by breathing into a cold tube, has been proposed to bring closer to the understanding of airway pathologies. It has been assumed, that (1) airway lining fluid was a stable body liquid and (2) the breath condensate samples were representative of the airway lining fluid. Research was focussed on the identification of biomarkers indicative of respiratory pathologies. Despite 30 years of extended investigations breath condensate analysis has not gained any clinical implementation so far. The pH of the condensate is the characteristic that can be determined with the highest reproducibility. The present paper shows, that contrary to the initial assumptions, breath condensate is not a representative of the airway lining fluid, and the airway lining fluid is not a stable body liquid. Condensate pH shows baseline variability and it is influenced by drinking and by the ambient temperature. The changes in condensate pH are linked to changes in airway lining fluid pH. The variability of airway lining fluid pH may explain seasonal incidence of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases such as the catching of a common cold and the increased incidence of COPD exacerbations and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in cold periods.

  7. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  8. Estimation of clinical parameters of chronic kidney disease by exhaled breath full-scan mass spectrometry data and iterative PCA with intensity screening algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maggie Haitian; Yuk-Fai Lau, Steven; Chong, Ka Chun; Kwok, Chloe; Lai, Maria; Chung, Anthony Hy; Ho, Chung Shun; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chung-Ying Zee, Benny

    2017-08-21

    Breath mass spectrometry is a useful tool for identifying important compounds associated with health. However, there have been few studies that have explored human exhaled breath by full-scan mass spectrometry as a non-invasive method for medical diagnosis, which may be attributed to the difficulties resulting from multicollinearity and small sample sizes relative to a large number of product ions. In this study, breath samples from 54 chronic kidney disease patients were analyzed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. With the signal intensities of product ions, we developed a novel and robust algorithm, iterative PCA with intensity screening (IPS), to build linear models for estimating important clinical parameters of chronic kidney disease. It has been shown that IPS provided good estimations in cross-validated samples, and furthermore the identified product ions could have direct medical relevance to the disease. The study demonstrated the potential of quantitative breath analysis using mass spectrometry for medical diagnosis, and the importance of applying appropriate statistical tools to unveil the rich information in this type of data.

  9. Preliminary investigation of human exhaled breath for tuberculosis diagnosis by multidimensional gas chromatography - Time of flight mass spectrometry and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Marco; Mellors, Theodore R; Petion, Jacky S; Rees, Christiaan A; Nasir, Mavra; Systrom, Hannah K; Sairistil, Jean W; Jean-Juste, Marc-Antoine; Rivera, Vanessa; Lavoile, Kerline; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Wright, Peter F; Hill, Jane E

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health malady that claims almost 1.8 million lives annually. Diagnosis of TB represents perhaps one of the most challenging aspects of tuberculosis control. Gold standards for diagnosis of active TB (culture and nucleic acid amplification) are sputum-dependent, however, in up to a third of TB cases, an adequate biological sputum sample is not readily available. The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, and non-invasive, and ready-available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection. Human breath has been evaluated in the setting of active tuberculosis using thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry methodology. From the entire spectrum of volatile metabolites in breath, three random forest machine learning models were applied leading to the generation of a panel of 46 breath features. The twenty-two common features within each random forest model used were selected as a set that could distinguish subjects with confirmed pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection and people with other pathologies than TB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of ethylene gas in exhaled breath of people living in landfill using CO{sub 2} laser photoacoustic spectroscopy with multicomponent analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktafiani, Fitri, E-mail: fitri.oktafiani@mail.ugm.ac.id; Stiyabudi, Rizky; Amin, Mochamad Nurul; Mitrayana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS 21, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) had been built and the performance had been determined. The research was based on the conversion of the absorbed middle infra red (IR) radiation by gas confined in a closed PAS cell into standing acoustic wave, which could be detected by a suitable electroacoustic transducer such as a microphone. The lowest detection limit for this setup was (57,1 ± 0,3) ppb and quality factor was (14,5 ± 0,6) for ethylene gas in 10P14 CO{sub 2} laser line. Then, this PAS was used to measure of ethylene gas concentration in breath sample of people living in near the Piyungan Bantul Yogyakarta landfill. The result from multicomponent analysis showed that PAS enable to measure the lowest concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC), such as ethylene, which occured on ambien air in Piyungan landfill. Variaty of distance area applied in this research. In the range of ±0,5 km from landfill, we obtained the concentration of ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (1,520 ± 0,002) ppm, while in the range of ±45 km, the ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (0,424 ± 0,002) ppm. Ethylene gas concentrations in exhaled gas decreased along with increasing distance variation of the landfill.

  11. Breath analysis by optical fiber sensor for the determination of exhaled organic compounds with a view to diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lurdes I B; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Pereira, M E; Duarte, Armando C

    2011-02-15

    Breath analysis constitutes a promising tool in clinical and analytical fields due to its high potential for non-invasive diagnostics of metabolic disorders and monitoring of disease status. An optical fiber (OF) sensor has been developed for determination of volatile organic compounds (ethane, pentane, heptane, octane, decane, benzene, toluene and styrene) in human breath for clinical diagnosis. The analytical system developed showed a high performance for breath analysis, inferred for the analytical signal intensity and stability, linear range, and detection limits ranging from 0.8 pmol L(-1), for heptane, and to 9.5 pmol L(-1), for decane. The OF sensor also showed advantageous features of near real-time response and low instrumentation costs, besides showing an analytical performance equivalent to the breath analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), used as the reference method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EXHALED AND PLASMA NITRITE: a comparative study among healthy, cirrhotic and liver transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S AUGUSTO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context There is a relative lack of studies about exhaled nitrite (NO2- concentrations in cirrhotic and transplanted patients. Objective Verify possible differences and correlations between the levels of NO2-, measured in plasma and exhaled breath condensate collected from patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant. Method Sixty adult male patients, aged between 27 and 67 years, were subdivided into three groups: a control group comprised of 15 healthy volunteers, a cirrhosis group composed of 15 volunteers, and a transplant group comprised of 30 volunteers. The NO2- concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. Results 1 The analysis of plasma NO2- held among the three groups showed no statistical significance. 2 The comparison between cirrhotic and control groups, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted was not statistically significant. 3 The measurements performed on of NO2- exhaled breath condensate among the three groups showed no statistical difference. 4 When comparing the control group samples and cirrhotic, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted, there was no significant changes in the concentrations of NO2-. Conclusion No correlations were found between plasma and exhaled NO2-, suggesting that the exhaled NO2- is more reflective of local respiratory NO release than the systemic circulation.

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide and other exhaled biomarkers in bronchial challenge with exercise in asthmatic children: current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mario; Zambardi, Rosanna; Villa, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a known marker of atopic-eosinophilic inflammation, may be used as a surrogate to assess exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatic children. The predictive value of baseline FENO for EIB appears to be influenced by several factors, including age, atopy, current therapy with corticosteroids and measurement technique. Nonetheless, FENO cut-off values appear to be able to rule out EIB. FENO levels decrease during EIB, apparently through neural mechanisms rather than by decreased airway-epithelial surface. Partition of FENO into proximal and peripheral contributions of the respiratory tract may improve our understanding on NO exchange during exercise and help to screen subjects prone to EIB. Other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress contained in exhaled gases and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may shed light on the pathophysiology of EIB. Exhaled breath temperature is a promising real-time measurement whose routine use for assessing EIB warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoscale PdO Catalyst Functionalized Co3O4 Hollow Nanocages Using MOF Templates for Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Yu, Sunmoon; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-03-08

    The increase of surface area and the functionalization of catalyst are crucial to development of high-performance semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) based chemiresistive gas sensors. Herein, nanoscale catalyst loaded Co3O4 hollow nanocages (HNCs) by using metal-organic framework (MOF) templates have been developed as a new sensing platform. Nanoscale Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were easily loaded on the cavity of Co based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-67). The porous structure of ZIF-67 can restrict the size of Pd NPs (2-3 nm) and separate Pd NPs from each other. Subsequently, the calcination of Pd loaded ZIF-67 produced the catalytic PdO NPs functionalized Co3O4 HNCs (PdO-Co3O4 HNCs). The ultrasmall PdO NPs (3-4 nm) are well-distributed in the wall of Co3O4 HNCs, the unique structure of which can provide high surface area and high catalytic activity. As a result, the PdO-Co3O4 HNCs exhibited improved acetone sensing response (Rgas/Rair = 2.51-5 ppm) compared to PdO-Co3O4 powders (Rgas/Rair = 1.98), Co3O4 HNCs (Rgas/Rair = 1.96), and Co3O4 powders (Rgas/Rair = 1.45). In addition, the PdO-Co3O4 HNCs showed high acetone selectivity against other interfering gases. Moreover, the sensor array clearly distinguished simulated exhaled breath of diabetics from healthy people's breath. These results confirmed the novel synthesis of MOF templated nanoscale catalyst loaded SMO HNCs for high performance gas sensors.

  15. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF. One Year of Clinical Follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana G Marcondes-Braga

    Full Text Available The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis.To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF.After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months.The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT were observed in 35 patients (39.3%: 29 patients (32.6% died and 6 (6.7% were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001. Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56-6.80, p = 0.002 within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels.High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients.

  16. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). One Year of Clinical Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Bocchi, Edimar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. Objectives To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. Results The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56–6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. Conclusions High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients. PMID:28030609

  17. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48 h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24 h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihaya Al-Sheyab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439 had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50 and 174 (39.9% reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9% reported being a recent (30-day smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking.

  19. Agreement between exhaled breath carbon monoxide threshold levels and self-reported cigarette smoking in a sample of male adolescents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking.

  20. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Chi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  1. Immunochemistry for high-throughput screening of human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) media: implementation of automated quanterix SIMOA instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for indicating biological pathways leading towards disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are labor intensive and lack sensitivity at low-level concentrations. Here we report on emerging technology implementing f...

  2. Human exhalation characterization with the aid of schlieren imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Noninvasive schlieren technique was applied to characterize human exhalation. •New methods were proposed to predict exhaled velocity um and up, respectively. •Potential infection risk depended on breathing patterns and spatial distribution of exhaled air. •New data was added to airflo...

  3. Temperatura do ar exalado, um novo biomarcador no controle da asma: um estudo piloto Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Emrich Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a temperatura do ar exalado (TAE, medida por um método não invasivo, é efetiva no monitoramento de pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto com nove pacientes (sete mulheres e dois homens; média de idade: 39 anos com diagnóstico de asma por pelo menos um ano e sem uso de tratamento de manutenção por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. Na primeira visita, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria e à medida da TAE. Todos os pacientes foram orientados a iniciar tratamento com budesonida/formoterol (200/6 µg inalatório a cada 12 h por seis semanas. Além disso, os pacientes com asma grave (VEF1 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT, measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60% of predicted were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. RESULTS: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1% vs. 88.7% of predicted; p < 0.05. Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks. The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1ºC vs. 34.1ºC; p < 0

  4. Gaia's breath - Global methane exhalations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rogers, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is the most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas and thus has implications for global climate change. The current atmospheric CH4 budget, however, does not take into account geologically-sourced CH4 seepage. Geological sources of CH4 include natural macro- and micro-seeps, mud volcanoes, and other miscellaneous sources such as gas hydrates, magmatic volcanoes, geothermal regions, and mid-ocean ridges. Macro-seeps contribute ???25 Tg (teragrams) CH4/yr to the atmosphere, whereas, micro-seepage contributes perhaps 7 Tg CH4/yr. Mud volcanoes emit ???5 Tg CH4/yr, and miscellaneous sources emit ???8 Tg CH4/yr to the atmosphere. Thus, the total contribution to the atmosphere from geological sources is estimated to be 45 Tg CH4/yr, which is significant to the atmospheric organic carbon cycle and should be included in any global inventory of atmospheric CH4. We argue that the atmospheric CH4 global inventory of the Interplanetary Panel on Climate Change must be adjusted in order to incorporate geologically-sourced CH4 from naturally occurring seepage.

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide dynamics in asthmatic reactions induced by diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P; Scarpa, M C; Guarnieri, G; Giordano, G; Baraldi, E; Maestrelli, P

    2016-12-01

    Isocyanate-induced asthmatic reactions are associated with delayed increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at expiratory flow of 50 mL/s (FeNO50), a biomarker of airway inflammation. The time course of FeNO increase is compatible with the activation of NO synthase, but the origin of NO production in the lung is undetermined. The aim of this study was to define the dynamics of airway and alveolar NO during specific inhalation challenge (SIC) with isocyanates and the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Spirometry, exhaled NO parameters (FeNO50, bronchial wall NO concentration, NO airway diffusing capacity, NO flux to luminal space, alveolar NO) and ADMA levels in exhaled breath condensate were measured before and at intervals up to 24 h after exposure to isocyanates. The results were compared between 17 SIC-positive and eight SIC-negative subjects. A significant FeNO50 increase in SIC-positive subjects was detected 24 h after exposure and was associated with the augmented NO flux from airway wall to the lumen, whereas airway NO diffusion and alveolar NO were not affected. The changes in NO dynamics were specific for the subjects who developed an asthmatic reaction, but were independent from the pattern and magnitude of bronchoconstriction. There was no evidence that exhaled NO is modulated by the changes in ADMA concentration. Because isocyanate-induced increase in FeNO50 was almost exclusively determined by the increase in NO flux, the use of FeNO50 appears adequate to monitor the exhaled NO dynamics during SIC. FeNO50 measurement may provide additional information to spirometry, because bronchoconstriction and airway inflammatory responses are dissociated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exhaled air molecular profiling in relation to inflammatory subtype and activity in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, N.; de Nijs, S. B.; Peters, S.; Dekker, T.; Knobel, H. H.; Vink, T. J.; Willard, N. P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Krouwels, F. H.; Janssen, H.-G.; Lutter, R.; Sterk, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predictive for responses to inhaled steroids. We hypothesised that the inflammatory subtype in mild and moderate COPD can be assessed by exhaled breath metabolomics. Exhaled compounds were analysed using gas chromatography

  7. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  8. Impacts of exhalation flow on the microenvironment around the human body under different room temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Gharari, Noradin; Azari, Mansour Rezazade; Ashrafi, Khosro

    2017-10-01

    Exhalation flow and room temperature can have a considerable effect on the microenvironment in the vicinity of human body. In this study, impacts of exhalation flow and room temperature on the microenvironment around a human body were investigated using a numerical simulation. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamic program was applied to study thermal plume around a sitting human body at different room temperatures of a calm indoor room by considering the exhalation flow. The simulation was supported by some experimental measurements. Six different room temperatures (18 to 28 °C) with two nose exhalation modes (exhalation and non-exhalation) were investigated. Overhead and breathing zone velocities and temperatures were simulated in different scenarios. This study finds out that the exhalation through the nose has a significant impact on both quantitative and qualitative features of the human microenvironment in different room temperatures. At a given temperature, the exhalation through the nose can change the location and size of maximum velocity at the top of the head. In the breathing zone, the effect of exhalation through the nose on velocity and temperature distribution was pronounced for the point close to mouth. Also, the exhalation through the nose strongly influences the thermal boundary layer on the breathing zone while it only minimally influences the convective boundary layer on the breathing zone. Overall results demonstrate that it is important to take the exhalation flow into consideration in all areas, especially at a quiescent flow condition with low temperature.

  9. Prediction of asthma exacerbations in children by innovative exhaled inflammatory markers: results of a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillys van Vliet

    Full Text Available In asthma management guidelines the primary goal of treatment is asthma control. To date, asthma control, guided by symptoms and lung function, is not optimal in many children and adults. Direct monitoring of airway inflammation in exhaled breath may improve asthma control and reduce the number of exacerbations.1 To study the use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC, in the prediction of asthma exacerbations in a pediatric population. 2 To study the predictive power of these exhaled inflammatory markers combined with clinical parameters.96 asthmatic children were included in this one-year prospective observational study, with clinical visits every 2 months. Between visits, daily symptom scores and lung function were recorded using a home monitor. During clinical visits, asthma control and FeNO were assessed. Furthermore, lung function measurements were performed and EBC was collected. Statistical analysis was performed using a test dataset and validation dataset for 1 conditionally specified models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves; 2 k-nearest neighbors algorithm.Three conditionally specified predictive models were constructed. Model 1 included inflammatory markers in EBC alone, model 2 included FeNO plus clinical characteristics and the ACQ score, and model 3 included all the predictors used in model 1 and 2. The area under the ROC-curves was estimated as 47%, 54% and 59% for models 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The k-nearest neighbors predictive algorithm, using the information of all the variables in model 3, produced correct predictions for 52% of the exacerbations in the validation dataset.The predictive power of FeNO and inflammatory markers in EBC for prediction of an asthma exacerbation was low, even when combined with clinical characteristics and symptoms. Qualitative improvement of the chemical analysis of EBC may lead to a better non-invasive prediction of

  10. Dispersal of Exhaled Air and Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2002-01-01

    . Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow...... from both nose and mouth is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person standing nearby. The stratification of exhaled air breaks down if there is physical movement in the room. As movement increases, the concentration distribution in the room will move towards a fully mixed situation......The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposures in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins...

  11. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile in a Room with three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Ines; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where...... the exhalation airflow was analyzed. In order to simulate the gaseous exhaled substances in human breathing, N2O was used as a tracer gas. The concentration of N2O and the velocity of the exhaled flow were measured in the center line of the exhalation flow. The velocity decay of the exhalation flow versus...

  12. Lack of heritability of exhaled volatile compound pattern: an electronic nose twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Bikov, Andras; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Lazar, Zsofia; Szilagyi, Blanka Krisztina; Korosi, Beata Zita; Horvath, Tamas; Littvay, Levente; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2014-03-01

    Electronic noses can distinguish various disorders by analyzing exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern; however it is unclear how hereditary and environmental backgrounds affect the exhaled VOC pattern. A twin study enrolling monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins is an ideal tool to separate the influence of these factors on the exhaled breath pattern. Exhaled breath samples were collected in duplicates from 28 never smoking twin pairs (in total 112 samples) without lung diseases and processed with an electronic nose (Cyranose 320). Univariate quantitative hereditary modeling (ACE analysis) adjusted for age and gender was performed to decompose the phenotypic variance of the exhaled volatile compound pattern (assessing principal components (PCs) derived from electronic nose data) into hereditary (A), shared (C), and unshared (E) environmental effects. Exhaled VOC pattern showed good intra-subject reproducibility as assessed with the Bland-Altman plot. Significant correlations were found between exhaled VOC patterns of both MZ and DZ twins. The hereditary background did not influence the VOC pattern. The shared environmental effect on PC 1, 2 and 3 was estimated to be 93%, 94% and 54%, respectively. The unshared (unique) environmental influence explained a smaller variance (7%, 6% and 46%). For the first time using the twin design, we have shown that the environmental background largely affects the exhaled volatile compound pattern in never smoking volunteers without respiratory disorders. Further studies should identify these environmental factors and also assess their influence on exhaled breath patterns in patients with lung diseases.

  13. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    . Human exhalation is studied in detail for different distribution systems: displacement and mixing ventilation as well as a system without mechanical ventilation. Two thermal manikins breathing through the mouth are used to simulate the exposure to human exhaled contaminants. The position and distance...

  14. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air is increased in stable asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractExhaled air condensate provides a noninvasive means of obtaining samples from the lower respiratory tract. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been proposed as a marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that in stable asthmatic children the

  15. H. pylori infection increases levels of exhaled nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Matthias; Karlseder, Alban; Niederseer, David; Lirk, Philipp; Neher, Andreas; Rieder, Josef; Tilg, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections worldwide. Despite the existence of a breath test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, no study has described the composition of volatile compounds, especially the levels of nitrate, in the exhaled air of

  16. Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as Predictors of Cold Symptoms After Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Vogel, Pia D; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David

    2017-11-18

    Prior research has demonstrated that psychosocial stress is associated with respiratory infections. Immunologic, endocrine, and cardiovascular predictors of such infections have been explored with varying success. We therefore sought to study the unexplored role of airway mucosal immunity factors, nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). NO is secreted by airway epithelial cells as part of the first line of defense against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. VEGF is expressed by mast cells in respiratory infections and recruits immune cells to infected sites, but in excess lead to vulnerability of the airway epithelium. In this proof-of-concept study we measured exhaled NO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) VEGF, salivary VEGF, and salivary cortisol in 36 students undergoing final academic examinations at three occasions: a low-stress baseline during the term, an early phase of finals, and a late phase of finals. Participants also reported on cold symptoms at these time points and approximately 5 and 10days after their last academic examination. Higher baseline NO was associated with fewer cold symptoms after stress, whereas higher baseline VEGF in EBC and saliva were associated with more cold symptoms after stress. Perceived stress at baseline as well as salivary VEGF and cortisol late in the finals also contributed to the prediction of later cold symptoms. Basal levels of NO and VEGF may inform about mucosal immunocompetence and add to preventative treatments against airway infections from periods of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H

    2017-05-04

    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  18. Measurement and prediction of indoor air quality using a breathing thermal manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip......The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface...... at a distance of air parameters. Proper simulation of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method...

  19. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where...... the exhalation airflow was analyzed. In order to simulate the gaseous exhaled substances in human breathing, N2O was used as a tracer gas. The concentration of N2O and the velocity of the exhaled flow were measured in the center line of the exhalation flow. The velocity decay of the exhalation flow versus...... distance was analyzed for the three ventilation strategies. The relationship between gas concentration values and distance from the manikin was also examined. The measurements showed that the exhalation flow of breathing depends to some extent on the air distribution system. Two equations could be applied...

  20. Control of exposure to exhaled air from sick occupant with wearable personal exhaust unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    °C. Breathing thermal manikin with realistic body and breathing cycle was used to mimic doctor. Second thermal manikin and heated dummy were used to resemble lying patients. Exhaled air by the doctor was mixed with tracer gas to mimic pathogens. The unit was positioned frontally by the mouth...

  1. CFD Simulations of Contaminant Transport between two Breathing Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Experiments have shown that exhalation from one person is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person at a distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the dependency of the personal exposure on some physical parameters, namely: Pulmonary ventilation rate......, convective heat output, exhalation temperature, and crosssectional exhalation area. Full-scale experimental results are used to calibrate/validate the CFD model....

  2. CFD Analysis of the Human Exhalation Flow using Different Boundary Conditions and Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafruela, J.M.; Olmedo, Inés; Ruiz de Adana, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the dispersion of the exhaled contaminants by humans in indoor environments, with special attention to the exhalation jet and its interaction with the indoor airflow pattern in both mixing and displacement ventilation conditions. The way in which three different numerical...... different environmental conditions and to validate whether a steady boundary condition of the exhalation flow may simulate human breathing in an effective and accurate way. The results show a very good agreement of the numerical results obtained for Test a and the experimental data. This fact confirms...... the use of numerical simulation as a powerful tool to predict the contaminant distribution exhaled by a human. The numerical tests with steady boundary conditions for the exhalation flow require a transitory resolution procedure and the predictions provided by these models display some discrepancies...

  3. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  4. Impact of bacterial colonization on exhaled inflammatory markers in wheezing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim D G; Klaassen, Ester M M; van Aerde, Koen J; Damoiseaux, Jan; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stelma, Foekje F; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Muris, Jean W M; Jöbsis, Quirijn; van Schayck, Onno C P; Dompeling, Edward

    2012-12-01

    Wheeze is a common symptom in preschool children. The role of bacteria, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and their association with airway inflammation in preschool wheeze is largely unknown. We evaluated inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), bacterial colonization and circulating T(reg) cells in preschool children with and without recurrent wheeze. We recruited 252 children (aged two to four years) with (N = 202) and without (N = 50) recurrent wheeze. EBC was collected using an efficient closed glass condenser. Inflammatory markers in EBC (Interleukin(IL)-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13) were assessed using multiplex immunoassay. Nasal and throat swabs were analysed for presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus (para)influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. Proportions of T(reg) cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-)) were quantified by flow cytometry. Recurrent wheezing children had elevated EBC levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 compared to non-wheezers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.67 (1.23-2.27): 1.58 (1.15-2.18): 1.47 (1.14-1.90): 1.55 (1.16-2.06), p preschool children. In the presence of wheeze, we found no evidence for bacterial induced airway inflammation.

  5. Can exhaled volatile organic compounds predict asthma exacerbations in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Dillys; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Rosias, Philippe; Muris, Jean; Dallinga, Jan; Dompeling, Edward; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan

    2017-03-01

    Asthma control does not yet meet the goals of asthma management guidelines. Non-invasive monitoring of airway inflammation may help to improve the level of asthma control in children. (1) To identify a set of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that is most predictive for an asthma exacerbation in children. (2) To elucidate the chemical identity of predictive biomarkers. In a one-year prospective observational study, 96 asthmatic children participated . During clinical visits at 2 month intervals, asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, lung function (FEV1, FEV1/VC) and VOCs in exhaled breath were determined by means of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Random Forrest classification modeling was used to select predictive VOCs, followed by plotting of receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves). An inverse relationship was found between the predictive power of a set of VOCs and the time between sampling of exhaled breath and the onset of exacerbation. The sensitivity and specificity of the model predicting exacerbations 14 days after sampling were 88% and 75%, respectively. The area under the ROC-curve was 90%. The sensitivity for prediction of asthma exacerbations within 21 days after sampling was 63%. In total, 7 VOCs were selected for the classification model: 3 aldehydes, 1 hydrocarbon, 1 ketone, 1 aromatic compound, and 1 unidentified VOC. VOCs in exhaled breath showed potential for predicting asthma exacerbations in children within 14 days after sampling. Before using this in clinical practice, the validity of predicting asthma exacerbations should be studied in a larger cohort.

  6. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  7. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, L.; Sanak, M.; Kumik, J.; Gawlewicz-Mroczka, A.; Celejewska-Wójcik, N.; Ćmiel, A.; Szczeklik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs). At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE) which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:22291720

  8. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  9. Exposure of postoperative nurses to exhaled anesthetic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, D I; Badgwell, J M

    1998-11-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established recommended exposure limits of 25 parts per million (ppm) as a time-weighted average for nitrous oxide and a ceiling of 2 ppm for volatile anesthetics. We quantified exposure of postanesthetic nurses to exhaled anesthetic gases. This study was conducted in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) of a medium-sized hospital. PACU air exchanges averaged 8 vol/h; however, much of this air was recirculated. We evaluated 50 adults anesthetized with either isoflurane (n = 19) or desflurane (n = 31). Roughly half the patients were tracheally extubated in the operating room, whereas the others were extubated just after admission to the PACU. Exhaled anesthetic gases were sampled through a 20-m hose attached to the participating nurses' shoulders (breathing zone). We also evaluated nursing exposure to exhaled anesthetic gases during recovery of 15 patients who had been anesthetized with nitrous oxide. Exposure was quantified with lapel dosimeters. Anesthetic and recovery durations were each approximately 1 h, with most patients being tracheally extubated in the PACU. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given isoflurane exceeded NIOSH recommendations in 37% of the patients, representing 12% of recovery time. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given desflurane, however, exceeded NIOSH limits in 87% of the patients, representing 49% of recovery time. Altogether, noncompliant episodes were detected in 68% of these patients, representing 35% of the entire recovery duration. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given nitrous oxide exceeded NIOSH limits in 53% of the patients. Our data suggest that postoperative nurses' exposure to exhaled anesthetic gases exceeds NIOSH limits under some circumstances. Some epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to waste anesthetic gases may be associated with reproductive toxicity. Accordingly, the

  10. Spectroscopic monitoring of NO traces in plants and human breath: applications and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristescu, S M; Marchenko, D; Mandon, J

    2012-01-01

    monitoring of NO concentrations in exhaled breath, and from plants under pathogen attack. A simple hand-held breath sampling device that allows single breath collection at various exhalation flows (15, 50, 100 and 300mL/s, respectively) is developed for off-line measurements and validated in combination...... with the WMS-based sensor. Additionally, the capability of plants to remove environmental NO is presented....

  11. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  12. Control of exposure to exhaled air from sick occupant with wearable personal exhaust unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure reduction to exhaled air from a sick doctor wearing personal exhaust unit incorporated in headset-microphone was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room furnished as a double-bed hospital room with overhead ventilation at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. Room air temperature was 22 °C. Breathing thermal manikin with realistic body and breathing cycle was used to mimic doctor. Second thermal manikin and heated dummy were used to resemble lying patients. Exhaled air by the doctor...

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide, nitrite/nitrate levels, allergy, rhinitis and asthma in the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadif, Rachel; Rava, Marta; Decoster, Brigitte; Huyvaert, Hélène; Le Moual, Nicole; Bousquet, Jean; Siroux, Valérie; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Pin, Isabelle; Zerimech, Farid; Matran, Régis

    2014-08-01

    Although interest in biomarkers in the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway has recently increased, associations between nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)), and asthma, allergic sensitisation and rhinitis remain unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the associations between NO2(-)/NO3(-) and exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FeNO) levels with asthma, allergic sensitisation and rhinitis. Plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were measured in 523 adults of the French Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma. Allergic sensitisation was defined by a positive skin prick test for at least one aeroallergen. Subjects were classified as non-sensitised, sensitised and as having allergic rhinitis. Plasma NO2 (-)/NO3(-) level was unrelated to any disease phenotypes. EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) level was unrelated to any asthma phenotypes. EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were correlated in sensitised subjects only (r = 0.21 ± 0.10, p=0.01). EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were higher in sensitised than in non-sensitised subjects (adjusted geometric mean (95% CI): 2.36 (1.96-2.84) versus 1.72 (1.38-2.14) μmol per mg proteins, p=0.008; and 18.3 (16.7-20.0) versus 14.8 (13.3-16.5) ppb, p=0.0006, respectively), with gradual relationships from sensitised subjects to those with allergic rhinitis (p<0.0001). Results suggest that EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels may be considered as biological markers of intensity of allergic sensitisation and rhinitis. ©ERS 2014.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide and urinary EPX levels in infants: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olin Anna-Carin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective markers of early airway inflammation in infants are not established but are of great interest in a scientific setting. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO and urinary eosinophilic protein X (uEPX are a two such interesting markers. Objective To investigate the feasibility of measuring FeNO and uEPX in infants and their mothers and to determine if any relations between these two variables and environmental factors can be seen in a small sample size. This was conducted as a pilot study for the ongoing Swedish Environmental Longitudinal Mother and child Asthma and allergy study (SELMA. Methods Consecutive infants between two and six months old and their mothers at children's health care centres were invited, and 110 mother-infant pairs participated. FeNO and uEPX were analysed in both mothers and infants. FeNO was analyzed in the mothers online by the use of the handheld Niox Mino device and in the infants offline from exhaled air sampled during tidal breathing. A 33-question multiple-choice questionnaire that dealt with symptoms of allergic disease, heredity, and housing characteristics was used. Results FeNO levels were reduced in infants with a history of upper respiratory symptoms during the previous two weeks (p Conclusion The use of uEPX as a marker of early inflammation was not supported. FeNO levels in infants were associated to windowpane condensation. Measuring FeNO by the present method may be an interesting way of evaluating early airway inflammation. In a major population study, however, the method is difficult to use, for practical reasons.

  15. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisatio...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed.......This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...

  16. Impact of breathing on the thermal plume above a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    . A thermal manikin with female body shape equipped with an artificial lung was used to simulate the dry heat loss and breathing process of a sitting occupant. Three cases were examined: non-breathing, exhalation through nose, and exhalation through mouth. Measurements of the air temperature and speed...... by the manikin exhaling through the nose are comparable to the distributions over the non-breathing manikin. Exhalation through the mouth causes wider plume cross-section and increases the volume flux, momentum flux, buoyancy force density and enthalpy flux compared to the non-breathing case.......The characteristics of the thermal plume above a human body should be well-defined in order to properly design the indoor environment and allow correct simulation of the indoor conditions by CFD or experimentally. The objective of the presented study was to investigate the influence of breathing...

  17. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  19. A different analysis applied to a mathematical model on output of exhaled nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, BL; Cohen, J; van der Mark, TW; Douma, WR; Duiverman, EJ; ten Hacken, NHT

    The relatively recent detection of nitric oxide ( NO) in the exhaled breath has prompted a great deal of experimentation in an effort to understand the pulmonary exchange dynamics. There has been very little progress in theoretical studies to assist in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  20. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  1. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  2. Exhaled aerosol pattern discloses lung structural abnormality: a sensitivity study using computational modeling and fractal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Xi

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases.In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns.Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma.Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities.

  3. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The exhalant jet flow of mussels in conjunction with currents and/or other mussels may strongly influence the mussels' grazing impact. Literature values of mussel exhalant jet velocity vary considerably and the detailed fluid mechanics of the near-mussel flow generated by the exhalant jet has hit...

  4. Non-invasive spatial visualization system of exhaled ethanol for real-time analysis of ALDH2 related alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ando, Eri; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hirokazu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2011-09-21

    A novel imaging system of ethanol in exhaled breath induced by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-related alcohol metabolism has been developed. The system provides an image of ethanol distribution as chemiluminescence (CL) on an enzyme-immobilized support. The spatiotemporal change of CL generated by ethanol in exhaled breath after oral administration of ethanol was detected by employing an electron multiplier CCD (EM-CCD) camera, illustrated and analyzed. Prior to measurement of standard gaseous ethanol and ethanol in exhaled breath, the system was optimized by investigating the enzyme-immobilized supports, concentration of substrate and pH condition of Tris-HCl buffer solution. The ethanol skin patch test, a simple method as an indicator of ALDH2, was performed on healthy volunteers. Breath samples of 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (+) and 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (-) were used for exhaled ethanol analysis. Concentration-time profiles of exhaled ethanol obtained from all volunteers were analyzed over a period of 120 min after oral administration of ethanol (0.4 g per kg body weight) in the form of beer which contains 5% of alcohol. The results obtained from the system showed that the peaks of exhaled ethanol concentrations appeared at 30 min, which was considered as a rapid ethanol absorption phase following first-order kinetics. Exhaled ethanol concentrations of volunteers with ALDH2 (+) were lower than volunteers with ALDH2 (-) and the digestion of ethanol in volunteers with ALDH2 (+) was faster than in volunteers with ALDH2 (-). The eliminations were analyzed to follow zero-order kinetics with a rate constant for each group.

  5. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  6. Enhanced non-invasive respiratory sampling from bottlenose dolphins for breath metabolomics measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Baird, Mark; Pasamontes, Alberto; Parry, Celeste; Foutouhi, Soraya; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Weimer, Bart C.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analysis of exhaled breath metabolites is an emerging alternative to traditional clinical testing for many physiological conditions. The main advantage of breath analysis is its inherent noninvasive nature and ease of sample collection. Therefore, there exists a great interest in further development of this method for both humans and animals. The physiology of cetaceans is exceptionally well suited for breath analysis due to their explosive breathing behavior and respiratory tract mo...

  7. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in rats exposed to intravenous sodium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insko, Michael A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Hill, Paul; Toombs, Christopher F; Szabo, Csaba

    2009-07-01

    Sodium sulphide (Na(2)S) disassociates to sodium (Na(+)) hydrosulphide, anion (HS(-)) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) in aqueous solutions. Here we have established and characterized a method to detect H(2)S gas in the exhaled breath of rats. Male rats were anaesthetized with ketamine and xylazine, instrumented with intravenous (i.v.) jugular vein catheters, and a tube inserted into the trachea was connected to a pneumotach connected to a H(2)S gas detector. Sodium sulphide, cysteine or the natural polysulphide compound diallyl disulphide were infused intravenously while the airway was monitored for exhaled H(2)S real time. Exhaled sulphide concentration was calculated to be in the range of 0.4-11 ppm in response to i.v. infusion rates ranging between 0.3 and 1.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1). When nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester the amount of H(2)S exhaled during i.v. infusions of sodium sulphide was significantly increased compared with that obtained with the vehicle control. An increase in circulating nitric oxide using DETA NONOate [3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene] did not alter the levels of exhaled H(2)S during an i.v. infusion of sodium sulphide. An i.v. bolus of L-cysteine, 1 g.kg(-1), and an i.v. infusion of the garlic derived natural compound diallyl disulphide, 1.8 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), also caused exhalation of H(2)S gas. This method has shown that significant amounts of H(2)S are exhaled in rats during sodium sulphide infusions, and the amount exhaled can be modulated by various pharmacological interventions.

  8. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  9. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    : relative position and separation distance between people, difference in height between them, level of activity, breathing function or process (breathing frequency, exhalation through the mouth or through the nose, coughing, sneezing) or air velocity and turbulence level in the micro-environment around...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...... prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...

  10. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    : relative position and separation distance between people, difference in height between them, level of activity, breathing function or process (breathing frequency, exhalation through the mouth or through the nose, coughing, sneezing) or air velocity and turbulence level in the micro-environment around...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...... prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...

  11. [Test using vapourated expired nasal breathing in medicine 100 years ago and in paestum 2 300 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsig, W

    2014-11-01

    This historical sketch follows the traces of a mirror, once used to test the last breath of a dying woman. It was found on the fresco of a tomb in Paestum dated about 320 BC. In 1889, Hendrik Zwaardemaker (Utrecht) was the first to present a hygrometric functional test using a cold mirror placed under the nose to estimate the degree of airflow obstruction during exhalation. In 1901, Ernst Glatzel (Berlin) modified Zwaardemaker's concept by engraving a series of equidistant arcs into his metallic mirror to further quantify the amounts of condensed vapour in the expired air. The Glatzel-mirror was used in Germany until after the Second World War. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Acoustic signal classification of breathing movements to virtually aid breath regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushakra, Ahmad; Faezipour, Miad

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring breath and identifying breathing movements have settled importance in many biomedical research areas, especially in the treatment of those with breathing disorders, e.g., lung cancer patients. Moreover, virtual reality (VR) revolution and their implementations on ubiquitous hand-held devices have a lot of implications, which could be used as a simulation technology for healing purposes. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect and classify breathing movements. The overall VR framework is intended to encourage the subjects regulate their breath by classifying the breathing movements in real time. This paper focuses on a portion of the overall VR framework that deals with classifying the acoustic signal of respiration movements. We employ Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) along with speech segmentation techniques using voice activity detection and linear thresholding to the acoustic signal of breath captured using a microphone to depict the differences between inhale and exhale in frequency domain. For every subject, 13 MFCCs of all voiced segments are computed and plotted. The inhale and exhale phases are differentiated using the sixth MFCC order, which carries important classification information. Experimental results on a number of individuals verify our proposed classification methodology.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Air Stability on Exhaled Air Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Gong, Guangcai; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2014-01-01

    As more and more investigations have reported the influence of thermal stratification indoors on contaminant dispersion, this paper focuses on investigating this phenomenon from the perspective of air stability which is defined in accordance with atmospheric stability. One breathing thermal manikin...... studies. As the thermal stratification under displacement ventilation blocks the vertical movement of exhaled air, the exhaled contaminant may be trapped between temperature stratifications. As the dispersion of contaminant is closely related to the health of human indoors, the temperature structure...... was used for experimental study, and a numerical person was built to simulate the manikin. The velocity, temperature and concentration of tracer gas in exhaled air are affected by air stability to different degrees. The similarity of this effect among these parameters can also be observed through numerical...

  14. [Augmented spontaneous breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T

    1996-09-01

    breathing (CPAP) maintains PAW above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle, which may increase functional residual capacity and decrease the effort of breathing. CPAP has been conceptually designed for the augmentation of spontaneous breathing and requires the intact central and peripheral regulation of the respiratory system. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) improves alveolar ventilation by intermittent release of PAW, which is kept above atmospheric pressure by means of a high-flow CPAP system. The opening of an expiratory valve for 1-2 s induces a decreased PAW and lung volume, which increases rapidly to pre-exhalation values after closure of the valve due to the high gas flow within the circuit (90-100 1/min). APRV may improve haemodynamics and VA/Q distribution as compared with conventional mechanical ventilation. Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) is characterized by the combination of spontaneous breathing and time-regulated, pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation. During the respiratory cycle the ventilator generates two alternating CPAP levels, which can be modified with regard to time and pressure. As with APRV, alveolar ventilation is maintained even if the spontaneous breathing efforts of the patient cease, which improves the safety of both modes of respiratory therapy. The contribution of spontaneous breathing to total minute ventilation may be important, since a decreased shunt and improved VA/Q relationship have been observed in experimental non-cardiogenic lung oedema. These data give support to the concept that spontaneous breathing should be maintained and augmented in the setting of acute respiratory failure.

  15. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  17. Shining light on human breath analysis with quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Reyes, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the search for new non-invasive diagnostic methods, healthcare researchers have turned their attention to exhaled human breath. Breath consists of thousands of molecular compounds in very low concentrations, in the order of parts per million by volume (ppmv), parts per billion by

  18. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chain polyester by a process termed as polycondensation – 'poly' implying that several such events occur, and 'condensation' im- plies that there is a condensate that is formed. The condensate formed in this case, as you would have guessed, is H2O. Such re- actions would be classified as AA + BB type condensation, anal ...

  19. Clinical contributions of exhaled volatile organic compounds in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Oguma

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC are being considered as biomarkers for various lungs diseases, including cancer. However, the accurate measurement of extremely low concentrations of VOC in expired air is technically challenging. We evaluated the clinical contribution of exhaled VOC measured with a new, double cold-trap method in the diagnosis of lung cancer.Breath samples were collected from 116 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 37 healthy volunteers (controls after inspiration of purified air, synthesized through a cold-trap system. The exhaled VOC, trapped in the same system, were heat extracted. We analyzed 14 VOC with gas chromatography.The concentrations of exhaled cyclohexane and xylene were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer than in controls (p = 0.002 and 0.0001, respectively, increased significantly with the progression of the clinical stage of cancer (both p < 0.001, and decreased significantly after successful treatment of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively.Measurements of exhaled VOCs by a double cold-trap method may help diagnose lung cancer and monitor its progression and regression.

  20. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-26

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  1. Variations in colonic H-2 and CO2 production as a cause of inadequate diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion in breath tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Pasterkamp, S; de Bruijn, S; Stellaard, F

    Background: Lactose maldigestion is usually diagnosed by means of the H-2 breath test. When C-13-lactose is used as substrate, a (CO2)-C-13 breath rest can be performed simultaneously. In an earlier publication we described the relation between both the H2 and (CO2)-C-13 exhalation in breath and the

  2. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  3. Adhesion of volatile propofol to breathing circuit tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dominik; Maurer, Felix; Trautner, Katharina; Fink, Tobias; Hüppe, Tobias; Sessler, Daniel I; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-08-21

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be measured and may provide a real-time estimate of plasma concentration. However, propofol is absorbed in plastic tubing, thus estimates may fail to reflect lung/blood concentration if expired gas is not extracted directly from the endotracheal tube. We evaluated exhaled propofol in five ventilated ICU patients who were sedated with propofol. Exhaled propofol was measured once per minute using ion mobility spectrometry. Exhaled air was sampled directly from the endotracheal tube and at the ventilator end of the expiratory side of the anesthetic circuit. The circuit was disconnected from the patient and propofol was washed out with a separate clean ventilator. Propofol molecules, which discharged from the expiratory portion of the breathing circuit, were measured for up to 60 h. We also determined whether propofol passes through the plastic of breathing circuits. A total of 984 data pairs (presented as median values, with 95% confidence interval), consisting of both concentrations were collected. The concentration of propofol sampled near the patient was always substantially higher, at 10.4 [10.25-10.55] versus 5.73 [5.66-5.88] ppb (p propofol from the breathing circuit remained at 2.8 ppb after 60 h of washing out. Diffusion through the plastic was not observed. Volatile propofol binds or adsorbs to the plastic of a breathing circuit with saturation kinetics. The bond is reversible so propofol can be washed out from the plastic. Our data confirm earlier findings that accurate measurements of volatile propofol require exhaled air to be sampled as close as possible to the patient.

  4. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Scharling, Henrik; Løkke, Anders

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function and inhalation accelerates the decline further. Exhaled CO reflects the exposure of smoke to the lungs. AIM: To investigate whether self-reported inhalation and type of cigarette influenced the level of exhaled CO and whe...

  5. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kłak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The effect of nitric oxide (NO on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR. Material and methods: The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB, as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results: In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045. Conclusions : Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy.

  6. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłak, Anna; Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4(th) h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy.

  7. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H(2)S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H(2)S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H(2)S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na(2)S (0.005-0.20 mg kg(-1), i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1-5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg(-1) dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H(2)S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H(2)S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H(2)S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na(2)S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H(2)S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H(2)S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na(2)S. Exhaled H(2)S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na(2)S.

  8. "EXHALE"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Langer, Seppo W; Rørth, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate...... that physical training can address these issues. However, there is a lack of decisive evidence regarding the effect of physical exercise in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a twelve weeks, twice weekly program consisting of: supervised, structured training......: The present randomized controlled study will provide data on the effectiveness of a supervised exercise intervention in patients receiving systemic therapy for advanced lung cancer. It is hoped that the intervention can improve physical capacity and functional level, during rehabilitation of cancer patients...

  9. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  10. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-20

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569).

  11. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the abdomen X-ray of the chest Antibiotics may be prescribed for some conditions. For an object in the nose, your provider will use an instrument to remove it. Alternative Names Bad breath; Halitosis References Murr AH. Approach ...

  12. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense exercise. ... Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia Problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  13. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  14. Altered exhaled biomarker profiles in children during and after rhinovirus-induced wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Marc P; Hashimoto, Simone; Schuurman, Annemarie C; van Driel, Janine S Repelaer; Adriaens, Nora; van Amelsfoort, Romy M; Snoeren, Tessa; Regenboog, Martine; Sprikkelman, Aline B; Haarman, Eric G; van Aalderen, Wim M C; Sterk, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Preschool rhinovirus-induced wheeze is associated with an increased risk of asthma. In adult asthma, exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) are associated with inflammatory activity. We therefore hypothesised that acute preschool wheeze is accompanied by a differential profile of exhaled VOC, which is maintained after resolution of symptoms in those children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze. We included 178 children (mean±sd age 22±9 months) from the EUROPA cohort comparing asymptomatic and wheezing children during respiratory symptoms and after recovery. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for rhinovirus by quantitative PCR. Breath was collected via a spacer and analysed using an electronic nose. Between-group discrimination was assessed by constructing a 1000-fold cross-validated receiver operating characteristic curve. Analyses were stratified by rhinovirus presence/absence. Wheezing children demonstrated a different VOC profile when compared with asymptomatic children (prhinovirus. After symptomatic recovery, discriminative accuracy was maintained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.06), whereas it dropped significantly in infants with non-rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.06). Exhaled molecular profiles differ between preschool children with and without acute respiratory wheeze. This appears to be sustained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze after resolution of symptoms. Therefore, exhaled VOC may qualify as candidate biomarkers for early signs of asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  15. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Dragonieri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose, resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively.Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose.

  16. CONDENSATION CAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E.T. Jr.; Pontius, R.B.; Jacobsohn, B.A.; Slade, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    An apparatus is designed for condensing a vapor to a solid at relatively low back pressures. The apparatus comprises a closed condensing chamber, a vapor inlet tube extending to the central region of the chamber, a co-axial tubular shield surrounding the inlet tube, means for heating the inlet tube at a point outside the condensing chamber, and means for refrigeratirg the said chamber. (AEC)

  17. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovesi, I; Kotanidou, A; Papadomichelakis, E; Livaditi, O; Sotiropoulou, C; Koutsoukou, A; Marczin, N; Orfanos, S E

    2016-03-02

    The inflammatory influence and biological markers of prolonged mechanical-ventilation in uninjured human lungs remains controversial. We investigated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mechanically-ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of lung injury or sepsis at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Exhaled NO and CO were assessed in 27 patients, without lung injury or sepsis, who were ventilated with 8 ml kg(-1) tidal volumes under zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n  =  12) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (PEEP group, n  =  15). Exhaled NO and CO was analysed on days 1, 3 and 5 of mechanical ventilation and correlated with previously reported markers of inflammation and gas exchange. Exhaled NO was higher on day 3 and 5 in both patient groups compared to day 1: (PEEP group: 5.8 (4.4-9.7) versus 11.7 (6.9-13.9) versus 10.7 (5.6-16.6) ppb (p  <  0.05); ZEEP group: 5.3 (3.8-8.8) versus 9.8 (5.3-12.4) versus 9.6 (6.2-13.5) ppb NO peak levels for days 1, 3 and 5, respectively, p  <  0.05). Exhaled CO remained stable on day 3 but significantly decreased by day 5 in the ZEEP group only (6.3 (4.3-9.0) versus 8.1 (5.8-12.1) ppm CO peak levels for day 5 versus 1, p  <  0.05). The change scores for peak exhaled CO over day 1 and 5 showed significant correlations with arterial blood pH and plasma TNF levels (r s  =  0.49, p  =  0.02 and r s  =  -0.51 p  =  0.02, respectively). Exhaled NO correlated with blood pH in the ZEEP group and with plasma levels of IL-6 in the PEEP group. We observed differential changes in exhaled NO and CO in mechanically-ventilated patients even in the absence of manifest lung injury or sepsis. These may suggest subtle pulmonary inflammation and support application of real time breath analysis for molecular monitoring in critically ill patients.

  19. Condensation Polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Condensation polymerizations, as thename suggests, utilizes bond-forming reactions that generatea small molecule condensate, which often needs to be continuouslyremoved to facilitate the formation of the polymer. Inthis article, I shall describe some of the essential principles ofcondensation polymerizations or more ...

  20. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  1. Wearable Personal Exhaust Ventilation, WPEV: Improved Indoor Air Quality and Reduced Exposure to Air Exhaled from a Sick Doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho D.; Barova, Maria; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2015-01-01

    air temperature was 22◦C. A breathing thermal manikin with a body size and shape similar to the body of an average Scandinavian woman was used to mimic a “sick” doctor. The manikin was equipped with artificial lungs with a realistic breathing cycle (2.5-sec inhalation, 2.5-sec exhalation, and 1-sec...... pause) and a tidal flow rate of 6 L/min. A second thermal manikin and heated dummy were used to resemble lying patients. Exhaled air by the doctor was mixed with tracer gas to mimic pathogens. The wearable personal exhaust unit was positioned frontally by the mouth of the doctor at three distances: 0...

  2. Glass bottle sampling solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for breath analysis of drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Niu, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Shen, Chengyin; Xia, Lei; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2017-05-05

    Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach which may be applied to disease diagnosis and pharmacokinetic study. In the case of offline analysis, the exhaled gas needs to be collected and the sampling bag is often used as the storage vessel. However, the sampling bag usually releases some extra compounds, which may interfere with the result of the breath test. In this study, a novel breath sampling glass bottle was developed with a syringe needle sampling port for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Such a glass bottle scarcely liberates compounds and can be used to collect exhaled gas for ensuing analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS analysis was carried out to investigate the breath metabolites of myrtol, a multicompound drug normally used in the treatment of bronchitis and sinusitis. Four compounds, α-pinene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole were found in the exhaled breath of all eight volunteers who had taken the myrtol. While for other ten subjects who had not used the myrtol, these compounds were undetectable. In the SPME-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of myrtol, three compounds were detected including α-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. Comparing the results of breath and headspace analysis, it indicates that 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole in the breath is the metabolite of 1,8-cineole. It is the first time that this metabolite was identified in human breath. The study demonstrates that the glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS method is applicable to exhaled gas analysis including breath metabolites investigation of drugs like myrtol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  4. Study of the exhaled acetone in type 1 diabetes using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Adonis; Horsten, Roland C; Urbach, H Paul; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-06

    The acetone concentration exhaled in the breath of three type 1 diabetes patients (two minors and one adult) and one healthy volunteer is studied using a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system. Using the acetone signature between 1150 and 1250 cm(-1) and a multiline fitting method, the concentration variations on the order of parts per billion by volume were measured. Blood glucose and ketone concentrations in blood measurements were performed simultaneously to study their relation with acetone in exhaled breath. We focus on personalized studies to better understand the role of acetone in diabetes. For each volunteer, we performed a series of measurements over a period of time, including overnight fastings of 11 ± 1 h and during ketosis-hyperglycemia events for the minors. Our results highlight the importance of performing personalized studies because the response of the minors to the presence of ketosis was consistent but unique for each individual. Also, our results emphasize the need for performing more studies with T1D minors, because the acetone concentration in the breath of the minors differs, with respect to those reported in the literature, which are based on adults.

  5. Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two-bed hospital ward with three different ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, H.; Li, Y.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2006-01-01

    hospital ward with three ventilation systems, i.e. mixing, downward and displacement ventilation. Two life-size breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate a source patient and a receiving patient. The exhalation jet from a bed-lying manikin was visualized using smoke. N2O was used as tracer gas......Effective ventilation in general hospital wards is important for controlling the airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. Experiments have been carried out to increase our understanding of the interaction of the breathing flows of two individuals in a full-scale experimental...

  6. Breath testing as a method for detecting lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivans, Immanuels; Bukovskis, Maris; Strazda, Gunta; Jurka, Normunds

    2014-02-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer is important due to high mortality in late stages of the disease. An ideal approach for population screening could be the breath analysis, due to its non-invasiveness, simplicity and cheapness. Using sensitive methods of analysis like gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in exhaled air of cancer patients were discovered some volatile organic compounds - possible candidates for cancer markers. However, these compounds were not specific for cancer cells. At the same time, integrative approaches used to analyze the exhaled breath have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this method for lung cancer diagnosis. Such integrative approaches include detection of smell prints by electronic nose or integrated analysis of wide range of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or related methods. Modern statistical pattern recognition systems like logistic regression analysis, support vector machine or analysis by artificial neuronal network may improve diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  8. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  9. Experimental Study Abour How the Thermal Plume Affects the Air Quality a Person Breathes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    .10 m (length), 3.2 m (width), 2.7 m (height). The incoming air is distributed through a wall-mounted displacement diffuser. A breathing thermal manikin exhaling through the mouth and inhaling through the nose was used. A tracer gas, N2O, was used to simulate the gaseous substances, which might......, the concentration is significantly reduced in the case with 120 W, especially in the breathing area....

  10. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  11. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  12. Breath carbon stable isotope ratios identify changes in energy balance and substrate utilization in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection of shifts in substrate utilization and energy balance would provide a compelling biofeedback tool to enable individuals to lose weight. In a pilot study, we tested whether the natural abundance of exhaled carbon stable isotope ratios (breath d13C values) reflects shifts between negat...

  13. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Scharling, H; Lokke, A

    2007-01-01

    .001). Increasing CO levels were correlated to a lower FEV(1)%pred and to an accelerated decline in lung function. However, in multiple linear regression analyses these correlations were not significant. CONCLUSION: Inhalation and type of cigarette affects exhaled CO levels. CO measures have no predictive value...

  14. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Benzoin Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    Roots of cassava (tapioca), an important food crop in many countries of the world, including India, contain acetone cyanohy- drin glucoside called linamarin. ..... The replacement of cyanide by the harmless thiazolium salts as catalysts for benzoin condensation is one of the finest examples of Green Chemistry in action. S. N.

  16. Chloromethane emissions in human breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Frank; Fischer, Jan; Sattler, Tobias; Polag, Daniela; Jaeger, Nicole; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich; Greule, Markus

    2017-12-15

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl), currently the most abundant chlorinated organic compound in the atmosphere at around ~550 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), is considered responsible for approximately 16% of halogen-catalyzed stratospheric ozone destruction. Although emissions of CH3Cl are known to occur from animals such as cattle, formation and release of CH3Cl from humans has not yet been reported. In this study a pre-concentration unit coupled with a gas chromatograph directly linked to a mass spectrometer was used to precisely measure concentrations of CH3Cl at the pptv level in exhaled breath from 31 human subjects with ages ranging from 3 to 87years. We provide analytical evidence that all subjects exhaled CH3Cl in the range of 2.5 to 33 parts per billion by volume, levels which significantly exceed those of inhaled air by a factor of up to 60. If the mean of these emissions was typical for the world's population, then the global source of atmospheric CH3Cl from humans would be around 0.66Ggyr(-1) (0.33 to 1.48Ggyr(-1)), which is less than 0.03% of the total annual global atmospheric source strength. The observed endogenous formation of a chlorinated methyl group in humans might be of interest to biochemists and medical scientists as CH3Cl is also known to be a potent methylating agent and thus, could be an important target compound in future medical research diagnostic programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing that ...

  18. An improved method for collecting breath from 3- to 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anthony A; Paige, Katie N; Gaskins, H Rex; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Breath sampling and analysis provide healthcare professionals with a practical, noninvasive diagnostic measurement for children with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. New biomarkers found in human breath have been investigated and provide the opportunity to diagnose bacterial overgrowth and other underlying causes of GI dysfunction. Although several protocols have been described previously regarding breath sampling, few have demonstrated the feasibility of collection in young children. This communication introduces a simple game that allows for 3- to 7-year-old children to practice breath exhalation to give a proper breath sample in a relaxed and comfortable environment. The technique described offers clinicians a creative approach for obtaining breath samples from a child by reducing the apprehension and anxiety associated with the research and clinical environment.

  19. A breath test for malignant mesothelioma using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Eleanor A; Thomas, Paul S; Stone, Emily; Lewis, Craig; Yates, Deborah H

    2012-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare tumour which is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Earlier detection of MM could potentially improve survival. Exhaled breath sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a carbon polymer array (CPA) electronic nose recognises specific breath profiles characteristic of different diseases, and can distinguish between patients with lung cancer and controls. With MM, the potential confounding effect of other asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) needs to be considered. We hypothesised that as CPA electronic nose would distinguish patients with MM, patients with benign ARDs, and controls with high sensitivity and specificity. 20 MM, 18 ARD and 42 control subjects participated in a cross-sectional, case-control study. Breath samples were analysed using the Cyranose 320 (Smiths Detection, Pasadena, CA, USA), using canonical discriminant analysis and principal component reduction. 10 MM subjects created the training set. Smell prints from 10 new MM patients were distinguished from control subjects with an accuracy of 95%. Patients with MM, ARDs and control subjects were correctly identified in 88% of cases. Exhaled breath VOC profiling can accurately distinguish between patients with MM, ARDs and controls using a CPA electronic nose. This could eventually translate into a screening tool for high-risk populations.

  20. A systematic review of breath analysis and detection of volatile organic compounds in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Titlestad, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    research area is breath analysis, with several published attempts to find exhaled compounds as diagnostic markers. The field is broad and no review of published COPD breath analysis studies exists yet. We have conducted a systematic review examining the state of art and identified 12 suitable papers, which......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is, according to the WHO, the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and is expected to increase to rank third in 2030. Few robust biomarkers for COPD exist, and several attempts have been made to find suitable molecular marker candidates. One rising...... we investigated in detail to extract a list of potential COPD breath marker molecules. First, we observed that no candidate markers were detected in all 12 studies. Only three were reported in more than one paper, thus reliable exhaled markers are still missing. A major challenge is the heterogeneity...

  1. A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-12-22

    The amount of ammonia in exhaled breath has been linked to a variety of adverse medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of accurate, reliable breath sensors has the potential to improve medical care. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating near 1,103.44 cm -1 and a multi-pass cell with an effective path length of 76.45 m. The sensor has a 7 ppbv detection limit and 5 % total uncertainty for breath measurements. The sensor was successfully used to detect ammonia in exhaled breath and compare healthy patients to patients diagnosed with CKD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Assessing recent smoking status by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnSofi Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke causes both acute and chronic changes of the immune system. Excluding recent smoking is therefore important in clinical studies with chronic inflammation as primary focus. In this context, it is common to ask the study subjects to refrain from smoking within a certain time frame prior to sampling. The duration of the smoking cessation is typically from midnight the evening before, i.e. 8 hours from sampling. As it has been shown that a proportion of current smokers underestimates or denies smoking, objective assessment of recent smoking status is of great importance. Our aim was to extend the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO(breath, a well-established method for separating smokers from non-smokers, to assessment of recent smoking status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The time course of CO(breath decline was investigated by hourly measurements during one day on non-symptomatic smokers and non-smokers (6+7, as well as by measurements on three separate occasions on non-smokers (n = 29, smokers with normal lung function (n = 38 and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 19 participating in a clinical study. We used regression analysis to model the decay, and receiver operator characteristics analysis for evaluation of model performance. The decline was described as a mono-exponential decay (r(2 = 0.7 with a half-life of 4.5 hours. CO decline rate depends on initial CO levels, and by necessity a generic cut-off is therefore crude as initial CO(breath varies a lot between individuals. However, a cut-off level of 12 ppm could classify recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking during the past 8 hours with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby describe a method for classifying recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking for >8 hours that is easy to implement in a clinical setting.

  3. Uniformity in radon exhalation from construction materials using can technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amri, E.A.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-06-01

    The uniformity in radon exhalation rates for 46 tiles of granite, marble and ceramic used as construction materials were determined using 'Can Technique' employing CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). On each tile, two sealed cans, each enclosing one NTD fixed at the center of the tile surface area covered by the can, were mounted at two different locations of each individual tiles. The track production rates on the NTDs representing radon exhalation rates were measured. The radon exhalation rates from the surface of individual tiles showed uniform exhalations within the calculated uncertainties of the measured values. This makes Can Technique an alternative simple method to measure radon exhalation rates. Calibration required to convert track production rates into radon exhalation rates for the used can and NTD was done using an active technique. The correlation between the measurements by the two techniques shows a good linear correlation coefficient (0.83)

  4. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  5. Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  6. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil

    2011-01-01

    an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution......Full-scale measurements were performed in a climate chamber set as a two-bed hospital room, ventilated at 3, 6 and 12 h-1. Air temperature was kept constant at 22 °C. Two breathing thermal manikins were used: a sick patient lying on one side in one bed and a doctor. A thermal dummy mimicked...

  7. Endogenous CO dynamics monitoring in breath by tunable diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-04-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation as well as sport loading were studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  8. Fiber-optic bio-sniffer (biochemical gas sensor) using reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase for exhaled acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Chien, Po-Jen; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-01-30

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath have a huge potential as indicators of diseases and metabolisms. Application of breath analysis for disease screening and metabolism assessment is expected since breath sample can be noninvasively collected and measured. In this research, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) was developed. In the AcH bio-sniffer, a reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was employed for reducing AcH to ethanol and simultaneous consuming a coenzyme, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The concentration of AcH can be quantified by fluorescence detection of NADH that was consumed by reverse reaction of ADH. The AcH bio-sniffer was composed of an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) as an excitation light source, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a fluorescence detector and an optical fiber probe, and these three components were connected with a bifurcated optical fiber. A gas-sensing region of the fiber probe was developed with a flow-cell and an ADH-immobilized membrane. In the experiment, after optimization of the enzyme reaction conditions, the selectivity and dynamic range of the AcH bio-sniffer were investigated. The AcH bio-sniffer showed a short measurement time (within 2 min) and a broad dynamic range for determination of gaseous AcH, 0.02-10 ppm, which encompassed a typical AcH concentration in exhaled breath (1.2-6.0 ppm). Also, the AcH bio-sniffer exhibited a high selectivity to gaseous AcH based on the specificity of ADH. The sensor outputs were observed only from AcH-contained standard gaseous samples. Finally, the AcH bio-sniffer was applied to measure the concentration of AcH in exhaled breath from healthy subjects after ingestion of alcohol. As a result, a significant difference of AcH concentration between subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) phenotype was observed. The AcH bio-sniffer can be

  9. Volatile compounds in blood headspace and nasal breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babgi, Randa

    2017-09-13

    Breath analysis is a form of metabolomics that utilises the identification and quantification of volatile chemicals to provide information about physiological or pathological processes occurring within the body. An inherent assumption of such analyses is that the concentration of the exhaled gases correlates with the concentration of the same gas in the tissue of interest. In this study we have investigated this assumption by quantifying some volatile compounds in peripheral venous blood headspace, and in nasal breath collected in Tedlar bags obtained at the same time from 30 healthy volunteers, prior to analysis by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Some endogenous compounds were significantly correlated between blood headspace and nasal breath, such as isoprene (r p = 0.63) and acetone (r p = 0.68), however many, such as propanol (r p = -0.26) and methanol (r p = 0.23), were not. Furthermore, the relative concentrations of volatiles in blood and breath varied markedly between compounds, with some, such as isoprene and acetone, having similar concentrations in each, while others, such as acetic acid, ammonia and methanol, being significantly more abundant in breath, and others, such as methanal, being detectable only in breath. We also observed that breath propanol and acetic acid concentrations were higher in male compared to female participants, and that the blood headspace methanol concentration was negatively correlated to body mass index. No relationship between volatile concentrations and age was observed. Our data suggest that breath concentrations of volatiles do not necessarily give information about the same compound in the blood stream. This is likely due to the upper airway contributing compounds over and above that originating in the circulation. An investigation of the relationship between breath volatile concentrations and that in the tissue(s) of interest should therefore become a routine part of the development process of breath

  10. Exhaled volatile organic compounds for phenotyping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive phenotyping of chronic respiratory diseases would be highly beneficial in the personalised medicine of the future. Volatile organic compounds can be measured in the exhaled breath and may be produced or altered by disease processes. We investigated whether distinct patterns of these compounds were present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and clinically relevant disease phenotypes. Methods Breath samples from 39 COPD subjects and 32 healthy controls were collected and analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subjects with COPD also underwent sputum induction. Discriminatory compounds were identified by univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate analysis: 1. principal component analysis; 2. multivariate logistic regression; 3. receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Comparing COPD versus healthy controls, principal component analysis clustered the 20 best-discriminating compounds into four components explaining 71% of the variance. Multivariate logistic regression constructed an optimised model using two components with an accuracy of 69%. The model had 85% sensitivity, 50% specificity and ROC area under the curve of 0.74. Analysis of COPD subgroups showed the method could classify COPD subjects with far greater accuracy. Models were constructed which classified subjects with ≥2% sputum eosinophilia with ROC area under the curve of 0.94 and those having frequent exacerbations 0.95. Potential biomarkers correlated to clinical variables were identified in each subgroup. Conclusion The exhaled breath volatile organic compound profile discriminated between COPD and healthy controls and identified clinically relevant COPD subgroups. If these findings are validated in prospective cohorts, they may have diagnostic and management value in this disease.

  11. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  12. Hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with and without Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilchrist, F. J.; Bright-Thomas, R. J.; Jones, A.M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. K.; Lenney, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), 026010 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TUBE MASS-SPECTROMETRY * EXHALED BREATH * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2013

  13. Differences in the Chemical Composition of the Particulate Phase of Inhaled and Exhaled Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison between the chemical composition of the particulate-phase of exhaled smoke and that of smoke generated with a smoking machine has been performed. For this purpose, eight human subjects smoked a common Lights (10.6 mg ‘tar’/cig commercial cigarette and the exhaled particulate-phase smoke from three cigarettes was collected on Cambridge pads for each smoker. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The machine smoking was performed with a Borgwaldt RM20 CSR smoking machine working under conditions recommended by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to normalize the level of exhaled smoke condensate to that of the FTC smoking conditions. The smoke condensates from exhaled smoke as well as that from the machine smoking were analyzed by a gas chromatographic technique with mass spectral peak identification. The retention efficiency for 160 compounds was calculated from the ratio of the compound peak areas in the exhaled smoke (normalized by the corresponding butt nicotine level vs. the areas of the corresponding peaks from the chromatogram of the smoke generated by the smoking machine. In the calculation of the results, it was assumed that the composition of mainstream smoke remains practically constant at different smoking regimes. All compounds found in the machine-generated smoke were also present in the exhaled smoke, but at different levels. About one third of the compounds were retained more than 66% by the smoker. Another third of the compounds were retained between 33% and 66%, and the rest of the compounds were retained very little from the mainstream particulate-phase of the cigarette smoke. The compounds retained more than 66% were in general compounds with lower molecular weight and with higher water solubility, which eluted first

  14. A deep breath bronchoconstricts obese asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Cribbs, Sushma; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Ingram, Roland H; Jackson, Andrew C

    2010-02-01

    Asthma is characterized by the loss of a deep breath (DB)-induced bronchodilation and bronchoprotection. Obesity causes lung restriction and increases airway resistance, which may further worsen the capacity of a DB to induce bronchodilation; however, whether increasing BMI impairs the bronchodilatory response to a DB in asthmatics is unknown. The population consisted of 99 subjects, 87 with moderate to severe persistent asthma and 12 obese control subjects. Using transfer impedance we derived airway resistance (Raw). Participants breathed for 1 minute and took a slow DB followed by passive exhalation to functional residual capacity (FRC) and tidal breathing for another minute. After a DB, obese asthmatics had the largest percent increase in Raw (median 9.8% interquartile range [IQR] 3.1-15.1), compared with overweight (6.5% IQR -1.3, 12.1) and lean (0.7% IQR -3, 7.9) asthmatics and obese controls (2.5% IQR -.6, 11) (p for trend = 0.008). The association between the percent increase in Raw after a DB and BMI as a continuous variable was significant (p = 0.02). In obese, moderate to severe and poorly controlled asthmatics, a DB results in increased Raw. This phenomenon was not observed in leaner asthmatics of similar severity or in obese control subjects.

  15. Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M.

    2017-05-01

    Real-time breath gas analysis is a promising, non-invasive tool in medical diagnostics, and well-suited to investigate the physiology of carbon monoxide (CO), a potential biomarker for oxidative stress and respiratory diseases. A sensor for precise, breath-cycle resolved, simultaneous detection of exhaled CO (eCO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) was developed based on a continuous wave, external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL), a low-volume multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The system achieves a noise-equivalent (1σ) sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 cm-1 Hz-1/2 and (2σ) detection limits of 9 ± 2 ppbv and 650 ± 7 ppmv at 0.14 s spectrum acquisition time for CO and CO2, respectively. Integration over 15 s yields a precision of 0.6 ppbv for CO. The fact that the eCO2 expirograms measured by capnography and laser spectroscopy have essentially identical shape confirms true real-time detection. It is found that the individual eCO exhalation profiles from healthy non-smokers have a slightly different shape than the eCO2 profiles and exhibit a clear dependence on exhalation flow rate and breath-holding time. Detection of indoor air CO and broadband breath profiling across the 93 cm-1 mode-hop-free tuning range of the EC-QCL are also demonstrated.

  16. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  17. A Full-Scale Study of Exhaled Droplet Dispersion in the Microenvironment around one and two Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Khalegi, Farzad

    and airborne infection. A transition may take place from droplet-borne infection to airborne infection, because the exhaled droplets may evaporate in the air and droplets become droplet nuclei. Full-scale experiments on the movement of droplet nuclei (airborne infection) have been performed in a number...... of experiments using breathing thermal manikins and tracer gas for the simulation of microorganism-laden particles movement in indoor and outdoor environment. Full-scale experiments are conducted with droplet movement (droplet infection) using one or two thermal manikins. First the paper will discuss earlier...

  18. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-09-26

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath.

  19. Influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate and breathing pattern in laryngectomized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) on endotracheal climate and breathing pattern. Endotracheal temperature and humidity and tidal volumes were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME with "standard" breathing resistance (Provox Normal HME; R-HME), a low breathing-resistance HME (Provox HiFlow HME; L-HME), and without HME. Both R-HME and L-HME increased end-inspiratory humidity (+5.8 and 4.7 mgH(2)O/L, respectively), decreased end-inspiratory temperature (-1.6 and -1.0 degrees C, respectively), and prolonged the exhalation breath length to approximately 0.5 seconds. The R-HME significantly enlarged tidal volumes (0.07 L; p < .05). Both HMEs significantly improve tracheal climate. The R-HME has better moistening properties and a small but significant positive effect on tidal volume. Therefore, if the higher resistance is tolerated, the R-HME is the preferred pulmonary rehabilitation device. The L-HME is indicated if lower breathing resistance is required. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

  20. A mini review of dolphin carbohydrate metabolism and suggestions for future research using exhaled air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eRidgway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health.

  1. Clinical use of exhaled volatile organic compounds in pulmonary diseases: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the potential of exhaled biomarkers, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), to improve accurate diagnoses and management decisions in pulmonary diseases. The objective of this manuscript is to systematically review the current knowledge on exhaled VOCs with respect to their potential clinical use in asthma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and respiratory tract infections. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, and reference lists of retrieved studies. Controlled, clinical, English-language studies exploring the diagnostic and monitoring value of VOCs in asthma, COPD, CF, lung cancer and respiratory tract infections were included. Data on study design, setting, participant characteristics, VOCs techniques, and outcome measures were extracted. Seventy-three studies were included, counting in total 3,952 patients and 2,973 healthy controls. The collection and analysis of exhaled VOCs is non-invasive and could be easily applied in the broad range of patients, including subjects with severe disease and children. Various research groups demonstrated that VOCs profiles could accurately distinguish patients with a pulmonary disease from healthy controls. Pulmonary diseases seem to be characterized by a disease specific breath-print, as distinct profiles were found in patients with dissimilar diseases. The heterogeneity of studies challenged the inter-laboratory comparability. In conclusion, profiles of VOCs are potentially able to accurately diagnose various pulmonary diseases. Despite these promising findings, multiple challenges such as further standardization and validation of the diverse techniques need to be mastered before VOCs can be applied into clinical practice. PMID:23259710

  2. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  3. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Kim, JongWon [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Si, Xiuhua A. [California Baptist Univ., Riverside, CA (United States); Corley, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kabilan, Senthil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shengyu [First Affliliated Hospital of Xi' an Medical Univ., Shaanxi (China)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de- livery protocol.

  4. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  5. Bio-sniffer (gas-phase biosensor) with secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) for determination of isopropanol in exhaled air as a potential volatile biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Po-Jen; Suzuki, Takuma; Tsujii, Masato; Ye, Ming; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2017-05-15

    Exhaled breath analysis has attracted lots of researchers attention in the past decades due to its advantages such as its non-invasive property and the possibility of continuous monitoring. In addition, several volatile organic compounds in breath have been identified as biomarkers for some diseases. Particularly, studies have pointed out that concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in exhaled air might relate with certain illnesses such as liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD), and lung cancer. In this study, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for the breath IPA concentration determination was constructed and optimized. This bio-sniffer measures the concentration of IPA according to the fluorescence intensity of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which was produced by an enzymatic reaction of secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH). The NADH detection system employed an UV-LED as the excitation light, and a highly sensitive photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a fluorescence intensity detector. A gas-sensing region was developed using an optical fiber probe equipped with a flow-cell and enzyme immobilized membrane, and connected to the NADH measurement system. The calibration range of the IPA bio-sniffer was confirmed from 1ppb to 9060ppb that was comparable to other IPA analysis methods. The results of the analysis of breath IPA concentration in healthy subjects using the bio-sniffer showed a mean concentration of 16.0ppb, which was similar to other studies. These results have demonstrated that this highly sensitive and selective bio-sniffer could be used to measure the IPA in exhaled air, and it is expected to apply for breath IPA research and investigation of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  7. NO in exhaled air of asthmatic children is reduced by the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Loland, L; Oj, J A

    1999-01-01

    -six asthmatic children 6 to 15 yr of age completed a double-blind crossover trial of 2 wk of treatment with 5 mg montelukast once daily versus placebo. FENO was measured during single-breath exhalation at a constant flow rate of 0.1 to 0.13 L/s against a resistance of 10 kPa/L/s. Eleven children were receiving......Nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO) is increased in asthmatic children, probably reflecting aspects of airway inflammation. We have studied the effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) montelukast on FENO with a view to elucidate potential anti-inflammatory properties of LTRAs. Twenty...... maintenance treatment with inhaled steroids during the study (mean daily dose, 273 microgram), whereas the other 15 used only inhaled beta(2)-agonists as required. The within-subject coefficient of variation of FENO over a 2-wk interval for the 26 children was 38%. FENO was significantly reduced by 20% after...

  8. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  9. A modeling-based evaluation of isothermal rebreathing for breath gas analyses of highly soluble volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J; Unterkofler, K; Teschl, G; Teschl, S; Mochalski, P; Koç, H; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2012-03-01

    Isothermal rebreathing has been proposed as an experimental technique for estimating the alveolar levels of hydrophilic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. Using the prototypic test compounds acetone and methanol, we demonstrate that the end-tidal breath profiles of such substances during isothermal rebreathing show a characteristic increase that contradicts the conventional pulmonary inert gas elimination theory due to Farhi. On the other hand, these profiles can reliably be captured by virtue of a previously developed mathematical model for the general exhalation kinetics of highly soluble, blood-borne VOCs, which explicitly takes into account airway gas exchange as a major determinant of the observable breath output. This model allows for a mechanistic analysis of various rebreathing protocols suggested in the literature. In particular, it predicts that the end-exhaled levels of acetone and methanol measured during free tidal breathing will underestimate the underlying alveolar concentration by a factor of up to 1.5. Moreover, it clarifies the discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo blood-breath ratios of hydrophilic VOCs and yields further quantitative insights into the physiological components of isothermal rebreathing and highly soluble gas exchange in general.

  10. Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Morad K; Amal, Haitham; Jeries, Raneen; Broza, Yoav Y; Aboud, Manal; Gharra, Alaa; Ivgi, Hodaya; Khatib, Salam; Badarneh, Shifaa; Har-Shai, Lior; Glass-Marmor, Lea; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Miller, Ariel; Badarny, Samih; Winer, Raz; Finberg, John; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Perros, Frédéric; Montani, David; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Simonneau, Gérald; Nakhoul, Farid; Baram, Shira; Salim, Raed; Hakim, Marwan; Gruber, Maayan; Ronen, Ohad; Marshak, Tal; Doweck, Ilana; Nativ, Ofer; Bahouth, Zaher; Shi, Da-You; Zhang, Wei; Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Tao, Li; Liu, Hu; Karban, Amir; Koifman, Eduard; Rainis, Tova; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Kikuste, Ilze; Lasina, Ieva; Tolmanis, Ivars; Johnson, Douglas; Millstone, Stuart Z; Fulton, Jennifer; Wells, John W; Wilf, Larry H; Humbert, Marc; Leja, Marcis; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam

    2017-01-24

    We report on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and a random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of a number of diseases from exhaled breath. The performance of this artificially intelligent nanoarray was clinically assessed on breath samples collected from 1404 subjects having one of 17 different disease conditions included in the study or having no evidence of any disease (healthy controls). Blind experiments showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved with the artificially intelligent nanoarray, allowing both detection and discrimination between the different disease conditions examined. Analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray also showed that each disease has its own unique breathprint, and that the presence of one disease would not screen out others. Cluster analysis showed a reasonable classification power of diseases from the same categories. The effect of confounding clinical and environmental factors on the performance of the nanoarray did not significantly alter the obtained results. The diagnosis and classification power of the nanoarray was also validated by an independent analytical technique, i.e., gas chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. This analysis found that 13 exhaled chemical species, called volatile organic compounds, are associated with certain diseases, and the composition of this assembly of volatile organic compounds differs from one disease to another. Overall, these findings could contribute to one of the most important criteria for successful health intervention in the modern era, viz. easy-to-use, inexpensive (affordable), and miniaturized tools that could also be used for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a number of diseases, which can clearly be extended by further development.

  11. POTENTIALS OF RAMAN BASED SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AN ONLINE ANALYSIS OF HUMAN INHALE AND EXHALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seeger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering is proposed for the compositional analysis of single breath events. A description of the sensor as well as of the calibration procedure, which also allows the quantification of condensable gases, is presented. Moreover, a comprehensive characterization of the system is carried out in order to determine the measurement uncertainty. Finally, the sensor is applied to consecutive breath events and allowed measurements with 250 ms time resolution. The Raman sensor is able to detect all the major gas components, i.e. N2, O2, CO2, and H2O at ambient pressure with a high temporal resolution. Concentration fluctuations within a single breath event could be resolved.

  12. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  13. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  14. A prototype portable breath acetone analyzer for monitoring fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Tsuguyoshi; Hiyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuki

    2013-09-01

    Acetone contained in our exhaled breath is a metabolic product of the breakdown of body fat and is expected to be a good indicator of fat-burning. Typically, gas chromatography or mass spectrometry are used to measure low-concentration compounds in breath but such large instruments are not suitable for daily use by diet-conscious people. Here, we prototype a portable breath acetone analyzer that has two types of semiconductor-based gas sensors with different sensitivity characteristics, enabling the acetone concentration to be calculated while taking into account the presence of ethanol, hydrogen, and humidity. To investigate the accuracy of our prototype and its application in diet support, experiments were conducted on healthy adult volunteers. Breath acetone concentrations obtained from our prototype and from gas chromatography showed a strong correlation throughout the experiments. Moreover, body fat in subjects with a controlled caloric intake and taking exercise decreased significantly, whereas breath acetone concentrations in those subjects increased significantly. These results prove that our prototype is practical and useful for self-monitoring of fat-burning at home or outside. Our prototype will help to prevent and alleviate obesity and diabetes.

  15. Steam condenser developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. V.

    Factors determining condenser size and tube arrangement are reviewed, including steam side pressure drop; incondensible blanketing; effect of incondensibles on heat transfer; vent requirements; deaeration; condensate depression; cooling water velocity; tube material and diameter selection; fouling; and enhanced heat transfer tubes. Tube nest shapes and condenser concepts are described. Thermal design, and condenser acceptance testing are treated; field test results on "Church Window'' condensers are reported.

  16. Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsälä, M; Schmidt, F M; Skyttä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the acetylene concentration in the exhaled breath of 40 volunteers (31 non-smokers, nine smokers) using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The acetylene levels were found to be the same as in ambient air for non-smokers, whereas elevated levels were observed for smokers. Real-time measurements with sub-second time resolution have been applied to measure the elimination kinetics of acetylene in breath after exposure to tobacco smoke. Three exponential time constants can be distinguished from the data and these can be used to define the residence times for different compartments, according to the multi-compartment model of the human body.

  17. Intra- and interfraction breathing variations during curative radiotherapy for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler Nøttrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders Navrsted

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed at quantifying the breathing variations among lung cancer patients over full courses of fractionated radiotherapy. The intention was to relate these variations to the margins assigned to lung tumours, to account for respiratory motion, in fractionated...... radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven lung cancer patients were included in the study. The patients' chest wall motions were monitored as a surrogate measure for breathing motion during each fraction of radiotherapy by use of an external optical marker. The exhale level variations were evaluated...

  18. Comparison of fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma and healthy subjects of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjeet Krishna; Shrestha, Sanjeev; Sharma, Lucky; Pant, Subash; Neopane, Arpana

    2017-09-13

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in exhaled breath can indicate ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation, specifically in asthma. But its utility is being explored for central airway inflammations, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Normal levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO50) have been defined in different studies but not in Nepal. This study compares FENO50 levels in normal subjects, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Single breath estimation of FENO50 was measured by a handheld electrochemical sensor-based device in normal non-smoking adults (n = 106), clinically controlled asthma (n = 106) and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 106). The geometric mean for FENO50 was 14 parts per billion (ppb) with a median of 16 ppb, first quartile at 11 ppb and third quartile at 20 ppb in normal non-smoking adults. The values were 31 ppb (geometric mean), 34 ppb (median), 17 ppb (first quartile) and 79 ppb (third quartile) in clinically controlled asthma. Similarly the values were 10 ppb (geometric mean), 11 ppb (median), 6 ppb (first quartile) and 17 ppb (third quartile) in stable chronic obstructive airway disease. The log-transformed data showed significantly higher FENO50 levels in the asthma group compared with the normal (p chronic obstructive airway disease (p chronic obstructive airway disease groups (p = 0.08). FENO50 levels were higher in bronchial asthma (despite disease control) than in normal non-smoking adults and subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levels of FENO50 were similar between the chronic obstructive airway disease and normal groups.

  19. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John, E-mail: conor_mcgrath@bat.co [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton, SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  20. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Near-Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for the Measurement of Acetonitrile in Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Michele; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2015-07-07

    Elevated concentrations of acetonitrile have been found in the exhaled breath of patients with cystic fibrosis1 and may indicate the severity of their condition or the presence of an accompanying bacterial infection of the airways. There is therefore interest in detecting acetonitrile in exhaled breath. For this purpose, a cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectrometer (λ = 1.65 μm) with a preconcentration stage was built and is described here. The spectrometer has a limit of detection of 72 ppbv and 114 ppbv of acetonitrile in nitrogen and breath, respectively, with a measurement duration of just under 5 min. The preconcentration stage, which employs a carbon molecular sieve and an adsorption/thermal desorption cycle, can increase the acetonitrile concentration by up to a factor 93, thus, lowering the overall limit of detection to approximately 1 ppbv. The suitability of the system for acetonitrile measurements in breath is demonstrated with breath samples taken from the authors, which yielded acetonitrile concentrations of 23 ± 3 ppbv and 29 ± 3 ppbv, respectively.

  2. Breath acetone as a potential marker in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsányi, Veronika; Péter Kalapos, Miklós

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels is important, but there are limitations to its wide application. These limitations can be divided into two classes, technical and biological limits. The technical limits include the storage of samples, detection threshold, standardization of clinical settings, and the price of instruments. When considering the biological ranges of acetone, personal factors such as race, age, gender, weight, food consumption, medication, illicit drugs, and even profession/class have to be taken into account to use concentration information for disorders. In some diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lung cancer, as well as in nutrition-related behavior such as starvation and ketogenic diet, breath acetone has been extensively examined. At the same time, there is a lack of investigations in other cases in which ketosis is also evident, such as in alcoholism or an inborn error of metabolism. In summary, the detection of acetone in exhaled breath is a useful and promising tool for diagnosis and it can be used as a marker to follow the effectiveness of treatments in some disorders. However, further endeavors are needed for clarification of the exact distribution of acetone in different body compartments and evaluation of its complex role in humans, especially in those cases in which a ketotic state also occurs.

  3. Exposure to Exhaled Air from a Sick Occupant in a Two-Bed Hospital Room with Mixing Ventilation: Effect of Posture of Doctor and Air Change Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    Full-scale measurements were performed in a climate chamber set as a two-bed hospital room, ventilated at 3, 6 and 12 ACH with overhead mixing ventilation. Air temperature was kept constant at 22 °C. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to mimic a sick patient lying on one side in one...... of the beds and a doctor. A thermal dummy mimicked an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor either stood up or sat in a chair 0.55 m facing the sick patient. The ‘sick patient’ was exhaling through the mouth and inhaling from the nose. Tracer gas (R 134A) was mixed with the exhaled air to mimic...

  4. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma is a major global public health problem. Airway inflammation is the primary cause of development and progression of asthma. Activation of inflammatory cells induces a respiratory burst resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2. Objective: We sought to measure the ...

  5. Developing an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor for an exhaled breath analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    In this work, we present a chip-integrated amperometric sensor targeted at the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the gaseous phase. Electrode chips are manufactured in a series of microfabrication steps and characterized electrochemically. Using such devices detection of H2O2 in an aqueous

  6. Integrating exhaled breath diagnostics by disease-sniffing dogs with instrumental laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. How...

  7. Apocynin decreases hydrogen peroxide and nirtate concentrations in exhaled breath in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanska, J.; Sokolowska, M. (Milena); Sarniak, A.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Doniec, Z.; Nowak, D.; R. Pawliczak

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and antioxidants might be involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. NADPH oxidase, an enzyme responsible for ROS production, may represent an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit for the treatment of these diseases. Apocynin is an inhibitor of activation of NADPH oxidase complex present in the inflammatory cells. In double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study, w...

  8. Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz

    2006-11-01

    In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse feeding styles, but generated a mechanical conflict between costal ventilation and high-speed locomotion. Some "lizards" (non-serpentine squamates) have been shown to circumvent this speed-dependent axial constraint with accessory gular pumping during locomotion, and here we present a new survey of gular pumping behavior in the tuatara and 40 lizard species. We observed gular pumping behavior in 32 of the 40 lizards and in the tuatara, indicating that the ability to inflate the lungs by gular pumping is a shared-derived character for Lepidosauria. Gular pump breathing in lepidosaurs may be homologous with buccal pumping in amphibians, but non-ventilatory buccal oscillation and gular flutter have persisted throughout amniote evolution and gular pumping may have evolved independently by modification of buccal oscillation. In addition to gular pumping in some lizards, three other innovations have evolved repeatedly in the major amniote clades to circumvent the speed-dependent axial constraint: accessory inspiratory muscles (mammals, crocodylians and turtles), changing locomotor posture (mammals and birds) and respiratory-locomotor phase coupling to reduce the mechanical conflict between aspiration breathing and locomotion (mammals and birds).

  9. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  10. Drug detection in breath: non-invasive assessment of illicit or pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2017-03-20

    Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.

  11. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  12. Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issarow, Chacha M; Mulder, Nicola; Wood, Robin

    2015-05-07

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by infectors contains airborne infectious particles that cause airborne infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in confined spaces. Since not all infectious particles can reach the target infection site, we took into account that the infectious particles that commence the infection are determined by respiratory deposition fraction, which is the probability of each infectious particle reaching the target infection site of the respiratory tracts and causing infection. Furthermore, we compute the quantity of carbon dioxide as a marker of exhaled air, which can be inhaled in the room with high likelihood of causing airborne infectious disease given the presence of infectors. We demonstrated mathematically and schematically the correlation between TB transmission probability and airborne infectious particle generation rate, ventilation rate, average volume fraction of exhaled air, TB prevalence and duration of exposure to infectors in a confined space. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. SU-E-J-236: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Breath-Hold Lung Tumor Position Reproducibility Measured with 4D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Lapuz, C; Ludbrook, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Audiovisual biofeedback breath-hold (AVBH) was employed to reproduce tumor position on inhale and exhale breath-holds for 4D tumor information. We hypothesize that lung tumor position will be more consistent using AVBH compared with conventional breath-hold (CBH). Methods: Lung tumor positions were determined for seven lung cancer patients (age: 25 – 74) during to two separate 3T MRI sessions. A breathhold training session was performed prior to the MRI sessions to allow patients to become comfortable with AVBH and their exhale and inhale target positions. CBH and AVBH 4D image datasets were obtained in the first MRI session (pre-treatment) and the second MRI session (midtreatment) within six weeks of the first session. Audio-instruction (MRI: Siemens Skyra) in CBH and verbal-instruction (radiographer) in AVBH were used. A radiation oncologist contoured the lung tumor using Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems); tumor position was quantified as the centroid of the contoured tumor after rigid registration based on vertebral anatomy across two MRI sessions. CBH and AVBH were compared in terms of the reproducibility assessed via (1) the difference between the two exhale positions for the two sessions and the two inhale positions for the sessions. (2) The difference in amplitude (exhale to inhale) between the two sessions. Results: Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of two exhale (or inhale) lung tumor positions relative to each other by 33%, from 6.4±5.3 mm to 4.3±3.0 mm (p=0.005). Compared to CBH, AVBH improved the reproducibility of exhale and inhale amplitude by 66%, from 5.6±5.9 mm to 1.9±1.4 mm (p=0.005). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be utilized for improving the reproducibility of breath-hold lung tumor position. These results are advantageous towards achieving more accurate emerging radiation treatment planning methods, in addition to imaging and treatment modalities utilizing breath

  14. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A; George, Subi J; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-02-17

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration.

  15. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration. PMID:24531132

  16. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel; Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (~20 ppb) with short response (10–15 s) and recovery times (35–70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80–90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques. PMID:22790702

  17. Assessment of regional ventilation and deformation using 4D-CT imaging for healthy human lungs during tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Nariman; Choi, Jiwoong; Iyer, Krishna; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess regional ventilation, nonlinearity, and hysteresis of human lungs during dynamic breathing via image registration of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Six healthy adult humans were studied by spiral multidetector-row CT during controlled tidal breathing as well as during total lung capacity and functional residual capacity breath holds. Static images were utilized to contrast static vs. dynamic (deep vs. tidal) breathing. A rolling-seal piston system was employed to maintain consistent tidal breathing during 4D-CT spiral image acquisition, providing required between-breath consistency for physiologically meaningful reconstructed respiratory motion. Registration-derived variables including local air volume and anisotropic deformation index (ADI, an indicator of preferential deformation in response to local force) were employed to assess regional ventilation and lung deformation. Lobar distributions of air volume change during tidal breathing were correlated with those of deep breathing (R2 ≈ 0.84). Small discrepancies between tidal and deep breathing were shown to be likely due to different distributions of air volume change in the left and the right lungs. We also demonstrated an asymmetric characteristic of flow rate between inhalation and exhalation. With ADI, we were able to quantify nonlinearity and hysteresis of lung deformation that can only be captured in dynamic images. Nonlinearity quantified by ADI is greater during inhalation, and it is stronger in the lower lobes (P Lung hysteresis estimated by the difference of ADI between inhalation and exhalation is more significant in the right lungs than that in the left lungs. PMID:26316512

  18. Analysis of the isobaric compounds propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate in humid air and breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2009-08-01

    Numerous analyses of exhaled breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, over the last few years have revealed the presence of volatile compounds with molecular weight 60 and the concern has been to identify which of the isobaric compounds from the set of 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate are present in human breath. The problem is compounded by the formation of hydrates of the characteristic primary product ions of the reactions of the H3O+ and NO+ precursor ions with these compounds, this being particularly efficient for humid samples such as exhaled breath. Thus, the resulting product ion spectra are complex and choices have to be made as to which of the characteristic product ions and their hydrates can best be used for the quantitative analyses. To facilitate this choice for the particular problem of identifying and quantifying the four aforementioned isobaric compounds, a study has been made of the ion chemistry of H3O+ and NO+ with the two propanol isomers, acetic acid and methyl formate for increasing sample humidity up to that of exhaled breath, which is about 6% by volume. The problems involved in the separate analysis of propanol have been met and solved by previous SIFT-MS studies and now the present study has revealed how acetic acid and methyl formate can be separately identified in a humid mixture using NO+ precursor ions only. Following this work, the kinetics database entries for the SIFT-MS analyses of these compounds in breath have been constructed and the analysis of the exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers showed that, in addition to the propanol isomers, acetic acid was present at levels typically within the range from 30 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume and that methyl formate was not present above the limit of detection.

  19. Exposure to Exhaled Air from a Sick Occupant in a Two-Bed Hospital Room with Mixing Ventilation: Effect of Posture of Doctor and Air Change Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    Full-scale measurements were performed in a climate chamber set as a two-bed hospital room, ventilated at 3, 6 and 12 ACH with overhead mixing ventilation. Air temperature was kept constant at 22 °C. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to mimic a sick patient lying on one side in one of the beds and a doctor. A thermal dummy mimicked an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor either stood up or sat in a chair 0.55 m facing the sick patient. The ‘sick patient’ was exhaling thr...

  20. Biochemical pathways of breath ammonia (NH3) generation in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Laiho, S; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L; Ortiz, F; Forsblom, C; Groop, P-H; Lehto, M; Metsälä, M

    2016-08-12

    Breath ammonia (NH3) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in monitoring hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, since a strong correlation between blood urea and mouth-exhaled breath NH3 has been observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing HD. However, the biochemical pathways for breath NH3 generation from blood urea have not been demonstrated. In this study, we show a strong correlation (r s  =  0.77, p  NH3) in most of the patients. This confirms that the hydrolysis of urea by urease generates ammonia in the oral cavity. A further strong correlation between salivary ammonia and breath NH3 indicates that salivary ammonia evaporates into gas phase and turns to breath NH3. Therefore, blood urea is a major biochemical source of breath NH3. Since breath NH3 is generated predominantly in the oral cavity, the levels of breath NH3 are influenced significantly by the patient's oral condition including urease activity and salivary pH. Our results agree with previous studies that have shown a connection between salivary urea and breath NH3.

  1. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  3. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria love to hang out there. It's equally important to floss because brushing alone won't remove harmful plaque and food particles that become stuck between your teeth and gums. Myth #3: If you breathe into ...

  4. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bad Breath URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/badbreath.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Noninvasive Strategy Based on Real-Time in Vivo Cataluminescence Monitoring for Clinical Breath Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Huang, Wanting; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2017-03-21

    The development of noninvasive methods for real-time in vivo analysis is of great significant, which provides powerful tools for medical research and clinical diagnosis. In the present work, we described a new strategy based on cataluminescence (CTL) for real-time in vivo clinical breath analysis. To illustrate such strategy, a homemade real-time CTL monitoring system characterized by coupling an online sampling device with a CTL sensor for sevoflurane (SVF) was designed, and a real-time in vivo method for the monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath was proposed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing the real exhaled breath samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by GC/MS. The measured data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Subsequently, the method was applied to real-time monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath from rat models of the control group to investigate elimination pharmacokinetics. In order to further probe the potential of the method for clinical application, the elimination pharmacokinetics of SVF from rat models of control group, liver fibrosis group alcohol liver group, and nonalcoholic fatty liver group were monitored by the method. The raw data of pharmacokinetics of different groups were normalized and subsequently subjected to linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These data were transformed to canonical scores which were visualized as well-clustered with the classification accuracy of 100%, and the overall accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation procedure is 88%, thereby indicating the utility of the potential of the method for liver disease diagnosis. Our strategy undoubtedly opens up a new door for real-time clinical analysis in a pain-free and noninvasive way and also guides a promising development direction for CTL.

  7. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where...

  8. Every breath you take

    OpenAIRE

    Padfield, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The air we breathe is vital to our health. Researchers at the Department of Geosciences (University of Malta) are measuring how clean Malta’s air is. They are also optimising a model of the Mediterranean atmosphere to see how climate change will affect the Maltese Islands and their surrounding region. Words by Natasha Padfield. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/every-breath-you-take/

  9. Ability to breathe in an unfamiliar environment as a factor success of primary teaching swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyriene V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elucidated the importance of mastering the skill of breathing in an unusual environment for initial training in swimming. Swimming studied two groups of students (18-20 years LAPE: control (n=26 - the usual procedure, the experimental (n=28 - up to 40% of the time assigning lessons breathing exercises. During this time swimming technique breaststroke and crawl on his chest in the first group captured 52% in the second - 72% of the students. Before the training run exhaling into the water were able to only slightly more than half of the respondents (52.4%. Conclusions: The study accentuated breathing in an unusual environment allow students to quickly master the technique of swimming and sporting ways to feel safe while in the water. The method used by us is effective and allows for a fairly short period of time to achieve tangible results in teaching swimming adults.

  10. Human breath analysis may support the existence of individual metabolic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues

    Full Text Available The metabolic phenotype varies widely due to external factors such as diet and gut microbiome composition, among others. Despite these temporal fluctuations, urine metabolite profiling studies have suggested that there are highly individual phenotypes that persist over extended periods of time. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing the exhaled breath of a group of subjects during nine days by mass spectrometry. Consistent with previous metabolomic studies based on urine, we conclude that individual signatures of breath composition exist. The confirmation of the existence of stable and specific breathprints may contribute to strengthen the inclusion of breath as a biofluid of choice in metabolomic studies. In addition, the fact that the method is rapid and totally non-invasive, yet individualized profiles can be tracked, makes it an appealing approach.

  11. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  12. Monitoring of endogenous carbon monoxide dynamics in human breath by tunable diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Daraselia, Mikhail V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Temporal variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation and sport loading were first studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  13. Low levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and deep inhalation bronchoprotection are associated with mannitol non-responsiveness in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beth E; Stewart, Sarah L; Martin, Alexandra L; Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-06-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to indirect agents like mannitol is thought to be dependent on concurrent airway inflammation as these stimuli exert their effects via the release of bronchoconstricting mediators from inflammatory cells. Airway inflammation correlates negatively with deep inhalation bronchoprotection against direct stimuli like methacholine. We hypothesised that deep inhalation bronchoprotection to methacholine would be absent and airway inflammation would be present in individuals with AHR to inhaled mannitol. Twenty asthmatic, otherwise healthy individuals, either gender, aged 18-65 years, with a Visit 1 (screening) methacholine two-minute tidal breathing PC20 of 16 mg/mL or less completed the study. Visits 2 and 3 consisted of either mannitol or deep inhalation methacholine challenge in random order, at least 24 h apart. All visits were completed within a period of two weeks. Eleven of the twenty participants had AHR to mannitol (PD15 ≤ 635 mg, the "responders") and nine did not (the "non-responders"). Responders did not bronchoprotect to methacholine via deep inhalation (doubling dose shift = 0.7; p = 0.13) and had high levels of exhaled nitric oxide (geometric mean 49 ppb; range 16-109 ppb). Conversely, significant deep inhalation bronchoprotection to methacholine occurred in the non-responder group (doubling dose shift = 1.6; p = 0.013). This group also had significantly lower levels of exhaled nitric oxide (geometric mean 23 ppb (range 16-45 ppb; p = 0.015). Deep inhalation bronchoprotection to methacholine and low levels of exhaled nitric oxide coincide with mannitol non-responsiveness in an asthmatic population. Clinical Trials Registration #NCT01642745 (clinicaltrials.gov). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in chemical sensing technologies for VOCs in breath for security/threat assessment, illicit drug detection, and human trafficking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Agapiou, Agapios; Taylor, S

    2017-10-25

    On-site chemical sensing of compounds associated with security and terrorist attacks is of worldwide interest. Other related bio-monitoring topics include identification of individuals posing a threat from illicit drugs, explosive manufacturing, as well as searching for victims of human trafficking and collapsed buildings. The current status of field analytical technologies is directed towards the detection and identification of vapours and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are associated with exhaled breath; where research is moving from individual breath testing (volatilome) to cell breath (microbiome) and most recently to crowd breath metabolites (exposome). In this paper, an overview of field deployable chemical screening technologies (both stand-alone and those with portable characteristics) is given with application to early detection and monitoring of human exposome in security operations. On-site systems employed in exhaled breath analysis i.e. mass spectrometry (MS), optical spectroscopy and chemical sensors are reviewed. Categories of VOCs of interest include: a) VOCs in human breath associated with exposure to threat compounds, and b) VOCs characteristic of, and associated with, human body odour (e.g. breath, sweat). The latter are relevant to human trafficking scenarios. New technological approaches in miniaturised detection and screening systems are also presented (e.g. non-scanning digital light processing linear ion trap MS (DLP-LIT-MS), nanoparticles, mid-infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy and hyphenated technologies). Finally, the outlook for rapid and precise, real-time field detection of threat traces in exhaled breath is revealed and discussed. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  16. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mended by Organization for Economic Coopera- tion and Development (OECD 1979). Hence, the result shows that this study area is safe as far as the health hazards of radium are concerned. It is recommended that the radon exhalation rate should be measured for all building materials and a standard code placed on all ...

  17. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of ...

  18. Screening for emphysema via exhaled volatile organic compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristescu, S.M.; Gietema, H.A.; Blanchet, L.M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Munnik, P.; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Lammers, J.W.; Buydens, L.; Harren, F.J.M.; Zanen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema risk groups are well defined and screening allows for early identification of disease. The capability of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to detect emphysema, as found by computed tomography (CT) in current and former heavy smokers

  19. Screening for emphysema via exhaled volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Cristescu (S.); H.A. Gietema (Hester); L. Blanchet (Lionel); C.L.J.J. Kruitwagen (Cas); P. Munnik (P.); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob); J.-W.J. Lammers (Jan-Willem); L.M.C. Buydens (Lutgarde); F.J.M. Harren (F. J M); P. Zanen (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema risk groups are well defined and screening allows for early identification of disease. The capability of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to detect emphysema, as found by computed tomography (CT) in current and former heavy

  20. Methodological aspects of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriele, C.; Wiel, E.C. van der; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Moll, H.A.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Jongste, J.C. de

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines for the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) recommend refraining from lung function tests (LFT) and certain foods and beverages before performing FE(NO) measurements, as they may lead to transiently altered FE(NO) levels. Little is known of such factors in infants. The

  1. Vagal Sensory Neuron Subtypes that Differentially Control Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rui B; Strochlic, David E; Williams, Erika K; Umans, Benjamin D; Liberles, Stephen D

    2015-04-23

    Breathing is essential for survival and under precise neural control. The vagus nerve is a major conduit between lung and brain required for normal respiration. Here, we identify two populations of mouse vagus nerve afferents (P2ry1, Npy2r), each a few hundred neurons, that exert powerful and opposing effects on breathing. Genetically guided anatomical mapping revealed that these neurons densely innervate the lung and send long-range projections to different brainstem targets. Npy2r neurons are largely slow-conducting C fibers, while P2ry1 neurons are largely fast-conducting A fibers that contact pulmonary endocrine cells (neuroepithelial bodies). Optogenetic stimulation of P2ry1 neurons acutely silences respiration, trapping animals in exhalation, while stimulating Npy2r neurons causes rapid, shallow breathing. Activating P2ry1 neurons did not impact heart rate or gastric pressure, other autonomic functions under vagal control. Thus, the vagus nerve contains intermingled sensory neurons constituting genetically definable labeled lines with different anatomical connections and physiological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Implementation of a Laser-Based Ammonia Breath Sensor for Medical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2012-06-01

    Laser-based sensors can be used as non-invasive monitoring tools to measure parts per billion (ppb) levels of trace gases. Ammonia sensors are useful for applications in environmental pollutant monitoring, atmospheric and combustion kinetic studies, and medical diagnostics. This sensor was specifically designed to measure ammonia in exhaled breath to be used as a medical diagnostic and monitoring tool, however, it can also be extended for use in other applications. Although ammonia is a naturally occurring species in exhaled breath, abnormally elevated levels can be an indication of adverse medical conditions. Laser-based breath diagnostics have many benefits since they are cost effective, non-invasive, painless, real time monitors. They have the potential to improve the quality of medical care by replacing currently used blood tests and providing immediate feedback to physicians. This sensor utilizes a Quantum Cascade Laser and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic detection in a 76 m multi-pass absorption cell to measure ppb levels of ammonia with improved sensitivity over previous sensors. Initial measurements to determine the ammonia absorption line parameters were performed using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first experimental study of the ammonia absorption line transitions near 1103.46 cm1 with absorption spectroscopy. The linestrengths were measured with uncertainties less than 10%. The collisional broadening coefficients for each of the ammonia lines with nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were also measured, many of which had uncertainties less than 5%. The sensor was characterized to show a detectability limit of 10 ppb with an uncertainty of less than 5% at typical breath ammonia levels. Initial breath test results showed that some of the patients with chronic kidney disease had elevated ammonia levels while others had ammonia levels in the same range as expected for healthy

  3. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  4. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  5. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide collected with two different mouthpieces: a study in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leme A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for collecting exhaled nitric oxide (ENO recommend the use of antibacterial filters of 0.3 µm. The aim of the present study was to compare the measurements of ENO obtained with two different filtering devices. Air samples from 17 asthmatic and 17 non-asthmatic subjects were collected by a recommended off-line technique using two different mouthpieces: 1 the Sievers disposable tool (A under a breathing pressure of 18 cmH2O, and 2 a mouthpiece containing a HEPA filter (B under a breathing pressure of 12 cmH2O. The nitric oxide samples were collected into an impermeable reservoir bag. Values for ENO were compared using two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. ENO values obtained with mouthpieces A and B were comparable for asthmatic (mean ± SEM, 42.9 ± 6.9 vs 43.3 ± 6.6 ppb and non-asthmatic (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 13.7 ± 1.1 ppb subjects. There was a significant difference in ENO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics using either mouthpiece A (P<0.001 or B (P<0.001. There was a positive correlation between mouthpiece A and mouthpiece B for both groups. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were considered to be acceptable. Mouthpiece B was less expensive than A, and these data show that it can be used without compromising the result. Our data confirm reports of higher ENO values in the presence of airway inflammation.

  7. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO{sub 3} gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton [Univ.-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Breath Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail: sotiris.pratsinis@ptl.mavt.ethz.ch [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (<30 s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present sensors were highly selective to acetone over ethanol and water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensors were applied to human breath: good agreement with highly sensitive PTR-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests with people at rest and during physical activity showed the sensor robustness. - Abstract: Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO{sub 3} nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone ({approx}20 ppb) with short response (10-15 s) and recovery times (35-70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  8. Sensing Technologies for Detection of Acetone in Human Breath for Diabetes Diagnosis and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Saasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the technologies used in the field of breath analysis to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Currently the diagnosis and monitoring of blood glucose and ketone bodies that are used in clinical studies involve the use of blood tests. This method entails pricking fingers for a drop of blood and placing a drop on a sensitive area of a strip which is pre-inserted into an electronic reading instrument. Furthermore, it is painful, invasive and expensive, and can be unsafe if proper handling is not undertaken. Human breath analysis offers a non-invasive and rapid method for detecting various volatile organic compounds thatare indicators for different diseases. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. Acetone is exhaled during respiration. The production of acetone is a result of the body metabolising fats instead of glucose to produce energy. There are various techniques that are used to analyse exhaled breath including Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS, Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR–MS, Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT–MS, laser photoacoustic spectrometry and so on. All these techniques are not portable, therefore this review places emphasis on how nanotechnology, through semiconductor sensing nanomaterials, has the potential to help individuals living with diabetes mellitus monitor their disease with cheap and portable devices.

  9. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  10. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  11. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  12. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea. Deconditioning If you are not active or do not exer- cise regularly, as a result of being out of shape and experiencing muscle fatigue, you may develop shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when ...

  13. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  14. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  15. Breath Malodour - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Tandon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ′Halitosis′, ′Foetor oris′ and ′foetor ex ore′ are used to describe offensive breath. This embarrassing condition causes social, emotional and psychological anxiety. This article provides an insight into etiology, diagnosis and management of oral malodour.

  16. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad ...

  17. Expiration: breathing's other face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liansun; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Ogink, Nico

    2017-11-15

    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed. The artificial reference cow simulates the lungs, respiratory tract, and rumen of a cow and releases a variable methane flux to generate a concentration pattern in the exhaled breath that closely resembles a real cow's pattern. The strength of the relation between the controlled methane release rates of the artificial reference cow and the measured methane concentrations was analyzed by linear regression, using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the residual standard error as performance indicators. The effect of error sources (source-sampling distance, air turbulence, and cow's head movement) on this relation was experimentally investigated, both under laboratory and barn conditions. From the laboratory to the dairy barn at the 30-cm sampling distance, the R2-value decreased from 0.97 to 0.37 and the residual standard error increased from 75 to 86 ppm as a result of barn air turbulence, the latter increasing to a theoretical 94 ppm if modeled variability due to cow's head movement was accounted for as well. In practice, the effect of these random errors can be compensated by sampling strategies including repeated measurements on each cow over time, thus increasing the distinctive power between cows. However, systematic errors that may disturb the relation between concentration and production rate, such as cow variation in air exhalation rate and air flow patterns around sampling locations that differ between barns, cannot be compensated by repeated

  19. Amplitude gating for a coached breathing approach in respiratory gated 10 MV flattening filter-free VMAT delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Francis; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amplitude gating combined with a coached breathing strategy for 10 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam linac. Ten patient plans for VMAT SABR liver were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The verification plans were then transferred to a CT-scanned Quasar phantom and delivered on a TrueBeam linac using a 10 MV FFF beam and Varian's real-time position management (RPM) system for respiratory gating based on breathing amplitude. Breathing traces were acquired from ten patients using two kinds of breathing patterns: free breathing and an interrupted (~ 5 s pause) end of exhale coached breathing pattern. Ion chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were acquired for a gated delivery while the phantom moved under the described breathing patterns, as well as for a nongated stationary phantom delivery. The gate window was set to obtain a range of residual target motion from 2-5 mm. All gated deliveries on a moving phantom have been shown to be dosimetrically equivalent to the nongated deliveries on a static phantom, with differences in point dose measurements under 1% and average gamma 2%/2 mm agreement above 98.7%. Comparison with the treatment planning system also resulted in good agreement, with differences in point-dose measurements under 2.5% and average gamma 3%/3 mm agreement of 97%. The use of a coached breathing pattern significantly increases the duty cycle, compared with free breathing, and allows for shorter treatment times. Patients' free-breathing patterns contain considerable variability and, although dosimetric results for gated delivery may be acceptable, it is difficult to achieve efficient treatment delivery. A coached breathing pattern combined with a 5 mm amplitude gate, resulted in both high-quality dose distributions and overall shortest gated beam delivery times.

  20. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  1. Circle (CO2 reabsorbing) breathing systems: Human applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment. This allows the flow of the fresh gas to be considerably reduced, thereby saving on fresh-gas supply. Circle systems are often used in the circumstances cited above, although not always at low fresh-gas flows. The circle system used in anaesthesia and intensive care has the least engineering demands made on it, although it is used on patients who are highly vulnerable; it usually provides a mixture of air and oxygen, and perhaps a breathable anaesthetic gas, all at sea-level pressure. Mountaineering and firefighting applications involve an extreme earthbound environment, with the user undergoing extreme physical work. The astronaut's spacesuit and life support system contains a high-flow circle system, the breathing gases themselves pressurising the suit as well as providing respiratory life support and thermal comfort; the gas provided is pure oxygen at about a third of sea-level atmosphere. There are numerous varieties of breathing systems for diving, including a circle system, often for clandestine naval activity; the gases used are a combination of oxygen, nitrogen and helium, to minimise the possibility of decompression sickness, nitrogen narcosis and oxygen toxicity and must be provided at a varying pressure and concentration appropriate to depth.

  2. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention by humans of 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from mainstream cigarette smoke was evaluated. The analysis was done by a new technique using solid phase extraction (SPE for the cleanup and the concenration of PAHs. The new technique has excellent sensitivity and accuracy, which were necessary for the analysis of the very low levels of PAHs present in the exhaled cigarette smoke. The study was done on a common commercial cigarette with 10.6 mg ‘tar’ by U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendation. The results were obtained from ten human subjects, each smoking three cigarettes. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling. The study showed that the PAHs with a molecular weight lower than about 170 Daltons are retained with high efficiency. The heavier molecules are less retained, but even compounds such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, and benzoperylene are retained with efficiencies around 50%. The dependence of retention efficiency for PAHs (in % on their octanol-water partition coefficient (LogPow was found to be nonlinear and showed considerable variability for several compounds that have very close LogPow values. Better correlation was obtained between the retention efficiency and PAHs vapor pressure (Log VP.

  3. Advances in the clinical applications of exhaled nitric oxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D Robin

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on recent data which highlight the clinical settings in which exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is potentially helpful, or not, as a clinical tool. It is becoming clearer that, selectively applied, F(E)NO measurements can provide reliable clinical guidance, particularly when values are low. Such values are associated with high negative predictive values (>90%). Increased F(E)NO levels are associated with much more modest positive predictive values (75%-85%) and these are less reliable. These general principles apply when diagnosing steroid responsiveness in relation to asthma, chronic cough, and COPD. Although randomised trials do not support routine use of exhaled NO measurements in uncomplicated bronchial asthma, there is evidence that in patients with difficult asthma, or asthma associated with pregnancy, F(E)NO enhances overall management, and the decision to commence or increase inhaled steroid therapy (yes/no) may be made more accurately. Exhaled NO is potentially relevant in the assessment of occupational asthma (serial measurements) and also in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans in lung transplant patients.

  4. Frequency content of forced exhalations of normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Seiler, F.A.

    1986-03-01

    The frequency content of the flow-time relationship during forced exhalation determines the equipment response characteristics required for measurements of small animals. Flow-time data were collected by flow plethysmography at 1 msec intervals during single forced exhalations of 22 male and 22 female 14 wk old, healthy, anesthetized F344/N rats. Lungs of apneic rats were inflated to 30 cm H/sub 2/O transpulmonary pressure and deflated at -50 cm H/sub 2/O airway pressure. Similar data were collected from the testing system without a rat. Amplitudes and phases at 4 Hz intervals from 4 to 96 Hz Hz were calculated by LaPlace transform. Amplitudes were related to lung volume. Cumulative percentages of the total amplitude to 96 Hz were similar for males and females at each frequency. Of the total cumulative amplitude to 96 Hz, 50%, 95%, and 99% was contributed by frequencies lower than 12, 52, and 76 HZ, respectively. Amplitudes of rats exceeded those of the system alone between 20 and 40 Hz, due to lung elastic recoil. Thus, systems capable of measuring events of frequencies up to 50 Hz should be adequate for evaluating forced exhalations of rats.

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children.

  6. Exploiting transient phenomena for imaging with breath figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Varma, Manoj M.

    2017-02-01

    Breath figures refer to the patterns formed when vapor condenses into the liquid phase on a surface, revealing heterogeneities in topography or chemical composition. These figures are composed of micro-droplets, which scatter light and produce optical contrast. Differences in hydrophobicity imposed by surface features or contaminants result in a difference in micro-droplet densities, which has been used in applications such as substrate independent optical visualization of single layer graphene flakes. Here, we show that transient phenomena, such as the pinning transition of micro-droplets condensed over a polymer surface, can be used to enhance the optical contrast even when the time averaged difference in micro-droplet densities is not substantial. Thus, this work opens a new way of visualizing surface heterogeneities using transient phenomena occurring during condensation or evaporation of micro-droplets as opposed to only using time averaged differences in wettability due to the surface features.

  7. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  8. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nicola J; Jones, Mandy; O'Connell, Neil E; Everard, Mark L

    2013-12-18

    Dysfunctional breathing is described as chronic or recurrent changes in breathing pattern causing respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. It is an umbrella term that encompasses hyperventilation syndrome and vocal cord dysfunction. Dysfunctional breathing affects 10% of the general population. Symptoms include dyspnoea, chest tightness, sighing and chest pain which arise secondary to alterations in respiratory pattern and rate. Little is known about dysfunctional breathing in children. Preliminary data suggest 5.3% or more of children with asthma have dysfunctional breathing and that, unlike in adults, it is associated with poorer asthma control. It is not known what proportion of the general paediatric population is affected. Breathing training is recommended as a first-line treatment for adults with dysfunctional breathing (with or without asthma) but no similar recommendations are available for the management of children. As such, breathing retraining is adapted from adult regimens based on the age and ability of the child. To determine whether breathing retraining in children with dysfunctional breathing has beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices.To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing retraining in young people with dysfunctional breathing. We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We searched the National Research Register (NRR) Archive, Health Services Research Projects in Progress (HSRProj), Current Controlled Trials register (incorporating the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) to identify research in progress and unpublished research. The latest search was undertaken in October 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster-randomised controlled trials. We excluded observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross

  9. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  11. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  12. Factors Influencing Continuous Breath Signal in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit Patients Measured by an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Leopold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous breath analysis by electronic nose (eNose technology in the intensive care unit (ICU may be useful in monitoring (patho physiological changes. However, the application of breath monitoring in a non-controlled clinical setting introduces noise into the data. We hypothesized that the sensor signal is influenced by: (1 humidity in the side-stream; (2 patient-ventilator disconnections and the nebulization of medication; and (3 changes in ventilator settings and the amount of exhaled CO2. We aimed to explore whether the aforementioned factors introduce noise into the signal, and discuss several approaches to reduce this noise. Methods: Study in mechanically-ventilated ICU patients. Exhaled breath was monitored using a continuous eNose with metal oxide sensors. Linear (mixed models were used to study hypothesized associations. Results: In total, 1251 h of eNose data were collected. First, the initial 15 min of the signal was discarded. There was a negative association between humidity and Sensor 1 (Fixed-effect β: −0.05 ± 0.002 and a positive association with Sensors 2–4 (Fixed-effect β: 0.12 ± 0.001; the signal was corrected for this noise. Outliers were most likely due to noise and therefore removed. Sensor values were positively associated with end-tidal CO2, tidal volume and the pressure variables. The signal was corrected for changes in these ventilator variables after which the associations disappeared. Conclusion: Variations in humidity, ventilator disconnections, nebulization of medication and changes of ventilator settings indeed influenced exhaled breath signals measured in ventilated patients by continuous eNose analysis. We discussed several approaches to reduce the effects of these noise inducing variables.

  13. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Condensed Matter Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; Simons, Ben

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades, in concert with ground-breaking experimental advances, condensed matter theory has drawn increasingly from the language of low-energy quantum field theory. This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. It emphasizes the development of modern methods of classical and quantum field theory with applications oriented around condensed matter physics. Topics covered include second quantization, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena, the renormalization group, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion is rooted firmly in practical experimental application. As well as routine exercises, the text includes extended and challenging problems, with fully worked solutions, designed to provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. This book will complement graduate level courses on theoretical quantum condensed matter physics. Spans the field of modern condensed matter theory focusing on field theory techniques Written to facilitate learning, with numerous challenging exercises, with fully worked solutions, aimed at physicists starting graduate-level courses The theoretical methods are firmly set in concrete experimental applications

  15. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  16. Breathing and Cross-Infection Risk in the Microenvironment around People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zajas, Jan Jakub; Litewnicki, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the characteristics of cross-infection risk in a room with an air distribution which creates fully mixed conditions. Several experiments are made to develop models for the flow in the microenvironment and models for the cross-infection risk. The first part of the measurements...... detailed analyses of the flow in the microenvironment of the two manikins and a study of the importance of the individual distance between the manikins. Also the importance of the activity level, difference in heights, breathing through mouth or nose is studied in details....... (breathing frequency and volume flow) and it includes a study of the influence of the thermal boundary layer of the manikin. Second part covers measurements with the use of two manikins. It is examined how one exhaling manikin can influence another regarding cross-infection risks. This study includes...

  17. A New Differential Pressure Flow Meter for Measurement of Human Breath Flow: Simulation and Experimental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Devon; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica

    2016-03-01

    The development and performance characterization of a new differential pressure-based flow meter for human breath measurements is presented in this article. The device, called a "Confined Pitot Tube," is comprised of a pipe with an elliptically shaped expansion cavity located in the pipe center, and an elliptical disk inside the expansion cavity. The elliptical disk, named Pitot Tube, is exchangeable, and has different diameters, which are smaller than the diameter of the elliptical cavity. The gap between the disk and the cavity allows the flow of human breath to pass through. The disk causes an obstruction in the flow inside the pipe, but the elliptical cavity provides an expansion for the flow to circulate around the disk, decreasing the overall flow resistance. We characterize the new sensor flow experimentally and theoretically, using Comsol Multiphysics® software with laminar and turbulent models. We also validate the sensor, using inhalation and exhalation tests and a reference method.

  18. Facilitated diffusion of acetonitrile revealed by quantitative breath analysis using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Ding, Jianhua; Gu, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan; Pan, Susu; Xu, Ning; Chen, Huanwen; Li, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    By using silver cations (Ag⁺) as the ionic reagent in reactive extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS), the concentrations of acetonitrile in exhaled breath samples from the volunteers including active smokers, passive smokers, and non-smokers were quantitatively measured in vivo, without any sample pretreatment. A limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 0.16 ng/L and 3.5% (n = 8), respectively, for the acetonitrile signals in MS/MS experiments. Interestingly, the concentrations of acetonitrile in human breath continuously increased for 1-4 hours after the smoker finished smoking and then slowly decreased to the background level in 7 days. The experimental data of a large number of (> 165) samples indicated that the inhaled acetonitrile is excreted most likely by facilitated diffusion, instead of simple diffusion reported previously for other volatile compounds.

  19. Respiratory, physical, and psychological benefits of breath-focused yoga for adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): a brief pilot study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorne, Colin; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Gueth, Robin; DeAvilla, Nicole; Pansini, Janie

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to identify the potential benefits of breath-focused yoga on respiratory, physical, and psychological functioning for adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten individuals with severe TBI who self-selected to attend weekly yoga classes and 4 no-treatment controls were evaluated. Participants were assessed at pretreatment baseline and at 3-month intervals for a total of 4 time points over 40 weeks. Outcomes of interest included observed exhale strength, ability to hold a breath or a tone, breathing rate, counted breaths (inhale and exhale), and heart rate, as well as self-reported physical and psycho-logical well-being. Repeated within-group analyses of variance revealed that the yoga group demonstrated significant longitudinal change on several measures of observed respiratory functioning and self-reported physical and psychological well-being over a 40-week period. Those in the control group showed marginal improvement on 2 of the 6 measures of respiratory health, physical and social functioning, emotional well-being, and general health. The small sample sizes precluded the analysis of between group differences. This study provides preliminary evidence that breath-focused yoga may improve respiratory functioning and self-perceived physical and psychological well-being of adults with severe TBI.

  20. Quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy for breath analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jan C.; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Focant, Jeff-F.; Peremans, Andre; Lassen, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    An innovative and novel quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for highly sensitive and selective breath gas analysis is introduced. The QEPAS sensor consists of two acoustically coupled micro- resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF). The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. Due to the very low fabrication costs the QEPAS sensor presents a clear breakthrough in the field of photoacoustic spectroscopy by introducing novel disposable gas chambers in order to avoid cleaning after each test. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of methane and methanol in the 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm wavelength region is conducted. Demonstrating a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s for methane and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF. Spectra of both individual molecules as well as mixtures of molecules were measured and analyzed. The molecules are representative of exhaled breath gasses that are bio-markers for medical diagnostics.

  1. Increasing conclusiveness of clinical breath analysis by improved baseline correction of multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Ewa; Tinnevelt, Gerjen H; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2016-08-05

    Current challenges of clinical breath analysis include large data size and non-clinically relevant variations observed in exhaled breath measurements, which should be urgently addressed with competent scientific data tools. In this study, three different baseline correction methods are evaluated within a previously developed data size reduction strategy for multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) datasets. Introduced for the first time in breath data analysis, the Top-hat method is presented as the optimum baseline correction method. A refined data size reduction strategy is employed in the analysis of a large breathomic dataset on a healthy and respiratory disease population. New insights into MCC-IMS spectra differences associated with respiratory diseases are provided, demonstrating the additional value of the refined data analysis strategy in clinical breath analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  3. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  4. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-03-02

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM.

  5. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    , and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath...

  6. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  7. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entire liquid or solid. The variety of electronic behaviour which ... sity of electronic behaviour in condensed matter, ego ferro- ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find applications, this time in magnetic recording.

  8. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Bose–Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 46-51. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  10. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas of photons which explained Planck's law for thermal radiation at one ... their first application. Seventy years later they are being used in atomic physics laboratories all over the world. Everybody is talking about Bose-Einstein condensation. This ... distribution of the position of any particle in the gas is a constant function ...

  11. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Bose-Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 142-147. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Condensed-Matter Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jorge E.; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ways computers are being used in condensed-matter physics by experimenters and theorists. Experimenters use them to control experiments and to gather and analyze data. Theorists use them for detailed predictions based on realistic models and for studies on systems not realizable in practice. (JN)

  13. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-05-09

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  14. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  15. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration and decompression-induced bubble formation: An index of decompression severity in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, J-M; Buzzacott, P; Nastorg, J; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Lambrechts, K

    2014-05-30

    Previous studies have highlighted a decreased exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FE NO) in divers after hyperbaric exposure in a dry chamber or following a wet dive. The underlying mechanisms of this decrease remain however unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the separate effects of submersion, hyperbaric hyperoxia exposure and decompression-induced bubble formation on FE NO after a wet dive. Healthy experienced divers (n=31) were assigned to either (i) a group making a scuba-air dive (Air dive), (ii) a group with a shallow oxygen dive protocol (Oxygen dive) or (iii) a group making a deep dive breathing a trimix gas mixture (deep-dive). Bubble signals were graded with the KISS score. Before and after each dive FE NO values were measured using a hand-held electrochemical analyzer. There was no change in post-dive values of FE NO values (expressed in ppb=parts per billion) in the Air dive group (15.1 ± 3.6 ppb vs. 14.3 ± 4.7 ppb, n=9, p=0.32). There was a significant decrease in post-dive values of FE NO in the Oxygen dive group (15.6 ± 6 ppb vs. 11.7 ± 4.7 ppb, n=9, p=0.009). There was an even more pronounced decrease in the deep dive group (16.4 ± 6.6 ppb vs. 9.4 ± 3.5 ppb, n=13, p0 (n=13) and percentage decrease in post-dive FE NO values (r=-0.53, p=0.03). Submersion and hyperbaric hyperoxia exposure cannot account entirely for these results suggesting the possibility that, in combination, one effect magnifies the other. A main finding of the present study is a significant relationship between reduction in exhaled NO concentration and dive-induced bubble formation. We postulate that exhaled NO concentration could be a useful index of decompression severity in healthy human divers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  17. Applications of external cavity diode laser-based technique to noninvasive clinical diagnosis using expired breath ammonia analysis: chronic kidney disease, epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Turkmen, Aysenur; Akman, Hatice; Sezer, M. Tugrul; Kutluhan, Suleyman

    2016-08-01

    An external cavity laser (ECL)-based off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy was applied to noninvasive clinical diagnosis using expired breath ammonia analysis: (1) the correlation between breath ammonia levels and blood parameters related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated and (2) the relationship between breath ammonia levels and blood concentrations of valproic acid (VAP) was studied. The concentrations of breath ammonia in 15 healthy volunteers, 10 epilepsy patients (before and after taking VAP), and 27 patients with different stages of CKD were examined. The range of breath ammonia levels was 120 to 530 ppb for healthy subjects and 710 to 10,400 ppb for patients with CKD. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between breath ammonia concentrations and urea, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, or estimated glomerular filtration rate in 27 patients. It was demonstrated that taking VAP gave rise to increasing breath ammonia levels. A statistically significant difference was found between the levels of exhaled ammonia (NH3) in healthy subjects and in patients with epilepsy before and after taking VAP. The results suggest that our breath ammonia measurement system has great potential as an easy, noninvasive, real-time, and continuous monitor of the clinical parameters related to epilepsy and CKD.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide atopy, and spirometry in asthma and rhinitis patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Gupta, Nitesh

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disorder. Nitric oxide (NO) is non-invasively measured in exhaled breath (FeNO). The aim of the study was to investigate the anthropometric and physiologic factors that influence FeNO measurements. Also, to evaluate FeNO correlation with spirometry and inflammatory markers in asthma and rhinitis. The study was a prospective analysis of asthma (BA) and rhinitis (AR) in patients enrolled from outpatient clinics between 2011 and 2015. Healthy controls (HC) were enrolled from the community. All subjects underwent baseline spirometry with reversibility, FeNO measurements, skin prick tests, and blood sampling for absolute eosinophil counts and serum total IgE levels. Of 528 enrolled participants, 215 were BA, 248 were BA-AR and 65 were HC. The mean FeNO was higher in atopic versus nonatopic subjects (34.14 vs. 25.99; p atopy. In examining the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO for asthma, the AUC for FeNO value is 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717-0.901), with cut-off levels to screen for asthma being 19.45 at 71.2% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity (p asthma prediction with FeNO. The study highlights the importance of estimation of anthropometric parameters and dyspnea assessment in the evaluation of FeNO levels. Also, the presence of atopy may influence the results in the interpretation of FeNO readings. Moreover, the study have demonstrated that spirometry and FeNO have no significant correlation, which further lays emphasis on them as being different physiological parameters of asthma.  .

  19. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Frisch, Tobias; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD) and bronchial

  20. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD

  1. Determination of radon exhalation rates from tiles using active and passive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2001-06-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation rates for selected samples of tiles used in Saudi Arabia were carried out using active and passive measuring techniques. These samples were granite, marble and ceramic. In the active method, a PC-based radon gas analyzer with emanation container was used, while, in the passive method, PM-355 nuclear track detectors with the 'can technique' were applied for 180 days. A comparison of the exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a good linear correlation coefficient of 0.7. The granite samples showed an average radon exhalation rate of 0.7 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, which was higher than that of marble and ceramic by more than twofold. The radon exhalation rates measured by the 'can technique' showed a non-uniform exhalation from the surface of the same tile.

  2. Change of Exhaled Acetone Concentration in a Diabetic Patient with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Ichijo, Yasuhiro; Houtsuki, Yu; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Shimouchi, Akito; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-10-21

    In heart failure patients, exhaled acetone concentration, a noninvasive biomarker, is increased according to heart failure severity. Moreover, exhaled acetone concentration is also known to be affected by diabetes mellitus. However, there have been no reports on exhaled acetone concentration in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus. A 77-year old man was admitted to our hospital with acute decompensated heart failure and atrioventricular block. He had controlled diabetes mellitus under insulin treatment with hemoglobin A1c of 6.5%. He underwent treatment of diuretics and permanent pacemaker implantation. His condition improved and he was discharged at Day 12. Due to the heart failure improvement, his levels of exhaled acetone concentration decreased from 1.623 ppm at admission to 0.664 ppm at discharge. This is the first report to reveal a change of exhaled acetone concentration in a diabetic patient with acute decompensated heart failure.

  3. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  4. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  5. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  6. Radon exhalation measurements for environmental and geophysics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immé, G.; Catalano, R.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.

    2014-02-01

    Transport of radon through materials is a process strongly influenced by several parameters characterizing the materials themselves, such as porosity, permeability, grain size, content of radionuclides and diffusion coefficient of this gas through the interstitial pores and/or fractures of material. In order to enlighten more on the radon transport mechanisms, we are carrying out a systematic study on both in-soil radon measurements and laboratory analysis. Laboratory measurements are carried out on different types of samples from geologically different sites in the East Sicily (Italy), to measure the exhalation rate of radon at different controlled physical conditions, varying the parameters of porosity and grain size, content of radio, in order to characterize the dependence of the process of radon transport by these parameters.We report in particular preliminary results of our study on radionuclide content and on the radon exhalation rate from building materials used in Mt. Etna and in the Hyblean Plateau villages.This study is important from the radioprotection point of view and could represent a contribution to better define the transport process of radon through fractured media to clarify on correlation between radon concentration and geodynamical, volcanic and tectonic, events.

  7. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  9. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... when saliva production is diminished." ; Tips to combat halitosis: ; 1. Drink water to wash away germs ; Drinking ...

  10. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib

    2017-03-01

    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.

  11. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchivo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  12. Flow in the human upper airway: work of breathing and the compliant soft palate and tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermy, Mark; Adams, Cletus; Aplin, Jonathan; Buchajczyk, Marcin; van Hove, Sibylle; Kabaliuk, Natalia; Geoghegan, Patrick; Cater, John

    2016-11-01

    The human upper airway (nasal cavity, pharynx and trachea) filters, heats and humidifies inspired air. Its pressure drop affects the work of breathing (WOB, energy expended to inspire and expire) to a degree which varies from person to person, and which is altered by breathing therapy devices. We report experimental studies using 3D printed models of the upper airway based on CT scans of single individuals (adult and paediatric), and average geometries based on PCA analysis of 150 individuals. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), gas concentration and pressure measurements, coupled with CFD simulation. These reveal the details of the washout of CO2 rich exhaled gas, the direction-dependent time-varying pressure drop, and the effect of high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) on these phenomena. A 1D multi-compartment model is used to estimate the work of breathing. For the first time, soft (compliant) elements have been included in the model airways and show that the assumption of rigid tissue is acceptable for unassisted breathing, but unrealistic for therapy-assisted flows.

  13. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  14. Allelic Polymorphism of enos Gene in Children Who Suffer from Bronchial Asthma, with Eosinophilic and Paucigranulocytic Subtypes of Bronchial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Bezrukov

    2015-07-01

    GT/TT genotype, children with paucigranulocytic bronchial inflammation were characterized by more frequent clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis, higher bronchial lability index and lower concentrations of NO metabolites in the exhaled breath condensate.

  15. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynich, Raman A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such "energy breathing" is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 i 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  16. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  17. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  18. Polymorphism of Lysozyme Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad S; Byington, Michael C; Conrad, Jacinta C; Vekilov, Peter G

    2017-10-05

    Protein condensates play essential roles in physiological processes and pathological conditions. Recently discovered mesoscopic protein-rich clusters may act as crucial precursors for the nucleation of ordered protein solids, such as crystals, sickle hemoglobin polymers, and amyloid fibrils. These clusters challenge settled paradigms of protein condensation as the constituent protein molecules present features characteristic of both partially misfolded and native proteins. Here we employ the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme and examine the similarities between mesoscopic clusters, amyloid structures, and disordered aggregates consisting of chemically modified protein. We show that the mesoscopic clusters are distinct from the other two classes of aggregates. Whereas cluster formation and amyloid oligomerization are both reversible, aggregation triggered by reduction of the intramolecular S-S bonds is permanent. In contrast to the amyloid structures, protein molecules in the clusters retain their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, an essential feature of the mesoscopic clusters is their constant radius of less than 50 nm. The amyloid and disordered aggregates are significantly larger and rapidly grow. These findings demonstrate that the clusters are a product of limited protein structural flexibility. In view of the role of the clusters in the nucleation of ordered protein solids, our results suggest that fine-tuning the degree of protein conformational stability is a powerful tool to control and direct the pathways of protein condensation.

  19. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  20. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-12-01

    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  1. Sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, S.; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, S.

    2017-01-01

    Conditions in which exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents could be sampled separately or together (whole-body emission) were created. Five lightly dressed males exhaled the air through a mask to another, identical chamber or without a mask to the chamber in which they were sitting; the outdoor...... air supply rate was the same in both chambers. The carbon dioxide concentration in the chamber with exhaled air was 2000 ppm. Chamber temperatures were 23°C or 28°C, and ozone was present or absent in the supply airflow. When dermally emitted bioeffluents were present, the perceived air quality (PAQ...

  2. Soft Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Richard A L

    2002-11-20

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented

  3. Housing characteristics in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Huang, Xiji; Liu, Chuanyao; Sun, Huizhen; Zhou, Ting; Song, Yuanchao; Rong, Yi; Zhu, Beibei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianshu; He, Meian; Miao, Xiaopin; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate indoor factors affecting fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in community residents. A total of 2404 adults (865 men, 1539 women, mean age 51.7 ± 13.3 years) were recruited to the study. Factors affecting FeNO were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Participants without a kitchen exhaust fan/hood had higher FeNO (GM: 10.21%, 95% CI: 4.18%-16.59%). Participants engaged in home cooking who used only liquefied petroleum gas had higher FeNO (GM: 5.75%, 95% CI: 0.10%-11.73%) compared to those using natural gas for residential (home) cooking. Nonuse of a kitchen exhaust fan/hood and use of liquefied petroleum gas among persons engaged in home cooking were associated with higher FeNO levels.

  4. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  5. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  6. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions.

  7. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  8. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide levels are elevated in persons with tetraplegia and comparable to that in mild asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Miroslav; Schilero, Gregory J; Wecht, Jill M; La Fountaine, Michael; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Bauman, William A

    2010-06-01

    The role of airway inflammation in mediating airflow obstruction in persons with chronic traumatic tetraplegia is unknown. Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) affords a validated noninvasive technique for gauging the airway inflammatory response in asthma, although it has never been assessed in persons with tetraplegia. This study was designed to determine the FeNO in individuals with chronic tetraplegia compared with that in patients with mild asthma and healthy able-bodied individuals. Nine subjects with chronic tetraplegia, seven subjects with mild asthma, and seven matched healthy able-bodied controls were included in this prospective, observational, pilot study. All subjects were nonsmokers and clinically stable at the time of study. Spirometry was performed on all participants at baseline. FENO was determined online by a commercially available closed circuit, chemiluminescence method, using a single-breath technique. Subjects with tetraplegia had significantly higher values of FeNO than controls (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 10.37 +/- 4.9 ppb; P tetraplegia and those with asthma (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 20.23 +/- 4.64 ppb, P tetraplegia have FeNO levels that are comparable to that seen in mild asthmatics and higher than that in healthy able-bodied controls. The clinical relevance of this observation has yet to be determined.

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide fraction as an add-on to ACQ-7 for not well controlled asthma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment.

  12. A simple method to reconstruct the molar mass signal of respiratory gas to assess small airways with a double-tracer gas single-breath washout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Johannes; Tao, Ziran; Junger, Annika; Joppek, Christoph; Tempel, Philipp; Husemann, Kim; Singer, Florian; Latzin, Philipp; Yammine, Sophie; Nagel, Joachim H; Kohlhäufl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    For the assessment of small airway diseases, a noninvasive double-tracer gas single-breath washout (DTG-SBW) with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) as tracer components has been proposed. It is assumed that small airway diseases may produce typical ventilation inhomogeneities which can be detected within one single tidal breath, when using two tracer components. Characteristic parameters calculated from a relative molar mass (MM) signal of the airflow during the washout expiration phase are analyzed. The DTG-SBW signal is acquired by subtracting a reconstructed MM signal without tracer gas from the signal measured with an ultrasonic sensor during in- and exhalation of the double-tracer gas for one tidal breath. In this paper, a simple method to determine the reconstructed MM signal is presented. Measurements on subjects with and without obstructive lung diseases including the small airways have shown high reliability and reproducibility of this method.

  13. Airway inflammation phenotype prediction in asthma patients using lung sound analysis with fractional exhaled nitric oxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terufumi Shimoda; Yasushi Obase; Yukio Nagasaka; Hiroshi Nakano; Reiko Kishikawa; Tomoaki Iwanaga

    2017-01-01

    Background: We previously reported the results of lung sound analysis in patients with bronchial asthma and demonstrated that the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the low frequency range between 100 and 200 Hz (E/I LF...

  14. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distortion. (b) Exhalation valves shall be: (1) Protected against damage and external influence; and (2... or in the hose fitting near the facepiece of all Type A, AE, B, and BE supplied-air respirators. ...

  15. Determination of acetone in human breath by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2004-10-25

    Analysis of breath acetone has been used as a diagnostic tool for diabetes. Due to its nature of volatility and activity, it is very difficult to accurately measure the concentration of acetone in human breath by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To overcome this problem, we developed a new method using GC-MS and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with on-fiber derivatization to determine acetone in human breath. Breath gas from controls and diabetic patients was collected in 3-l Tedlar bags. O-2,3,4,5,6-(Pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) in solution was firstly adsorbed on the SPME fiber of 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), and then the fiber was further headspace exposed in exhaled gas in the Tedlar bag at 40 degrees C for 4 min. Finally, the formed acetone oxime on the fiber was desorbed and analyzed by GC-MS. Using external standard method, acetone in the human breath was quantitatively analyzed by measurement of its oxime. The method provided a low detection limit of 0.049 ppbv for acetone in breath, relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) value of 3.4%, excellent accuracy. In addition, the method required simple sample preparation and no organic solvent. Acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.71 ppmv, while its concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.76 ppmv. The results show that GC-MS and SPME with on-fiber derivatization is a simple, rapid and sensitive and solvent-free method for determination of low concentration acetone in breath and analysis of breath acetone can be used as supplementary tool for diagnosis of diabetes.

  16. Sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of exhaled and dermally emitted bioeffluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, S.; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, S.

    2018-01-01

    ) was less acceptable, and the odor intensity was higher than when only exhaled bioeffluents were present. The presence or absence of exhaled bioeffluents in the unoccupied chamber made no significant difference to sensory assessments. At 28°C and with ozone present, the odor intensity increased and the PAQ...... at 28°C. Dermally emitted bioeffluents seem to play a major role in the sensory nuisance experienced when occupied volumes are inadequately ventilated....

  17. Condensation Dynamics on Mimicked Metal Matrix Hydrophobic Nanoparticle-Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Viraj; Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    Use of hydrophobic surfaces promotes condensation in the dropwise mode, which is significantly more efficient than the common filmwise mode. However, limited longevity of hydrophobic surface modifiers has prevented their wide spread use in industry. Recently, metal matrix composites (MMCs) having microscale hydrophobic heterogeneities dispersed in hydrophilic metal matrix have been proposed as durable and self-healing alternative to hydrophobic surface coatings interacting with deposited water droplets. While dispersion of hydrophobic microparticles in MMC is likely to lead to surface flooding during condensation, the effect of dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (HNPs) with size comparable to water nuclei critical radii and spacing is not obvious. To this end, we fabricated highly ordered arrays of Teflon nanospheres on silicon substrates that mimic the top surface of the MMCs with dispersed HNPs. We used light and electron microscopy to observe breath figures resulting from condensation on these surfaces at varied degrees of subcooling. Here, we discuss the relation between the droplet size distribution, Teflon nanosphere diameter and spacing, and condensation mode. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU.

  18. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  1. Breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing in asthma: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M.; Mckinley, R; Freeman, E.; Foy, C.; Prodger, P; Price, D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Functional breathing disorders may complicate asthma and impair quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy based breathing retraining for patients treated for asthma in the community who have symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing.

  2. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  3. Nasal nitric oxide in sleep-disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Guy; Tauman, Riva; Greenfeld, Michal; Armoni-Domany, Keren; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis and consequences of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO). In asthma, exhaled NO is a marker of airway inflammation. There is only limited information whether nasal NO (nNO) accompanies also chronic upper airway obstruction, specifically, SDB. The objective of this study was to investigate nNO levels in children with SDB in comparison to healthy non-snoring children. Nasal NO was measured in children who underwent overnight polysomnographic studies due to habitual snoring and suspected SDB and in healthy non-snoring controls. One hundred and eleven children participated in the study: 28 with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 60 with primary snoring (PS), and 23 controls. Nasal NO levels were significantly higher in children with OSA and PS compared to controls (867.4 ± 371.5, 902.0 ± 330.9, 644.1 ± 166.5 ppb, respectively, p = 0.047). No difference was observed between children with OSA and PS. No correlations were found between nNO levels and any of the PSG variables, nor with age, BMI percentile or tonsils size. Compared to healthy controls, nNO is increased in children with SDB, but it is not correlated with disease severity. This is probably due to the local mechanical processes and snoring.

  4. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  5. Supersymmetry is afraid of condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Domokos

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersymmetry is never broken by pair condensates of chiral superfields: the supersymmetry breaking part of Green's functions satisfies an equation which always has an identically vanishing solution. Hence any phase containing pair condensates is unstable due to its positive vacuum energy.

  6. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  7. Decay of Ultralight Axion Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C.R.

    2017-05-15

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion masses $m\\sim10^{-22}$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. We find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.

  8. A Negative Correlation Between Blood Glucose and Acetone Measured in Healthy and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydosz, Artur

    2015-07-01

    Exhaled acetone analysis has long been recognized as a supplementary tool for diagnosis and monitoring diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes. It is essential, therefore to determine the relationship between exhaled acetone concentration and glucose in blood. Usually, a direct linear correlation between this both compounds has been expected. However, in some cases we can observe a reverse correlation. When blood glucose was increasing, breath acetone declined. The breath analysis as a supplementary tool for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes makes sense only in case of utilization of portable analyzers. This need has created a market for gas sensors. However, commercially available acetone gas sensors are developed for measuring samples at several tens part per million. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using commercial acetone gas sensor (TGS 822, 823 Figaro, Arlington Heights, IL, USA Inc) with micropreconcentrator in low temperature cofired ceramics. The reference analyzer-mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK) was used. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no history of any respiratory disease participated in the research, as did 31 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Respectively, 3 healthy volunteer and 5 type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects with reverse trend were selected. The linear fitting coefficient various from 0.1139 to 0.9573. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the correlation between blood glucose concentrations and under different conditions, for example, insulin levels, as well as correlate the results with clinical tests, for example, Hb1Ac. It is well known that the concentration of acetone is strongly influenced by diet, insulin treatment, and so on. Therefore, much more complex analysis with long-term measurements are required. Thus, presented results should be regarded as tentative, and validation studies with the analysis of clinical test and in a large number of patients, including control groups

  9. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    for the health system. It is hard to detect sleep apnea it is beneficial to have a sleep monitoring system in homes of people in high risk zones. However, this system would have to be unobtrusive in order for people to accept to implement them while sleeping. The only really unobtrusive way is through wireless...... human beings life as side effects from not breathing may include death. Breathing monitoring is often used in hospitals, however, the monitoring systems are usually based on physical contact with the patient. As a result, they are often a nuisance to the patient and they may even be disconnected....... A better solution is contactless non-intrusive wireless measurement of the breathing. It is found that up to 20% of the population will suffer from sleep apnea. Sleep apnea has several health related drawback. Among them are several cardiovascular outcomes, increases illness- and accident- related cost...

  10. Environmental Effects on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Allergic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania La Grutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma and respiratory allergy. Environmental factors, especially indoor and outdoor air quality, may play an important role in triggering acute exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. The authors have reviewed the literature reporting effects of outdoor and indoor pollutants on FeNO in children. Although the findings are not consistent, urban and industrial pollution—mainly particles (PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and sulfur dioxide (SO2—as well as formaldehyde and electric baseboard heating have been shown to increase FeNO, whilst ozone (O3 tends to decrease it. Among children exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS with a genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOS, a higher nicotine exposure was associated with lower FeNO levels. Finally, although more studies are needed in order to better investigate the effect of gene and environment interactions which may affect the interpretation of FeNO values in the management of children with asthma, clinicians are recommended to consider environmental exposures when taking medical histories for asthma and respiratory allergy. Further research is also needed to assess the effects of remedial interventions aimed at reducing/abating environmental exposures in asthmatic/allergic patients.

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  12. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  13. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  14. Exhaled aerosol transmission of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in the ferret.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Koster

    Full Text Available Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected 'donor' ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa.

  15. Exhaled Aerosol Transmission of Pandemic and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses in the Ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Frederick; Gouveia, Kristine; Zhou, Yue; Lowery, Kristin; Russell, Robert; MacInnes, Heather; Pollock, Zemmie; Layton, R. Colby; Cromwell, Jennifer; Toleno, Denise; Pyle, John; Zubelewicz, Michael; Harrod, Kevin; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yushi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected ‘donor’ ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa. PMID:22509254

  16. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L. Fiore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water, in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater, and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater. Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on

  17. Exhaled aerosol transmission of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Frederick; Gouveia, Kristine; Zhou, Yue; Lowery, Kristin; Russell, Robert; MacInnes, Heather; Pollock, Zemmie; Layton, R Colby; Cromwell, Jennifer; Toleno, Denise; Pyle, John; Zubelewicz, Michael; Harrod, Kevin; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yushi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected 'donor' ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa.

  18. Water condensation: a multiscale phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-02-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address the shortcomings of the thermodynamic theory in describing the nucleation and emphasize the importance of nanoscale effects. This leads to the description of condensation from a molecular viewpoint. Also presented is how the nucleation can be simulated by use of molecular models, and how the condensation process is simulated on the macroscale using computational fluid dynamics. Finally, examples of hybrid models combining molecular and macroscale models for the simulation of condensation on a surface are presented.

  19. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  20. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops in bronchiolitis in infancy: the effect of albuterol [ISRCTN47364493].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totapally, Balagangadhar R; Demerci, Cem; Zureikat, George; Nolan, Brian

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of nebulized albuterol on tidal breathing flow-volume loops in infants with bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus. A randomized, double-blind, control study. Pediatric unit in a community teaching hospital. Twenty infants younger than 1 year of age (mean age, 5.8 +/- 2.8 months) with a first episode of wheezing due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Chloral hydrate (50 mg/kg) was administered orally for sedation. One dose each of nebulized albuterol (0.15 mg/kg in 3 ml saline) and saline (3 ml) were given at 6 hour intervals in a random order. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops were obtained before and after each aerosol treatment with a Neonatal/Pediatric Pulmonary Testing System (Model 2600; Sensor Medics, Anaheim, CA, USA). At the same time, the fraction of tidal volume exhaled at peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF) to total tidal volume (VPTEF/VE), and the fraction of exhaled time at PTEF to total expiratory time (tPTEF/tE) were measured. The PTEF, the tidal expiratory flows at 10%, 25%, and 50% of the remaining tidal volume (TEF10, TEF25, and TEF50), and the wheeze score were also determined. There were no significant changes in VPTEF/VE and tPTEF/tE after albuterol or saline treatment. PTEF increased significantly both after albuterol and saline treatments but the difference between the two treatments was not significant (P = 0.6). Both TEF10 and the ratio of the tidal expiratory flow at 25% of the remaining tidal volume to PTEF (25/PT) decreased significantly (P bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus did not improve VPTEF/VE and tPTEF/tE but did decrease TEF10 and 25/PT.

  1. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by carbon-13 urea breath test using a portable mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreekumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the non-invasive detection of markers of disease, mass spectrometry is able to detect small quantities of volatile markers in exhaled air. However, the problem of size, expense and immobility of conventional mass spectrometry equipment has restricted its use. Now, a smaller, less expensive, portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system has been developed. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the development of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Objectives: To compare the results obtained from the presence of H. pylori by a carbon-13 urea test using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system with those from a fixed mass spectrometer in a hospital-based clinical trial. Methods: Following ethical approval, 45 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital exhaled a breath sample into a Tedlar gas sampling bag. They then drank an orange juice containing urea radiolabelled with carbon and 30 min later gave a second breath sample. The carbon-13 content of both samples was measured using both quadrupole mass spectrometer systems. If the post-drink level exceeded the pre-drink level by 3% or more, a positive diagnosis for the presence of H. pylori was made. Results: The findings were compared to the results using conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a laboratory-based magnetic sector instrument off-site. The results showed agreement in 39 of the 45 patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer is a potential alternative to the conventional centralised testing equipment. Future development of the portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to reduce further its size and cost is indicated, together with further work to validate this new equipment and to enhance its use in mass spectrometry diagnosis of other medical conditions.

  2. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  3. Fast mixing condensation nucleus counter

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Wang, Jian

    2003-01-01

    A fast mixing condensation nucleus counter useful for detecting particles entrained in a sample gas stream is provided. The fast mixing condensation nucleus counter comprises a detector and a mixing condensation device having a mixing chamber adapted to allow gas to flow from an inlet to an outlet, wherein the outlet directs the gas flow to the detector. The mixing chamber has an inlet for introducing vapor-laden gas into the chamber and at least one nozzle for introducing a sample gas having...

  4. Condenser assembly system for an appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litch, Andrew David

    2017-10-17

    An appliance includes a compact condenser assembly formed with at least two separately and independently produced wire on tube condensers. Each of the at least two wire on tube condensers has a condenser inlet and a condenser outlet. The at least two wire on tube condensers are at least substantially locked and positioned in a matingly engaged configuration forming a compact condenser assembly. The at least two wire on tube condensers are configured to be operationally connected in at least one of a parallel configuration, a series configuration, a selectable configuration, and a bypass configuration.

  5. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity in manned modules. Condensing surfaces...

  6. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  7. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  8. Stable isotope biomarker breath tests for human metabolic and infectious diseases: a review of recent patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Graham S

    2016-12-01

    Stable isotope breath tests can rapidly and quantitatively report metabolic phenotypes and disease in both humans and microbes in situ. The labelled compound is administered and acted upon by human or microbial metabolism, producing a labelled gas that is detected in exhaled breath. Areas covered: This review details the unique advantages (and disadvantages) of phenotypic stable isotope based breath tests. A review of recent US patent applications and prosecutions since 2010 is conducted. Finally, current clinical trials, product pipelines and approved products are discussed. Expert opinion: Stable isotope breath tests offer new approaches for rapid and minimally invasive detection and study of metabolic phenotypes, both human and microbial. The patent literature has developed considerably in the last 6 years, with over 30 patent applications made. Rates of issuance remain high, although rejections citing 35 U.S.C. §101(subject matter eligibility), §102 (novelty), §103 (obviousness) and §112 (description, enablement and best mode) have occurred. The prior art is significantly greater for human metabolism than microbial, and may drive differing rates of future issuance. These biomarker and diagnostic tools can enable optimization of drug doses, diagnosis of metabolic disease and its progression, and detection of infectious disease and optimize its treatment.

  9. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  10. Breathing retraining: a rational placebo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.; de Ruiter, C.; van Dyck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Breathing retraining of patients with Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) and/or panic disorder is discussed to evaluate its clinical effectiveness and to examine the mechanism that mediates its effect. In relation to this theoretical question, the validity of HVS as a scientific model is discussed and

  11. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  12. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  13. Influence of environmental concentrations of NO on the exhaled NO test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Vino, L; Zanolla, L; Costella, S; Vicentini, L; Boner, A L

    1998-10-01

    Measurement of levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Some concern in the interpretation of results of such measurement may arise from possible interference by high environmental concentrations of NO inhaled by these patients. The aim of this study was to verify whether environmental concentrations of NO in the range from 0 to 150 ppb can influence levels of exhaled NO. We tested two groups of subjects. The first group, consisting of 16 subjects, was tested when environmental levels of NO were from 0 to 3 ppb and from 20 to 60 ppb, and exhaled NO mean ppb (+/- SEM) levels were 9.81 +/- 1.43 and 9.78 +/- 1.47 (p = ns) (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The second group, consisting of 30 subjects, was tested at ambient NO concentrations of 0 to 3 ppm, 80 to 100 ppm, and 120 to 150 ppb, and for 18 of these subjects who underwent testing under all three conditions investigated, the mean levels of exhaled NO were 9.23 +/- 1.51, 7.78 +/- 1.19, and 9.33 +/- 1.55 ppb (p = ns), respectively. The results of this study suggest that significantly different ambient levels of NO have no effect on levels of exhaled NO.

  14. The influence of thoron on measurement results of radon exhalation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao De Tao; Ling Qiu; Leung, J K C

    2002-01-01

    Because of thoron exhalation, the measurement results of radon exhalation rate using a local still method is usually larger than the true value of radon flux rate of the monitored material surface. The influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 6 Po(ThA) on radon exhalation rate can be eliminated for sensitive radon monitors. Theoretical evaluations of the influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Bi(ThC) and sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Po(ThC')on radon exhalation rate are carried out in a sampler with diameter of 188 mm, and height of 125 mm, and supplied electrostatic field inside (generated by high voltage and electret) under following conditions: the sampling time are 1, 2, 3 h, respectively, thoron exhalation rate is 100 times of radon's. The calculation results indicate that the measurement results of radon flux rate are possibly 35.5% larger than true value due to the influence of thoron for fast and multifunctional radon monitors with electret, high voltage, respectively and using CR-39 SSNTD as detector, but this influence is negligib...

  15. An Acoustic-Based Method to Detect and Quantify the Effect of Exhalation into a Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Martin S; Seheult, Jansen N; O'Connell, Peter; D'Arcy, Shona; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhaler (DPI) users frequently exhale into their inhaler mouthpiece before the inhalation step. This error in technique compromises the integrity of the drug and results in poor bronchodilation. This study investigated the effect of four exhalation factors (exhalation flow rate, distance from mouth to inhaler, exhalation duration, and relative air humidity) on dry powder dose delivery. Given that acoustic energy can be related to the factors associated with exhalation sounds, we then aimed to develop a method of identifying and quantifying this critical inhaler technique error using acoustic based methods. An in vitro test rig was developed to simulate this critical error. The effect of the four factors on subsequent drug delivery were investigated using multivariate regression models. In a further study we then used an acoustic monitoring device to unobtrusively record the sounds 22 asthmatic patients made whilst using a Diskus(™) DPI. Acoustic energy was employed to automatically detect and analyze exhalation events in the audio files. All exhalation factors had a statistically significant effect on drug delivery (pacoustic method detected exhalations with an accuracy of 89.1%. We were able to classify exhalations occurring 5 cm or less in the direction of the inhaler mouthpiece or recording device with a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 85.7%. Exhaling into a DPI has a significant detrimental effect. Acoustic based methods can be employed to objectively detect and analyze exhalations during inhaler use, thus providing a method of remotely monitoring inhaler technique and providing personalized inhaler technique feedback.

  16. Solar engineering - a condensed course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars

    2011-11-15

    The document represents the material covered in a condensed two-week course focusing on the most important thermal and PV solar energy engineering topics, while also providing some theoretical background.

  17. Condenser procurement guidelines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impagliazzo, A.M.

    1985-05-01

    Steam surface condensers have a major impact on power plant availability and efficiency. Since supplying condensers to the utility industry is a very competitive buisness, it is essential that all of the requirements, all of the operating and design conditions, and any off standard conditions which can affect the condenser design and performance be clearly communicated to potential suppliers. These requirements are officially transmitted via the Purchase Specification. This report is intended to provide guidance in the preparation of this document so that it will include all of the information needed by a competent specialist to design a condenser which will achieve the required performance in a reliable manner with minimum maintenance. A further objective is to provide guidelines which will permit the Purchaser to evaluate the diverse offerings of the various suppliers.

  18. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  19. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Decreases during Academic Examination Stress in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Liu, Jiayan; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David

    2015-11-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is known to vary with multiple endogenous and exogenous factors. Laboratory stress and depressive mood have been associated with altered FeNO levels, but little is known about the susceptibility of FeNO to longer-lasting states of psychological stress in asthma. We sought to study changes in FeNO, lung function, and endogenous cortisol levels in students in a low-stress period during the academic term and in high-stress periods of up to 5 days during final exams. One hundred nine participants (35 with asthma) enrolled in a final examination stress study were assessed during the academic term (low stress) and during final exams (high stress). FeNO, spirometric lung function (FEV1, peak flow), salivary cortisol, and negative affect were measured at three time points. Control variables were medication use, cold symptoms, sex, and age. FeNO decreased substantially from low-stress baseline to the high-stress examination periods, with more pronounced decreases occurring in subjects with asthma (-11.5 ppb) than control subjects (-1.2 ppb). FEV1 decreased in both groups. Negative affect and cortisol increased during final exams, but these increases were smaller in asthma. Greater initial depression and greater cortisol increases were related to larger FeNO decreases during the final exam period, the latter only in asthma. Inhaled corticosteroid use did not affect these changes. Psychological stress and depressive mood are accompanied by decreases in both FeNO and lung function in asthma. Fluctuations related to life stress and mood levels should be considered in FeNO monitoring for asthma.

  20. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  1. Alcohol Detection in Exhaled Air by NDIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, Norio; Yonemura, Masatoshi; Sakakibara, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Toshiyuki; Wakita, Toshihiro

    In recent years, the increase in traffic accidents associated with drunk driving has become a serious social issue. Therefore, there is a need for an in-vehicle system that can detect the fact that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. We thought a method for alcohol detection in the breath of the driver, based on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, is suitable for this system. Since alcohol content in the driver's breath is significantly diluted at the sensor device, it is necessary that the sensor is highly sensitive to detect diluted alcohol. A quantum cascade laser was used to produce highly intense infrared light source. An infrared hollow fiber used in medical treatment was utilized as a gas absorption cell. Since the core of the fiber is hollow, gas is introduced for analyzer. The flexibility of the fiber allowed it to be looped so that 2 m fiber in length could be formed into a compact coil of 29 cm in diameter. It was clarified that the light intensity change of light output from the hollow fiber with ethanol density, and rarefied ethanol as small as 1 ppm in density was detected.

  2. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  3. Human exhaled air energy harvesting with specific reference to PVDF film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Rajesh Mhetre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirometer is a medical equipment used to measure lung capacity of a human being. It leads to diagnosis of several diseases. The researchers worked on harvesting energy from human exhalation while carrying out measurements using spirometer. A prototype has been developed using piezoelectric material i.e. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride film as sensor. This paper presents the methodology and experimentation carried out for exhaled air energy harvesting using PVDF film. Experimental results obtained are encouraging. Measurements are also carried out on various subjects having different height, weight, age and gender. Data analysis shows variation in the energy harvested with different physical parameters and gender. Experimentation shows that voltage generated due to exhaled air is promising for harvesting.

  4. A common variant in RAB27A gene is associated with fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzigon, E.; Nadif, R.; Thompson, E. E.; Concas, M. P.; Kuldanek, S.; Du, G.; Brossard, M.; Lavielle, N.; Sarnowski, C.; Vaysse, A.; Dessen, P.; van der Valk, R. J. P.; Duijts, L.; Henderson, A. J.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; de Jongste, J. C.; Casula, S.; Biino, G.; Dizier, M. -H.; Pin, I.; Matran, R.; Lathrop, M.; Pirastu, M.; Demenais, F.; Ober, C.; Koppelman, G. H.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    BackgroundExhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation in the airways and for responsiveness to corticosteroids in asthmatics. ObjectiveWe sought to identify in adults the genetic determinants of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels and to assess whether

  5. Physiotherapy breathing retraining for asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Anne; Lee, Amanda; Yardley, Lucy; Raftery, James; Arden-Close, Emily; Kirby, Sarah; Zhu, Shihua; Thiruvothiyur, Manimekalai; Webley, Frances; Taylor, Lyn; Gibson, Denise; Yao, Guiqing; Stafford-Watson, Mark; Versnel, Jenny; Moore, Michael; George, Steve; Little, Paul; Djukanovic, Ratko; Price, David; Pavord, Ian D; Holgate, Stephen T; Thomas, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Despite effective pharmacotherapy, asthma continues to impair quality of life for most patients. Non-pharmacological approaches, including breathing retraining, are therefore of great interest to patients. However, clinicians rarely advocate breathing retraining and access to this intervention is restricted for most patients due to the limited availability of suitable physiotherapists and poor integration of breathing retraining into standard care. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a digital self-guided breathing retraining intervention. In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients from 34 general practices in the UK. Eligibility criteria for patients with asthma were broad, comprising a physician diagnosis of asthma, age of 16-70 years, receipt of at least one anti-asthma medication in the previous year, and impaired asthma-related quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire [AQLQ] score of asthma control, patient acceptability, and health-care costs. This trial was registered with International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN88318003. Between Nov 5, 2012 and Jan 28, 2014, invitations to participate in the study were sent to 15 203 patients with general practitioner-diagnosed asthma, of whom 655 were recruited into the study. AQLQ scores at 12 months were significantly higher in the DVDB group (mean 5·40, SD 1·14) than in the usual care group (5·12, SD 1·17; adjusted mean difference 0·28, 95% CI 0·11 to 0·44), and in the face-to-face group (5·33, SD 1·06) than in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference 0·24, 95% CI 0·04 to 0·44); AQLQ scores were similar between the DVDB group and the face-to-face group (0·04, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·24). There were no significant differences between the randomisation groups in FEV1 or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. 744 adverse events occurred in 272 patients: 101 (39%) of 261 patients in the DVDB group, 55 (42%) of 132 patients in the face

  6. Exhalation of {sup 222}Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, C. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: mcduenas@uma.es; Liger, E. [Department of Applied Physics II, Technical College of Informatic Engineering, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Canete, S. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Perez, M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, EPS, University of Huelva, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg{sup -1}), a significant exhalation of {sup 222}Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of {sup 222}Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of {sup 226}Ra activity concentration on the {sup 222}Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the {sup 222}Rn exhalation and {sup 226}Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  7. Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

    2011-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n = 193) and Gadap town (n = 133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed.

  8. [The value of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide in the diagnosis of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, D D; Zhou, A Y; Shuang, Q C; Chen, P

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). Methods: Eighty-one patients with ACOS, 76 patients with asthma, 82 patients with COPD and 39 healthy non-smoking subjects were recruited in the study. Naku Lun breath analyzer was used to measure the level of FeNO in the 4 groups. Pulmonary function was also measured. The ROC curve was used to differentiate ACOS from patients with COPD. The correlation between FeNO and lung function was analyzed with Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The levels of FeNO in asthmatic group, COPD group, ACOS group and healthy group were (102.3±8.2)×10(9,) (23.7±0.6)×10(9,) (50.2±3.2)×10(9,) and (18.5±7.1)×10(9) respectively. Among the former 3 groups, the differences of FeNO were statistically significant (P29×10(9) was the best cutoff point to differentiate ACOS from COPD; the sensitivity was 80%, specificity was 73%, positive predictive value was 75%, and negative predictive value and accuracy was 79% and 77%. There was no correlation between FeNO and FEV(1)% or FEV(1)/FVC in ACOS, COPD and asthma groups (r=0.12, 0.11, P>0.05; r=0.11, 0.03, P>0.05; r=0.06, 0.08, P>0.05). Conclusion: FeNO is a good marker to help clinicians differentiate ACOS from COPD. FeNO>29×10(9) was the best cutoff point for the identification of patients with ACOS from COPD.

  9. The application of chromatographic breath analysis in the search of volatile biomarkers of chronic kidney disease and coexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska-Polanowska, B; Skowron, M; Miarka, P; Pietrzycka, A; Śliwka, I

    2017-08-15

    Chromatographic studies on breath composition are aimed at finding volatile markers useful for medical diagnostics or in screening investigations. Studies leading to the development of screening breath tests are especially important for the diagnostics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the presented study was to confirm diagnostic usefulness of chosen volatile compounds detected in breath, which are suggested as potential biomarkers of renal dysfunction and diabetes. Breath analysis were carried out in three groups: 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with CKD and 10 patients with CKD and T2DM. All exhaled air samples were analyzed using gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (5975MSD). Thermal desorption was applied as the enrichment method. TMA was detected only in CKD patients. Higher breath concentrations of methanethiol (MeSH) were observed in CKD patients with coexisting diabetes than in patients with renal dysfunction only or in the healthy group. There was a tendency of increasing MeSH concentration in breath with increasing total glutathione in plasma (r=0.53, p=0.0026). Also, a trend of increasing dimethylsulfide (DMS) levels detected in breath was noticed with an increase of hydrogen sulfide concentration in plasma (r=0.74; p=0.00001) as well as with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), (r=0.61; p=0.001). The presented results suggest the possibility of applying TMA, MeSH, and DMS detection in breath as diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  11. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  13. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  14. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  15. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carignano, Stefano; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Lepori, Luca [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); Pagliaroli, Giulia [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to that of quantum magnets. By integrating out the ''radial'' fluctuations we obtain a soft Lagrangian in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising from the breaking of the pion number symmetry. Finally, we test the robustness of the second-order transition between the normal and the pion condensed phase when next-to-leading-order chiral corrections are included. We determine the range of parameters for turning the second-order phase transition into a first-order one, finding that the currently accepted values of these corrections are unlikely to change the order of the phase transition. (orig.)

  16. On the onset of surface condensation: formation and transition mechanisms of condensation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qiang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the onset of surface condensation. On surfaces with different wettability, we snapshot different condensation modes (no-condensation, dropwise condensation and filmwise condensation) and quantitatively analyze their characteristics by temporal profiles of surface clusters. Two different types of formation of nanoscale droplets are identified, i.e. the formations with and without film-like condensate. We exhibit the effect of surface tensions on the formations of nanoscale droplets and film. We reveal the formation mechanisms of different condensation modes at nanoscale based on our simulation results and classical nucleation theory, which supplements the 'classical hypotheses' of the onset of dropwise condensation. We also reveal the transition mechanism between different condensation modes based on the competition between surface tensions and reveal that dropwise condensation represents the transition states from no-condensation to filmwise condensation.

  17. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  18. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  19. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  20. Sample timing and mathematical considerations for modeling breath elimination of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, J D; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-10-01

    Real-world exposure measurements are a necessary ingredient for subsequent detailed study of the risks from an environmental pollutant. For volatile organic compounds, researchers are applying exhaled breath analysis and the time dependence of concentrations as a noninvasive indicator of exposure, dose, and blood levels. To optimize the acquisition of such data, samples must be collected in a time frame suited to the needs of the mathematical model, within physical limitations of the equipment and subjects, and within logistical constraints. Additionally, one must consider the impact of measurement error on the eventual extraction of biologically and physiologically relevant parameters. Given a particular mathematical model for the elimination kinetics (in this case a very simple pharmacokinetic model based upon a multiterm exponential decay function that has been shown to fit real-world data extremely well), we investigated the effects on synthetic data caused by sample timing, random measurement error, and number of terms included in the model. This information generated a series of conditions for collecting samples and performing analyses dependent upon the eventual informational needs, and it provided an estimate of error associated with various choices and compromises. Though the work was geared specifically toward breath sampling, it is equally applicable to direct blood measurements in optimizing sampling strategy and improving the exposure assessment process.